Communicative English at Secondary and Higher Secondary Level - Assignment Point
Communicative English at Secondary and Higher Secondary Level
Subject: English | Topics:

Objectives

The Objectives of this term paper is given below :

(1)     To be familiar with the new communicative system at secondary and Higher secondary level.

(2)     To know the importance of communicative system in the perspective of this computer and technology based advance world.

(3)     To know the background of introducing communicative systems.

(4)     To identify the advantages and disadvantages of communicative English in our country.

(5)     To clarify the problems in implementing the system.

(6)     To be acquainted with the importance of English as well as communicative English in respect of universal education.

(7)     To know about the quality of students and teachers to adapt to the communicative English.

(8)     To understand the impact of communicative English and attitudes of people towards it.

(9)     To be aware of what is to do and not to do implementing this system.

(10)   To make a glimpse on the recommendation to adapt the system effectively.

Scope of the Topic

Basically, English is so essential in this globalize international World. Every where English and specially communicative English deserve a higher position. the world is no fact in technological and advanced world. Communicative English is adaptable and the demand of the age. For practical and effective learning communicative English is a part and parcel of communication in national and International perspective. From the little learner to advanced Higher education the appeal of communicative English deserves the special position. In our primary, Junior secondary, secondary, higher secondary and Higher education English specially communicative English plays a vital role to impart proficiency Excellency and brilliant performance.

So, in every sector and, section the access of communicative English is undoubtedly appreciated.

Methodology

Both primary and secondary (shortly) data have been used for this purpose. The primary data has been collected from the English teachers taking training in NAEM and Bed course in Dhaka. T.TCollege. Secondary data has been collected from statistical information from BANBAIS, Dhaka.

Data analysis has been used to know about the thought and views about communicative system and our expectation and achievements of communicative English in Bangladesh.

Limitation

This term paper suffers from certain limitation as given below :

1.       As a trainee of 89 FTC I did not able to allocate much time and proper attention to the study for my personal problem.

2.       To some extent money constraint also hampered me.

3.       More relevant books data, monographs, journals, periodicals should be used.

4.       Scarcity of reference books in the library on this topic.

          Not withstanding all these limitations it is expected that it will also contribute in a meager to be familiar with the condition of English specially communicative English at secondary and higher secondary level.

Introduction :

Chapter -1

Language is an almost universal form of human behavior generally speaking only people with physical or mental defects are unable to learn and use It is  universal simply because human beings need to communicate their thoughts, ideas, opinions, and feelings etc. with other human beings. The language they must be capable of communicating the highly complex nature of human mental processes. Language is therefore, complex itself. So everything relating to communication has to be considered in ease of learning a foreign language. English is internationally so important in the light of globalize technological developed world. There are four basic skills of learning foreign language like English i.e. listening, speaking, reading, writing. Everyone itself is so important. In communication and specially communicative English each skill has to be demanded equal importance. The new communicative system gives emphasis on these four skill to make the learners adapted to cope with the advance knowledge in English.

There are different Methods of learning English. they are :

1.       Grammar – Translation Method

2.       The Direct Method

3.       The structural Method

4.       The Audio- lingual Method

5.       Communicative Approach

          First four are method and last one is approach. there are some basic differences between an approach and Method. An `approach’ is usually seen as a set of general principles to be applied in language teaching. An example of the general principles of one particular approach might be :

          Ø       The use of the target language in teaching.

          Ø       Practice of language skill etc.

          On the other hand a Method is usually seen as a set of specific techniques to be used in language teaching. An example of specific techniques in one particular method might be :

          Ø       Presentation of language form, followed by explanation of the grammatical point.

          Ø       Controlled practice of language form, followed by the free practice of the some form; etc.

          Language teachers in the present day usually prefer to think in terms of `approaches’ rather than `methods’ because it is generally recognized that the way in which we learn needs to be adapted to the people who are learning with us.

The communicative approach :

          There were and (still are) many problems with the structural and Audio- lingual methods, and in the 1950s and 1970s, a variety of new approaches may be grouped under the heading of the `communicative approach’. Although there are a large number of different views of the communicative approach, these views all share three main elements.

