The Role of Urbanization in Increasing Crime in Urban Area

Introduction

Crime and urbanization is the common topics in the present world. Urbanization create many process to occur crime. In the other hand crime creates many problems in city life. In sociological perspective crime and urbanization are correlated. Crime is an activity which is against the law and the fact that the linkage between Criminal activities and the socio-economic development of the society is undeniable. Moreover, the relationship between crime and evolution of mankind may also be considered a historical one as Cain (first son of Adam and Eve) committed first crime when he murdered his brother Able because of jealousy. Due to the complex nature of the subject of crime, for example, regarding its causes and consequences, various academic disciplines such as criminology, sociology, geography, psychology and demography study it from their own perspective. A relatively new emerging field, however, is the economics of crime which tries to identify the socio-economic causes and consequences of criminal activities in a society.

Marshall and Clark (1952) wrote: “A crime is any act or omission prohibited by public law for the protection of the public and punishable by state in a judicial proceeding in its own name”. Similarly Tappan (1960) defined that “A crime is an instrumental act or omission in violation of criminal law, committed without justification and sanctioned by the state as felony or misdemeanor”. Though in case of criminal activity the net social benefits are negative but there are some advantages also like new jobs for crime prevention. Using cost and benefit analysis many theories have explained the trends in Criminal activities. For the criminal person the cost is punishment plus time which he has to spend in custody. On the other hand, the cost for the victims may include security expenses and the loss of money etc. In a strictly economic sense, a criminal is taken as rational person as he compares the costs and benefits of committing a crime (Becker).

Statement of the problem

Early twentieth century criminology might reasonably be considered the criminology of urban. the 1920s and 1930s much of the attention of criminologists focused on the “criminogenic city,” however, by the close of the century researchers had moved away from the notion that the city is itself criminogenic. Instead research on urban crime has become concerned mainly with why crime rates vary, why some social, economic, and spatial characteristics are correlated with variations in urban crime rates, and how certain crime characteristics of urban places affect individual criminality.

Émile Durkheim (1897), Max Weber (1958), Ferdinand Toennies (1887), and other European sociologists wrote about the changes that occurred as a result of the transition of societies from agrarian and village-based forms to industrial and urban-based ones. They proposed that during rapid social change, growing and expanding cities would be hotbeds of crime (and experience a number of other problems). One can safely assume that most eighteenth-and nineteenth-century philosophers and social scientists believed that even without rapid change, city life itself would be criminogenic. That is, they believed that in circumstances of slow change or even social stability that negative influences of cities themselves would lead to higher levels of crime than would occur in nonurban populations. This belief was not without reason. London and other major European cities were difficult places to live. To go out at night before the advent of gaslights meant moving about with a large group of men carrying weapons and torches. To do otherwise was to invite nearly certain mayhem and robbery

Before continuing, we should examine the latest evidence about urban crime. Although most often assumed to be the case, an important question is whether crime levels are higher in urban versus rural areas. According to crime statistics, community size does make a difference, as crime rates are higher in urban than in rural areas. Violent and property crime rates in our largest cities) are three to four times as high as the rates in rural communities (Barkan). These statistics hold for nearly all types of crime. For example, according to 1995 statistics from the Uniform Crime Reports areas, homicide claims 11 victims per 100,000 inhabitants and more than 25 per 100,000 in some of the largest cities. In small cities and in rural counties, homicide claims only 5 victims per 100,000, and fewer than 2 per 100,000 in our most rural states (Federal Bureau of Investigation). This pattern also occurs for robbery and assault; they are much more common in large urban areas than elsewhere. Like violent crime, property crime is lowest in rural areas (Barkan)

Rational of the study

Urbanization is a newly invented matter. but crime isn`t5.but there ar4e huge number of relation between crime and urbanization. IN urban area is full of facility which facility are responsible to occur crime in urban area. Relationship between crime and urbanization may be uncertain. Mash and Masih state “At low levels of the urbanization, crime may be high because of sparsely urbanization may lead to decrease in crime because of closer proximity of and finally, with even urbanization, crime may rise because individuals may not identify whether they are engaged in a legal or illegal activity” (1093). Indeed, Gaviria and Pages, (2002:193) found positive relationship between city size and. Thus, we can say that urbanization may have both negative and positive effects on crime in different urban setting. It needs an empirical investigation to see which effect outweighs.

Urbanization has also brought new challenges in terms of conflict, violence and urban governance – and citizen security in particular. The World Bank’s landmark 2011 World Development Report highlighted the significance of violence as a development problem. Its work noted how violence is changing, becoming less structured around notions of civil war and conflict, and more focused around criminal violence, terrorism and civil unrest.

