Definitions of Terms Used in the Road Transportation
Subject: Modern Civilization | Topics:

 Definitions of Terms Used in the Road Transportation

The provision of adequate transport infrastructure and services, along with macro-economic stability and a long term development strategy is one of the necessary conditions for sustainable economic and social development. However in the case of Bangladesh, frequent power brown-outs or black outs and long hours of traffic congestions, high level of air pollution in cities, poor traffic safety, presence of non-motorized transport on major roads, and long delays at major ports, inadequate telecommunication services, including long waiting list for telephones, unplanned urbanization and sub-division of land around major urban centers, all bear witness to the inadequacy of existing infrastructure facilities, inefficiency in the management of services, lack of enforcement of laws and regulations, and provisions of approved Master Plans.

Partly in response to such observations and in recognition of the vital role which transport infrastructure and services play in economic and social development, government of Bangladesh has been trying its best to develop the transport system to meet the country’s present and future requirements. An analysis however, shows that although in most of the national five year plans, policies to address many of the deficiencies were clearly stated, yet during implementation, these were not adhered to. As a result transport development in Bangladesh have been driven mostly by ad hoc considerations having no explicit focus on long term requirements and the means of meeting these requirements on a competitive as well as sustainable basis. These have also produced many serious deficiencies and imbalances in the system. Some of the major deficiencies include sectoral bias, improper modal mix, unintegrated system, serious institutional weaknesses, limited role of the private sector and lack of national and urban transport policies. The current deficiencies have produced an unsustainable trend of transport development, which is characterised by misallocation of resources, adverse impacts on the environment and lack of competition.

The unguided nature of present development efforts is rooted in the absence of a vision for future development. A vision sets the direction for development and guide formulation of policy measures and strategies to attain identified objectives. Unfortunately, no long term vision for transport development exists in Bangladesh. The current road biased trends in transport development indicate the need for correct policy directions to make such development environmentally and socio-economically sustainable and to create a transport system that can meet the growing demand for transport services in the future resulting from increasing economic liberalisation and external orientation of the economy.

 The purpose of this policy brief is to enhance awareness among the distinguished politicians and the civil society of the need for a vision and supporting coherent transport policies, and outline some of their important elements. Development of a coherent policy requires active involvement of both the government and other stakeholders in the search for a broad consensus on how the transport needs of the society could be efficiently and equitably met.

 The present deficiencies can however, be addressed by institutionalising an appropriate planning and development process based on certain norms. To improve overall efficiency of the transport system, each mode should be used for what it does best in an overall transport logistics chain. The Bangladeshi institutions, in general, have weak and outdated structure. Inadequate capacity and shortage of resources and trained manpower seriously undermine their ability to deliver good governance that requires sound policymaking as well as management. Institutional reform would therefore be crucial to achieving a sustainable transport system in a new environment which involves changing role of government from provider to more of a facilitator, greater external orientation of the economy, and increasing involvement of the private sector.

 It is therefore being suggested that for effective coordination and development of an integrated transportation system in the country, all transport related ministries and their parastatals be brought under one broad based “Ministry of Transport”. The Cabinet Minister in charge of the Ministry could be assisted by several State Ministers, one each for Roads; Railways; Ports, Shipping and inland waterways; and Civil Aviation cum Tourism. There could be several Divisions in the Ministry one for each sub-sector of transport but coordinated by an official of the rank of Principal Secretary. Ministry of Transport should set the policies and regulations, leaving the implementation of those policies to the parastatals and the private sector.

1.   The strategic role of the transport sector in enabling sustained economic and social development to take place in a society is self-evident. An efficient distribution system becomes increasingly critical to sustained growth of economic activities.  As the income in the society increases, there is also increasing demand for access to various social services like health, sanitation and education.  Transport sector is thus called upon to provide strategic support services on an increasing scale

2.   There is a long and well-entrenched tradition of the provision of basic transport services by the government, whether at the national or local levels. The governments have traditionally looked at transport activities as being too strategically important to be left to the uncertainty of the marketplace.

3.   Although there is considerable amount of disagreements regarding the appropriate level of direct governmental provision of transport services, it is generally agreed that a well-articulated transport policy is needed for the development of transport sector, even when the private sector plays an increasing role in such development.

4.   The purpose of this policy brief is to enhance awareness among the distinguished politicians and the civil society of the need for a vision and supporting transport policy for Bangladesh and outline some of their important elements.

5.   In the subsequent chapters, an overview of the existing transport system and trends in Bangladesh, and a number of imbalances and deficiencies in the present transport development have been identified. It has been established that there is a need to have a vision for transport development together with supportive policies.

 statement of research problem

New types of problems, such as a significant growth of fuel consumption, increasing environmental externalities, traffic congestion and a multiplication of road accidents have also emerged.