          Ø An emphasis on language in use (i.e. Communication), rather than language in structure.

          ØA preference for learning tasks using language in ‘real life’ situations, rather than grammatical rules and exercise isolated from authentic use.

          Ø analysing and planning for the genuine language needs of the learners.

Background of introducing communicative English in Secondary and Higher Secondary level :

          The status of English in Bangladesh has recently been changed from ESL (English as Second Language) to EFL (English as Foreign Language). As a global medium of communication the importance of English has increased a lot in the present social, political and commercial contexts. with the advancement of information technology in various spheres of society, English has become the only lingua franca for the world citizen. In our country English has long been taught as a core subject from class 1 -12. However, English was taught at the primary and secondary level following the Grammar Translation Method. In this Method less emphasis was given on developing learners’ Speaking and listening skills. As a result until recently our students could not apply English in their practical life successfully. At this stage government felt the need to consider the following factors in teaching and learning of English.

          These are :

          Ø       Emphasis should be on communication and fluency. to do this participatory and interactive classroom is essential.

          Ø       Defective traditional examination system which encouraged memorization should be replaced.

Chapter -2

Steps of govt. to enforce the objective :

In the light of above mentioned context Communicative Language Teaching was introduced into the syllabus by the National Curriculum & Textbook Board (NCTB) in 1996. After that two project with the financial assistance of Department for International Develop (DFID) were set up to expedite the transition from grammar Translation Method (GTM) to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT).

The 1st one-Orientation of Secondary School Teachers for Teaching English in Bangladesh (OSSTTEB) was implementation for the years form 1990 1995. The objectives of OSSTTEB were to modify the English Curriculum and designing textbooks and teacher training. the second project was English Language Teaching Improvement Project (ELTIP). It was implemented from July 1997 to June 2002. the project cost of ELTIP was 2902.75 lakh taka.

It has 4 Regional Resource centre (RRCs) and 26 satellite Resource centre (RRCs) across the country and till February 2005 a total of 13300 teachers teaching English at secondary level have been trained up by ELTIP and the target is to train up 48,000 English teachers. Besides, orientation of secondary school teachers for Training English is another project taken by the government. The objectives of the project were to modify the English in curriculum and designing textbooks and teacher training.

The last decade or so has been marked by a new phenomenon called globalization. This has a profound impact on the world societies in their different domains of life-social, cultural, political and economics and has brought about significant changes in the communication dynamics of the world. English as a subject is of paramount importance in equipping the secondary level students to take up the challenges of the competitive survival and growing globalization marked by the technological advancements. It is estimated that by the year 2010, and most certainly by 2020. Asia will be the centre of gravity of the English language. this would mean that there would be more speakers of English in Asia than in any other continent. this would give Asia the opportunity to direct the future of the English language number of speakers of English in South Asian region. this not only signifies a linguistic advantage to Bangladesh but also more responsibility. this is high time that we see the future development of English as a world language and take proper initiatives to develop our English languages speakers’ level to a global standard. It can be done by upgrading the secondary level English teaching capacity. the government of Bangladesh is very much concerned with the reform of teacher education, which includes preserves and in-service training for teachers ensuring of education. Particularly, there is a huge demand for a time befitting and well informative training programme for the secondary English teachers of the country. ELTIP has been addressing this need by training the secondary English teachers since its inception.

The very purpose of learning English has been changed in the context of Bangladesh. Many old Bangladesh school teaches (who learned English in a different socio-political context) still speak and teach English as a second (ESL) while their students need English to speak to people from other countries (as in EFL). Since the beginning of the 90s, in Bangladesh, there has been a growing demand for using English as a foreign language (EFL) rather than as a second language (ESL). But to introduce the learning of English as a foreign was not an easy task and some confusing methodological reforms made the whole thing more complicated. In this consideration, ELTIP is trying to make a shift from the grammar Translation method to Communicative approach. In ELTIP training course, teachers have been trained in communicative language teaching so that they can make the best possible uses of the newly written communicative textbooks with a view to developing the four language skills (Reading, writing and teaching and learning) of their learners.

