Introduction
This study conducted for academic purpose of partial fulfillment for M.Sc. degree in statistics. This kind of study provide a great scope for a student of statistics to be familiar with practical experience of research works as well as to implement statistical theories in practical needs. The population for the study was selected the most convenient and available one, the student of Jahangirnagar University only first year student (Forty batch).
After passing S.S.C the students are admitted in different college. In the college level the academic results of the students differ substantially afterward. Students also come from different socio-economic and different regions throughout the country. So it is a question raised whether socio-economic and regional background of the students is responsible for the variation. So the study was conducted to assess the relationship between academic performance and socio-economic and regional background of the students.
Background
Education is the backbone of a nation. Without education, no nation can make any progress. So education is one of the basic needs for the development of any country. It is the measure of self-reliance. It makes a man eligible for serving the country. But in our country the standard of education of the students in college level seems to be disappointing. Performance is not a satisfactory level. Their actual capability is relatively low compared to the academic qualification they achieved. Institutional education does not expand the horizon of their knowledge. Now a day, most of the students study for only degree rather of their knowledge. Perhaps, our education and administrative systems are mainly responsible for this trend. Political instability seems to be party responsible for this situation. According to Freehold In third countries students also often feel or are made to feel, that they will appear as selfish if they concentrate too much on their own problems, which are minor compared to what other people in the country suffer. By the same token ministries of education see no need to pay much attention to the complaints of a small monitoring a transitional stage of life. On the other hand, aversion to study, of the students may arise due to reasons of political and economical crisis.
Now a day’s education cannot give assurance of economic security students does not know whether will get any gob after completion of hither education. His future is uncertain. Unemployment is curses of our country. The students are generally frustrated. They cannot decide that what they will do in the future. They do not have specific destination. They are waiting for a life of uncertainty. To get rid of these difficulties, the students now think it better to go over to the foreign countries. By any means, they try to go out of the country. It may either be for education or for earning money. Thus we see that according to their ability, they are going to the U.S.A., Canada, England, Australia, and Austria etc. Some of them are gain to Middle East with the only motive of earning a little bit of money. Since the future of the students of our country is full of uncertainty and since there is no proper judgment of eligibility in the job market, we observe that the expectation goals of the students are concealed. Most of the times their expectations are beyond their eligibility. We know our country is beset with different types of problems, e.g. population problem, unemployment problem, political instability etc. all these problems have created a disastrous situation in our national economy. Standard of living of vast majority is deteriorating day by day. The cost of living is getting higher and higher. Life is becoming very cumbersome. Due to those growing problems one is becoming more self-concentrated. Virtues of humanity are also eroding day by day. This study tried to cover all the aspects discussed above particularly the factors, which apparently the performance and expectation goals of higher secondary students. Per is the most important determinant of eligibility of the students. In all spheres of life, the people are given opportunities or facilities on the basis of their performance. The performance of the students is generally on the basis of results of S.S.C examination. So we have considered their results in S.S.C to determine the performance of the students.
Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is to find out the factors associated for the performance of the students. However, the specific objectives of the study are as follows:
- To find out the relationship among parents education and student’s performance in the H.S.C results.
- To find out the relationship among parents occupation and student’s performance in the H.S.C results.
- To know how does family status impact on the student’s performance in H.S.C results.
- To establish the relationship between the previous backgrounds of student’s performance and performance in H.S.C results.
- To know the socio-economic background of the students family and previous academic background of the students.
- To know the type of occupation the students want to get in future and to see whether there is any relationship with the family income.
- To find out the relationship among duration of study hour and student’s performance in the H.S.C results.
Rational
The study is expected to generate to generate valuable information that will be required in the process of planning higher secondary education and admitted in different university, medical and so on. The study may also give some idea about the development of the education sector of Bangladesh. The study will emphasize on the performance, expectations goals and their socio-economic condition and the factors responsible for these aspects. The study will help to determine influence of these factors and to find out whether there is any relation between performance of the students and the different factors. Hence we believe that this study will contribute to find out the reasons behind the problems discussed above. There is a great significance of this study. In this study the performance of the students in H.S.C results of the different college, how affected by the different factors are measured carefully.
For this reason any student and teacher can easily know about which factors are responsible for performance in H.S.C results of the students. One can know from the study, the educational, occupational and socio-economic condition of the students. By this research works the students can know which factors are more responsible for poor performance and which factors is responsible for good performance and also can amendment their attitude that is responsible for bad result. By this research works the guardians can realized about the students performance and their activities.
Review of literature
There was conducted some research works about the students performance in H.S.C result in little area that was based on Jahangirnagar University students. There are two research works that had done by the Jahangirnagar University students that are referred in following
- The socio-economic background and the determining factors for the performance in H.S.C result of the students.
