The main purpose of the report on Child Abuse the Role of Breaking the Silence. Child abuse means a child is doing something that causes risk or result will be harmless for him or her. Child abuse can be physical, neglect; sexual or emotional or not providing his or her needs is also called child abuse. Other objectives are raising awareness among people through organizing a series of discussion meetings, workshops, seminars and establish a positive environment protective behavior in society focusing on non-commercial child abuse and exploitation of children and training of this social counselor has also been organized with the NGO workers for systematic transfer of skills on NCSAC.
This report divided by two parts, one part is organizational part based on the Breaking the silence and other part is research part. The title of the report is Child abuse: the role of Breaking the Silence.
Child abuse means a child is doing something or failing to do that causes children may be fall into any kind of risk or result will be harmless for him or her. Child abuse can be physical, neglect; sexual or emotional or not providing his or her needs is also called child abuse.
The Objectives of Breaking the Silence:
a) Raising awareness among people through organizing a series of discussion meetings, workshops, seminars and establish a positive environment protective behavior in society focusing on non-commercial child abuse and exploitation of children. b) For dealing with a heinous mislead parents, children and largely community have to speak out against sorts of odds. c) Training of this social counselor has also been organized with the NGO workers for systematic transfer of skills on NCSAC.
Role of BTS:
The various activities of BTS are aimed at establishing one main purpose the creation of a secure, child friendly environment and stopping sexual abuse. The various activities are orientation sessions with Dhaka based schools, district level programs, training at grassroots organization, orientation with district based reporters, research and documentation or base survey, strengthening networks with partner organizations, male participants should also be included, BTS must initiates program in electronic media, young or children involvement, therapy and counseling for children, training with adolescent girls and boys, training workshop for teachers, training workshop for NGO personnel and religious leader etc.
The other part is research part and the title is CSA and its impact on socio-economic growth.
- How the people of Breaking the Silence Community define CSA?
- Underlying factors shaping CSA in the community of Breaking the Silence?
- Is CSA interacts with the socio-economic determinants of growth, such as, socialization process, education, culture, income and expenditure?
Main hypothesis: child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socioeconomic growth.
These study methods are case study and Focus Group Discussions. Methods are used as primary data. But the cases ultimately used in as secondary data after studying cases those used in analytical software for measuring purpose. This study used both qualitative and quantitative techniques and respondents are young adult, adult group, abused children and control group. And the target population was the community people of Bouniabadh.
Generally the community people think any kind of bad affection to a child is called child sexual abuse and the other way kissing, touching, caressing fondling with bad intention is the types of CSA. They also identified six underlying factors which is shaping CSA in their community. Other way, quantitative analysis tells that lower income of community could be increases CSA in the community and CSA creates negative impact on socio-economic growth. The probability level of income is 0.0342 and which is significant. That’s mean income and CSA creates diverse relationship.
The study hypothesis is CSA creates negative impact on socioeconomic growth and the study findings said that according to community people of saying five underlying factors shaping CSA and higher income rate can diminishing the rate of CSA and findings also said that income and CSA are being diverse relationship and for this policy makers keep in their mind that income generation is important for reducing child sexual abuse. And they keep concern of underlying factors and generating income to make policies.
Child Abuse: The Role of Breaking the Silence
Motivation for Choosing this Topic
Child abuse is a sensitive issue and more silent topic to speak in our society but it is more important to solve various forms of child abuse for better movement in society. In this manner at first BTS has taken its prime concern towards aware people and eradicate this serious problem. In our society child abuse and especially sexual abuse is very secret matter, abused person should keep their mouth shut and abuser must free from penalty. Most of the abuser is care givers or guardians or close relatives who should takes care those children’s but lack of their responsiveness and concern is creating this issue more complex in the long run. Moreover, most of the people do not have any clear idea or any idea of child abuse or sexual abuse and more surprisingly the proportion of boy’s abuse are more than girls (BTS), boy’s abuse may be uncovered due to shame and stigma. It is an issue creating our generation socially, economically, physically and mentally disable and vulnerable. Mass people concern is highly needed towards this issue. In my perception only BTS could not stop the non-commercial child sexual abuse and exploitation. In this sense, BTS want to work with representatives of local Government, community people and those organizations who keep same ideologies. Child abuse is not a narrow phenomenon hence it is a concept of worldwide based. So this issue has plenty’s of opportunities to focus on rectify this Now- a-days child abuse problem crosses the nation, state and all boundaries. Hence, still now appropriate knowing of people is less concern; even people do not understand what child abuse is and do not have any idea towards child abuse. In this understanding view, child abuse is an issue should need mass concern of people, government and as well as state keeps cautious about child abuse.
From BTS inception, it had committed to work on a very sensitive issue fighting against sexual abuse of children. Generally people kept full silence about this critical matter by considering as a social stigma. By the way, when a children is sexually abused by someone this issue left behind in darkness for the fear of losing social prosperity. Another way that ‘Social silence’ is the main obstacle behind addressing and eradicating sexual abuse of children and establishing children rights in this society. Lack of awareness could not get opportunity to punish the abuser and the abuser goes free from justice. An abused child goes through severe physical pain and mental trauma goes unaccounted and certain free and normal growth has been stopped. Parents and guardians unawareness and denial about this crucial matter is the root cause is making children vulnerable to sexual predators. Main thing is many of parents do not know their children’s rights. The main reason of their unawareness is illiteracy, lack of knowledge, insolvency, societal conservative outlook etc. On the hand when children’s rights are being encroached, on the other hand they are being subjected to sexual abuse by close family members. As a result our children are devoid of a happy and secure childhood and physically and mentally scared for life. After understanding this social reality BTS members were determined to establish children’s rights and stop CSA. BTS was created to make a space to talk about sexual abuse. The name of the organizations bears its mission, its tries to break the vicious cycle of silence around this critical issue. It organizes various awareness raising sessions to uphold children’s rights and put an end to sexual abuse against them. Moreover, in the national context awareness could be fulfilling BTS’s objectives towards child sexual abuse from destroying children secures life and beautiful mind.
Child abuse means a child is doing something or failing to do that causes children may be fall into any kind of risk or result will be harmless for him or her. Child abuse can be physical, neglect; sexual or emotional or not providing his or her needs is also called child abuse. Child abuse is a serious unexpected problem ever and feeling worthless in their self. In society, in order to persons have authority over children and children trust their elders. Child abuse can be understood as a gross violation of this trust. An adult taking advantage of a child’s trust exerts his or her authority over the child.
Role of Breaking the Silence
Breaking the silence mainly focuses on child sexual abuse. In their perception, there are many forms of sexual abuse. Listing them is like a litany of prevention but it is necessary to do so as in many people’s minds, sexual abuse is limited to the rape of a girl child by a man.
