The Problems of Teachers Training in Secondary Level of Education in Bangladesh

Introduction :

Statement of the problem :

Quality education depends on planned curriculum, qualified  teachers and favorable environment. To be a qualified teacher one needs

 (i) accurate subject  knowledge

(ii) knowledge and  efficiency in education  science

(iii) mentality of teaching .

 Among main three levels of education  system of Bangladesh ,secondary level  is very much important  because it can produce  human resource  which turn into economic  development  of the country. But secondary education is the weakest  link in the education chain of Bangladesh . In order to mare this education more  practical and use a group  of well trained teachers are badly  needed. There are 14 Government and  85 govt.  teachers training colleges there are many problems in  Bangladesh . But they are in many these colleges.  Many of them have rented  buildings for their academic  activities. Trained teachers, books in library, science materials, transparency and  accountability, management  are not sufficient . For these quality of training  in teachers training colleges has decreased. But without trained teachers we can not ensure  quality education in secondary level of education in Bangladesh.

Object of the study:

This term paper has been prepared  as a compulsory part of 93 foundation Training  course. This term paper plays an important role in creation creativity specially in the field of  research. As a participant of 93 FTC, the name of my term paper is “The problems and  prospects of  teachers  Training  in secondary Level of Education n Bangladesh. In this topic, the objectives for preparing  this term paper are as follows :

(i)                To identify  the problems of  teachers training in secondary level of Education in Bangladesh .

(ii)             The problems which are reveling  in teachers training in secondary  level of education.

(iii)           To identify the problems of teachers training  institutions .

(iv)           To suggest appropriate measures to solve the problems.

(v)             To analyze the problems of teachers training  in secondary  level of education in Bangladesh.

 Scope of the term paper :

 (i)     Education

(ii)     Quality  Education

(iii)    Teachers training in secondary level of education in Bangladesh .

(iv)    Quality  of training of the teachers in secondary  level of education  in Bangladesh.

Methodology :

(i)      Source of data

(ii)     Process of collecting data.

The main target  of research  is to identify the problem neutral  reports. So at the time of preparing the term paper, I collected different  kinds  of data from primary and secondary levels. For this purpose, I first made some questionnaire for teachers and students who are involved in teachers training in secondary level . For secondary  data I have to take help of some books  as BANBEIS reports etc.

 Definition :

(a)     Prospect

(b)     Problems

(c)      Education : Education is the means for bearing about  desired  changes in behaviors values and life styles and for promoting public support  for the continuing and fundamental changes that will be required it  humanity  is to alter it’s course.  Hence, education in short, inhumanity’s  is best hope  and  most effective  means to the  quest to achieve  sustainable  human development.

(d)     Secondary level of Education: The stage of education after the  primary education and immediately preceding the higher education  is known as secondary  level of Education . Secondary level of education  is the second stage in the  education structure  of  Bangladesh .

(e) Teacher :

(f) Training :

(g)     Teachers Training : To ensure the quality education teachers need training This training may be on their on subject  or may be on their administrative  capacity.

(h) Training : Training  is continuous and  systematic process  by which we can develop our action  knowledge, skill and behavior and  can increase the  effectiveness of our institution.

Definition :

(a)     Prospect : Possibility  to happen in near future.

(b)     Problems : Dis  favorable condition of teachers  Training  in Secondary level of Education  in Bangladesh .

(c)      Teacher :  Those who are involved in teaching  profession in Secondary level of education are called  as teachers.

Review of literature :

          At the time of preserving this term paper. I did not get sufficient books and information. Mainly I had to give importation on primary data. The literature which I reviewed at the time of preparing  this term paper  are as follows :

(i)                Education  Commission  Report  2003,

(ii)             ….

(iii)           ….

(iv)           …

(v)             …

Limitation :

Very pertinent issue I have been given for writing  research work. I was very  hopeful of  making this work  an effective  one. I went through  different libraries, institutions for collections data. I had to face some limitations that  are given  below :

(i)                Books on this issue are very few in number

(ii)             Very limited time which  it needs much  time for preparing term paper.

(iii)           I was not allowed  to go out for data collection  during office hoers.