Urban crime concept has developed from the nature of crime. If we notice the nature of crime so it will be clear to us the consequences of crime. Many of the population suffer from urban crime. Specially young people Who involved in this crime.

 Conceptual framework

Are many cause of urban crime. Especially when a men being psychologically handicapped then he can commit crime .different situation are mainly responsible for this problem. Young people take drug, and then their mental situation become abnormal. Some time many facility are responsible for becoming g frustrated to younger. So its clear to us that psychological cause is the basic cause of urban crime. Criminologists believe that certain predispositions of an individual and his personality traits have a predominant role when it comes to his criminal behavior. These predispositions and personality traits rise from the occurrences in the surroundings, and the person’s tendency to relate to these occurrences the two factors which comes into play are genetics and neurological development of the individual.

Economic factor mainly responsible to occur c rime in urban area. Some of the people when fac economic crisis then he commits crime in urban are. Especially when we talk about the economic factors which make a person resort to violence or crime, the first thing that is likely to come to your mind is poverty, and this is true to a great extent. The desperation that comes with poverty eventually gives rise to anger, and this anger makes the person take some drastic measures, thus making him get involved in crime acted by urbanization. which matter is so destructive for urban people.

 Impacts of Urban Violence and Poverty

     City homicide rates tend to be higher than nationalAverages. The rates in Caracas, Cape Town and Port of Spain, for instance, are respectively2.6, 1.77 and 1.72 times higher than in Venezuela, South Africa, and Trinidad and Tobago as awhole.

     Highly urbanized and poorer areas of cities presentthe highest risks of homicide, and homiciderates can be several times higher in low-incomeareas than in the rest of the city.

     At the global level, male homicide rates areroughly double female rates. At the nationallevel in poor settings, the ratio can be even more extreme.

     Endemic urban violence has been shown togradually transform relationships in ways thaterode effective collective action which is essentialfor enabling predictable exchanges withinpolitical, market and social domains.

The unprecedented pace of urbanization

     It took New York approximately 150 years togrow to 8 million people, while Mexico and SaoPaulo generated the same interval of populationgrowth in less than 15 years.

     In 1947, Karachi had a population of less than500,000; by 2011, the metropolitan regionincluded more than 18 million.

     Dhaka, Kinshasa, and Lagos today are each approximatelyforty times larger than they were in1950.

     The number of cities of over 1 million peoplehas increased more than fifteen-fold since 1950.

     Cities have absorbed nearly two-thirds of theglobal population explosion since 1950, and now add a million infants and migrants eachll as future earning and productive potential.

The connections between inequality and violence

        In urban contexts, inequality is a form of structural violence that often triggers more reactionary forms of Violence. Inequalities can include not just income but lack of access to basic social services, lack of state Protection, exposure to systematic corruption, and inefficiencies that most acutely affect the poor.

        Scholars have proposed that increased levels of urban violence are also closely tied to processes of Globalization and structural adjustment, as well as political democratization. As the conditions of the Urban poor become more precarious – particularly relative to the wealthy – the potential for conflict, crime and violence escalates.

        In South Asia, certain urban centers and informal settlements in Pakistan and India experience sporadic outbursts of violence often targeted against specific ethno-religious groups. Widely view such violence as a function of progressive marginalization and the weakened position of labor.

        Often it is the transplanted and displaced working poor who are implicated in violent unrest. Underlying conditions of poverty and inequality appear to shape particular forms of urban violence, even if the.

 Gendered risks and impacts of urban violence

     Across rural and urban settings, men are much more likely to kill or be killed. In urban settings, males are morelikely to suffer physical assault and violent robbery. Women suffer much higher rates of sexual violence anddomestic violence.

     Girls exposed to violence in the home may be predisposed to entering into abusive relationships. In a range of countries, women were twice as likely to report abuse by intimate partners if their own mothers had been abused.

     In contexts of gang violence and open warfare, sexual violence involving girls and women is often used as a form of coercion and intimidation, and as a way of defining rival groups.

     City design can influence gendered patterns of insecurity. Feminist critiques show that the physical and social spaces of cities reflect unequal gender relations in a given society. For instance, as suburbanization shaped patterns of labor and mobility to and from urban centers, public transportation designed for the needs.