There are many more forms of abuse including:*Taking sexual pleasure in undressing and looking at a child *Getting sexual gratification from looking at a child’s sexual organs *Getting sexual gratification from showing a child obscene pictures *Kissing or caressing a child in a sexual way *Caressing a child’s breasts *Touching and fondling a child’s sexual organs *Making a child caress the perpetrator’s sexual organs *Using the child to masturbate the perpetrator or masturbating in front of the child *Putting the penis in a child’s mouth *Inserting the penis, a finger or some object the child’s anus or vagina *Using a child for the production of pornography.
According to UN Child Rights convention, in the section of 19 and 34 we could say that, authority should constitute appropriate laws and regulations and take incentives by the way legislation, judicial system, administrative way, social and consciousness. For saving the children from exploitation and sexual abuse only government can play a crucial role by doing to stop all kinds of illegal occurrences.
Response, protection and rehabilitation:
If a child becomes abused then how can we help that abused child, it is a crucial question to us. According to BTS, when we know that a child has been sexually abused, it is our moral persuasion to help the child. If we are not sure what to do, we must look for the agencies where appropriate advice and care are available. Prevention is best cure. It is crucial to take preventive measures and make children aware of child sexual abuse. It is important to remember that sexual abuse of children can occur at any time and any place. Children have to be able to protect themselves and for that they need to learn how to ignore the tricks that abusers use. Like teach children about their bodies, teach them that if anyone touches them in a way that is suspicious or frightening, they should tell the person to stop and then they should tell a trusted older person what happened. And the older person’s responsibility is that if anyone does sexual assault to them or rapes them, tell them it’s not their fault and not to blame themselves.
One of the notable features of the cases that BTS has dealt with is the relative lack of punishment to the perpetrators. The affected children and their families seem to suffer more them the perpetrators.
A brief overview of the organization:
Breaking the silence is a child right based activist organization. BTS is also a non-profitable and non-political organization which began in 1994 primarily initiated by the members of child right activists and their concern was to end of stopping CSA and creating a secure and child friendly environment for children within the family and overall society. The group of people who are associated with the naming of the organizations conceived that ‘the social silence’ around this critical issue is the main obstacle behind eradicating this root problem from our society. From very beginning, BTS has worked as an active group to raise awareness to stop sexual abuse members started working by pledging to uphold their duty to establish CSRs. The activist group promised themselves to break this vicious cycle of silence of such an abusive act towards children if not completely but at least partially to open the chapter of a long suppressed truth. In this manner, BTS organized seminars, meetings, workshops all over the country. The member of BTS works voluntarily and also offers subscriptions and donations.
The objectives of Breaking the silence:
The prime aim is to assist BTS to identify areas for change or add that can enhance the service and program activity. BTS has three interconnected objectives.
a) Raising awareness among people through organizing a series of discussion meetings, workshops, seminars and establish a positive environment protective behavior in society focusing on non-commercial child abuse and exploitation of children.
b) For dealing with a heinous mislead parents, children and largely community have to speak out against sorts of odds.
c) Training of this social counselor has also been organized with the NGO workers for systematic transfer of skills on NCSAC.
Mission and vision of the organization:
From 1994, BTS began its activities to uphold children’s rights and protect children from sexual abuse. The various activities of BTS are aimed at establishing one main purpose the creation of a secure, child friendly environment and stopping sexual abuse. By the way the vision of the organization is to create a child friendly, positive environment in society and stop child abuse with particular focus on NCSEC.
Breaking the silence works with partner organizations at district level reaching young children, adolescents, adults, social elites. But its main focus remains to be the empowerment of children to prevent sexual abuse. Breaking the silence is led by a group of members who make subscriptions to the organization. BTS has a team of committed staff members and also has a secretariat body that is primarily responsible for raising awareness and advocacy work in different districts including Dhaka.
Breaking the silence works by following some approaches which helps the organization to conduct their activities smoothly. Three approaches are-*Networking with other likeminded organizations for including the CSA issue in their own going activities.*Partnership with other district organizations who keeps same kind of policies and ideologies.*Referral for the services which is not provided by BTS, it refers it to its networking partners as per the need of the child.
General overview of the activities of BTS:
The various activities are:
Awareness raising programs: Awareness raising programs and sessions with adolescents and their parents in various communities. As parents or guardians have the prime responsibility in protecting their children’s rights and saving them from sexual abuse, it is crucial that parents or guardians know and understand this issue. Similarly if children are made aware of this they can protect themselves from ordeal.
*School programs: BTS undertakes steady and continuous awareness raising sessions at schools. As children spend most of their time at school a part from home, it is often observed that kids prefer learning about sexual abuse in their school environment rather than in home. Before implementing the school program, the teachers, managerial committee and authority informs to children about sexual abuse and make them how to protect themselves from sexual abuse.
Training workshop: BTS organizes various training workshop to create leadership in combating sexual abuse of children in society. Along with parents and children, people from various professions and strata are given awareness raising and capacity building training workshop for school teachers and training on khutba guide for religious leaders.
Community based program: BTS has been working in Bauniabadh community, situated in the fifth ward of Dhaka City Corporation, through various awareness raising activities, training workshop etc. The aim is to stop sexual abuse of children and encourage voluntary adolescent or youth groups to be formed. These youth groups or clubs have volunteered to take part in various programs in eradicating sexual abuse of children.
Group formation: Create awareness and empower adolescent and a safety net to their children.
Counseling: Breaking the Silence has its own counseling cell to provide counseling support to the children who experience sexual abuse.
Media campaign: To build a strong social campaign it is crucial to use the electronic media, press coverage. So that greater number of people is aware about stopping sexual abuse of children. BTS believes in extensive publication of this issue and holds talks with the press.
Networking and Advocacy: The organization works with local, national and international organizations through networking. The organizations which work for children’s welfare incorporate BTS’s mission of working against sexual abuse against children in their organizational activities.
Analysis of BTS activities (From 1994-2002):
Working experience of Breaking the Silence indicates that the program activity of the organization has had two major effects. First, the increased understanding of non commercial sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and the specific skills of awareness which the partner organizations, GO/NGOs and likeminded organizations obtained from BTS program which enhanced and strengthened the ability to provide high degree of awareness among the local community. Second, organization those who once became aware of the particular issue of CSA had begun to form a professional network with others which were useful for information sharing, collaboration and mutual support. Major findings are: *an informal group to a formal NGO *orientation sessions with adolescents girls, group of 18 and 16 at Bauniabadh*Awareness rising among parents, children, journalists, executive Govt. officers. *Training modules have been developed on NCSAC in the year 2001* *Involvement of school*District level workshop.