Training of secondary and higher secondary level English teachers at NAEM.

          NationalAcademy for Educational Management (NAEM) plays a key role in the training programme for English teachers at the secondary level institution in collaboration with Ministry of Education.

(i)                NAEM has undertaken, under its revenue and development budgets, training programme for the improvement of skills of English teachers at secondary and higher secondary levels. The contents of the training courses designed for the secondary have been revised. The contents of the training course for higher secondary levels are also updated with special focus on the practice of 5 language skills.

(ii)     NAEM also organises Communicative English Course (OEC) for English language teaches at  the secondary level under different projects like Secondary Education Sector Improvement Project (SESIP). Under SESIP, 560 English teachers have been trained up so far. The first phase of the training programme under SESIP ended in 2004. Under SESIP project NAEM published a manual on Communicative English Course for Secondary school English teachers. NAEM is also contemplating to publish a manual on the same for the higher secondary English teachers.

Chapter -3

The aims and objectives of English in Junior Secondary classes in Bangladesh, as set out by the Ministry of Education are :

The study of English in classes VI- VIII should help to extend students control of the basic language skills, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing, the elements of which have already been taught at the primary stage. It should aim at equipping the students to use these skills in real life situations outside the classroom so that even the dropouts this stage who would enter into various vocations, can derive benefit from the study of English. Science some of the students would go up for further study which would involve extensive and intensive reading of books in English and the writing of it, the skills of reading and writing English should progressively be given greater attention.

Objectives :

(Class VI) :

(i)                Listening : to revise sounds, stress and intonation and to enable students to follow increasingly complex common instructions.

(ii)             Speaking : to enable the students to repeat the teacher’s sentences, to ask and answer simple questions, to take part in more complex but controlled conversations, to enable students to tell a simple story, to describe common objects, people and situations, to give instructions, etc.

(iii)           Reading : to enable to read stories silently for comprehension (at first simply finding information and then answering questions), to read or dictate to their classmates and to distinguish between silent reading and reading aloud.

(iv)           Writing : to revise cursive writing (the students will only write what they have already learnt to speak and read), and write increasingly more difficult guided compositions of various kings.

(v)             Interest : to help the students enjoy learning through natural and interesting situations and activities.

 (Class VII) :

As in class VI. ‘Reading’ will also include understanding simplified dictionary entries. In addition, students should be taught to translate simple English passages into Bengali and vice versa. The main purpose of this will be reinforcement of the vocabulary and structures of the syllabus. (Translation should not be too literal. The rendering produced should convey as much of the original meaning as possible in natural language.)

(Class VIII) :

(i)                Listening & Speaking : An in classes VI and VII.

(ii)             Reading : As in classes VI and VII; also to increase silent reading speed, to enable students to understand works in context and to get central ideas from paragraphs, to enable students to understand simple dictionary entries and to use Tables of contents and indexes.

(Class IX) :

As in class VI-VIII in secondary and higher secondary level all basic skills i.e. Listening, speaking. Reading and Writing are emphasised. Here writing and speaking are more emphasised. In class IX, X, XI, XII to some extent grammar is also emphasised, specially in second paper and that wise comprehension, writing skills, grammatical terms are also added to meet up the demand of English. In XI & XII the two paper of English include the following terms :

First Paper

1.       Comprehension – 40 marks

2.       Grammar in filling the gaps with and without clues 10+10 = 20

3.       Making sentences from substitution table – 12

4.       Rearrange of sentences – 14

5.       Answering question paragraph – 14

Second Paper :

1.       Comprehension – 40

2.       Grammar in filling the gap – 10+10 = 20

3.       Answering question paragraph – 10

4.       Letter writing – 10

5.       Situational paragraph writing – 10

6.       Free hand writing composition – 10

In this question items both writing and grammar practice are exercised. The students can be able to concise/ summaries exercise outcome and individual talent is to be practiced to avoid memorizing answers.