 Operational definition of key concept

Crime:

Crime is a social disease. It destroys our social life and our basic production. Urbanization has created much scope in this factor. From old time to today’s modern societies, crime has always been a hot subject and kept its place in every day’s agenda. In particular, as and development of countries increase, in general, from to another, it is expected that crime rate should decline over time. However, it does not decline, and it has become more important in the second half of this century. As Becker (1968:172) pointed out years ago that “Crime has probably become more important during the last forty years”. Every society has its own values system. Crime is defined by mainly thes values system. For one reason or the other, there has been crime in every society throughout history though the rate, type, cause, and effect on each society might be highly different.

While 30 percent of world population was living in urbanareas in 1950, it was about 47 percent in 2000, and estimated to reach 60percent in 2030.1 Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between crime and urban areas.

Bangladesh is experiencing a very high rate of urbanization and as per 2001 census, theurban population is about 23.10%. Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh, has the highestpopulation density in the world with population of 10.23 million that is about 40% of theurban population and 6% of the national population of the country (GoB, 2001).

use total number of serious crime known to police (NCRM) as my dependent variable. Second, I use serious violent crimes known first dependent variable is known as property crime while the second is called personal crime, and both of them together are called as index crimes.2In the literature, there are commonly agreed three sets of variables used in determining crime.

Relationship between crime and urbanization

Urbanization is a newly invented matter. but crime isn`t5.but there ar4e huge number of relation between crime and urbanization. In urban area is full of facility which facility are responsible to occur crime in urban area. Relationship between crime and urbanization may be uncertain. Mash and Masih state “At low levels of the urbanization, crime may be high because of sparsely urbanization may lead to decrease in crime because of closer proximity of and finally, with even urbanization, crime may rise because individuals may not identify whether they are engaged in a legal or illegal activity” (1093). Indeed, Gaviria and Pages, (2002:193) found positive relationship between city size and. Thus, we can say that urbanization may have both negative and positive effects on crime in different urban setting. It needs an empirical investigation to see which effect outweighs.

Urbanization has also brought new challenges in terms of conflict, violence and urban governance – and citizen security in particular. The World Bank’s landmark 2011 World Development Report highlighted the significance of violence as a development problem. Its work noted how violence is changing, becoming less structured around notions of civil war and conflict, and more focused around criminal violence, terrorism and civil unrest.

Urban crime concept has developed from the nature of crime. If we notice the nature of crime so it will be clear to us the consequences of crime. Many of the population suffer from urban crime. Specially young people Who involved in this crime.

Objective of the study

Every research study there have must some objectives by which the study could be search its absolute pathways.

Broad objective: The role of urbanization in increasing crime in urban area

 Specific objectives:

  1. To explore the nature of crime in urban city
  2. To focus the major causes of crimes in urban area
  3. To assess the consequences of crime
  4. To identify the interrelationships between crime and urbanization.

2nd Chapter

Literature review

Literature review is the mostly significant part of a research. Reviewing literature mainly helps to find out the way of conducting the research. It also helps us to in crease knowledge about the particular problem. So a literature review has been done regarding this research problem.

From old time to today’s moderns societies crime has always been a hot subject and kept it’s place in every days agenda. Deferent sociologist wanted to show this agenda in a broad way., As becker (1968:172) point out years ago that ,crime has probably become more important during the last forty years. According to this as a result of increasing urban area in Bangladesh crime is increasing.

Becker view on crime in urbanization(1968-172): Over population is the main and important part of urban crime. While 30% of the world population was living in urban areas in 1950, it was about 47& in 2000. his view gives us a clear conception that, with the increase of population different crime are also increased. we can re3alise that growth of population is a major cause of crime  in urbanization .We know that Dhaka is a densely populated city. Here 14.251 million people.

                                                                                                 (CIA world Factbook)

Using cross sectional  data of large city he found  that urbanization and inequality are important  factors of urban crime. The main facts of crime in urban areas are the less  probability of arrest. Urbanization  is a serious matter  because in 2030  urban population will rise by 140% almost.                                                                            (Haider 2006)

A person will commit crime if the expected of utility of crime is more than the utility he could get  from consuming  his time in some other legal activities.

Gumus findings 2004: He indicates that specially two types of crime are organized in urbanization. Total number of property crime and like serious crime like, murder, forcible, repent robbery as a dependent variables. I thinks urbanization involves such crime ,murder, suicide, attempted suicide, and their some professional crime, heating, gambling, perjury, bribery, escape from lawful custody. And another has some  organized crime such as armed robbery, theft and streaking, house breaking, false pretence, forgery and arson act. Using cross sectional data  of large urban city he found that urbanization and crime inequality.