- The determining factors associated with the performance of the students in H.S.C results and their different aspect.
Methodology and Technical Approach
Introduction
A scientific and systematic methodology is mandatory for a research work to attain a valid conclusion and fulfill its objectives. Methodology, in fact, depicts the procedure of performing the research work step by step. This study is conducted for “Factors Responsible for the Academic Achievement of higher Secondary Certificate Examination.”In this chapter we shall discuss the procedure for determining the representative sample from the population for which we are going to carry out .the procedure conducts of selection of study population, determination of sample size , sampling technique, design of questionnaire , pre-test and coverage . it contains the overall plan of the study.
Study Population
In this study population consists of the first year students (40^{th} Batch) of Jahangirnagar University. In this survey the students have selected mainly to incorporate their H.S.C result and the different aspect, It can said that the population is homogeneous representative.
Determination of sample size
Due to limitation in respect of cost, time etc. here is decided it select a sample of reasonable size. For accuracy of the study it was decide that the percentage of the population to be included in the study to be 50 with the level of significance as 0.05 .thus using the following
Formula we have determined the sample size.
= Design Effect
Where = Sample size.
Z= 1.96
p= Proportion
q= 1-p
d= level of precision
I have taken a sample of 100 students for the study from Jahangirnagar University.
Sampling Design
Data was collected by taking personal interviewing from each selected students. The target population of this survey was the students who recently completed their H.S.C level from different collage and admitted into Jahangirnagar University in different department. For collecting data two stage sampling design is used to select sample observations. The two stage sampling design is drawn by the following way:
At the first stage 26 departments are selected from Jahangirnagar University randomly.
At the second stage more than 2 and less than or equal 6 students are selected from different departments randomly which are selected in first stage. Finally in this study the survey found 100 sample observations.
Questionnaire Development
Preparation of questionnaire is an essential part of any research work. And an appropriate questionnaire is necessary to conduct a worthy study and should have some important characteristics, such as.
- Questions should be easily understandable to the respondents.
- Number of questions in questionnaire should be as much as required.
The formation of the questions should be such that necessary information for the study can be collected.
In order to achieve the objectives of the study a pre-coded questionnaire was designed which includes the following information:
- Identification of the respondents (name, sex, department etc.)
- Family background (father’s and mother’s education, occupation, family’s income, expenditure etc.)
- Student’s performance in S.S.C level.
- Type and location of students S.S.C & H.S.C School and location of student’s residents.
- Students average self study time and average spending time for recreation.
Pretest Interviewing
After preliminary development of the questionnaire, it had been carried out a pretest on 10 randomly selected students from different departments from Jahanginagar University. These students were pointed out for some drawbacks/shortcoming and incompleteness of the questionnaire and modified/included some of the questions for the judgment of the answers. On the basis of the consultation of these respondents it was then modified according to necessary. This questionnaire and thus had a modified questionnaire which was more consistent and relevant to the objective of my study.
Instrument of Data Collection
The data for the study were collected by the direct interview method. The draft questionnaire was prepared and pretest before finalization.
Data Collection
In Jahangirnagar University data was collected by conducting personal interviewing to the selected students in their resident hall. Two of my female friends helps me to collect data from female respondents. For this survey the data are collected from different departments in Jahangirnagar University. In Jahangirnagar University Statistics, Zoology, Govt. & politics, Drama and dramatics, Public administration, Philosophy, History, Archaeology, Bangla, Information Technology, International Relationship, Economics, Physic, Chemistry, Environmental Science, B.B.A, Botany, English, Finance & Banking, Bio-technology & Genetic engineering, Pharmacy, Geography & Environmental Science, U.R.P, Marketing, Computer Science & Engineering and Microbiology department are selected.
Data Processing
Data processing work includes editing, coding and computers tabulation of the survey data.
Editing
To recheck and scrutinize each questionnaire thoroughly whether the respondents have given any work information is called data edition. The security or editing of the complete questionnaire will help in amending and recording errors or eliminating data that are obviously erroneous and inconsistent. All kinds of mistakes have been corrected which were found in our questionnaire and all the answers have been observed carefully. As a result we had no incomplete and irrelevant information.
Coding
A unique number called code will define every variable. The technique of this process is called coding that makes the data processing easier. The coded data should be checked by the reference of original data to run and edited the miscode by computer, which is called matching editing. We have inter-changed all the qualitative variables in to dummy variable.
Tabulation
Tabulation was done by the help of computer, Univariate and bivariate tables were prepared for the analysis of the data.
Data Entry and Model of Analysis
Coded information was entered into the computer to analyze the data. Analyzing of the data was done by computer programmer. Package program such as SPSS, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft word are used. The purpose of data analysis was to provide answers to research objectives being studied. The analysis plan for this study was planned to clearly address the objectives.