  • English will be taught all over the country in CLT Method.
  • English Speaking environment in the classroom will be restored.
  • Situational/Contextualized grammar teaching will be ensured. Successful training network for English will be spread throughout the country.
  • Effective Manpower and human resources will be produced.

Chapter -4

The positive sign to be thought of communicative system :

Over the past 50 years, the status of English in Bangladesh has greatly changed. The position earlier was 2nd language, now it is foreign language. The traditional system could not meet up the demand of the present age. the present phenomena is to challenge of globalization. Now everywhere communication is no needed. At present communicative system plays an important role to impart efficiency in English language teaching learning. there is nothing new, of course, about the basic idea that communicative ability is the goal of foreign language learning. this is the assumption that underlies such widely used approaches as situational language teaching or the audio-lingual method. If developments since the 1970s have any special claim on the level ‘communicative’, it is because the implicitly tan before.

Communicative approach opens up a wider perspective on language. In particular, it makes us consider language not only terms of its structures (grammar and vocabulary), but also in terms of communicative functions that it performs. In other words, we begin to look not only at language forms, but also at what people do with this forms when they want to communicate with   each other. For example-‘Why don’t you close the door’, might be used for a number of communicative purposes such as asking questions making a suggestion or fussing an order.

we can therefore combine the newer functional view of language with the traditional structural view, in order to achieve a more complete communicative perspective. This enables us to give a fuller account of what students have to learn in order to use language a means of communication. It also suggests an alternative basic for selecting and organising the language items that we need to teach.

A communicative approach opens up a wider perspective on language learning. In particular, it makes us more strongly aware that it is to enough to teach learners how to manipulate the structures of the foreign language. they must also develop strategies for relatively these structures to their communicative functions in real situation and real time.

Breaking the traditional memorising system the new communicative systems has become effective in learning and teaching to cope with the modern fast world Many teachers consider the system to be effective as it has brought up a radical Change towards the betterment of language learning. Previously the syllabus was grammar-translation method in which less emphasis was given on speaking and listening. As result student could not apply English in their practical life successfully. Not it is though that students communication capacity including four basic skills i.e. listening speaking, reading, writing have been increased. More interaction between the teachers and learners are shown that is why students can come in contact with the teachers and they are conscious of what they are doing or exercising. The new dimensions in the realm of learning have been introduced. It is a lively, dynamic and spontaneous process in the context of world syllabus. In India and Pakistan this system have already been introduced formerly so that they could improve the quality of English in the world perspective. Through in our country it has been introduced later, it has begin to show good sign. More interactive class was not held in previous time. the communicative performance has been increased and the students are more fluent and positive in their performance. the new items of communicative system appear to be suitable positive and adaptable to cope with the modern globalised world. It is thought that for the introduction of new communicative system the quality and acceptability of English will be enriched to some extent. Even many of us think diverse attitude towards communicative approach as it has many obstacles to materialse it whole through the country.

Chapter -5

The causes of poor performance in implementating the approach :

there are newmerous causes in flourishing the system that may be termed as obstacles of them shortage of trained teachers, insufficient books, want of favourable environment, dependence on so called coaching centres and private tuition, English phobia among students, weak foundation at both primary and secondary levels, apathy towards reading English, poor salary pattern of teachers, influence of traditional methods of teaching, lack of cordialty of some teachers towards communicative English, sudden introduce of such system, below standard  students, lack of modern equipments, dis, lack of proper consciousness of this system, insufficient facilities of introducing the system in poor village level school and colleges want to habit of reading English newspaper and magazine insufficient library facilities, less ICT, CLT and ELT, ELS facilities, poverty are major causes of poor performance in implementing communicative system.

Shortage of teachers :

Most of the educational institutions have the shortage of teachers. The teachers who teach English are not eligible and skilled enough to teach in communicative systems. They have poor background in their academic arena. Moreover, they do not have any kind of professional training and only a few of them have master degree in English or without honourse M. A in English in colleges though the scenario has been changed and changing day by day. As they teach communicative English without being fully conscious of it, good students and their guardians have adverse attitude and good students are not like to come to teaching profession due to poor salary. So the learners and the institutions are being deprived of quality English teachers to teach the technical advance communicative English.