According to the criminology Mashi and Mashi: Relationship between crime and urbanization is the major findings of them. Especially  located residents  is the major background of crime  in urbanization . Closer proximity of resident create different crime in urban area . Especially  is the major source of legal or illegal activity.

 We can say that urbanization may have both negative  and positive effect on crime  in different urban setting.

Chapter -3

Theoretical frame work

Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory By Carlin Wong

            The lack of control by traditional institutions over individuals initiated social change known as Social Disorganization. The social disorganization theory comes from the Chicago school of sociology in the early 1920s and can be defined as the decline of influence of existing social rules of behavior upon individuals within a group. In essence, social disorganization is the consequence of a community’s inability to realize common values and to solve the problems of its residents, resulting in the breakdown of effective social control within that community. This theory claimed that delinquency was not caused at the individual level, but was considered to be the normal response of normal individuals to abnormal social conditions. Consequently, there was an indirect loss in the ability to act communally and individuals exhibited unrestricted freedom to express their dispositions and desires, often resulting in delinquent behavior (Short, 1972

The link between social disorganization and delinquency was associated with the work of two sociologists, Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay. Affiliated with the University of Chicago and the Illinois Institute for Social Research, Shaw and McKay were primarily interested in crime and delinquency. They wanted to demonstrate how crime was a normal response to social, structural, and cultural characteristics of a community and to explain how deviant behavior was produced among lower class, urban males

Shaw and McKay believed that the social disorganization concept could be applied to the passage of nationality groups through a spatial grid of the city. Discovering a strong association between crime rates and census tracts, Shaw and McKay explored the delinquency problem in inner-city areas in Chicago within the setting of traditional institutional efforts to control the behavior of the younger generation and the generations to come (Short, 1972). Their dependent variables were delinquency rates from the city of Chicago, which were measured by arrests, court appearances, and court adjudications of institutional commitment. Their independent variables were economic conditions by square-mile areas, ethnic heterogeneity, and population turnover.

There were four specific assumptions of social disorganization as an explanation of delinquency. First, delinquency is mainly the consequence of a collapse of institutional, community-based controls. The people who live in these situations are not personally disoriented; instead, they are viewed as responding naturally to disorganized environmental conditions. Second, the disorganization of community-based institutions is often a result of rapid industrialization, urbanization, and immigration processes that occur primarily in urban areas. Third, the effectiveness of social institutions and the desirability of residential and business locations correspond closely to natural, ecological principles that are influenced by the concepts of competition and dominance. This assumption associates the term “ecological approach” with the social disorganization explanation of delinquency. The fourth assumption is that socially disorganized areas lead to the development of criminal values and traditions that replace conventional ones and that are self-perpetuating (Shoemaker, 1996).

Four distinct conclusions resulted from Shaw and McKay’s research. First, the rates of juvenile delinquency were consistent with an ordered spatial pattern. The highest rates were found in the inner-city areas and declined with distance from the center of the city. Second, there was an identical spatial pattern revealed by various other indexes of social problems. Third, the spatial pattern of delinquency rates showed significant long-term stability even though the nationality structure of the population in the inner-city areas changed greatly throughout the decades. Lastly, within inner-city areas the course of becoming delinquent occurred through a network of interpersonal relationships involving family, gangs, and the neighborhood.

Modernization Theory

The theory of modernization is composed of three distinct portions: (1) Identification of types of societies, and explanation of how those designated as modernized or relatively modernized differ from others; (2) specification of how societies become modernized, comparing factors that are more or less conducive to transformation; and (3) generalizations about how the parts of a modernized society fit together, involving comparisons of stages of modernization and types of modernized societies with clarity about prospects for further modernization. (Defining Modernization)

The theory of modernization is composed of three distinct portions: (1) Identification of types of societies, and explanation of how those designated as modernized or relatively modernized differ from others; (2) specification of how societies become modernized, comparing factors that are more or less conducive to transformation; and (3) generalizations about how the parts of a modernized society fit together, involving comparisons of stages of modernization and types of modernized societies with clarity about prospects for further modernization. (Defining Modernization)

Many contend that although each nation is different, they experience “similar phases of development” (Howard 149). Naturally, modernization rests upon technological breakthroughs. Technology is the “catalyst that leads to political, economic, and demographic changes within a society (Strasser and Randall 1981)” (Howard 149). Technology is what propels a society into the spiral of modernization. It creates an atmosphere that fosters urbanization and industrialization. Urbanization is caused by the development of new technology which creates more jobs and creates concentrated population areas, also known as cities. These cities and modernization usually result in higher levels of crime. Thus, modernization theory argues that the results of modernity will provide a more substantial explanation of crime and all nations will “experience similar trends in crime rates as they develop” (Howard 149).