(iv)           No momentary  allocation  for this purpose.

(v)             very recent data on this  topic  are not available .

(vi)           The area on this term paper is very big but I had to finish the work  writhen  a very short time.

Main Body

The present condition of Teachers Training in Secondary Level of Education:

Teachers training in secondary level of Education starts by establishing Dhaka Teachers Training college at 1909. Now 14 Govt. Teachers  Training colleges and  85 private Teachers Training Colleges are established.  More over IER of Dhaka University  has been conducting Teachers Training programme since  1960, Bangladesh  open university have been also conduction BED and MED courses through distance education since 1993.

Total number of teachers in Secondary schools is 238158, out of them trained  teachers are 127489 in number and non trained  teachers  are 11,0669 in number, That mean strained teachers are 53.53% and  non trained teachers are 46.47%

Seven thousand and five hundred  teachers are trained from Teachers  Training colleges each year. If teachers are  trained  in rate, we shall need twelve  Years to get all teachers trained .In the  mean time all teachers  trained. In the mean time all teachers will be needed short training and 10% non trained teachers are also be appointed, So present Training  situation can not satisfy us.

Table -1: Percentage of Trained  Teachers  in Secondary Schools.

YearNumber of TeacherNo. of trained teacher% of trained teacher
19951400594828834.48
20001741467987845.85
20052385812748953.53
    

 The number of student in Non-govt. Teachers Training  colleges are increasing year after  year. But the number of student in Government Teachers  Training colleges are not increasing . This is shown in the following  table.

Table Number of Enrolment by management .

 

Year

Enrolment

Public colleges

PrivateCollege

2003

5500

7327

2004

5506

7335

2005

6518

11638

Source : Bangladesh Educational Statistics 2006. Pag 81, Table 8.2

The quality of teachers training of private TTC is not satisfactory. There colleges has become as business institutions. Every private  college has few permanent  teaches. On the other hand govt.  colleges  has qualified  and well trained teachers.

The problems of Teachers Training in Secondary Level of Education A) Private Teachers Training Colleges.

There are 85 Teachers Training private college in secondary level of Education in Bangladesh .These  colleges are  a under NationalUniversity. The qualify Training of these colleges is not  satisfactory There are many problems  in these  institutions. Which are :

(i)      Lack of Quality Teachers :

Most of  the teachers of  Private Teachers Training colleges are below standard. Most of the teachers  Recruitment  committee of private Teachers  training colleges ereats corruption in  teachers  recruitement. Mos  ofthe teachers of private  teachers training colleges are appointed politically or on the basis of donation or they are kit and kin of the committee  members. Their salary is very poor.

i)                   Business institution

Most of private Teachers  Training  colleges have become as business institutions. They take a big amount of money for  their training course from their trainees. But they do not give. Perfect and quality  training.

ii)                Irregular Class

Most of the private Teacher Training colleges sit for two or three days  in week. So trainees do not get their curriculum completed by their teachers.

iii)              Want for Books in Library :

Trainees in Private Teachers Training  colleges  do not get  their required books in their library.

iv)              Teacher Student relationship :

The condition of teacher  student relation is far from  satisfactory . Most of the student do not go to the  contact  of the  teachers. Besides  some students  and teachers  don’t feel the necessity of introducing  one another. So lack of good relationship is a problem in the teachers training  colleges.

v)                Infrastructural problem :

Most of the private teachers  training colleges  are facing the infra structural problems. Sufficient buildings class rooms, library, auditorium, canteen recreation room, ply ground, laboratory ,sanitation  have to complete their education in a very narrow  environment .

vi)              Vacant post of teachers :

There are a lot of vacant post in the teachers training colleges. so it is hampering the training  system

vii)           Shortage of trained teachers :

For teaching quality improvement  teachers should be given professional training. But since now professional training  is not available  in Bangladesh.

9.       Lack of congenial environmental and teaching materials.

          For the overall situation of the private teachers  training  institutions there are no congenial environment for learning , exists poor salary poor infrastructure lack of books in the library, lack of teaching materials, scientific equipment, laboratory, computers, common room etc. as a result the impact is not desirable.