Comparative analysis of activities from 2003-2010:
In this section, it should be focus on the field level activities of BTS for the last eight years (2003-2010). From 2003-2005 BTS was working in six districts including Dhaka. In addition they also provided necessary skills training to various partner organizations which work for children’s welfare. After necessary skills trainings these partner organizations incorporated BTS’s mission of stopping sexual abuse in their organizational activities to stop child abuse in their respective working areas. Around 2006 to 2008 two more districts were added those districts are- Dhaka, Jamalpur, Meherpur, Mymensingh, Shatkhira, Srimangal, Barisal, Pirojpur. In 2006 BTS organized a round table conference with implement policies and has been taken opinions and suggestions from parents for rising awareness between parents, children’s and all kinds of stakeholders. All in all BTS was able to finish all activities under their work plan or project proposal in respective areas in 2006. In 2007 BTS organized four types of training workshop for adolescent boys, girls, school teachers and NGO personnel and undertook 39 continuous sessions in programs. The Govt. initiated an education policy and National child policy which would play an important role in national and local level advocacy when the policies are taken in action. In 2011 and2012 BTS expand its curriculum by various meetings, doing sessions and taking opinions from civil society, NCTB, scouts, police forces, students from religious schools, religious leaders etc and taking policies from their valuable opinions.
Historically my current position:
BTS is an activist group there aim is to make a positive and secure environment for children free from abuse and preserve child rights. Breaking the silence is the first organization who takes in hand such a serious issue, child sexual abuse. They work in a community named “Bauniabadh” to fulfilling their intention towards diminishing child sexual abuse. In this community they work with some of the schools who help to taking sessions with teachers and students in their schools. Those sessions helps to aware teachers and especially children’s to know their rights and child sexual abuse. Children can analyze about their rights and also have rights to get their basic needs to take their demands from caregivers. They can define their body parts as a protective and sensitive way. They can learn that the identification of those persons who can harmful and they should protect them from those bad peoples who are risky towards child rights and child protection. Teachers could aware about child rights, child abuse and broadly child sexual abuse. Now-a-days, schools are not safe for children’s rights and protection in the mean time BTS has taken responsibility to campaign awareness program by taking sessions of teachers, parents and care givers and sometimes abusers also. After the sessions completed BTS has doing that children have to answer some questions about previous session’s topic what is child sexual abuse and after that taking examination by school teachers. The objective of the examination is what the quantity they learn about CSA by sessions. BTS works with those schools of the purpose to knowing students about their rights, child abuse, learning children’s about their body parts, how to aware from bad people, how to prevent their childhood from them. Some of children’s functioning BTS programs as a member and some adult boys and girls conduct this programs as an animators, this animators were the previous member and also the population of the community. The community is not an advanced area, the people of this area are lower middle class group and some are middle class. So naturally their socio-economic condition is not so good. And many of persons live in poverty line. We can say that they are poor and lived in poverty line and not so better environment they have and for those reasons informal sector grows day by day and may be child abuse also. People who lived in poverty line they do not have any access to education, health, nutrition, shelter and other basic needs. Those people have less access of taking care about any child rights or child sexual abuse. Hence, it is said that CSA is linked with poverty as an implicit way. Poverty can influence human’s mind to do noxious works those creates abusive and exploitative scenario. But it could not be a universal thought because CA also occurs in rich families. Those rich people’s never reveal this kinds of incidence in front of people for their prosperity and status. But BTS’s thinking is maximum child sexual abuse happens in such prosperous families who maintains high status. Hence, those poor people could not hide these kinds of occurrences for their low status or ultra poverty. Some of their perception is this abusive behavior is natural for them. Child sexual abuse effects children’s emotionally, mentality, physically and being traumatized. But it is not essential that child abuse only occurs in schools, data shows that a good number of abuse happens in own home, neighbors home, closed relatives home, renters house, offices etc(2003). Child abuse problem is getting widespread scenario.
Breaking the silence always follows or searches any kind of solutions from their resource book or before doing any projects or facing problems. This resource book based on case studies, to do case studies researcher took data from selective sides of Bangladesh. BTS personnel always keep in touch at their working area, Bouniabadh. BTS always follows their working plan and resource book to functioning their program and policies. Every year they publish their annual report for justification of their working module. From 1994 to 2011, they have each year’s annual report and work plan, the resource book is their pioneer of work which is their highlighting module helps them to start any kind of policy, programs, sessions.
According to BTS’s constitution their objective is to ensure a secure environment for children. In the society’s perspective, women and children are more vulnerable and society’s tendency is to violate these two groups’ rights. Our superstitious mind and lack of awareness is responsible for ruin childhood of children. Premature marriage is a kind of child abuse diminishes child rights. If guardians are not aware about their children it’s impossible to alleviate child abuse. If they act consciously and aware about their children’s mind, try to understand child’s mentality and maintain a friendly relationship with their children’s then child abuse could be possible to remove from society and as well as country. If fully remove will not possible rather children could protect themselves from abusers. BTS is trying to include 8 chapters into National Curriculum and Textbook Board for 1-8 classes. The purpose of that work is to not only urban children but also rural or broadly unprogressive area’s children could get knowledge about child sexual abuse. The reason of their work is to make mass awareness which is necessary for alleviating CSA and establishing CR. They have already organized some round table meetings with NCTB. The authority has the positive intention towards including learning lesions. Hence, this activity is hanging till now. If this initiative will be fulfill then it will be a milestone to awareness rising program which is highly required for parents, care givers and mass people who do not have any clear idea about child sexual abuse occurs and expends day by day. Children are mostly vulnerable in this issue because of powerlessness. Who do have such type of thinking that children just a children who does not have privacy to do something, they are helpless to protect themselves, they are unable to do something then those people thinks all those things are misallocating child rights and wrong explanations towards people. If NCTB approved the proposal of including child sexual abuse as a text book lesion that will be fulfill BTS’s intention towards child abuse. When it is confirmed that those text books received by mass children’s it will be ensured that teachers should learned those topics to students which will be helpful for children’s to identify their body parts, aware about their limitations, thinking about their security from bad peoples whose persons risky or harmful for children. Teachers learned to children’s for prevent child sexual abuse and teachers participation could be remove child sexual abuse from schools. According to text book, children must study it and learn it and then they should participate in examination, because of children’s nature is everything is interesting to them and they always encourage to know various questions by the way children could question their parents, care givers, teachers, friends and others after reading those chapters. Then parents have no way without answering those questions and they could tell many other related issues. That is the end of BTS to achieving the goals, BTS’s objective will be done and they could move their working path anyway. Another way, BTS has been prepared for their next program and objective is to motivate religious leaders and strengthening them for protection and preservation of child rights and children may secure in their home and other side. Approximately, 900 religious leaders will be attached in this program and they conducted many awareness rising sessions with their area people and for this purpose provide to them the ‘khutba guide’. BTS is active to achieve such kind of activities for fulfilling all goals they are working towards their ends which is ending child sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse is not just a serious problem it is rooted day after day. We need to take over all of the obstacles towards removing CSA. And it is not just a responsibility of BTS but ours.