The similar trends that countries experience as they develop include a shift from crimes against people to economic and property crimes. That is, according to Glenn D. Walters there is a strong increase in the rate of “property-related and economically oriented categories of offense” (47). Shelley (1981) found that in the USSR, the more developed areas had higher rates of property crime, but the less developed areas experienced higher rates of violent crime. This has the potential implication that crime is simply more prevalent in urban areas, regardless of the countries state of development (Walters 47). Industrialization and urbanization place a stronger emphasis and value on material goods. Thus, there is going to be increase rates of property crimes because of the increased value. Crimes against property could potentially lead to crimes against people, but not necessarily (Walters 49).

Furthermore, according to Howard, as nations develop they experience a growth of social and economic relations. “These complex divisions are suspected of undermining mechanical solidarity and its control over the collective conscience. Thus, rapid social change engenders the breakdown of traditional values, resulting in…a higher crime rate” (Howard 148). This is an explanation of why there is a strong association with urbanization and crime. Walters explains this phenomenon in terms of “social and economic inequities.” These injustices foster an environment “dissatisfaction and unrest” among citizens.

Interestingly, Clinard and Abbott (1973) found evidence to support the claim that the negative effects of urbanization can be reduced by incorporating a more gradual transition. This can be accomplished by “decentralizing new industry, implementing a more organized plan of migration” and teaching its citizens about the potential problems of city-life (Walters 48). The implications of this evidence show that the modernization theory and its counterparts are not necessarily used to explain societal development, but can also provide methods to mollify the negative effects.

Chapter – 4

Methodology

 Method used in the study

        The study has been conducted by following a quantities approach. in this regard survey method has been followed.

             This research is investigation type. The study is effort to investigate the rule of urbanization in increasing crime in urban area.

 Study Area

The present study is conducted in at least two words of Dhaka district. From this two words six areas are selected as part of study area., Selected areas

are Sutrapur, luxmibazar, Paltan, Kaltabazar, Nayabazar, Ajimpur.

 Sampling

            The sample procedure and sample size in any sample survey is an important factor. The method of of sample for the forgoing research is accidental sampling. The respondents for the study is comprise of the citizen of urban area especially urban area. A total sample of 40 citizen of Dhaka city.

Techniques of data collection

*Primary source:

Face to face interview has been the conducted in collecting primary data from respondents. Primery information is provided directly by the selected person from study area.Primery data is collected by means of standardized used bin intervewing the sample respondents. It is acquire through direct interviews.

 *Secondary source-

Secondary data is collected through various sources, such as-literature and publications available in national and international documents, publications, NGO”s, different types journal, newspaper, magazine, book is, internet  etc. The information collect through the interview schedule survey has been compiled for analysis through a slandered data entry from. Graphical presentation techniques are the major analytical means for interpreting the served sample data based and pie chart, histogram. For quantities data expli8cit meaning of the observed phenomena is emphasized.

Chapter – 5

 Data analysis and presentation

Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusion, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facts and approaches, encompassing diverts techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. Microsoft office Excel has been used in this study to analyses data. The findings are presented bellow-

 Table -1: Percentage distribution of the respondent’s bye Age

Age of the respondents

Frequency

Percentage%

10-20

8

20

20-30

13

32.5

30-40

12

30

40-50

4

10

50-60

1

2.5

60-70

1

2.5

70-80

1

2.5

Total

40

100

 Table:1 indicate that20% of the respondents belong 10-20 age group,32.5% of the respondents belong 20-30 age group,10% of the respondents belong 30-40 age group,2.5% of the respondents belong 40-50 age group,2.5% of the respondents belong 50-60 age group,12.5% of the respondents belong 60-70 age group, and another 2.5% of the respondents belong 70-80 age group. Most of them are aged 20-30.

Table: 2 Percentage distributions of the respondents by marital status:

Answer type

frequency

Percentage%

Married

20

50

Unmarried

19

47.5

divorced

0

0

Separated

1

2.5

widow

0

0

Others

0

0

Total

40

100

Table: 2 indicate that, 550 percent of the respondents are married, 4.5% of the respondents are unmarried, and 0% of the respondents are Divorced, 2.5% percent of the respondents are separated, 0% of the respondents is widow. Most of the respondents are in married.