10.     Teaching Methods and teaching aids

          Most of the teacher uses the out dated teaching methods in the class room. So they can not draw the attention of the students. 80% teachers  do not use teaching  aids in the class room.

11.     Problems of teachers

          The educational quality as well as  the financial  condition of the teachers are not so good. For the financial problem most of the teachers engaged themselves varies earning  sources. So they can not concentrates  their  full mentality in teaching Most of the teachers  responsibilities .The teachers  face the problems of  over loaded classes  and teachers  more  subjects at a time.

12. Financial Problems :

          The financial condition of most  of the  private institutes are very separable. Thought students pay a big amount of tuition fees it is not used properly.

13. Co-curricular activity.

          Most of the secondary institute future is no practice for co-carricular activities . It is hampering  the physical and mental development  of the students.

14.     Corruption :

          Bangladesh is a highly corrupted country. Now a days education department is the top corrupted sector. From ministry to institutions there is a link of corruption . Corruption in the  education sector greatly hampering the education system  of the country.

15.     Academic supervision and Monitoring :

          Academic supervision is a professional assistance in teaching contents and techniques. Academic super visions a weal area of private teachers Training colleges. Although the present inspection system does not serve to identify weakness in quality or to work out remedial plans to a greeter extent

16.     Examination Results :

          Every year a lot of participant appears in the final examination.  All most 35% student fail in the examination in private Teachers Training colleges.

17.     Role of GB.

          Most of the GB of private Teachers Training Colleges are not playing  proper role There do not take care of the institution  regularly and properly.

18.     Examination system :

          The examination  system is one of the main problems in the in Teachers Training  colleges. The examination mostly test knowledge  or ability to recall tact’s and information and hardly any attention  is given to higher abilities of  and synthesis. The present examination to not measure the actual learning of the student . Important question are given by the teachers, memories this question  they appear  in the examination .

19.     Enrolment and Dropout :

          There are over 20 thousand students in private teachers training  colleges. But only 57% students can complete the training.

Table -2:   Enrolment in Private TTC

Year

No of College

Enrolment

2003

54

7327

2004

54

7335

2005

85

11638

 Source : Bangladesh Educational Statistics

(Table 8.2 Page 81)

Table-3 :  Pass Rate in private Colleges

Years

2000

2001

2002

Pass Rate

53%

56%

57%

 Source : BANBEIS Draft Final Report 2003.

20.     Teacher-student Ratio :

          Teacher student ratio is one of the important factors for quality education. the ratio of teacher student in private teachers Training colleges is.

Table -4: Teacher-student Ratio is private teachers Training colleges.

Years

No of Teacher

No of Student

Teacher : Student

2003

698

7327

1:10.5

2004

702

7335

1:10.45

2005

988

11638

1:11.78

 21.     Educational and professional qualification:

          The educational qualification of the teachers are very poor and they are not professional in their duties.

 22.     Lack of Co-ordination and inspection:

          There is lack of co-ordination among NationalUniversity, UGC, DIA, different office and autonomous organization. The present inspection system of assessing the effectiveness of education system is faulty.

23.     Disparity between govt. and private institutions:

          There is a disparity between govt. and private teachers training colleges. The teaches of private college get no govt. grant.

 B)      Govt. Teachers Training Colleges :

          There are fourteen teachers training colleges in Bangladesh. These colleges are under NationalUniversity. The quality of teachers training of these colleges is satisfactory. These colleges gives following degrees.

          (i)      BEd (hons) only DhakaTeachersTrainingCollege.

          (ii)     BEd all College.

(iii)           MEd SixCollege.

The problems of these colleges are as follows-

(1)     Enrolment is decreasing :

          Enrolment its some teachers training colleges is decreasing. Because trainees do not want to be well trained but they want a certificate. For this trainees try to admit in private colleges.

(2)     Vacant Post of Teachers:

          There are a lot of vacant post in the teachers training colleges. So it is hampering the training system.

(3)     Infrastructural problem:

          Most of the Teachers Training Colleges are facing the intrastructural problems. Library, auditorium, recreation room, laboratory, sanitation etc are not available there. So student have to complete their education in a narrow environment.

