Main objective of this lecture is to present on the Arctic. All Arctic land is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. UK scientists regularly work in the Arctic. There is far more science activity in the Arctic compared to the Antarctic. Enough ice for each person in the world to have a block 180 m by 180 m by 180 m. A small change in the size of the Antarctic ice sheet would be serious for sea level. One small part of Antarctica is above freezing in the summer – the Antarctic Peninsula. The Antarctic Peninsula is warming and its coastline is changing.