Table: 3 Percentage distributions of the respondents by Religion:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage%

Islam

33

82.5

Hinduism

5

12.5

Buddhism

1

2.5

Christianity

1

2.5

Total

40

100

Table:3 indicate that,82.5% of the respondents are islam,12.5% of the respondents are Hinduism,2.5% of the respondents are Buddhism, and  another 2.5% of the respondents are Christianity.

Table: 4 Percentage distributions of the respondents by Education:

Table:4 Indicate that 17.5% of the respondents are S.S.S 15% of the respondent are  H,S.C, 47.5% of  the respondents are B.S.S, 12.5% of the respondents are M.S.S ,7.5% of th=e respondents are in other educational position. Most of them are B.S.S.

Table:5 Percentage distribution of the respondents by occupation:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage

Govt service

4

10

Teacher

0

0

Business

17

42.5

Banker

3

7.5

Service holder

0

0

Others

16

40

total

40

100

Table:5  Indicate that, 10% of the respondents are in govt service,0% of the respondents are in Teacher, 42.5% of the respondents are in business, 7.5% of the respondents are  banker, 0% of the respondents are service holder, 40% of the respondents are in other occupation. Here most of the respondents are business.

Table: 6 Percentage distribution of the respondent’s bye monthly income of respondents:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage%

5000-25000

29

72.5

25000-45000

6

15

45000-65000

3

7.5

65000-85000

1

2.5

85000-105000

1

2.5

Total

40

100

Table: 6 indicate that 72.5% of the respondents belong 5000-25000 thousand group. Most of the respondents stay here.i5% of the respondents belong 25000-45000 thousand group, 7.5% of the respondents belong 45000-65000 thousand group, 2.5% of the respondents belong 65000-85000 thousand groups, and another 2.5% of the respondents belong 85000-105000 thousand groups.

Table :7  Percentage distribution of the respondents by monthly expenditure:

Table: 7 indicate that,52.5% of the respondents are belong 5000-15000 thousand group,32.5% of the respondents are belong 15000-25000 thousand group, and another 15% of the respondents are belong 25000-35000 thousand group.

Table: 8 Percentage distributions of the respondents by Types of crime:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage%

Heating

1

2.5

Gambling

6

15

Perjury

0

0

Bribery

11

27.5

Threat

14

32.5

Theft and Streaking

2

5

House breaking

3

7.5

Others

4

10

Total

40

100

Table: 8 Indicate that, 2.5 % of the respondents are mentioned that Heating is a new patterns of crime pe3 of crime in urban in area, i5% of the respondents are indicated that Gambling is a common type of crime in urban area, They faced crime in Dhaka city.0% of the respondents said that Perjury is less known in urban area, 27.5% of the respondents faced bribery in Dhaka city, 32.5% of the respondents faced threat in urban area. It’s so familiar in Dhaka city. Every urbanized area known with threat.5% of the respondents faced theft and streaking, 7.5% of the respondents faced house breaking, and another 10% of the respondents known with other patters of crime in urban area. Most of them faced threat.

Table :9  Percentage distribution of the respondents by facing time of crime

Table:9  indicate that,/40% of the respondents faced  crime at day, and 60% of the respondents faced crime at night. Most of the respondents faced crime it night.

Table: 10 Percentage distributions of the respondents by cause of facing crime:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage%

Breaking of laws

14

35

Power of money

10

25

Breaking of family bondage

1

2.5

Lack of proper rules

13

32.5

Shelter of godfather

2

5

Total

40

100

 Table :10 showed that 35% of the respondents mentioned that breaking of laws is the  magnificent cause of urban crime, for breaking of laws  criminal get chance to occur crime.25% of the respondents  argued that power of money  is the prime cause of urban crime.2.5% of the respondents mentioned that  breaking of family bondage  is responsible to occur crime. 32.5% of the respondents  are mentioned that  lack of proper rules  are mainly responsible for occurring crime, and another 5% of the respondents  are argued that  shelter of godfather  is responsible to occur crime3 in urban area .Most of the respondents  said that  breaking of laws is the main culprit to occur crime in urban area.

Table:11 Percentage of the respondents by the consequences of crime in urban life:

Table:11 indicate that, 32.5% of the respondent argued that they were  introduced  with mentally restless for urban crime,37.5% of the respondents mentioned  that they were faced  of losing money  cause of urban crime, 22.5% of the respondents said that  they lost prestige for facing urban crime, And another  7.5 %  of the respondents  faced the breaking social interaction. Majority of the respondents faced losing money.