 (4)    Shortage of trained teachers:

          For teaching quality improvement teachers should be given professional training. But since now professional training is not available in Bangladesh.

(5)     Enrolment and Dropout :

          There are over 6 thousand students in Govt. Teachers Training Colleges. But only 784% student can complete the training.

Table -5: Enrolment in Govt. TTC

Year

No. of College

Enrolment

2003

11

5500

2004

11

5506

2005

14

6518

 Source : Bangladesh Educational Statistics

(Table 8.2, Page 81)

Table-6 :  Pass rate in Govt. Colleges

Years

2000

2001

2002

Pass rate

74%

74%

73%

 Source : BANBEIS Draft Final Report

C)      Bangladesh Open University :

          Bangladesh Open University gives the following degrees for the teachers of secondary education –

          (a)     BEd            2 Years       duration

          (b)     MEd           2 Years       duration

          (c)      BETL          2 Years       duration

Trainees can enjoy the classes by Radio, TV, CD. etc. The problems of these courses are as follows-

(i)      Lack of Information :

          Students do not get enough tutorial classes. So they feel information gap.

 (ii)     Need more time :

          There is a session Jam in this University. Trainees need to more time to complete the trainings.

 (iii)   Lack of the Communication:

          Trainees can not enjoy Radio, TV, regularly. So there is a lack of Tele Communication.

 (iv)   Trainees can not implement their learnings:

          Trainees should make lesson plan and they should take classes in an institution. But in distance education it can not be possible.

 (v)    Lack of permanent teaches:

          There is no permanent teacher in open University for BEd and MEd Degree. Part time teachers conduct this courses.

 (vi)   Teacher student Relationship:

          Lack of relationship is a problem in this University.

 (vii)  Late in Publishing Result :

          Trainees have to wait for their result for a long time.

D)      IER of Dhaka University:

          IER of Dhaka University is a very famous department. IER conducts following courses-

          (i)      BEd     (4Years hons)

          (ii)     MEd    (day shift) 1 Years

          (iii)    MEd    (evening shift) 1 or 2 Years

The problems of this institution are-

(i)      the students of MEd (evening shift) do not get residential facility. So they can not study regularly.

 (ii)    Low quality students in MEd (evening shift):

          IER of Dhaka University conducts MEd evening shift only for service holder students. They are not so meritorious.

 The prospect of Teachers Training in Secondary level of Education in Bangladesh.

Human Resource development:

Bangladesh has bright prospects of teachers training in Secondary level of Education. The training has to become a Unifying force in this new world. A trained teacher can be able to-

*        Increase self confidence.

*        Create attention of learning.

*        Use teaching materials properly.

*        Follow accurate class schedule.

*        Use appropriate teaching method.

*        Use perfect technique of lecture presentation.

*        Ensure perfect learner’s assessment etc.

There is a lot of teachers training institutions of secondary level of education in our country. By reforms and modernize teachers training system we can develop our human resources-

National Development :

By developing teachers training programmes and system in secondary level of Education we can acquire national aims. It can play a vital role in the national development. We are far behind because of our low standard secondary education system and low standard teachers.

Development of Leadership Quality:

Teachers are the social reformers. So this stage is a very important for developing leadership qualities.

Chapter – 3

Analysis of Primary Data :

For Preparing this term paper on “The problems and prospects of Teachers Training in Secondary level of Education in Bangladesh.”10 trainers from govt. teachers training college (Dhaka TTC) and 10 trainers from Non-Govt. teachers training college (Madaripur TTC) are selected as the respondent group. I used a questionnaire with 20 questions for collecting data and information. Discussion and collected data analysis are followed.

Table-4: taking training

Taking trainingNum. of respondents       Percentage

Yes

20

100%

No

0

0%

 Comment: 100% Respondents are trained.

Table -5: Sufficiency of teacher’s training institute in Bangladesh:

Sufficiency of TTINum. of RespondentsPercentage

Yes

18

90%

No

2

10%

Total

20

100%

Comment: Most of the respondents commented that teacher’s training institutes are sufficient in Bangladesh.