Weake foundation of students :

Most of the students of primary and secondary level have weak foundation in English subject because the qualified and specialized teachers are very rare at primary level for teaching English to start communicative new system in secondary and higher secondary level.

Influence of traditional Grammar Translation Method :

Most of the old teachers are habituated in teaching grammar translation method. they often feel comfortable in teaching in that method instead of communicative approach. they are not so fluent in speaking English and use Bangla that can be a barrier towards teaching in communicative system.

Dependance of coaching centrer and tution based on Market guide :

Most of the unemployed students belonging other disciplines teach English in coaching centres without being fully conscious of new communicative system. These types of unemployed students indirectly spoiling the students to learn English correctly guided in English curriculum.

Besides, they follow various guide books available in the market that are worthless.

Pathy and fear of English :

There are some students who are very afraid of English from their very childhood. They thought communicative English fearful. Speacially listening, speaking, reading, writing are fearful to them as they are not habituated earlier to this system.

Lack of proper environment :

Almost all government and non- government institutions have acute scarcity of favourable environment for teaching and learning English. Lack of sufficient. Supplementary books and other materials for learning English like OHP, slide-show language lab, audio-visual system, posters are nearly absent inmost of the schools and colleges that certainly make the learners disinterested in learning communicative English. Besides large classroom and students another obstacle. Moreover, disparity in education is also one of the major cause of performance in communicative English.

Poverty :

In rural area of the students are poor and the guardians are not no conscious of English and the students can not get enough time to spend in new communicative system and pair work and group work become impossible to them for lack of companions.

Lack of cordiality of teachers :

Most of the teacher in rural are not no efficient and interested in communicative system. They are generally employed as below standard. As they are not fully aware of communicative system, they are not cordial in teaching communicative English in right way. They feel reluctant to make lesson plan and follow worthless guide in the market.

Data analysis and Findings

For data analysis and finding there are some table on the basis of interview of 30 English teachers on their attitudes towards communicative English at secondary and higher secondary level.

Table -1. Fully suitable to the age or not

Suitable

Respondents

%

Yes

25

83.33

No

5

16.66

Total

30

100

Comment :

Most of the teachers (83.33%) thinks communicative system to be suitable for the present age.

Table -2. Feel comfortable or not

Feel comfortable

Respondents

%

Yes

18

60

No

12

40

Total

30

100

Comment :

Majority of the teachers (60%) thinks it comfortable to teach.

Table -3. Have enough training on it?

Have enough training

Respondents

%

Yes

20

66.66

No

10

33.33

Total

30

100

Comment :

About training facilities 66.66% respondents think that training facilities are not enough.

Table -4. Have enough efficiency?

Have enough training

Respondents

%

Yes

08

26.66

No

22

63.33

Total

30

100

Comment :

Most of the teachers have not enough efficiency.

Table -5. Have enough modern environment?

Have enough training

Respondents

%

Yes

02

6.66

No

28

93.33

Total

30

100

Comment :

Most of the teachers think there is no favourable environment the institutions.

Table -6. Enough infrastructural facility?

Enough infrastructure

Respondents

%

Yes

04

13.33

No

20

86.66

Total

30

100

Comment :

Most of the teachers think that infrastructural facility is not enough.

Table -7. Grammar practice less or enough?

Grammar practice

Respondents

%

Less

14

46.66

Enough

16

53.33

Total

30

100

Comment :

Relatively less teachers think there is less chance to practice grammar.

Table -8. Necessity of Grammar Practice.

More Grammar practice

Respondents

%

Yes

13

43.33

No

17

52.66

Total

30

100

Comment :

Majority of the teachers (52.66%) think the need of more  grammar practice.

Table -9. Have to increase teacher training.

More teacher training

Respondents

%

Yes

28

93.33

No

02

6.66

Total

30

100

Comment :

Most of the teachers (93.33%) think there should have more teachers training.

Table -10. Insufficient teaching aid

Insufficient teaching aid

Respondents

%

Yes

29

96.66

No

01

3.33

Total

30

100

Comment :

96.66% teachers think there is insufficient teaching aids.