Table: 12 Percentage of the respondent’s bye relationship between urbanization and crime:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage%

increasing crime

10

25

creating new p0atterns of crime

9

22.5

Introducing wi8th more crime

21

52.5

Total

40

100

Table:12  indicate that, 25% of the respondents mentioned that increasing crime is the main culprit  of relationship  between crime and urbanization.22.5% of the respondents  confirmed that  creating new patterns of crime are discovered  by the relationship between urbanization and crime.52.5% of the respondents mentioned that  introducing with more crime  is the main  consequences  of the  relationship between crime and urbanization.

Table: 13 Percentage distributions of the respondents by types of crime occurs causes of urbanization:

Answer type

Frequencies

Percentage%

Thrift

6

15

Robbery

24

60

Little conflict among people

9

22.5

Small amount of family conflict

1

2.5

Total

4o

100

Table: 13 indicate that 15% of the respondents mentioned that thrift is the new form of crime in urban area, 60% of the respondents indicated that robbery is the common crime in urban area. Many dangerous gang are created from urbanization, 22.5% of the respondents argued that little conflict among people is the majority crime in urban area. Family become vulnerable for urbanization, another 2.5% of the respondents mentioned small amount of family conflict is the motivated crime in urban area. Most of the respondents mentioned robbery is the mostly popular crime in urban area.

Table: 14 Percentage distributions of t5he respondents by changing patterns of crime in urban area:

Table: 14 indicate that, 17.5% of the respondents mainly acquainted with drug. They suggested that drug is the newly invented crime in urban area. Most of the urban city is affected by drug. Young people are sufure more. 30% of the respondents indicated that murder is the changing patterns of crime in urban area. In the local area murder is not acquainted with commoners. It`s so rare. 20% of the respondents mentioned that video pornography is the newly invented crime in urban area. And huge amount of people above all 32.5% of the respondents mentioned mobile phone threat is the most changing patterns of crime.

Table: 15 Percentage distribution of the respondents by the cause of changing crime  as a result of urbanization:

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage

Available drug materials

7

17.5

Available modern arms

10

25

Criminal get more information about crime

6

15

Inactive police activities

9

22.5

Corrupted  judicial system

6

15

Others

2

5

Total

40

100

Table: 15 indicate that, 17.5% of the respondents said available drug materials is the main culprit for increasing crime in urban location. When urban people become drug affected they are involved in different crimes .25% of the respondents indicated that Available of moderns arms are responsible to occur crime in urban area. Criminal get easily chance to use moderns arms for global network. 11115% of the respondents mentioned that criminal get more information about crime .By this criteria crime are originated in urban area.22.5% of the respondents said that inactive police activities more responsible behind creating urban crime. Because police doesn`t play an important rules to reduce crime from urban area. 15% of the responds said that corrupted judicial system is the main culprit to occur crimes in urban area. And another 5% of the respondents said there are another some reasons to occur crime in urban area.

Table: 16 Percentage distributions of the respondents by community who become sufferer more.

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage %

Educated people

4

10

Illiterate people

3

7.5

Rich people

12

30

Poor  people

3

7.5

Middle class people

18

45

Total

40

100

Table: 16 indicate that 10% of the respondents mentioned that educated people become more beneficiary from urban crime. 7.5% of the respondents said that illiterate p[people suffer more. 30% of the respondents  indicate that  rich people become sufferer more ..5% of the respondents mentioned that poor people are suffered more from the urban crime, another 45% of the respondents argued that middle class people become more and more sufferer from urban crime. Most of the respondents argued with middle class people.

Table: 17 Percentage distributions of the respondents by the sector of developments are affected more.

Answer type

Frequency

Percentage%

Education system

10

25

Judicial system

21

52.5

Damaging production of necessary need

5

12.5

Technology

2

5

Others

2

5

Total

40

100

Table:17  indicate that  25% 0f the respondents  mentioned that urban crime destroy  education system  of Dhaka city. Education system can’t run properly for urban crime.52.5% of the respondent5s argued that judicial system is damaged for urban crime.12.5% of the respondents said that urban crime is responsible for damaging production of necessary needs.5% of the respondents indicated that technology are destroyed for criminal activities of urbanization. And another 5% of the respondents mentioned other causes of breaking the development by urban crime.

 Findings

Findings are an important party. In this part a researcher tries to show the main theme of a researcher. It indicate whites the output of the research. By this part a reader can see the research at a glance. In my research most of the respondents live in urban area. They have clear idea about urban crime. We know that research findings totally based on respondents opinion.