Table -6 Satisfaction about training curriculum:

Satisfaction

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

16

80%

No

4

20%

Comment: Most of the respondents said that training curriculum of teacher’s is satisfactory.

Table -7 :Having opportunity for implementing of training knowledge in the institution:

Having opportunityNum. of RespondentsPercentage

Yes

5

25%

No

5

25%

Very few

10

50%

Total

20

100%

 Comment: 50% respondents commented that they get a very few opportunity to implement the training knowledge.

Table -8: Positive change of teaching skill by training:

Positive change

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

13

65%

No

 02

10%

Partly

05

25%

 Comment:   65%   respondents  think   that  teaching   skill   is positively changed by training.

Table -9: Attention of learner:

Attention of learner

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

19

95%

No

01

5%

 Comment: Most of the respondents commented that a trained teacher can grow attention of learners.

Table   10 :   Efficiency   of  classroom   management   by training

Efficiency of classroom management

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

13

65%

No

2

10%

Partly

5

25%

 Comment: The opinion of 65% respondents is that the efficiency of teachers about classroom management is increased by training.

Table -11: Increasing the quality of education by training:

Increasing the quality of education

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

18

90%

No

02

10%

 Comment:   90% respondents think that a trained teacher can ensure the quality of education.

Table -12: Modernization of teaching method:

Modernization of teaching method

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

18

90%

No

02

10%

 Comment: 90%  respondents  modernized their teaching method after training.

Table-13: Positive change in result of internal or public examination:

Positive change in result

Num. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

17

85%

No

03

15%

 Comment: The opinion of 85% respondents is that the result of internal or public examination is changed positively because of trained teachers.

Table -14: Appropriate timing of training

Timing of training

Numbers of respondents

Percentage

Pre-service

3

15%

In-service

4

20%

Both

14

70

 Comment: Most of the respondents agree for both types of training

Table-15: Optimum duration of training:

Optimum duration

 

Numbers of respondents

 

Percentage

 

6 months

11

5%

10 months

6

30%

12 months

 12

60%

Others

1

5%

 Comment : 60% respondents are on behalf of 12-month

Table-16: If you have other ideas about the problems the teachers training in secondary level of education in Bangladesh. Please mention them.

          *        The activities and power of DHSE are not satisfactory.

          *        Infrastructural facilities are not available.

          *        Unavailability of seminar, subject based.

          *        Books, inadequate co-operation of the teachers.

          *        Memorising theory rather than acquiring them.

          *        Teachers responsibilityties are deteria rating day by day.

          *        Accomodation is not enough.

          *        Teacher student polities .

          *        Students are not conscious.

          *        Lack of training for teachers.

          *        The teachers have to do official work.

          *        Lack of quality teachers.

          *        Problems of text books.

          *        Gap of interaction between teachers and students.

          *        Many private teachers training college have no campus of their own, infra structural facilities are insufficient.

          *        Lack of skillness in English.

          *        Facilities for library work in many institutions are not sufficient.

          *        Completing the studies in due time.

          *        Lack of transparency in teacher recrvitment in school and college.

          *        Lack of quality teachers.

Some primary data have been college from training of Dhaka Teachers training college and Madaripur Teachers Training college the data are as follows.

Table -1: Do you think that your class room environment is very fine?

(a)     Govt. TTC

Yes

No

6

4

60%

40%

 (b)     Govt. TTC

Yes

No

5

5

50%

50%

 Comment : Most of the respondents of Govt. TTC thinks that their class room environment is very fine.

Table -2: Are  you happy with your curriculum?

Yes

No

11

9

55%

45%

 Comment : 55% Respondents are happy with their curriculum.

Table -3: If the answer no, why?

No Modern

Not systematic

Books are not quota according to curreaim

Others

0

0

9

0

0%

100%

0%

 Comment : 100% Respondents thinks that books are not available.

Table -4: Do you have available teachers for conducting every course?

(a)     Private TTC

Yes

No

0

10

0%

100%

(b)     Govt. TTC

Yes

No

8

2

80%

20%

 Comment : 80% Respondents of Govt. TTC  says they have available teachers for conducting every course. But 100% respondents of Non Govt. TTC say they do not have available teachers for conducting every course.