All road transport modes have limited potential to achieve economies of scale. This is due to size and weight constraints imposed by governments and also by the technical and economic limits of engines

In the future new materials (ceramic, plastic, aluminum, composite materials etc…), fuels (electricity, hydrogen, natural gas, etc…) and information technologies (vehicle control, location, navigation and toll collection) are expected to be included in cars and improve the efficiency of road transport systems. Road transportation is characterized by acute geographical disparities in traffic. It is not uncommon that 20% of the road network supports 60 to 80% of the traffic. This observation is expanded by the fact that developed and developing countries have important differences in terms of the density, capacity and the quality of road transport infrastructures. Acute geographical variations of the inventory are therefore the norm.

National Transport Research Centre should focus on developing capability to undertake research not only at the centre but also at the universities and other research organizations, covering, among others, areas such as (a) inter-modal mix based on economic, social and environmental considerations, (b) development of integrated transport system with focus on addressing physical and non-physical barriers along various links and nodes (c) Pricing of transport facilities based on cost recovery principle (d) Promotion of multi-modal transport (MMT) practices and container traffic (e) Improving urban traffic management (f) Dealing with non-motorized transport (g) Introducing in practice, the coordinated land use and transport planning and development concepts (h) Promoting private sector involvement in transport infrastructure and management (i) Improving transport facilitation measures across international borders, etc.

In order to ensure sustainability and continuity, the national experts of Bangladesh should be given more opportunities to get involved in planning, development of transport and solve their transport problems including urban transport problems. This will reflect country’s concern and commitment to be self-reliant in the long run.

 There are certain weaknesses in the institutional set up of most of the sub-sectors. These have been addressed under the section “Sub-Sectoral issues in Transport.

objectives of the road transtortation

 The purpose of this policy brief is to enhance awareness among the distinguished politicians and the civil society of the need for a vision and supporting coherent transport policies, and outline some of their important elements. Development of a coherent policy requires active involvement of both the government and other stakeholders in the search for a broad consensus on how the transport needs of the society could be efficiently and equitably met.

Maximising economic and employment growthCreate opportunities for employment through infrastructure delivery and maintenanceSupport economic growth through capital investment

Increase employment within transport services as they will be operating more formalised services

 

Improving school education outcomesEnable learners to access education facilities, participate in extra-mural activities 
Maximising health outcomesEnable patients to be able to access health facilitiesEnable family and friends to visit loved ones at health facilities

Reduce the burden of disease through fewer road accidents

Improving the health and well-being of our communities through promoting non-motorised transport

 

Reducing crimeIncreased and improved law enforcement of the transport system (private, public and freight) with dedicated focus on public transport operations 
Optimising human settlement integrationProviding the necessary transport linkages – both road and rail – public and privatePromote non-motorised transport – pedestrian and cycle paths leading to more liveable towns and cities

 

Maximising sustainable resource management and usePublic transport will require energy efficient vehicles to be operated

Emissions of public transport vehicles will be monitored through contractual targets

Increase the volume of freight moved by rail as opposed to road transport

 

Increasing social cohesionAllow people to move freely within the Western Cape and within the town or city, thereby supporting integration of communitiesProviding access to sporting and cultural events and locations

 

Reducing povertyIndividuals who require government grants can access them at a reasonable cost 
Clean, value-drive, efficient, effective and response governmentAllow citizens to access government servicesAllow citizens to participate in consultation processes organized by government

 

Methodology of the road transportation management

  • Controlling and regulating road transport by executing motor vehicle acts, issuing route permits and fixing rates and fares of buses and trucks
  • Conducting regular activities like: Issuing driving license, fitness certificates, registration certificates and Driving Instructor’s license
  • Registering schools for motoring
  • Organizing and conducting workshop Seminars for delivering information regarding safe driving and traffic regulations
  • Making research and development for developing ideas and methodologies for safe road transport and traffic system

 Definitions of terms used in the road transportation

The provision of adequate transport infrastructure and services, along with macro-economic stability and a long term development strategy is one of the necessary conditions for sustainable economic and social development. However in the case of Bangladesh, frequent power brown-outs or black outs and long hours of traffic congestions, high level of air pollution in cities, poor traffic safety, presence of non-motorized transport on major roads, and long delays at major ports, inadequate telecommunication services, including long waiting list for telephones, unplanned urbanization and sub-division of land around major urban centers, all bear witness to the inadequacy of existing infrastructure facilities, inefficiency in the management of services, lack of enforcement of laws and regulations, and provisions of approved Master Plans.

Partly in response to such observations and in recognition of the vital role which transport infrastructure and services play in economic and social development, government of Bangladesh has been trying its best to develop the transport system to meet the country’s present and future requirements. An analysis however, shows that although in most of the national five year plans, policies to address many of the deficiencies were clearly stated, yet during implementation, these were not adhered to. As a result transport development in Bangladesh have been driven mostly by ad hoc considerations having no explicit focus on long term requirements and the means of meeting these requirements on a competitive as well as sustainable basis. These have also produced many serious deficiencies and imbalances in the system. Some of the major deficiencies include sectoral bias, improper modal mix, unintegrated system, serious institutional weaknesses, limited role of the private sector and lack of national and urban transport policies. The current deficiencies have produced an unsustainable trend of transport development, which is characterised by misallocation of resources, adverse impacts on the environment and lack of competition.