Prospects and constraints:
From the primary stage BTS has facing many problems towards eradicating child sexual abuse. Everybody misunderstood BTS personnel, people did not trust them at all and people’s view towards child abuse was it is a paradigm of western countries and more on then BTS personnel did not speak a word of child sexual abuse. After facing those problems they applied some new techniques like at first, taking awareness sessions with teachers to convince them and to know them about this issue by the way Breaking the Silence taking sessions with teachers, children’s and parents to concern about child abuse, what and how can they realize child abuse and also talking how can they protect themselves from child abuse. These tasks are not easy to complete because of lack of peoples concern and responsiveness towards social responsibility. More importantly inadequate economic incentives are the main obstacle to reduce child sexual abuse from the root level. More importantly people’s conservative mind settings, stereotype idea and following myths are helping to keep societies irresponsible action. A local NGO, BTS has doing really a tuff job, thus BTS needs Government incentives to eradicate this serious matter. Now a day’s some other NGO’s functions at the issue. Not just to remove child sexual abuse but also implies child rights towards removing this problem. A child’s has rights to freedom to fulfill his or her basic needs and right for living in the world with secure environment.
BTS has some challenges to fulfillment. Firstly, some community leaders have played role as opponent when the male facilitator conduct session on CR and CSA with female guardians and adolescent girls. So the impact of this is they insist on working with sexual issue in the community without conduct the session by a female facilitator for female guardians and adolescent girls. Secondly, people lives in the extreme poverty possess a wrong idea that the session on CR and CSA is not necessary for them and their children. The parents possess wrong conception on child rights perspectives and neglects to attend sessions. At last the child of them is depriving from their rights. Thirdly, the local government representatives sometimes did not attend programs due to lack of awareness about their responsibilities for establishing child rights. Local govt. supports are not available for implementing community based program. Fourthly, community peoples those whom are illiterate and concentrate with superstition, do not feel the necessary to know about CR and CSA and believes inappropriate education, ignores the importance to learn about that topic. Moreover, legal support is not available for the sexually abused children. Providing legal assistance to the sexually abused children became hampered and the perpetrators are not punished for their act. Another way community leader’s tendency is relieving abuser from penalty by taking compensation and giving to abused Childs families. In this way, deviant actors always release from punishment by the way as we know many of abusive incidence always being silent hence some of the revealing incidence should be sort-out and must pay attention to laws which could be reduced child sexual abuse. Because laws and punishment could be reduces this criminal act. This is a criminal act, on the basis of we have procedure to punish abusers for their noxious act and update law tells us for proofing an abusive act does not need any proof but only children’s vocal for the sequences of the incidence is enough for punishment abusers. If the act will be makes as a law and implement properly then it will be a better afford for society and especially for children. Another way, males are less interested to attend sessions which are conducted for awarding of CSA. Some of them are attends in those sessions but it is highly needed to cooperative attendance of CP in these type of sittings or discussions. And both male and female should understand the depth of this seriousness but problem is these males are less cooperative to do so. Even the organization call up some male abusers as an attendant in such discussion as a participant because they think it is helping to change their mind of noxious, but it is not enough. It needs a complete solution and positive reaction of males. Another big constraint of BTS is poverty of CP, because of poor condition of community people they are struggling in all the day and they have no more other concentration to take part in the responsiveness of societal work. A community person has other responsibilities up to their families which are helping to living smoothly. So, they have no extra time and concentration towards CSA or its related discussion. Thus, it creates so many problems to increases awareness. Breaking the silence always faces various kinds of problems and their constraints created day by day and the authority of BTS always trying to solve those problems. Hence, those problems could not to be ignored by BTS and they must solve those smartly and it is a challenge to them. The authority knows better that children need a secure and comfortable environment where they could grow up freely and beautifully. For to growing up a beautiful mind and for build up a sensible person needs a beautiful environment. Implementation of laws is also important for reducing the rate of CSA which is really weak for the context of our country and here breaking the laws is law. So, again local govt. has a great responsibility to reduce this serious problem. But lack of legal support always failures the current rights. Some of people think that publicity or awareness raising programs are responsible for increasing this problem because of children’s knowing about this issue they are interested to do so and also growing the interest of abusers to do such kinds of things. It is really a negative thinking towards reducing CSA and awarding people to CSA. Some other constraints have faces BTS like low budget to implement any program or lack of essential volunteers or cannot operate their programs at a spread way at the same time partner organization have other prospects and constraints which are also account to them etc.
Conclusions and proposed solutions:
Breaking the silence always faces various types of problems and constraints and I have some possible kinds of solution which could be a solution against those constraints. Firstly, as we know Education is an element which helps to aware people and helps to understand them that how to prevent CSA. Breaking the silence should be aware about Education facilities for community’s children. Because maximum people of the community is not afford the cost of well education cause of their poor situation so they could create an education fund and could help some bright poor students by giving them Education Aid. It will be happen, if Save the Children taking grant of Education Aid and provide to partners. Breaking the silence should have to take some Education policies and Health policies for broader social and economical responsibilities. An educated and healthy person could be able to be a part of asset in this society and the person could understand the seriousness of CSA and be aware of preventing it. Another way, Education is an element without this a community could not perfectly aware about child sexual abuse. As a donor, Save the Children has responsibility to takes care of those communities health, educational facilities. If Save the Children takes responsibilities towards children’s education and health purpose it will be surely helps to gain their goals and they also could be help to develop social and economical growth in this country. In Mymensingh (TUS; the partner organization of BTS), there are three communities undertaken by one personnel, which maintenance approach is really tuff for her. If one or two more employees will be appoint in future then community’s people will get more benefit from them. Their benefit ultimately Save the Children’s benefit. There are more districts where BTS is engaged with some other organization but I am afraid for no idea about their work strategy so I should not command on it but I can tell that in case there has same problems towards eradicating CSA from society so BTS could take same policies towards those problems. And I also think that it has more scope to spread their working area. Hence, they must expand their working areas, plans, policies which help to aware more people of our country which also helps to reduces CSA at all. More importantly, in my personal view, donor organization could be more flexible to his partner organizations for smooth moving. Anyway, as my thinking BTS should concentrate on the situation of extreme poverty which is created many problems and would be creates. The population of the CP is not very much well in economical way and for the mostly common problem in the world should be main concern of the organization because if they are able to create an incentive towards children’s education and health policy, it would be a great initiative towards helping some families so they must take an initiative which will give assistance some poor and brilliant students who will be get proper education and other essential facilities. It will be encourage those families and some other families to aware and concern about CR and CSA related issue. I know that BTS always trying to included all of the community leaders at the CSA related programs in their target areas but sometimes some of them are played as an opponent role where if they have any doubt of problem to conducting any session with females or adolescents so they could be doing one thing which is included some of those community leaders. Another way, legal support is always needs for conducting or implementing any community based programs or sessions or sometime legal support is highly needed for supporting any vulnerable or abused children. But local Government is not support enough and legal assistance is also unavailable for the child. Moral sense is main concern for this great problem. Because, children are most vulnerable being in the social context and they must get assistance from not only state but also state’s citizens by the way of mass awareness. According to Breaking the Silence, they are trying to include CSA in the NCTB to reach information at unreachable and unprogressive area. As an activist group, the organization always keeps most of the information of CA and CSA and likes to participate in the related issues. There organizational objective is to securing environment for children and mainly they are working for reducing child abuse from our society. It is said that, prevention is best for cure. Breaking the Silence’s aim is to do prevent CSA at first and taking initiatives for implementation of child rights. Breaking the Silence is mainly established for prevention of child abuse. Thus, there mission and vision is preventing this serious issue from our mind and do set up of CR in our mind. For preventing CSA this organization has doing sessions, training workshop with stakeholders like boys and girls their parents, school teachers, with media persons, religious leaders, duty bearers (police) also includes in these awareness sessions. Those stakeholders are mainly children’s care givers and who are responsible for giving children’s rights. Breaking the Silence does advocacy and therapy for recovering those vulnerable children’s who are affecting by child sexual abuse. After counseling those affected children behave more normal to not only their parents but also their care givers. The organization always trying to recover those children’s who are abused by physically, mentally, sexually, and who those are neglected from their care givers. In the critical phenomenon, this issue should also handled with technical way and also a sensitive issue state should needs carefully handle it to eradicating this problem from our mentality. Media would be performed a greater role to stop and say ‘NO’ to it. Only Government could not stopped it properly because of relating social welfare with it Government would be a helping hand towards reducing child sexual abuse hence, mass people concern and awareness through social workers would be incurring more effective result to prevention.