Table -5:  Are you satisfied with the Examination?

(a)     Private TTC

Yes

No

3

17

15%

85%

 Comment : 85% Respondents are not satisfied.

 Table -6: Do you enjoy your classroom teaching?

(a)     Private TTC

Yes

No

4

6

40%

60%

 (b)     Govt. TTC

Yes

No

8

2

80%

20%

  Comment : 60% Respondents of private TTC  do not enjoy class room teaching and 80% respondents of Govt. TTC enjoy class room.

Table -7: Does every trainee go to college regularly in your institution?

(a)     Private TTC

Yes

No

2

8

20%

80%

 (b)     Govt. TTC

Yes

No

9

1

90%

10%

Comment : 20% Respondents of Private TTC  go to college regularly and 90% of govt. TTC go to college regularly.

 Table -8: Do you think that we need more TTC?

Yes

No

3

47

15%

85%

 Comment : 85% Respondents think we need not more TTC.

 Table -9: What is your fathers Economic condition?

Very good

Good

Not Good

Not Good at all

4

11

3

2

20%

55%

15%

10%

 Comment : Most of. the respondents fathers economic condition is good only.

Table -10: Are you getting all kinds of educational facilities from your institution?

(a)     Private TTC

Yes

No

2

8

20%

80%

 (b)     Govt. TTC

Yes

No

9

1

90%

10%

Comment : 20% Respondents of Private TTC  get all kinds of facilities and 90% of govt. get all kinds of facilities.

Findings:-

Having done the study of twenty teachers and twenty students some. Problems are identified which are as follows:

*        the present condition of private teachers training in secondary level of education in Bangladesh is not satisfactory at all.

*        Lack of skilled teachers, lack of quality control, lack of meritorious students are mainly responsible for that.

*        The condition of govt. institutions is satisfactory.

*        Private institutions have the ability to maintain quality training. But they are not taking steps.

*        There are insufficient advantages for poor but meritorious students.

*        English teaching is a main problem in these institutions.

*        Sufficient and improved elements for education are not available education are not available.

*        Books are not available in Bangladesh.

*        Lack of awareness of the students.

*        Memorizing tendency is also a great problems for which the knowledge of our students are not being developed.

*        Lack of higher education for the teachers is also a big problem.

*        NationalUniversity is not available to evaluate the standard of private institution.

Recommendation:       

To remove the problems of teacher‘s training colleges the following  recommendations should be considered:

*        The internal income and expenditure should be controlled.

*        Necessary steps should be taken to fulfill the vacant post of the teachers immediately.

*        English should be given top priority in all respects.

*        The appointment of teachers should be fair and transparent.

*        For the sake of imparting proper training infrastructural development should be improved and supply of necessary training equipment should be granted.

*        GB of private colleges should be more active and have to perform their own duties sincerely.

*        Necessary measure should be taken stop lower standard private institutions.

*        The opportunity for higher education of the teachers of Govt. TTC’s should be available .

*        The transparency and accountability should be ensured.

*        The teachers should be given subject based training in home and abroad.

*        Present examination system should be changed so that the memorizing tendency can be removed.

*        Specific rule should be formed for the recruitment of teachers in private institutes.

*        The recruitment of permanent teacher would be ensured.

*        The teachers should be given high salary so that they don’t have to think other wise and they can give full concern tration in this profession.

*        Provision for sufficient stipends should be made for the poor and meritorious students.

*        Provision should be made for regular inspection of educational institution.

*        The salaries and other allowanced of non government teachers and employees should be entirely paid by the government.

Conclusion :

Quality Education is the demand of the era. There are no alternative of  quality education for the development of the nation. And teachers training is the main factor in ensuring quality education. So, recommendations are submitted which depend on the result by analyzing the colleted data and information of the research on “The problems and prospects of teachers Training in Secondary Level of Education in Bangladesh”. If we can implement these submitted recommendations our nation will be well educated by quality education. And the nation can reach the target of desired development.

Teachers Training