The unguided nature of present development efforts is rooted in the absence of a vision for future development. A vision sets the direction for development and guide formulation of policy measures and strategies to attain identified objectives. Unfortunately, no long term vision for transport development exists in Bangladesh. The current road biased trends in transport development indicate the need for correct policy directions to make such development environmentally and socio-economically sustainable and to create a transport system that can meet the growing demand for transport services in the future resulting from increasing economic liberalisation and external orientation of the economy.

 The purpose of this policy brief is to enhance awareness among the distinguished politicians and the civil society of the need for a vision and supporting coherent transport policies, and outline some of their important elements. Development of a coherent policy requires active involvement of both the government and other stakeholders in the search for a broad consensus on how the transport needs of the society could be efficiently and equitably met.

 The present deficiencies can however, be addressed by institutionalising an appropriate planning and development process based on certain norms. To improve overall efficiency of the transport system, each mode should be used for what it does best in an overall transport logistics chain. The Bangladeshi institutions, in general, have weak and outdated structure. Inadequate capacity and shortage of resources and trained manpower seriously undermine their ability to deliver good governance that requires sound policymaking as well as management. Institutional reform would therefore be crucial to achieving a sustainable transport system in a new environment which involves changing role of government from provider to more of a facilitator, greater external orientation of the economy, and increasing involvement of the private sector.

Institutional deficiency

The Bangladeshi institutions which are linked to transport sector, in general, have weak and outdated structure. Their lack of capacity and shortage of resources seriously undermine their capability for good governance, sound policymaking and public management.

Different ministries and government agencies responsible for transport sector development are currently following a sectoral approach with no or very little coordination among themselves. The basic problem here is the lack of coordination among various government agencies and the absence of a clear policy framework with regard to transport sector of the country.

The Transport Policy framework

In order to achieve the vision stated above, there would be a need to develop and adopt clearly spelled and supportive policies. An attempt has been made here to provide a framework within which policies could be formulated by a team of experts.

An analysis of all the five year plans adopted since the creation of Bangladesh reveals that some form of overall transport policies were outlined in the plan documents of the country. The different plans emphasised on the adoption of appropriate pricing policy, capacity utilization, investment principle, development of rural and urban transport systems, efficient allocation of resources, improved services, fuel economy and identification of most cost-effective mode of transport. Apart from these overall policies, some detailed policy measures were enunciated for different transport sub-sectors. In principle these overall transport policies as well as policies relating to each sub-sector were well documented and appeared to be well thought out and commensurate with the requirement of the economy.

During implementation of these policies for the development of transport sector, things did not happen as expected. While it was stated in the plan documents that the investment in the transport sector would be in accordance with commercial and cost-benefit criteria, and pricing policy would be framed aiming at cost-recovery, only a few of these principles were applied in practice. It is found that fare and rate fixed for the transport services are far below the cost of providing these services. It was proposed that full capacity utilization of the existing facilities would be ensured, but in practice under utilization due to a number of reasons still exists in the different transport sub-sectors of the economy.

Limitation of the road transportation management

With regard to the clearance of containers from ChittagongPort, it may be noted that the port handles 95 percent of the total containers received in Bangladesh, and 70 to 80 percent of these are bound for Dhaka. However, only 10 to 15 percent (less than 40,000 ton equivalent units) are moved by rail to an inland container depot (ICD) in Dhaka. This ICD has a capacity of 100,000 ton equivalent units. The remaining container traffic (85-90 percent) is unpacked at Chittagong and moved in break bulk by small trucks. There is no container movement by road due to axle load limitation on bridges. The reason behind limited use of railway for moving containers is partly due to unfavourable rail charges and regulations between Chittagong and Dhaka. Since the difference is substantial, the shippers and exporters prefer to move goods by truck in break bulk to and from Chittagong port. This causes congestion due to space limitation at the port as well as on the Dhaka-Chittagong road.

Bangladesh railway should seriously explore various ways of increasing its share of carrying container traffic between Chittagong and Dhaka which is a captive traffic. For this purpose some of the actions among others, may include, acquisition of a fleet of flat cars, creation of an autonomous container corporation like CONCOR within the framework of Indian railways.

Although, Bangladesh is a riverine country and Dhaka is well connected with Chittagong by inland waterways, no container moves as yet by barges. There is a proposal to build a container terminal and ICD at Pangaon, Dhaka on the bank of Burigunga river. Some land has been acquired for the purpose on the river bank, and negotiations are underway with some private sector to build this terminal.

 If Chittagong is to become the “Transport hub” of the sub-region in the hinterland of Bangladesh, the proposed container terminals at Patenga, New Mooring and the IWT container terminal at Pangaon should be built on an urgent basis to serve both the national and regional requirements. Similarly Bangladesh railway should also be prepared to carry containers destined to other states/countries in the hinterland of Bangladesh. The capacity should be built accordingly. As the traffic builds up some more inland container terminals (ICDs) would have be built around Dhaka/Narayanganj, and elsewhere within the sub-region.

In addition, a number of factors, such as rent seeking (extortion, speed money) disruption of cargo handling activities due to hartal and labour unrest have been contributing to poor performance of the port.

Road Transportation

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