Title: Child Sexual Abuse and its Impact on Socio-economic Growth.
Target population: Community people of Breaking the Silence.
Abstract: child sexual abuse is a serious issue and a major societal concern it is proved to us. But the title child sexual abuse and its impact on the socio-economic growth are newly born as the title because empirical evidence was not found as per the title. One paper is relatively close to this study which is socio-economic factors contributing to girl child abuse in Botswana (April, 2005). But it is not exactly perfect which I needed.
As our concern child sexual abuse is harmful for social and mental stability for a child, by the process children growing up, children’s hampered by his or her occurred situation and after continuing their physical growth they could not concentrate their future stability for their inevitable trauma which long lasting effect is stopped children’s growth and development. Those abused children could not attach them with society’s people and mostly they become introvert. They could not express their right, demands could not enter into right to information, do not share their problems with other person. They could not access to the process of socialization, which helps to a child to grow up as a proper way. Child sexual abuse is a symbol of noxious thought which is eaten up a child’s childhood, a secure life, healthy mentality, bright future, secure environment, or could be development. CSA would be such kind of bad words which not only closing children’s growth but it’s may be effects in our society and society’s people. According to BTS, ‘Children’s right is to know about their child right and our responsibilities are informed to them about their rights. If they do not know about their rights they cannot demand their needs and they would be deprived from child rights. Without getting access to child rights they do not facilitate of their growing and do not contribute in the process of growth’.
Child Sexual Abuse:
From 0-18 years, we called them children. If somebody are targeting a child and forcing to sex or sexual intercourse with him or her it is called child sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse is not a new concept, it is revealed from 1993 and then it’s become everyone’s concern. Breaking the silence is the first voluntary organization who had taken various steps towards awareness rising about CSA. We have many stigmas about CSA that is only girls are abused and only males are abuser. But we need to know that not only girls but boys are also abused by abusers. Abusers are not only male but females or same sex will be abusers. CSA is a hidden death for victim. CSA and its impacts are broad and victim suffers most by it. Its effect takes long time for recovery. Child sexual abuse is a big problem for our society and it could be affects our economy also. It has more implicit effect which we could not see materially but we could analyze the impact by abstractly. Anyway, abusers have more techniques to attract children’s. Like they attract them by verbally or give the gifts as children like, such as chocolate, accessories, toys or money or getting afraid them. Abusers mainly targeted those children’s who are mainly as type of introvert who’s characteristics never help them to move out from such kind of situations. More than 90% abusers are close relatives (2012) or tutors, neighbors, landlords or even renters who have easy access to their home and they also build up a good relationship with children’s parents or other caregivers so it is easy to come in and catch the child. According to BTS, children have privacy and their body parts are their private parts. So, no one can touch them illegally or in private parts, they even any close relatives or children’s parents also. If children do not like any touch by their parents then parents should avoid those behaviors which disturbs their children’s. If children feel bad by anyone’s touching then a child should say ‘NO’.
Impact of child sexual abuse:
Child sexual abuse affects a child mentality, harms physically and mentally. After conducting this child becomes introvert in self. If the occurrence happens in home then every time the child getting scarred and he or she does not feeling comfort to talk anyone. If the victims see the abuser after the incidence they feel scarred to them and they avoid that person and do not want to face that person, even ever want to see the abuser. If the occurrence conducts in school then the child does not want to go to school. A child fall into deep trauma which is conducts various problems for the child. This effect takes her/his entire life. Some abusive child takes attempt to suicide, or some become pregnant. If the child becomes pregnant then societies people neglect her mostly and she is established a ‘Nosto meye’ (Oct. 2002). Sometimes victims are being arrogant with all and they wish that they could kill that person who spoils his/her life. Some case studies show that boys are targeted by their same sex and that abuser repeated many times by sexual intercourse and some children’s are ok with this that means they became use to with that (p.35). Currently a lot of NGO’s worked in this sector and they are trying to rehabilitation those children’s and trying to stop this silent issue or reduce from society. Children’s are our future generation who will establish their skills and then establish our country’s future. Child sexual abuse is a hidden death children could not free from its impact which is obviously negative. A UNICEF study revealed in 29 March, 2011 said that nearly 50 percent of girls had been sexually abused who are engaged in prostitution. The cause for this is their poverty. Some serious factors determining child sexual abuse which effects are more obvious.
The social determinants of growth:
A countries growth is not only related to countries economy but social growth is also needed. Growth is based on household, government expenditure and investment. We have many social determinants of growth which needs investment and government expenditure. Mainly government expenditure needs more for social development. Education is a positive externality which needs government incentives. Every year, a big amount of money expends on this sector as budgetary granted. Every nation needs education for countries social growth. Social growth needs a rich culture, culture is a nation’s glass where anyone can see and could to know about the nation. Socialization process is very important to know where people grow up and what are their personalities and what are the requirements he needs. For socialization a child needs a better environment where he can learn, can play, could demands or meet their basic needs where they can grow up properly and can bring up in socialization process. A better personality to build up a child needs better environment and a better environment could be provides by a better society. A society needs education for society’s people. Education can build up a skilled labor that can be take part in developing work. We can measure social growth by analyzing a country’s literacy rate, cultural situation, and socialization process of person or another determinant could be measure social growth.