Respondent’s age is important for a crime. In my research most of the respondents 32.5% belong 20-30 year age group. Basically 47.5% of the respondents are married .The religious background of the majority of the respondents above all 82.5% are Islam. Most of the respondents 47.5% of the respondents are educated.

In my research significant number of respondents 42.5% of the respondents are involved with business. And most of the respondents 72.5% belong 5000-25000 thousand group. It’s the beigest income lavel.52.5% of the respondents belong 5000-15000 thousand group. it’s the beigest expenditure.

All respondents mentioned their opinion on deferent types of criome.2.5% mentioned15%,27.5% bribery, 32.5% threat, 5% theft and streaking, 7.5% house breaking, and 10% of the respondents mentioned other types of crime.

According to respondents 40% crime occur at day, and 605 at night. Respondents said about the causes of facing crime.35% of the respondents indicated that crime are occurs for breaking of laws, 25% said the cause power of money,2.5% breaking of family bondage,32.5% indicated that  crime are3 occurred for lack of proper rules, 5% said about shelter of godfather. Respondents also mentioned the consequences of  crime.32.5% respondents mentioned they become mentally restless when they face crime,37.5%  losing money,22.5% losing prestige, 7.5% said they mentioned breaking social interaction.

In my research respondents exclaimed the relationship between urbanization and crime. 25% respondents motioned increasing of crime is the result of relationship between urbanization and crime, 22% said about creating new patterns of crime, and 52.5% respondents said about introducing with more crime.

Urbanization said about types of crimes occurs causes of crime.15% said Thrift is one types of crime which is originated from urbanization, 60% said about robbery, 22.5% said about little conflict among people, 2.5% said about small amount of family conflict. Respondent mentioned about changing patterns of crime in urban area.17.5% said about drug, 30% said about murder, 20% sad video pornography, and 32.5% of the respondents said about mobile phone threat. Significant number of respondents mentioned causes of changing crime as a result of urbanization.22.5% are agreed with inactive police activities.45% of the respondents who face urban crime, they are middle class people.52.5% of the people  said  judicial system are destroyed more for urban crime.

 Conclusion

Crime is an old word in the context of Bangladesh. Rome ancient time to present time it available in Bangladesh. Different types of crime have speeded in all over the country. If we notice in the village of Bangladesh here crime patterns is different. Because here urbanization is absent. Urban environment is totally favorable to occur crime. But rural environment doesn’t favorable to occur crime. We know that there are many facility of urbanization. Urbanization gives the opportunity to communicate with other countries very easily. Foreign culture is available. We can enjoy other culture from the help of urbanization.

In the other hand urbanization gives the negative effect on our social life. In the urban society men become criminal .Because in the urban area police system become corrupted. Judicial system also becomes corrupted. Many common people face crime by new process. Some crime which crime is created by urbanization. Such as Mobile phone threat, video pornography, murder, and cyber crime. All crime is created by urbanization. In the ancient time there was not availability of mobile phone, there was absent of corrupted judicial system, corrupted police system etc.

In the present era we can identify that school going girl are faced eve- teasing by mobile phone. Some of the corrupted people catch video pornography by illegal way. And the development process of the country is destroyed by these types of crime. If we want to develop our country is following developed countries so we have to recover all types of crime from city area.

Recommendation

There are many problem in urban area .Crime is the major problem in urbanization. Every citizen should concern about this problem. Bangladesh is a developing country, and it’s an over populated country. Many population involved in different types of crime. some recommendation are noted here-

Urban citizen should concern about urban crime.

government should take different preventive stapes.

crime related journal should broadcast in media.

Daily newspapers should publish pure and truthful news.

Police has to play an important role to recover crime from urban area.

Judicial system will run without political handicapped.

Bangladesh can participate in crime related convention with developed countries.

Reference

Akkas, Ali,  Sarkar” Law of Criminal Procedure.”

Adler, Freda “Distinguished professor of Criminal Justice School of Criminal Justice, RutgersUniversity.

Mueller o.w, Gerhard “Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice Rutgers’s university.

Paranjape.V.N”Criminology and Phonology

14th edition,Central law publication,107,DarbhangaCastle,Allahbad.

islam,aminul”Research Methodology”

Chawdhury,Dr,Haider, Criminology.

(CIA world Fact book)

(Hider 2006): Journal.

 Mashi and Mashi ,criminal justice.

 Gumus findings 2004, Journal.

 Becker view on crime in urbanization (1968-172), Journal.

WWW.Wikipedia.org/wiki/urban crime.

WWW.Weelklybitz.net

Urbanization

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