Limitations of the Study
As many things survey has its own limitations and problems. Although the respondents were co-operative in providing the information they hesitant in giving correct information. Limitations of the survey arise of two kinds.
- Survey limitation
- Research limitation
Survey limitation
In this study I faced so many problems in selecting sample, in collecting data and some others stage. I also faced a great problem in collecting data because most of the first year students (40^{th} batch) of different departments are going on their first year final exam. Time for this research work was very limited. Most of the times I had work for this research at night. Some of the respondents showed hesitation to give the correct answer but after a little discussion about the significance of the study they responded positively. Some students felt entangled to give information about parent’s occupation, family’s monthly income, expenditure and other types of personal information. They were agreed after assuring them about the secrecy of the information provided. I faced a great problem to collect information from female students while I was collecting data by interview method. To overcome this problem I took help from my female friends.
Research Limitation
Money and time are the main involvement to complete a research study precisely. I had short time and since I am a student, it is not possible to spend that amount of money to appoint skilled personnel in different phases of our study to carry out the whole study. However, within this limitation I tried my best to make the research finding meaningful.
Background Characteristics of the Students (Univariate Analysis)
Introduction
Univariate analysis is an analysis, which contains only one variable, which may be either continuous or discontinuous. Different tabular and graphical presentation can be evaluated by Univariate analysis. In tabular presentation, we use frequency table for categorical and numerical data. In graphical presentation, we use histogram, bar diagram and pie chart.
Univariate analysis describes the individual characteristics. Summery of individual variables provide an important “first look” at the data. Measuring impact and or developing the model, we must have some knowledge or ideas of descriptive statistics (univariate and bivariate). In univariate analysis we mainly analyze the appropriate measure of location, variability and shape characteristics of variable individually.
The procedure of arraying frequencies is useful for obtaining summary of individual variables and a pie chart is a good visual tool for assessing the relative frequencies of each category.
The study consists of 100 students of the Jahangirnagar University. This chapter consist the different characteristics if the students covered in the study. Generally gender, department, parents occupation, education income, their previous academic background are the main characteristics. The analysis of this information in some details thereby establishing relationship among this aspect. It has evaluated through different tabular and graphical presentation, frequency table has used for categorical and numerical data.
Frequency distribution
To get some information about population we organize the data. The first procedure we use to describe a set of data is a frequency distribution. Frequency distribution is the grouping of the data into mutually exclusive classes showing the number of observations in each.
Distribution of the students by sex
The following table shows the percentage distribution of the students by gender.
Sex of the Students | Frequency | Percent | |
Male | 58 | 58.0 | |
Female | 42 | 42.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Table: Frequency table for percentage distribution of the sex of the students.
Distribution of Father’s education
In this study fathers education level is very important because it is highly related with their sons or daughter education level. The following table expresses the educational level of the student’s fathers.
Table: Percentage distribution of the father’s education of the student.
Fathers Education | Frequency | Percent | |
illiterate | 2 | 2.0 | |
primary | 11 | 11.0 | |
secondary | 17 | 17.0 | |
H.S.C | 19 | 19.0 | |
graduate | 25 | 25.0 | |
post graduate | 24 | 24.0 | |
Others | 2 | 2.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Distribution of Mother’s education
Mother’s education level is one of the most important factors for their sons or daughter education level. The following table expresses the educational level of the student’s mothers.
Table: Percentage distribution of the mother’s education of the student.
Mothers Education | Frequency | Percent | |
illiterate | 5 | 5.0 | |
primary | 19 | 19.0 | |
secondary | 35 | 35.0 | |
H.S.C | 25 | 25.0 | |
graduate | 10 | 10.0 | |
Post-graduate | 6 | 6.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Father’s Occupation
In this study fathers education is another important factors because it is highly related with their sons or daughter education level. The following table expresses the father’s occupation of the students.
Table: Distribution of the father’s occupation of the students
Fathers occupation | Frequency | Percent | |
farmer | 14 | 14.0 | |
service | 36 | 36.0 | |
Doctor | 2 | 2.0 | |
teacher | 13 | 13.0 | |
Business | 31 | 31.0 | |
Others | 4 | 4.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
From the table-3.4, it is seen that most of the fathers (36%) are service holders, 31% of them are business, 13% fathers are teacher, 14% fathers are farmer based on agriculture, 2% fathers are doctor and only 4% fathers occupations are related with others activities
Mother’s Occupation
Mother’s occupation is highly related with their sons or daughter that is why mother’s occupation is very important in this study. The following table represents the percentage distribution of the mother’s occupation of the students.
Table: Distribution of the mother’s occupation of the students
Mothers occupation | Frequency | Percent | |
housewife | 89 | 89.0 | |
service | 5 | 5.0 | |
teacher | 6 | 6.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Family Size of the students
Family size of the student’s one of the most important factor for the results of the students. If the family size is large the parents can not properly provide essential things of their sons or daughters study. The following table shows the percentage distribution of the family size.
Table: Percentage distribution of the family size of the students
Range of the family members | Frequency | Percent | |
3-5 | 77 | 77.0 | |
6-8 | 21 | 21.0 | |
9-11 | 2 | 2.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
From the table-3.6, it is observed that the maximum number of family size (77%) lie in (3-5), 21% of the family sizes lie in (6-8) and 2% of family sizes lie in (9-11). The median of the student’s family member is 6 and the mode of the student’s family member is 5.
Average monthly income of the student’s family
Family income is one of the most important parts of this study because it is highly related of the student’s performance in the H.S.C result. The following table shows the percentage distribution of the family income.
Table: Percentage distribution of the average monthly income of the student’s family
Average family income | Frequency | Percent | |
1001-10000 | 13 | 13.0 | |
10001-20000 | 52 | 52.0 | |
20001-30000 | 18 | 18.0 | |
>30000 | 17 | 17.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
From the table-3.7, it can be observed that most of the student’s family (52%) monthly income level lie in the range (10001-20000). 18% of the family income lie in group
(20001-30000), 17% of the family income lie in group (>30000) and 13% of the family lie in group (1001-10000).
Average monthly expenditure of the student’s family
The most important variables of this study is the family expenditure because it is highly related to the student’s performance in the H.S.C result. The following table represents the percentage distribution of the family expenditure.
Table: percentage distribution of the average monthly expenditure of the student’s family
Average family expenditure | Frequency | Percent | |
1001-10000 | 21 | 21.0 | |
10001-20000 | 58 | 58.0 | |
20001-30000 | 15 | 15.0 | |
>30000 | 6 | 6.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
From the above table-3.8, it can be observed that most of the student’s family (58%) monthly expenditure level lie in the range (10001-20000). 21% of the family expenditure lie in group (1001-10000), 15% of the family expenditure lie in group (20001-30000) and 6% of the family expenditure lie in group (>30000).
Residence of the students
In this study it is observed that the student’s come from urban area is than the students come from rural area. From the following table it is seen that 58% of the students come from rural area and 42% of the students are come from urban area.
Table: Percentage distribution of the types of residence of the students
Types of residence | Frequency | Percent | |
rural | 58 | 58.0 | |
urban | 42 | 42.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Distribution of the student’s S.S.C-GPA
GPA of S.S.C exam is highly related with GPA of H.S.C exam. The student’s whose S.S.C GPA is good, they also get inspire for excellent GPA in H.S.C exam. The following table and bar diagram shows GPA distribution in different categories.
Table: Percentage distribution of the student’s S.S.C-GPA
S.S.C-GPA of the students | Frequency | Percent | |
3.50-3.99 | 1 | 1.0 | |
4.00-4.50 | 7 | 7.0 | |
4.51-5.00 | 92 | 92.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Distribution of the student’s H.S.C GPA
The study objective is to find the factors that are responsible for the student’s performance in H.S.C results. H.S.C results of the student’s are carefully collected in this study. The following table and bar diagram shows students results performance in their H.S.C examination.
Table: Percentage distribution of the student’s H.S.C-GPA
H.S.C-GPA of the student’s | Frequency | Percent | |
3.50-3.99 | 1 | 1.0 | |
4.00-4.50 | 13 | 13.0 | |
4.51-5.00 | 86 | 86.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
Average study time per day
Study time is one of the main factors for a good result. Which student’s are study more with carefully, they achieved a good result. The following table represents the distribution of average study time per day of the student’s.
Table: Distribution of the self study time per day of the student
Average study time per day | Frequency | Percent | |
1-3 | 8 | 8.0 | |
4-6 | 66 | 66.0 | |
7-9 | 20 | 20.0 | |
10-12 | 6 | 6.0 | |
Total | 100 | 100.0 |
From the above table-3.12, it is observed that the maximum number of student’s (66%) have the average study time 4 hours to 6 hours per day, the minimum number of students (6%) have the average study time 10 hours to 12 hours per day, 20% of the students have the average study time 7 hours to 9 hours per day and 8% of the students have the average study time 1 hour to 3 hours per day.
Students opinion about rural and urban college.
Rural and urban is the main factors for achieved good result. Our most of the respondents comes from rural area. Most of them said that, in rural college the teachers are not good qualified, modern technology are not available, environment is not favorable. On the other hand in urban collage most of the teachers are good qualified, modern technology is available, environment is good. The guardians of the urban area are more awareness than that of rural area.
Factors Influencing Academic Performance (Bivariate analysis)
Introduction
Bivariate analysis means analysis of two variables. In cross-classification analysis we may be interested in finding out if there is any relation between two variables. In particular correlation analysis measures the strength of two intervals type data as well as regression analysis. Normally we measure this by correlation analysis. It is possible only when data is quantitative. For qualitative data we cannot utilize correlation. But when the data is qualitative we use measure of association for measuring the strength of association.
The characteristics of any selected sample play an important role in every research work. The study includes 100 first year (40^{th }batch) students of Jahangirnagar University. In this chapter we will analyze our study variable academic performance to find its level and also test whether this level differs significantly due to different characteristics. Generally sex, father’s education & occupation, mother’s education & occupation, family’s average monthly income & expenditure, location of the student’s S.S.C schools & colleges, location of the student’s residences, GPA of student’s S.S.C & H.S.C examination, student’s average self study time, students average spending time for recreation etc. are assumed to be the important determinants to which a particular student belongs. We analyze here this information in some detail there by establishing relationship among these aspects.
Level of academic performance
We indicated academic performance by the result of students H.S.C examination. To get the general level of academic performance we reintroduced here the distribution and other characteristics of percentage of GPA in H.S.C examination from previous chapter. In this chapter I am interested to show about the relationship between different variables of the survey findings. Here correlation test has been used when the data are ratio scale and Chi- square test has been used when the data are nominal or ordinal scale.
Comparative study between academic performance and different variables
The overall objective of my study is to identify the factors determining the performance, expectation goals and the socio-economic condition. We have already discussed about the students performance, their expectation goals and their socio-economic condition. In this section, we shall mainly find out the mathematical relationship among the variables that have been used in our study. The performance of the students is the variables that depend on all other variables concerned in our study. As mention earlier that performance has been determined mainly on the basis of the results in S.S.C and H.S.C examinations. To find out the relationship among the variables here w will conduct cross table.
Variation in academic performance by gender
To find out the relationship between H.S.C results and the sex of the students a cross table is constructed as follows. How the variables are related with the student’s academic performance is considered by the following table and graph.
Table: Relationship between H.S.C result and the sex of the students
H.S.C result of the student (GPA) |
Sex of the student
Total
Male
Female
3.50-3.99
0%
1%
1%
4.00-4.50
7%
6%
13%
4.51-5.00
51%
35%
86%
Total
58%
42%
100%
From the above table-4.3.1, we observed that 35% of the female students obtain GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) in H.S.C examination whereas 51% of the male students obtain GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) in H.S.C examination.
Therefore we observed that there are influences of the sex of the students on student’s H.S.C result i.e. the male students obtain better result in H.S.C examination than the female students.
Test of homogeneity between the sex of the students and H.S.C results
In the following test procedure we test whether there is any relation between the sex of the students and H.S.C results. To conduct this test we apply the contingency table i.e. Chi-square test. To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis does not rejected and we can say that there is no relationship between the sex of the students and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Since the null hypothesis does not rejected at 5% level of significance with 2 degrees of freedom. So there is no influence of the sex of the students on students’ H.S.C result. But this can be happened at any stage of testing our hypotheses with different test statistics.
Variation in academic performance by the location of students’ residences
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and the location of students’ residence. The following cross table represents the above relationship.
Table: Relationship between H.S.C result and the location of students’ residences
H.S.C result of the student (GPA) |
Location of student’s residence
Total
rural
urban
3.50-3.99
1%
0%
1%
4.00-4.50
28%
5%
33%
4.51-5.00
29%
37%
66%
Total
58%
42%
100%
From the above table-4.3.2, we see that 37% of the urban students obtain GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) in H.S.C examination whereas 29% of the rural students obtain GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) in H.S.C examination, 28% of the rural students obtain GPA belongs to (4.00-4.50) whereas 5% of the urban students obtain GPA belongs to (4.00-4.50) and only 1% of the rural students obtain GPA belongs to (3.50-3.99). Therefore we observed that there is influences of the location of residences on students H.S.C result i.e. the urban students obtain better result in H.S.C examination than the rural students.
Test of homogeneity between location of students’ and H.S.C results
In the following test procedure we test whether there is any relation between the location of students’ residences and H.S.C results. To conduct this test we apply the contingency table i.e. Chi-square test. To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
: There is no relation between the location of students’ residences and H.S.C results of the students.
Hence, from Chi-square test we get the following value
Value | Degrees of freedom | |
Pearson Chi-Square | .828 | 2 |
The tabulated value of Chi-square with 2 degrees of freedom and 5% level of significances is 5.99.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis may be accepted and we can draw a conclusion that there is no relationship between the location of student’s residences and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Though from the cross table-4.3.2 we observe that there is an influence of the location of students’ residences and H.S.C result, in the above Chi-square test we see that there is no influence of the location of students’ residences and H.S.C result.
Variation in academic performance by father’s education of the student
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and father’s education level of the students. To do this we have to construct the following cross table.
Table-Relationship between H.S.C result and father’s education
Father’s education of the student |
H.S.C result of the student (GPA)
Total
3.50-3.99
4.00-4.50
4.51-5.00
illiterate
0%
0%
2%
2%
primary
0%
1%
10%
11%
secondary
0%
4%
13%
17%
HSC
0%
0%
19%
19%
graduate
1%
5%
19%
25%
post graduate
0%
2%
22%
24%
Others
0%
1%
1%
2%
Total
1%
13%
86%
100%
From the above table, it is observe that 22%, 19%, 19%, 13%, 10%, 2% and 1% students obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) in the H.S.C examination, whose father’s education level is post-graduate, graduate, H.S.C, S.S.C, primary, illiterate and others respectively. And 2%, 5%, 0%, 4%, 1%, 0% and 1% students obtained GPA belongs to (4.00-4.500) in the H.S.C examination, whose father’s education level is post-graduate, graduate, H.S.C, S.S.C, primary, illiterate and others respectively. So it is seen that father’s education level impact on the student’s performance in H.S.C result.
Test of homogeneity between father’s education of students’ and H.S.C results
In the following test procedure we test whether there is any relation between the father’s education of students’ and H.S.C results. To conduct this test we apply the contingency table i.e. Chi-square test.
To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
: There is no relation between the father’s education of students’ and H.S.C results of the students.
Hence, from Chi-square test we get the following value
Value | Degrees of freedom | |
Pearson Chi-Square | 12.130 | 6 |
The tabulated value of Chi-square with 12 degrees of freedom and 5% level of significance is 12.59.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis may be accepted and we can draw a conclusion that there is no relationship between father’s education level and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Though from the cross table-4.3.3 we observe that there is an influence of father’s education level of the students on their H.S.C results, in the above Chi-square test we see that there is no influence of father’s education level of the students on their H.S.C result. But this can be happened at any stage of testing our hypothesis with different test statistics.
Variation in academic performance by mother’s education of the student
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and the mother’s education level of the students. To do this we have to construct the following cross table.
Table: Relationship between H.S.C result and mother’s education
Mother’s education of the student |
H.S.C result of the student (GPA)
Total
3.50-3.99
4.00-4.50
4.51-5.00
illiterate
0%
1%
4%
5%
primary
0%
4%
15%
19%
secondary
0%
4%
31%
35%
HSC
1%
2%
22%
25%
graduate
0%
2%
8%
10%
post graduate
0%
0%
6%
6%
Total
1%
13%
86%
100%
From the above table, it is observe that 6%, 8%, 22%, 31%, 15% and 4% students are obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) in H.S.C examination whose mother’s educational qualifications are post-graduate, graduate, HSC, secondary, primary and illiterate. So it is seen that mother’s education level simply impact on the student’s performance in H.S.C result.
Test of homogeneity between mother’s education of students’ and H.S.C results.
To test the homogeneity between mother’s education of students’ and H.S.C results we also use Chi-square test. To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
: There is no relation between the mother’s education of students’ and H.S.C results of the students.
Hence, from Chi-square test we get the following value
Value | Degrees of freedom | |
Pearson Chi-Square | 6.188 | 5 |
The tabulated value of Chi-square with 5 degrees of freedom and 5% level of significance is 11.07.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis may be accepted and we can draw a conclusion that there is no relationship between mother’s education level and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Though from the cross table-4.3.4 we observe that there is an influence of mother’s education level of the students on their H.S.C results, in the above Chi-square test we see that there is no influence of mother’s education level of the students on their H.S.C result. But this can be happened at any stage of testing our hypothesis with different test statistics.
Variation in academic performance by father’s occupation
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and the father’s occupation. To do this we have to construct the following cross table.
Table: Relationship between H.S.C result and father’s occupation
Father’s occupation of the student |
H.S.C result of the student (GPA)
Total
3.50-3.99
4.00-4.50
4.51-5.00
farmer
0%
4%
10%
14%
service
1%s
4%
31%
36%
Doctor
0%
0%
2%
2%
teacher
0%
2%
11%
13%
Business
0%
2%
29%
31%
Others
0%
1%
3%
4%
Total
1%
13%
86%
100%
From the above table, it is observed that 10%, 31%, 2%, 11%, 29% and 3% students are obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) whose father’s occupations are farmer, service holder, doctor, teacher, business and other respectively. So it is seen that father’s occupation has no more impact on the student’s performance in H.S.C result.
Test of homogeneity between father’s occupation and H.S.C results.
In the following test procedure we test whether there is any relation between the father’s occupation and H.S.C results. To conduct this test we apply the contingency table i.e. Chi-square test.
To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
: There is no relation between the father’s education of students’ and H.S.C results of the students.
Hence, from Chi-square test we get the following value
Value | Degrees of freedom | |
Pearson Chi-Square | 6.926 | 5 |
The tabulated value of Chi-square with 5 degrees of freedom and 5% level of significance is 11.07.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is less than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis may be accepted and we can draw a conclusion that there is no relationship between father’s occupation and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Though from the cross table, we observe that there is simple influence of father’s occupation of the students on their H.S.C results, in the above Chi-square test we see that there is no influence of father’s occupation of the students on their H.S.C result. But this can be happened at any stage of testing our hypothesis with different test statistics.
Variation in academic performance by house tutors
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and the house tutors. To do this we have to construct the following cross table.
Table: Relationship between H.S.C result and house tutors
House tutor | H.S.C result of the student (GPA) | Total | |||
3.50-3.99 | 4.00-4.50 | 4.51-5.00 | |||
Yes | 1% | 8% | 44% | 53% | |
No | 0% | 5% | 42% | 47% | |
Total | 1% | 13% | 86% | 100% |
From the table-4.3.6, it is observed that 44% students are obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) and 8% students are obtained GPA belongs to (4.00-4.50) in H.S.C examination whose students was house tutor. On the other hand 42% students are obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00) and 5% students are obtained GPA belongs to (4.00-4.50) in H.S.C examination whose students was not any house tutor. So it is seen that relation between house tutor and students H.S.C result is very simple.
Test of homogeneity between house tutor and H.S.C results.
In the following test procedure we test whether there is any relation between the house tutor and H.S.C results. To conduct this test we apply the contingency table i.e. Chi-square test.
To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
: There is no relation between the house tutor and H.S.C results of the students.
Hence, from Chi-square test we get the following value
Value | Degrees of freedom | |
Pearson Chi-Square | 4.384 | 1 |
* Relation between house tutor and H.S.C results.
The tabulated value of Chi-square with 1 degrees of freedom and 5% level of significance is 3.84.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis may be rejected and we can draw a conclusion that there is relationship between house tutor and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Though from the cross table, we observe that there is simple influence of house tutor of the students on their H.S.C results, in the above Chi-square test we see that there is influence of house tutor of the students on their H.S.C result.
Variation in academic performance by study hour
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and the study hour of the students. To do this we have to construct the following cross table.
Table: Relationship between H.S.C result and study hour
Study hour | H.S.C result of the student (GPA) | Total | |||
3.50-3.99 | 4.00-4.50 | 4.51-5.00 | |||
1-3 | 0 | 3 | 5 | 8 | |
4-6 | 1 | 6 | 59 | 66 | |
7-9 | 0 | 4 | 16 | 20 | |
10-12 | 0 | 0 | 6 | 6 | |
Total | 1 | 13 | 86 | 100 |
From the above table, we can see that among 100 students 6 students who were study in the range (10-12) hour, they obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00). Among 100 students 16 students who were study in the range (7-9) hour, they obtained GPA belongs to
(4.51-5.00) and 59 who were study in the range (4-6) hour, they obtained GPA belongs to (4.51-5.00).
Therefore we observed that there are influences of the study hour on students H.S.C result.
4.3.7.1 Test of homogeneity between study hour and H.S.C results.
In the following test procedure we test whether there is any relation between the study hour and H.S.C results. To conduct this test we apply the contingency table i.e. Chi-square test.
To test this we set the following null hypothesis.
: There is no relation between the study hour and H.S.C results of the students.
Hence, from Chi-square test we get the following value
Value | Degrees of freedom | |
Pearson Chi-Square | 7.84 | 3 |
* Study hour and H.S.C result of the students is related.
The Chi-square tabulated value at 5% level of significance with 3 degrees of freedom is 7.81.
Decision rule: Since the calculated value is greater than the tabulated value. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected and we can draw a conclusion that there is relationship between study hour and H.S.C results of the students.
Comment: Though from the cross table, we observe that there is an influence of study hour of the students on their H.S.C results, in the above Chi-square test we see that there is an influence of study hour of the students on their H.S.C result.
Variation in academic performance by study hour
We have to find out the relationship between H.S.C result and the S.S.C result of the students. To do this we have to construct the following cross table.
Tabl: Relationship between H.S.C result and S.S.C
H.S.C result of the student (GPA) | S.S.C result of the student (GPA) | Total | |||
3.50-3.99 | 4.00-4.50 | 4.51-5.00 | |||
3.50-3.99 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | |
4.00-4.50 | 1 | 4 | 8 | 13 | |
4.51-5.00 | 0 | 3 | 83 | 86 | |
Total | 1 | 7 | 92 | 100 |
From the above table, it is observed that 83 students who got GPA belong to the range (4.51-5.00) in S.S.C examination and obtained GPA belongs to the same range in H.S.C examination. Therefore we can say that there is strong relation between H.S.C result and S.S.C.
Summary of” the study
My study has been carried out for fulfillment of Master of Science program in Statistics
Under Department of Statistics, Jahangimagar University in the session 2010-20011. Jahangirnagar University is the only one residential university in Bangladesh. Residential facility of this university for every student is one of the most important factors. It is not crowed like a campus because it is quite far from capital city. The natural environment of this campus is so nice. Thousands of birds, coming from aboard, make the campus dessert. This environment is so favorable for the students to study and acquire knowledge. The quality of education for the students of this university is so high. Many of the students who have already been passed from this campus are serving our nation. They are playing an important role in many sectors in our country. They have a great role for making our national policy to develop our country. This study was conducted on students of first year (40^{th} batch) of Jahangimagar University.
This study was to analyze the socio-economic condition of the students and identify the determination influencing factors that affect the performance of the students, expectation of goals of the students at the university level and finding the relationship between the factors and result. My aim is to identify just what types of students are coming to study in this university, what are their socio-economic background, habitual and moral character, comments about the educational standard of the university and many other important factors. It is also my aim to justify whether these factors are influencing the results of the students or not. If so, then how is it significant? That is, this is a researchable study.
At first, I prepared a questionnaire on the basis of my study. When I prepared my questionnaire, I discussed with my supervisor. For my study I have selected the students of Jahangimagar University whose admitted recently (40yh batch) as my study population. I have collected information 100 students and then analyzed it. It may be mentioned that this sample size was selected according to the principle of two stage sampling. In order to achieve the objective of the study a pre-coded questionnaire was designed including the information on different characteristics of the performance, expectations and goals. I carried out a pretest on some of the randomly selected students to make the questionnaire more consistent and relevant to the objective of the study. I worked hard to collect the actual information inspire effacing some problems while collecting data.
First I analyzed the socio-economic condition of the students.
From the analysis it is observed that the most of the student’s father (25%) have completed graduate, 24% of them post-graduate, 19% of them H.S.C, 17% fathers are secondary, 11% fathers are primary and 2% of them are others and illiterate. So it is seen that most of the student’s fathers are graduate and very few percentage of the fathers are illiterate.
Therefore we may conclude that the most of the first year (40th batch) students of Jahangirnagar come from educated family.
Parents’ occupation is an important factor among the socio-economic criteria. From the analysis it is observed that most of the fathers (36%) are service holders, 31% of them are business, 13% fathers are teacher, 14% fathers are farmer based on agriculture, 2% fathers are doctor and only 4% fathers occupations are related with others activities.
The most of the students’ Mothers (89%) are housewife, 6% of them are teacher and only 5% of them are service holders. So it is seen that most of the student’s mothers are housewife and very few percentage of them are service holders.
Economic condition of a family is the most important characteristic of the social status of that family. Maximum number of the student’s family’s (52%) monthly income level lie in the range (10001-20000). 18% of the family income lie in group (20001-30000), 17% of the family income lie in group (>30000) and 13% of the family lie in group (1001-10000).
Maximum number of students’ family’s (58%) monthly expenditure level lie in the range (10001-20000). 21% of the family expenditure lie in group (1001-10000), 15% of the family expenditure lie in group (20001-30000) and 6% of the family expenditure lie in group (>30000).
Conclusion
Actually students performance are related to their socio-economic condition, educational background, academic management their personal activities and different other characteristics. In this study there is selected some relevant characteristics and justify whether they have any influence on students” performance on H.S.C result. From this analysis it is seen that male students are advance to achieve better performance than the female students in H.S.C examination. So it is concluded that sex is an influential variable for the performance because male students are able to better performance than the female students. Although male students make themselves busy in others sectors beyond study.
Socio-economic conditions are major criteria for students’ performance. From my analysis it is observed that most of the students” parents are higher educated, so they can academic care to their children from the starting point of students’ student life and their children do well in different steps of their academic career. So parents’ educational status is an important factor for students’ performance in H.S.C result.
Parents’ occupation has also influences on students’ performance. In my study it is observed that, most of the students’ guardians are occupied in different government and nongovernment sectors for that they have to stay mainly in urban area and in urban area educational environment are more developed than rural area. Having government and nongovernment services the guardians are able to bear educational expenses of their sons daughters.
The demographic location of students’ S.S.C schools, colleges and residences has an effect on the performance in their H.S.C result. From my analysis it is observed that the students who are from urban area are more aggressive than the students who are from rural area to achieve good result in H.S.C examination. Because in urban area qualified teachers are more available than rural area. Beyond this study materials are more accessible to urban students. From my analysis it is observed that the students who did well in S.S.C examination, most of them also have done well in H.S.C examination.
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