Economic determinants of growth:
Economy is decided for a country’s growth and development. Higher per capita income means higher economic growth. Economic growth decided that a country have the ability to get a position of the rank of developed countries. Per capita income and expenditure decided the growth. Growth means increment of GDP, GDP needs higher per capita income and higher investment is needed. This issue is very complex to discussion but we all know that economic growth will come by investment and must do expenditure. Investment will be social welfare based which can lead to build a skilled labor force. Social welfare is need for socio-economic growth. Only economic growth does not fulfill the human development. Now a day per capita income and expenditure are not only the determinants of economic growth, we think broader. Human development is also our concern, except human development it is impossible to growth. HDI determines some indicators which are education, longevity and standard of living. When increment of GDP is needed then also needed life expectancy, literacy, level of employment, distribution of income and wealth and overall quality of life. But those things should measure in broad studies; I conduct a small study so I need the classical economic growth which is per capita income.
Objectives of the study:
Child sexual abuse is a serious issue and not only has some impacts on individuals but this complex issue implicitly stopped children’s growth. My intension is to know the impacts of child sexual abuse has really some effects on socio-economic growth. My objectives to doing this study are:
- How the people of Breaking the Silence Community define CSA?
- Underlying factors shaping CSA in the community of Breaking the Silence?
- Is CSA interacts with the socio-economic determinants of growth, such as, socialization process, education, culture, income and expenditure?
The Bouniabadh, a community of BTS has the idea of CSA or their perception about this issue is important to know for this study. If they understand this issue properly and they are more aware to protect their children, this is more hopeful to get the answers of another two objectives. Thus, it is obvious that it has some influencing factors which are helping to grow this issue. In this country, everybody is keeping silent in this issue and sex is occurs more secret for adolescents and young adults to talking and sharing. The reason of this, our people do not have any opportunity to know about this. For this issue what kind of impact will be occurs is uncertain. We are looking for those impacts on socio-economic growth in Bouniabadh community. Other way, both girls and boys are targeted by abusers and some assumptions come to know that the effect of CSA differently attacks to girls and boys and mostly girls are fallen into psychological problem. But both boys and girls are facing psychological problem and fallen into trauma. Everybody has their own perceptions but this study needs to know the perception about CSA within the community of BTS and the target group is the community of Bouniabadh. Less awareness increases CSA and BTS always works for raising awareness. Thus, we like to know that their community really does have awareness towards child sexual abuse.
Hypothesis of the study: The probability of the study would be there are negative impacts of CSA on socio-economic growth and this will turn negative effects on growth. The main hypothesis of the study is:
- Main hypothesis: child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socioeconomic growth.
This hypothesis is predicting a predictable result for this analysis. Our expecting result would be explores that child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socioeconomic growth. We all know that abuse is not very good word for society and it is established. But this silent topic will turn over now a new way and explores some unknown information that is CSA creates impact on growth and not even impact it will be negative impact on growth which will increases the rate of child abuse and lower the rate of socioeconomic growth and those ways created diverse relationship together. Child sexual abuse is not good one for society or broadly for mankind and this serious issue never ensured any kind of positive result ever. The study topic is CSA and its impact on socioeconomic growth and the main hypothesis or the probability of the study is CSA creates negative impact on growth that’s mean the study is wanting to know that socioeconomic growth is effecting by CSA or I can tell it directly that CSA is hampering growth but the result will finally tell us is the hypothesis or probability incurs positive result? But the hypothesis should tell us what kind of negative result would be incurred by CSA. The findings of the primary data will explored the ultimate result which will be based on case studies and Focus Group Discussions. Those data will finally expressing the probable result which will confine the probability or hypothesis would be positive or would be negative.
Respondents of the study:
This study conducted on two phrases and those are Focus Group Discussions and case studies. There are two groups which are young adult and adult group and respondents are 18; 08 for young adult and 10 respondents for adult group. Other phrase is case studies and respondents are 102 among abused children for 51 and control group for 51 respondents.
Table 1: Respondents of the study
|Focus group discussion||Case study|
|Young Adult||Adult Group||Abused Children||Control Group|
|Total respondent- 18||Total respondent- 102|
Tools and techniques:
Tools are included case studies and focus group discussions (FGDs). Information gathered by taking note and taking record by record player. Field notes and recorded information are transcribed within few days of the discussions. The study sample is 120, divided by 18 for FGDs and 102 for case studies. Where the respondents are young adult group, adult group, abused children and control group. I use both qualitative and quantitative techniques in this study.
Table 2: Tools and Techniques of the study
|Focus Group Discussion||18||Young adult , Adult group|
|Case Study||102||Abused children, Control group|
Methods of the study:
These study methods are case study and Focus Group Discussions. Methods are used as primary data. But the cases ultimately used in as secondary data after studying cases those used in analytical software for measuring purpose.
The study was initiated in June 2012 after getting knowledge of the topic and review of the documents, resource book and annual reports of the activities of BTS. I am taking only one field for data collection. The target area for data collection is Bouniabadh community of BTS. I am supervising in the field and coordinate with respondents and the authority. At the same time I prepared the structure of questionnaire for discussion and taking FGDs from the BTS community. In field, I personally coordinate with respondents and the authority and the authority of BTS personally helped me for arranging those respondents and they all came in time which I had been decided. And special consideration of mine was the quality of data that was important to ensure by me for genuine data collection.
The participants or respondents were orally assured that their information would be keep in confidential and data will not passes anyway and data will be used only in research purpose. Actually my intention was to collect valid and reliable information as much as possible because the quality of data. But there was no forced to respondents to give me the answers which are my expectations. I gave them total freedom to answer and firstly I rapport build up with participants. Firstly, I was taking their permission and their signature in a sheet and my responsibility was not data manipulated. I am also taking permission for taking records of their conversation. The data collection process and selection of fields were totally free from any kind of bias.
Strengths and Limitations:
Strengths: This study has some strengths and limitations like any other studies. Combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods strengthened the investigation strategy. Data collecting methods are liable and there are no mistakes for taking data so all of the procedures ensured reliability of information and validity of the study. In field, maintained Strong rapport building with all respondents that is helping for viable data which was collected. And most importantly privacy of data was strongly maintained. No data were collected without prior permission of the respondents. And also maintained data allocate into appropriate section which could be helpful for measuring data appropriately. Another point is the participants are not feeling uneasy in front of tape recorder.
Limitations: When I am trying to collect some related data for doing analysis, I am facing various problems. I did not find a single victim for interview and this is a very sensitive issue to talk hence everybody shut down their mouths. When I conduct FGD’s participants did not understand some questions because of their illiteracy. So, I did not get accurate answers. Thus, as respondents has age differences and also has differences to giving answers. Young adults were more knowledgeable than adults, so findings suffer very much. Information availability is another limitation for this study as I say this more silent topic to speak up hence, lack of information does hampers in the study. I am helpless to involving minimum male respondents in the FGD than female.
Our study hypothesis is child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socio-economic growth and at the direction of the study hypothesis; first objective of the study is how the community of BTS defines CSA and in the technique of qualitative method I applied semi open ended questionnaire for the method of Focus Group Discussion. I conducted two Focus Group Discussions within two different groups; one group is young adult and another is adult group.
CSA defines according to BTS community:
Generally they think any kind of bad affection to a child is called child sexual abuse and the other way kissing, touching, caressing fondling with bad intention is the types of CSA. The two different groups of the community of BTS think both boys and girls are in risk to CSA by all their relatives and all kinds of people who are surrounding of them. By the way, they are all aware of their children’s or any child who are live in the community. Who are close to children they also could be abuser of a child so everybody should be aware of all the perpetrators. Even abuser could be landlords, parents, friends, neighbors, close relatives, known persons, colleagues, teachers or anybody could be standing on them a risk. But the young adult and also adults think they all are aware about CSA and can protect their children from any kind of abuse. The community of BTS told elaborately about their perception of child sexual abuse. There are different types of story they told to me which is so much serious issue like an uncle of a natal child; he used to abuse her by kissing her Brest which was roughly injured and before it explored by her mother the abuser had gone from there. Many of examples they express to us which are so much serious issue to us.
Underlying factors shaping BTS community:
Our second objective is underlying factors shaping CSA in the community of BTS? Firstly, some is underlying factors getting from the community:
- Poverty; many people of the community are poor and they could not bear the expenditure of their children and could not meet the basic needs or human rights which have to be fulfilled by them. Even some of them are stayed under the poverty line, in that situation they are helpless to meet their needs and sometimes they are taking a meal for a day in that sense they like to send their children in child labor. Those children felled in to trap of love or fall into abuse by the mill owner or other staff. And because of financial crisis of family of the child could not get justice from society or law implementation. In that sense, poverty is shaping CSA in the community.
- Another factor is power group in the society. Power group like landlords, teachers which are not directly related to a child but they are doing more in indirectly. In Some cases factory owner also included in this group. Sometimes Landlords creates such situation where renters could do nothing and they being helpless and the reason of such kind of situation is renters are usually helpless to express their power because renters are come from different places and they are foreigner for locality but those landlords are well known by society and they are local so when they do some wrong activity they release easily from punishment and that is going to happen for power. *Another important factor is early sign of puberty. By their speaking it is clear that we have advanced geographical region where the growth of a children having quickly and it is bigger concern of parents because their growth done on physically enough not ensures enough in mentality. Mental growth needs a certain time limitations unless the certain time a children could not judge themselves properly. In the mean time, it is easy to affect them negatively for anyone and most probably they would be used in wrongly. That is more thinkable issue for parents and so it of the community of BTS. By the analysis of early sign of puberty children are making mistakes to take decisions and fall into trap.
- Most important factor is early marriage because the community of BTS especially feels that early marriage is raising CSA. Most of teenagers are fall in love with some teenagers or adults and make live with each other after marriage without permission of parents in that case this is off course called child sexual abuse cause they are not mature and they involved in physical relationship. The percentage of early marriage is high in the community as per speaking of adult group it is clear that most teenagers are victim of CSA. They are giving some examples which they could stop successfully. But parents and aware group are helpless when early marriage happened by escaping of those teenagers. Some of people said that we always are trying to stop the incidence of early marriage in our area or where there we have familiarity but we heard sometimes that some parents are willingly to do this in that case we could not do nothing. That’s mean the area of Bouniabadh is not free from child marriage or early marriage.
- Another most important factor is cultural taboo. Adult group expresses more issues of relating taboo. Adult group said that some parents are willingly doing child marriages of their children because of their girls are involving relationship with other boys. But those parents of boys do nothing with them because they are boys. The community of BTS also said that we know that both girls and boys could be victim of child sexual abuse but when a girl is an abused it is more difficult to face with society or community people. Because they are girls and society thinks family respect is more linked with girls than boys. These kinds of taboos are really serious to our society and our society people. But the community of BTS believes those taboos and do maintained it.
CSA interact socioeconomic determinants of growth:
For measuring this objective I took 51 cases of abused children and 51 children who are in control group among different categories of age, gender, educational backgrounds. When I analyzed those data together in the software named SPSS then I find only one result that is income is significant up to child sexual abuse. Dependent variable is abused and independent variables are age, education and income where income is significant and level of significance is 0.0342. That’s mean the higher rate of income can be decreases the rate of child sexual abuse but the lower rate of income can be higher the rate of sexual abuse. It creates diverse relationship to income and abuse. But the other variable is not too significant related to child sexual abuse. So the independent variables education, gender, age are not vary with child abuse but the variable income could be effects on CSA. Thus, the third objective is significant and obviously CSA interacts with socio-economic determinants of growth and that is income could be great factor which could be affects in growth.
Table 3: CSA interacts with Income
Comparison with similar studies in other countries:
As I looking to my title of the study that always remembered by me that it is really tuff for measuring and finding result for its seriousness. This study needs more review of literature but again I did not do it properly for unavailability of not enough founding literature. There is not much similar literature I did not found any literature which is similar to this study. So it is difficult to comparison with my study to other studies. I just find out one study which is not similar to this study but that study has some underlying factors which are similar to this study. Those factors are not completely similar to having this study but some are being similar. Thus, I am taking this study for comparison with my study. Child sexual abuse is an issue which is not new for us but the study topic is new for us because “child sexual abuse and its impact on socio-economic growth” is a new topic for research study and I did not found any similar research topic which is already studying before. Or I could comparison with any study to this study. Child sexual abuse is not unknown by anyone but there are few study was founded of CSA. By the way, I found a study based in Botswana (April, 2005) and title is “Socio-economic Factors Contributing to Girl Child Abuse in Botswana.” This study only for girl child but my study is based on both girls and boys and the title is quite different from one another. On the other hand, the main purpose of the Botswana study was to investigate girl-child abuse and to identify in depth the major economic, social and situational factors that contribute to the problem of child sexual abuse in the country. As there are no other Botswana-specific studies on the socio-economic factors that lead to girl-child sexual abuse, this current study has a significant impact on policies, programs, counseling, and training related to child sexual abuse. The specific objectives were as follows. First is to Provide written, theatre, and visual information to be used to lobby government for a coherent, national child welfare policy as it relates to girl-child sexual abuse. Second objective is to Develop Botswana-specific literature for the prevention of sexual abuse of children, taking into account the socio-economic, political, and cultural realities in the country. Third is Use the results as a basis for developing new, and refining existing, Child line programs, services, and strategies, including those aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse. The fourth objective is to Support change within child-centered environments that will prevent child sexual abuse, such as changing the teachers’ code of conduct and establishing a procedure for filing complaints in schools. And the last objective is Increase awareness and concern for the issue and its causes, which have traditionally been taboo subjects in Botswana. The methods was used in three phases and that are design of a theoretical framework of the study with literature review; second phase was gathering information by interviews and focus group discussions and the third phase was interpretation of findings and final reporting. But my study is based on the method of case studies and focus group discussions and the study also applied literature review and interpreted findings. On the other hand, my study objectives are different to this study and I only used few of factors to find out results like poverty which is also used in this study and cultural taboos also similar to the study but other factors like power group; early marriage; early sign of puberty are different from the Botswana study but the study used early marriage as forced marriage and the study also used poor parenting and child neglect; social change; family disharmony; alcohol and drug abuse; pornography; abuse circle; child abuse seen as cure to HIV/AIDS and other STDs; exploitation of children’s socio-economic situations those are used as social-economic factors. Other factors and issues are applied in this report like earlier signs of puberty which is also used in my study; protection of abuser by victim’s family and others etc and more other factors are used in this study. This study emphasized on the interrelated nature of risk factors and child sexual abuse and the important interactions between the physical, mental, social, and emotional dimensions of the child’s development. The report findings are more interesting and the report said that as per key informants and focus groups identified child sexual abuse as being strongly factored by poverty, which underlies overcrowding and inadequate accommodation; it fosters social isolation and drives certain families to use their children as sex workers. Social change is another factor which is also effects on girl child abuse and also found that social change to be associated with the high rate of divorce and marital disharmony in many homes. This study also said that family discord, stress and low income are linked with higher rates of abuse. And finally the report presents some possible strategies for eradication of child sexual abuse and recommendations. Similarity is this low income is related with higher rates of abuse and just only this finding is similar to my study finding. And this report said that poverty is target area for removing CSA and for low income which is cause for higher rates of abuse. But the other findings are not related to my study findings. Those studies are not properly similar with this current study. At first, I said that there was not founded any similar study which may be needed for empirical evidence but this was not happen in this case. So, I could not present any other studies which are slightly related with this study or just like that even some are totally opposite from this study which studies are necessary for justifying. Because the lack of similar studies or semi- similar studies or even some points or concepts are not related to this specific study for these I could not use those study paper in this discussion. I just applying one study report which is not exactly similar to my study except one objective which is underlying factors and the applying study based on more factors but my study used only five factors; so I applied it and discussing on it. No other comparison founded on it.
Conclusion and Policy Suggestion:
The study conducts with a specific topic which is child sexual abuse and my target area is the Bouniabadh community of Breaking the Silence. This study stands small but its finding is not so small. CSA creates huge effect on our society and economy and which is not positive but negative most. The study population is not very much nourished in their societal and economical status and they are basically affected on this big and negative issue. They are affected in many ways and they could nothing about against it. The study finding is proved that income could be helped on reducing CSA. Community people are very well known about CSA and they have good sense on it but their consciousness is not enough to reducing this problem by the most effective underlying factors which are so much impactful to increases the rate of CSA. Child sexual abuse impacts negatively on socioeconomic growth also and this is the study finding what the study needed to know. Now I can say that CSA is not just a serious issue but a negative issue for the growth of societal and economical. As study saying, CSA creates diverse relationship with income and when is creating higher income than lower the rate of CSA and when the lower income creates the higher rate of CSA. So it stands negative relationship to each other. And the study hypothesis is child sexual abuse creates negative impact on growth. That’s mean; the higher rate of CSA creates negative impact or reduces growth. And the study finding tells like this. That is the community of Bouniabadh has the clear idea about CSA as their discussion other way some underlying factors shaping CSA in the community and ultimately CSA interacts with socioeconomic growth.
That’s mean; the hypothesis is true. Study findings tell that clearly; CSA interacts with socioeconomic growth. Though, income is a measurement of growth and study finding says that if the rate of per capita income being lower, it creates higher the rate of CSA or if the rate of per capita income being higher, it creates lower the rate of CSA or we can say it like this way the higher rate of CSA creates lower per capita income and lower the rate of CSA creates lower the rate of per capita income. CSA and income both creates diverse relationship which is stands negative also so we can tell that the hypothesis is true and CSA creates negative impact on growth. Because the mainstream thing is the community which is my target population where some underlying factors shaping CSA and the rate of CSA being higher than income so growth is affected by CSA and the hypothesis is proved in this sense. But it could be positive growth, if the rate of CSA will be lower than the income rate then the income rate will be higher and also will be higher the growth rate.
Hence, for higher income and lower CSA must need some policies in those places where have lacking. In the sense, the underlying factors will main target area and most powerful area which should be reduced. Those factors are poverty, power group, and early signs of puberty, early marriage and cultural taboos. Poverty alleviation is previously concerned but still now it is our main problem which is created more problems and many NGOs, INGOs main concern is to alleviate poverty. Some NGOs are working in our target area Bouniabadh, but still the community people sufferings by poverty. Breaking the Silence also works in this community but they are helpless to provide any economical incentives to them. For income generation it is necessary to reduce child sexual abuse. BTS should be aware people to send their children to school because education could be changes the perception of cultural taboos which will be removed from society and education is an element which could reduce early marriage and other perception which is shaping CSA.
Moreover, income would be higher by education and after income generation poverty would be reduced. But those works needed more policies and not only policies but also policy implementation properly. Policy should be structured by the sense of income generation because higher income generation is would be only solution which could reduce the rate of CSA. Policy makers keep aware about the sensitiveness of this issue and for this laws should be strong which is helping to implement policies.
Hence, policy makers should keep aware about underlying factors (poverty, power group, early marriage, cultural taboos, and early signs of puberty) which is shaping child sexual abuse. Policy would be appropriate for diminishing those factors from the community and keep policies for those people who are deprived. Because deprived people are actually suffers from this negative issue for their lower income. So policy makers actually concern about in income generation of poor or ultra poor people. In the context of poverty, poor people who do not have much income for get anything which is highly needed for getting awareness or getting education for diminishing CSA from this society. It is necessary to provide easy paths to earn a good income which could be better life leading for poor people and higher income will reduces child sexual abuse also.
So, it should be adopt some policies which are helping to reduces CSA. Other way, if BTS will be succeeding to include CSA in NCTB that’s also creates helpful for implementation of policies. But most important thing is income generation and for this policy makers should be concern of policies would be fitted to this. Policies should be appropriate for reducing child sexual abuse and increases the rate of income. CSA is a kind of issue which needs long time for diminishing this problem and also needs some strong policies for solution. And the study findings tell us to increases income for reducing CSA. Policy makers must understand the seriousness and depth of this issue which will be helpful for making some perfect policies to reduce this silent issue. Also awareness raising policies will more crucial for understanding this issue and spread the idea of CSA.