Table -11. The method is more helpful previous system

More helpful

Respondents

%

Yes

18

60

No

12

40

Total

30

100

Comment :

60% teachers think the method is more helpful than previous system.

 Table -12. Students are standard or not for this system

Student s are standard

Respondents

%

Yes

5

16.66

No

25

83.33

Total

30

100

Comment :

83.33% teachers think the students are not stand enough for the system.

Table -13. Whether have to introduce it form earlier?

Have to introduce earlier

Respondents

%

Yes

28

93.33

No

2

6.66

Total

30

100

Comment :

Most of the teachers (93%) think that the method should be introduced from earlier stage.

Table -14. No Need of speaking Bangla in the clssroom

No Need of speaking Bangla

Respondents

%

Yes

18

60

No

12

40

Total

30

100

Comment :

About 60% respondents feel that there is no need of speaking Bangla in the classroom.

Table -15. The pass rate in several years

Year

Pass Rate

2001

42%

2002

45%

2003

50%

2004

54%

2005

62%

2006

67%

2007

69%

 Comment :

The passing rate in increasing year by year.

Findings

From the data analysis of the term paper we can see that the teachers have various attitude towards communicative English in Bangladesh. Most of the teachers think that it is suitable for the age, majority of the teachers statement is comfortable to teach English though the practical scenario is different. Many teachers thinks that there is not enough scope not grammar practice, many of them differ. The quality of teachers is not no standard to teach English and more efficient teacher should be employed. Many teachers think that the course should be introduced from earlier stage to cope with the system. Many of them think there should have more modern teaching aids and students standard should be increased.

Another result that from the performance data the result of passing gradually increasing day by day for six years.

Statement of the Problem

The status of English in Bangladesh has recently been changed from ESL (English as Second Language) to EFL (English as Foreign Language). As a global medium of communication the importance of English has increased a lot in the present social, political and commercial contexts. With the advancements of Information technology in various spheres of society, English has become the only lingua for the world citizen. In our country English has long been taught as a core subject from class 1 -12. However, English was taught at the primary and secondary level following the Grammar Translation Method. In this Method less emphasis was given on developing learners’ Speaking and listening skills. As a result until recently our students could not apply English in their practical life successfully. At this stage government apply English in their practical life successfully. At this stage government felt the need to consider the following factors in teaching and learning of English. So it is a very essential question to be familiar with communicative English. the topic is very related to our national perspective to justify the position and achievements of communicative English for the relativity of introducing this system.

Recommendations

After data analysis several findings could be find out. In the light of such findings we can hereby include some recommendation as follow :

(a)     We have to be familiar with the objectives and views of introducing communicative English.

(b)     We have to employ more qualified English teachers.

(c)      We have to ensure favorable environment in various educational institutions.

(d)     The foundation of English at both primary and junior secondary levels should be made stronger.

(e)      Teachers have to be cordial up to data considering various method, they should be well trained on communicative approach.

(f)      Guardians of students should be conscious of the importance of learning English in international perspective.

(g)     Teachers have to be cordial and serious in speaking English in the classroom more effectively.

(h)     Students have to be fearless and confident and enthusiastic towards learning English.

(i)      School administration should ensure of teaching English by English specialised teachers.

(j)      Prejudice about English among the learners should be removed and have to utilize the opportunity of learning English.

(k)     More educational facilities about communicative English should be provided in rural areas.

(l)      More training programs and monitoring steps should be enriched.

Bibliography :

1.       NAEM, Communicative English Teaching Manual.

2.       Teaching Communicative English-Bed guide.

3.       Bangladesh cadet college journals RRC 2003.

4.       Prof. Ruhi Zakia Dewan, Director, NAEM, A Handout on writing term paper.

5.       Donn Butcher, English teaching Extracts.

6.       Prof. Zainul Abedin Chowdhury. An article about communicative English in NAEM Paper.

7.       Islam, Jahirul, Conversation in English.

8.       Thomson, A. J. Practical English in Secondary Level.

Communicative English

Related English Paper: