Background of the Study
Not long ago, in the literature on economic development rural-urban migration was considered socially and economically beneficial since it would permit human resources to shift from locations, where their social marginal products were either zero or very low, to places where their marginal products were high and also growing rapidly. Internal migration was in fact considered a natural process in which the surplus labour was withdrawn from the rural sector for supplying the manpower needed for urban industrial growth.
The process in fact constituted the cornerstone of celebrated development theories of Lewis and Fei-Ranis, which significantly influenced policy making in many countries with “unlimited supplies” of labour. The result was that the policies undertaken in most developing countries heavily concentrated on developing the urban sector, with the belief that the release of labour from the rural sector will increase productivity in that sector, and also that remittances, acquired knowledge, and skill transfer by the migrants will contribute to development in the rural areas. Rural-urban migration was thus considered an instrument for poverty alleviation in a labour surplus economy.
However, recent experience in less developed countries makes it abundantly clear that rates of rural-urban migration have tended to exceed rates of urban job creation and to surpass greatly the absorption capacity of both industry and urban social services. The increased rate of urbanization is now causing various problems such as overcrowding, difficulties of waste disposal, shortage of housing, inadequate educational facilities, poor water and power supply, traffic congestion, and environmental degradation. For these reasons, migration is no longer viewed by economists as an essential means to solve problems of growing urban labour demand. On the contrary, migration has now become a major factor contributing to the growth of urban surplus labour, exacerbating the already serious urban unemployment problem.
Migration is considered as the movement of people from one geographical region to another, which may be on temporary or permanent basis. People migrate based on the prevailing conditions and the reasons for it vary from one person to another depending on the situation that brought about the decision. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or families with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. Migration occurs as a response to economic development as well as social, cultural, environmental and political factors and effects on areas of origin as well as destination. People tend to move away from a place due to need to escape violence, political instability, drought, congestion in various dimensions and suspected or real persecution. Also, adverse physical conditions such as flood, landslide (erosion and earthquake), insects and pests, soil infertility contribute largely to the reasons why people leave one environment for another.
Studies by Okpara (1983) reveal that the movement from rural to urban areas makes a negative impact on the quality of rural life especially when such migrants carry away their needed consumption into the city. On the other hand, studies by Ijere (1994) reveal that rural-urban migration has a positive impact on urban growth and social development, which makes generation of employment opportunities and provision of educational facilities and transportation infrastructure for the migrants.
Over the last decade, the landscape of Bangladesh has changed remarkably. Persistent mobility of people questions existing development strategies, which are largely based on sectoral approaches that often ignore this dynamic process. Migration has resumed greater importance as a component of people’s livelihood strategies and in shaping the national economy following improvements in markets, communications and transport and access to electricity. The countryside is no longer confined to food production but is now a source of labor for urban areas (Toufique and Turton, 2002). However, the linkages between migration and development are not straightforward. Rural-urban migration is but one discernable force of change amidst growing diversity and complexity in the patterns of migration. In the light of the changes sweeping through rural Bangladesh, the links between migration and development need to be re-examined.
Today, urban-rural migration is one of the most important modes of migration which exist in the society. Until recently, researchers have not paid much attention to the rural –urban drift. This study therefore investigated those factors that are associated with the rural to urban migration. Specifically, this study investigated factors associated with movement of people from rural to town areas and some of the socio-economic characteristics of the migrants.
Aims and Objectives
In order to meet the overall goal of the study following are the specific objectives of the study:
- To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the migrant in the study area;
- To find out the socio-economic factors which are occurring rural-urban migration in the study area;
- To provide recommendations for appropriate action and follow-up.
Rationale and Scope of the Study
Every day a lot of rural people come to urban area for many reasons. Rural people are mostly dependent on urban area because the government always pays a narrow role for rural area. So there is no improvement of the poor people, and they decided to go urban area though they live in the slum. The study will find out the actual causes of migration as well as reveal the characteristics of those migrants. Mitigation of rural-urban migration is recognized as a key strategy to achieve a balanced and equitable development of the country, but to do so; the policies must address the real problems associated with the migration as well as the root causes of the migration. The discussion in the foregoing establishes the rationale for the present study. The study generates information on social and economic factors behind migration.
Expected Outcomes of Dissertation
The study finds out the actual causes of rural-urban migration. Because this extreme pressure of population make the urban life more difficult. Most of the development becomes meaning less for this imbalance situation. In that case, we are depriving from our rural economy as well as creating new problems in urban areas. For this reason most of the initiatives of Government did not work on. This study actually wept out the key socio-economic factors for this migration as well as identifies who are mostly decided to migrate. Besides it provided some recommendations to get rid of this situation.
For the preparation of the dissertation, the study has been distributed into six chapters. Chapter one as introductory chapter describes the background of the study, aims and objectives of the study, rationale and scope of the study, expected outcomes and structure of the study. Chapter two describes the methodological and procedural approaches of the study, which have been followed to carry out this research work. Chapter three deals with the theoretical frame work and it consists of relevant description of the present research. This chapter also describes various terms and concepts used in this study. Chapter four mainly describes study area. Location, existing demographic and socio-economic characteristics is part of this chapter. On the basis of information gathered from the survey, Chapter five presents an analysis. And according to analysis the study portrays some major findings. Finally Chapter six consists with specific recommendation and concludes the study with certain remarks for future development.
Methodology describes the strategies or steps taken to achieve the goal and objectives of the study. It is the most significant part of any research work as the quality and the expected outcome of research depend on it and a well designed methodology make researcher to achieve goal and objectives very easily. The methodology of the study is described in below.
Literature Search and Review
Literature review is very important to perceive a clear concept about the study. For this reason several study papers, books, journals and some papers from internet was reviewed. Specifically factors affecting rural-urban migration related study could not found on the perspective of Bangladesh. By considering factors of rural-urban migration, a study was conducted by Adewale J. Gbemiga (2005), entitled “Socio-Economic Factors Associated with Urban-Rural Migration in Nigeria: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria” and another study was conducted by Fasoranti O. Olayiwola (2005), entitled “Perception of Rural-Urban Migration in Selected Rural Communities in Ondo State, Nigeria. The above studies were helpful to complete the total structure of the study. Another study was reviewed to complete the study entitled “Rural-Urban Migration and Poverty: The Case of Reverse Migration in Bangladesh” by Bhuyan, Ayubur Rahman, Khan, Harun-Ar-Rashid, Ahmed, Sultan U. (2001). This study gives a clear picture of socio-economic factors of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh.
For conceptualization and the theoretical basis of the study, some books on theories of rural-urban migration were studied such as “Rural-Urban migration in Bangladesh-Causes, Consequences and Challenges by Afsar, Rita and Destination Dhaka-Urban Migration: Expectations and Reality” by Begum, Anwara. Such books give a clear concept of characteristics of migrant, factors behind rural-urban migration, benefits and problems of rural-urban migration.
Every research work based on specific concept. It directs the approach of the work. It determines the structure of the report. “Conceptualization” is therefore nothing but the reflection of initial thinking. It characterizes the terms and conditions through which the whole research moves on. The perception of determining “An Assessment of Socio Economic Factors behind Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh: A Case Study of Duaripara Slum in Mirpur and Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh” evolves through true reasons of rural-urban migration in associate with benefits and problems of rural-urban migration.
Defining the objectives is another important stage of the methodology. In this stage, objectives are formulated and further redefined if it seems to be necessary. A well define objective can make the researcher’s work easy and simple.
Developing Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework is very essential to develop skill of a researcher to conduct any research work. The term “Theoretical Framework” means studying various reports, books and various local and international journals and it helps to define the objectives of the study. In the theoretical framework, two methods are used, as one of them is Literature review and another is Legislative aspect. In literature review part, various reports, books, journals and published thesis are gone through for clearing various concepts such as factors, causes and consequences of rural-urban migration, perception of migration, impacts of migration etc.
Selection of the Study Area
Before every study selection of the study area is very important. Two areas have been selected for the study. One is urban area and another is rural area. Due to mass rural to urban migration and urbanization and incorporation of erstwhile outlying areas, growth of slums has been accelerated in Dhaka City. As urban area Duaripara slum has been selected because it is one of the oldest residence of the poor people in the Dhaka city. Most of the district’s people are living here that is why a heterogeneous data will be found. On the other hand as a rural area most migration prone area has been selected. The opinion of non migrants of the study area is very important. Thus it can justify perceived problems and benefits of rural-urban migration. From this comparative analysis, the common factors could be found and as well as a clear picture of the factors behind rural-urban migration.
Data Needs and Collection
Data needs means identifying different information which are essential to achieve the objectives of the study. Data needs can be classified into the following two groups, such as: Primary data needs and Secondary data needs. After the assessment of data needs, data are collected from various sources.
Sources of Primary Data
In order to collect information from the primary sources the following tools were used and these were:
- Semi-Structured Questionnaire Survey
A semi structured interview schedule was formulated for data collection. A rapport was built with the respondents. Some questions were put in a conversation style. Respondents were contacted by home visits. Where from conversation it used to understand their intensions and motives of migration, their present situations, their expectation and reality. And structured questions were asked to realize their socio-economic conditions.
- Focus Group Discussion
Focus Group Discussion used to understand deeply to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the culture, trends and nature of migration, true factors which are actually affecting rural-urban migration. The FGD was conducted in the rural area with the participation of key informants, such as social leader, elderly people, freedom fighter, Union Parishad representative, school teacher, farmer, and local general people of the migration prone village.
Sources of Secondary Data
Collection of secondary data is very essential for the preparation of the research work. Two reputed text book related to rural-urban migration fulfilled the major part of the secondary data requirements. The other secondary information was collected from literature on rural-urban migration and relevant published and unpublished materials.
2.8 Data Analysis
Data collected from the above mentioned sources were then recorded, analyzed and presented in both graphical and tabular forms. Standard micro-computer package like, MS Word, MS Excel for Windows were used for data analysis.
Major Findings and Recommendations
After careful analysis of data and information, key features of socio-economic characteristics of the migrants, responsible factors behind rural-urban migration and perceived problems and benefits of rural-urban migration. On the basis of such findings some recommendations has also been put forward.
Finally, after analyzing all the collected information and data related socio-economic characteristics of the migrants, factors behind rural-urban migration report have been prepared. Some recommendations and necessary measures were suggested on the basis of detail analysis of the migrants’ characteristics and factors behind rural-urban migration.
Limitations of the Study
During the field work number of difficulties and limitations have arisen. Among these the major limitations are:
- This is a vast task. Time was very limited for field survey, spot interview and focus group discussion.
- With very short time it was difficult to conduct survey and interviewing the related researchers.
- During questionnaire survey and spot interview a general tendency was found among the respondents to distort information.
- No financial support available for this study and thus funds constraint was one of the major problems that hampered the field work to a great extent.
The movement of people from the rural to the urban area may have been a continuing process over the countries, but it is only in this last century that we have been the movement take on such a magnitude. Migration to the urban areas can be caused by economic or a combination of both economic and political factors. Some economic and political factors are:
- The neglect of the rural area by the Central Governments and therefore failure to develop the rural areas to make it viable to live off the land.
- The rural population not given equal rights as the ones living in urban areas or equal opportunities for education and self development.
- Over centralization of industry in urban areas instead of spreading some of this into the rural areas.
- Insecurity of some rural areas because of insurgency and anti government activities which in turn cause the central government to look at part of its rural population with hostility and suspicion.
- The feudal system which continues to exists in parts of Asia, and which creates a group of landless indentured workers.
In addition to the above, some of the other reasons may be social and psychological, such as the false image of the good life in the city, its bright lights and ways of life communicated by the mass media into the rural areas. The movement to the urban areas is frequently the cause of a multitude of problems for the city, but in some situations it contributes to the manpower for development of the economy of the urban areas, but at the same time depletes the rural area of manpower for development of the economy there, it creates an imbalance in the economic system, and for the migrant, be becomes simply an instrument in the community not of his own origin, he is uprooted from this rural culture, frequently separated from his family and his familiar society, and at the same time without adequate training and preparation for the work and life in the city, he frequently finds it difficult to integrate into urban life, and be able to participate in urban society in responsible way.
The Push and Pull Factors of Rural-Urban Migration
Migrants responding to push factors are leaving places where life is a struggle, migrants responding to pull factors are moving to places where they think they might prosper. Nevertheless, conceptual categories such as “push” and “pull” factors may help us to understand migration. Reasons for migration are varied and can both push and pull people into and out of rural and urban areas:
Table 3.1: Push-Pull Factors of Rural-Urban Migration
The Categorization of the Process of Migration
Migration studied can be divided into ten broad groupings, many of which are by no means mutually exclusive. These are, namely, the economic, social, physical, psychological, political, demographic, geographic and informational factors, as well as the impact of migration upon the rural and urban areas.
The social factors can be categories into four sub sectors, namely, family ties, family quarrels, social unrest, destitution due to old age or physical/ mental handicap. It can be seen in rural areas that have an extended family, where most of the men depend on a particular income feature usually met with quarrel for land inheritance, responsibility of old parents, sisters, family expenses etc. Social unrest means one form of victimization on a person or family by a pressure group. In Bangladesh, poor people always are being the sufferers of the situation. It also can not be solved due to weakness of administration in rural areas. When it becomes unbearable for a person they usually migrate. In Bangladesh both scenarios are quite familiar for migration.
Physical factors consist of natural disasters like flood, drought. Migration to urban areas mainly caused due to the physical factors. Flood every year destroys the land, crops and properties of peoples and drags a high number of people to the urban areas. Again drought also a great issue for migration. Draught is also faced regularly by the people of north Bengal severely all most every year. The field study also reflects flood and draught as a vital cause of rural to urban migration.
It includes the attraction of cities. City life consists of better facilities and amenities like better medical care, electricity, gas, water etc. These facilities attract people and they migrate. Another psychological fact is large labor market of the city. Some rural people may not be happy with their agrarian job and may not satisfy with rural livelihood on their point of view and they also migrate to the urban area.
Another factor is seen that influencing by relatives. It is a common scenario of Bangladesh. Rural people always get influenced by their neighbors and relatives to migrate in the city. Villagers get more influenced if they feel more deprived because of unequal resource distribution among them.
Rural to urban migration also happen for political factors. Political factors can be two types. One type is the people migrate who have been threatened by a political group and other is the people lead to threat lives under a political group. In rural areas often political factors become serious like in the time of government change, new membership, and election period in rural areas etc and often poor people becomes victim of political unrest situation.
Demographic factors can be divided into age, sex, marital status and education. It is seen in studies that young people are the pre dominant among the migrants. In middle age people also migrate but migration rate is really low among the old aged people. Again it can be seen usually that rate of migration is high among the men, where women migrate less. Same can be seen that a married person usually has a trend to migrate than an unmarried person, because a married person has some responsibilities to run out his family and has a trend to earn a better income. Another demographic issue of migration is education. The students who are studious and are in a well financial condition, want to migrate to the urban area to get better educational facilities.
Geographic factors consists of two parts named distance and communication. People from nearer place of an urban area have a high trend of migration to the urban area than the distant parts. Again, communication means the contact of people with relatives, friends and neighbors who are living in an urban area. Usually it is seen that rural people migrate to a new urban area with reference of their relatives or friends who are already living in the place.
Factors Determining and Affecting Rural-Urban Migration
The volume and the direction of migration are determined by the economic differences between the areas. People generally move from low-earning areas to high-earning areas. People may migrate from unproductive areas, areas having high pressure of population, and from areas where job opportunities are not sufficient. The net movement out of, or into, any area will depend on the nature and strength of the push and pull forces. The uncertain economic condition and bleak economic prospects may act as great push factors, while industrialization in the city areas may act as pull factors. The factors affecting internal migration may be discussed below:
Abnormal Pressure of Population on Land
Abnormal pressure of population on land compels people to migrate to other areas. Excessive pressure on land leads to uneconomic holdings, poverty, underemployment, disguised unemployment, indebtedness and so on. Therefore people try to emigrate.
Industrialization is an encouraging factor for internal migration. It leads to the establishment of different countries and projects. During the period of industrialization cottage and handicrafts have relatively less importance. Therefore, the people who are in search of jobs may migrate to the city areas where the tempo industrialization is generally high.
Better Transport and Communication Facilities
Improvement of transport and communication facilities encourages movements from village to city and from city to village. Since the transportation facilities are easily available, people are encouraged to move from one place to another.
The joint-family system is an advantage for internal migration. In a joint-family system, some of the members may easily migrate to other areas in search of better jobs or education. They are not worried because their families are looked after properly in the joint-family system.
Indebtedness and Poor Economic Condition
Indebtedness and poor economic conditions induce people to leave the village in search of better-paid occupations so that they can earn sufficient money to pay off the debt and to better their economic condition.
In certain areas, social conditions are not favorable for free living. Unsociability, class antagonism, personal conflicts and the like may induce people to leave such societies. In cities, social evils affecting personal freedom are comparatively less. Therefore, people are attracted towards cities.
There may be conflict among the members in the same family. Some members of the family may migrate to towns for avoiding conflict and antagonism.
Marriage is a great force favoring internal migration. After marriage, the wives accompany their husbands. Thus, the wives have to migrate to new places.
The Attraction of Cities
Cities have great attraction for the people of the non-city areas. Cities provide better facilities for education, employment, living and the like. Therefore, the villagers are easily attracted by the way of life in the cities.
Economics is a great force for internal migration. During the time of economic difficulties, people migrate to a place where there is economic prosperity.
If an area does not have effective conducive climate, sufficient drinking water and transport facilities, the people cannot live there for a ling time. Sooner or later, they try to migrate from that place to a better place.
The political factor influences internal migration. The government may redistribute population from thickly populated areas to sparely populated areas. Internal migration may be government-sponsored, as in China and Russia.
Service and Transfers
When people get jobs in a new area, they settle there. People in government service or even in private service may be transferred to new places where they may settle.
Trends in Bangladesh’s Population Movement
Occupying only about 0.03 percent of the World’s land surface, Bangladesh at the present is 9th most populous country in the globe. Based on the current rate of growth of population, the country’s population (currently at 126 million) is expected to reach 190 million in 2025. Data presented in Table 3.1 indicates that during the period between 1941 and 2001 the rural population in Bangladesh doubled, and urban population increased fifteen fold. The rate of growth of urban population accelerated since 1974. The disparate rates of growth of the country’s urban and rural population are also evidenced in a United Nations study (UN 1991), which provides data on the annual growth rates of urban, rural and the overall population for the period 1970-1990, and the projected rates of growth for the period 1990-2005 to 2020-2025 (Table 3.2).
Table 3.2: Urban-rural population and their annual growth rate in Bangladesh (1941-2001)
Annual growth %
Annual growth %
Source: BIDS & Report on Urbanization and the Urban Poor in Bangladesh – 2002
As can be seen in Table 1.2, urban population grew at around 6 per cent annually over the last three decades, compared to the rural population growth rate of just about 2 per cent. The UN projection indicates that the relatively higher rate of growth of urban population will continue well up to the end of the first quarter of the next century.
Table 3.3: Population growth rate, urban and rural: 1970-2025
Annual average growth rate
Source: United Nations, WUP, New York: Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (E.91.XIII.II), 1991
Two major factors, viz., natural increase, and internal migration together with reclassification of urban areas, have contributed to the growth of urban population in this country. According to an ESCAP study, the contribution of internal migration to the growth of urban population has slowed down a bit in the recent years, but yet this factor is expected to contribute about 58 percent of the urban population growth, at least up to 2005 (UNESCAP 1993).
Whatever its causes are, the increasing urbanization, especially centring on larger/mega cities, has generated a wide variety of problems in terms of providing employment, shelter and basic services to the urban population which have become an important policy concern for the Government. The problems generated by urbanization are those of unemployment, housing, sanitation, environmental hazards, etc., which are the prominent features of urban life in Bangladesh today, and which have been contributing to the growing urban impoverization in the country. The growing impoverishment of urban population as reflected in the increase in the absolute number of the poor and the hard-core poor over time has been well documented in a recent ESCAP study (UNESCAP 1993).
In so far as internal migration is a key factor in influencing the regional distribution of the country’s population and, in particular, a contributor to the process of urbanization with all its economic and social consequences, gathering data on internal migration becomes important for enabling formulation of appropriate policies for the redistribution of population away from urban to rural locations. In Bangladesh the main internal migration flows are from rural to urban areas although other forms of migration such as urban to rural, rural to rural or urban to urban, are not uncommon. However, the 1991 census data on internal migration by direction shows that the highest rate of internal migration is of the rural to urban type (51.8 per thousand), as against the urban to rural migration rate of 1.1, rural to rural 3.4, and the urban to urban migration rate of 4.4 per thousand (GOB 1994).
Available information on the inflow of migrants to the capital city, Dhaka, from other districts of the country during the 1980s shows that the highest percentage of migrants came from Barisal (20.3 percent), followed by Dhaka district (19.5per cent), Faridpur (17.4per cent), and Comilla (15.5 percent) (BIDS 1992). The process of migration was influenced by both pull and push factors, of which the predominant pull factor was the expectation of getting employment and earning higher income, and the principal push factor was the situation of poverty engendered by natural disaster, landlessness, and lack of jobs.
As a consequence of the phenomenal increase in the number and rate of growth of urban population, caused largely by unchecked migration, the number of slums and slum dwellers is rapidly increasing in the country. In the city area, the poor migrants prefer slums for their initial settlement, obviously because of their poverty and low income. In 1991, there were about 2000 slums in Dhaka city alone (CUS 1992). At the present rate of urbanization, the slum population will in all probability increase further, with all its undesirable economic, social, demographic and public health implications that are putting the overall development efforts of the country in jeopardy. Formulation of an explicit policy on urbanization along with appropriate interventions for initiating a process of reverse migration whereby the migrant slum dwellers can be induced to return to their original rural locations therefore warrant immediate concerted action.
Description of the Study Area
study area of the research is chosen Duaripara slum, as most of the people living there have migrated from different parts of Bangladesh. So here has a heterogeneous characteristics of data is available which is very relevant for this study. Among them a large number of people migrated from Chatmohar, Pabna. So the two areas are chosen as the study area to indicate the main factors of migration through a cross analysis of origin and destination as well as rural and urban area, vice versa.
Description of Urban Area
Duaripara has been chosen as study area of urban, the destination of the migrants. Most of the people area came here after the flood of 1988. When the Beri Embankment was constructed then Duaripara was the most suitable place of the migrants. Especially there was good communication with North Bengal zone of Bangladesh. The land of Duaripara is mainly private ownership, but some public land also exists in here. Basically Duaripara is a low income group people’s residential area. Two ministries of Bangladesh is claimed for some part of land in Duaripara besides WASA colony, and these ministries are Ministry of Civil works and Ministry of Religion. So there is a conflict between these ministries for the ownership. And of course most of the low income people stared to live as creating slum in Duaripara. Duaripara is chosen for study area because the people of most part of the country are living here.
Duaripara is under Mirpur area and geographically is located is located at 23.8042°N 90.3667°E. It is situated at north-east of Dhaka city. Recently Mirpur Thana has been divided into the three thanas of Shah Ali, Pallabi and Kafrul. According to new division Duaripara remains under Pallabi Thana.
Duaripara is an area of Pallabi Thana which has a population of over 300,000. Thousands of families who came to the city in search of employment live in this densely populated area in appalling conditions. Duaripara slum is one of the largest slums of Mirpur of around 12,000 people. In February 2008, a large proportion of the Duaripara slum was demolished with 24-hours notice. It is still possible that the remaining part of the slum will be demolished. However, 90% of the affected families that we work with moved to smaller slums in the surrounding area, all within the Pallabi area.
Existing Land use
There are two types of land use is seen in Duaripara area, residential and commercial. Duaripara is a congested area of around 30000 people. And the slum area consists of around 12000 people. These people are living in appalling conditions, housed in one-room homes made from bamboo and tin. Access to water, electricity and sanitation is inadequate and many children growing up in this unhealthy environment are at risk of malnutrition and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Most of the lands of Duaripara are used for residential purpose. Most of the houses are of a mixture of brick and tin structures. Duaripara also has a large area for commercial purpose. A large retail market is situated in Duaripara and many people earn their daily living from there. The people of Pallabi Thana also meet up their daily necessities from the market.
In Duaripara Slum most of the males are involved with rickshaw pulling and shop keeping and females are involved highly as garments worker or helping hands of other residents. Besides that some are engaged in day laboring, digging soil for the brick field, construction working, and small business. Some people are remaining workless as well as all the time, but they are very few in numbers.
Figure : The Location Map of Urban Area (Duaripara, low income group area)
Description of Rural Area
They are mainly migrated from northern and southern parts of Bangladesh. There are a large number of people who have migrated from Chatmohar of Pabna district which has influenced the reporter to make Chatmohar as another study area. And so Chatmohar is chosen as rural area of migrants origin as well as. Chatmohar is an Upazila of Pabna District in the Division of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. It is one of nine Thanas in Pabna district. It is located in north-west part of Pabna District. It is situated besides the branch river of Jamuna, and so the people of Chatmohar are affected by flood.
Chatmohar is located at 24.2250°N 89.2917°E. It has 39489 units of house hold and total area 314.32 km². The Chatmohar town is located at 24.13°N, 89.18° E is situated on the south bank of Baral River and is bounded by gurudaspur and tarash upazilas on the north, atgharia upazila on the south, faridpur and bhangura upazilas on the east, baraigram and Gurudaspur upazilas on the west. Chatmohar (Town) a municipal town consists of 9 wards and 11 mahallas. The area of the town is 2.52 sq km. It is about 25km NE of Ishwardi and an important rail station of Ishurdi-Dhaka railroad. It is a very old place, having the history back from the pre-Muslim age.
As of the 1991 Bangladesh census, Chatmohar has a population of 227524. Males constitute are 50.63% of the population, and females 49.37%. This Upazila’s eighteen up population is 109774. Chatmohar has an average literacy rate of 24.1% (7+ years), and the national average of 32.4% literate. The density of the area is 724/km2 (1,875.2/sq mi) Chatmohar has 10 Unions/Wards, 170 Mauzas/Mahallas, and 234 villages. The town has a population of 11813; male 50.56%, female 49.44%. Literacy rate among the town people is 43.4%.
Table 4.1: Overall Scenario of Chatmohar Upazila
|Object||Year 1991||Year 2001|
|Area (sq. km)||314.32||305.63|
|Literacy rate (%)||24.1||38.6|
|Number of Union||10||11|
|Number of Mouza||170||170|
|Number of Village||234||232|
Source: Field Survey from Upazila Parishad, April- 2011
Existing Land use
There are two types of land use pattern mainly can de seen in Chatmohar area, residential and agricultural. Most of the residential land uses have occurred haphazardly with a common housing pattern of rural areas of Bangladesh. Most of the houses are katcha and semi pucca and consist of one storey. Large portion of land is used for agricultural purpose. Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, onion, garlic, chilly, sugarcane, mustard seed, coriander, khesari, musur and chhola. There are also fisheries, dairy and poultry firm which are the sources of earnings of people in the area.
Socio-economic characteristics include population, age & sex, income, occupation, land ownership, duration of ownership etc. The socio-economic characteristics of the study area are given in below:
Most of the residents of Chatmohar are mainly middle class and lower class. There income range is 2000 tk to 35000 tk. Major portion of the resident’s monthly income range is 5001-8000 tk.
Table 4.2: Income Scenario of the people of Chatmohar Upazila
|Income Range (Tk.)||No. of Households||% of Household|
|Up to 2000||1968||05.47|
Source: Field survey, April-2011
From the data it is clear that most of the household’s monthly income is smaller than 8000 tk. Thereafter 30 % households’ monthly income is below 5000 tk. So most of the households’ requires more income to meet their needs.
Occupation is the most important social factor which determines the status of person in the society as well as his/her level of living condition. It also controls the pattern of the every one’s lifestyle. Most of the residents of the study area are engaged with agricultural activities. The occupation patterns of the study area are given bellow in a tabular form:
Agro based occupation is mainly seen among the people of the area. Most of the people do agricultural work. Here, the proportion is high who have a small land or landless which is one of the main factors of migration of the people.
Table : Work Pattern Scenario of Chatmohar Upazila
|Work Pattern||Percentage (%)|
Source: Field survey, April-2011
- Family Structure
Total households of this area are approximately 35,970. Family type of this area is categorized into two types- single family and joint family. Single family is consisted of a married couple and their unmarried son/daughter. In the study, old mother and father of the family head are also considered as a member of single family. The number of single family is higher than that of joint family in this village. Percentage of single family is 38.Joint family consists of a married couple living with married son/daughter or married brother. Percentage of joint family is 62.
Table : Land Control of Chatmohar Upazila
|Land Control Type||Percentage (%)|
Source: Field survey, April-2011
Land Ownership Pattern
On the basis of ownership we classified the study area into 3 categories. This are in below:
- Private Land: The land which does not belong to government and not used as religious purpose, is private property. In our study area, total 82 % land is private property. Such types of private land may belong to one person or to an organization. In the study area 55 % of land belongs to a single person and remaining 7 % of land belongs to an organization.
- Public Land: The land which belongs to government is public land. The amount of public land in this area is very limited. Only 18 % of land is public land. There is some govt. Schools, colleges, post office, Banks are in the area.
- Waqf/ Religious Land: There is about 01.59 % lands are waqf land in the study area. There are 104 mosques and 12 temples are in the study area.
Table : Land Ownership Scenario of Chatmohor Upazila
|Types of Ownership||% of Ownership Pattern|
Source: Field survey, April-2011
Migration is physical movement from one area to another, sometimes over long distances or in large groups. In the study area, there are many people has migrated to Dhaka and other cities due to employment, education and other purpose. There are some people who are also thinking for migration due to unemployment, better living and other purposes.
Table : Migration Scenario of the Chatmohar Upazila
|Year||No. Migrated Family|
Source: Field Survey, April- 2011
The migration has been started from the before of liberation war of 1971. Before and after of the liberation war, many of the Hindu community people have been migrated to India from this area. Although some other socio-economic factors like unemployment, higher education and other purposes caused for migration.
From the above graph, we see that the migration rate was very high during pre and post time of liberation war. Although the rate of migration is increasing from day to day due to lack of job opportunities, better educational institutes
Data Collection and Analysis
Data collection, processing and analysis are the most important part of the research. By doing it properly the study will fulfill its objectives and make appropriate recommendations. For this the study is segmented with socio-economic characteristics or profile of migrants, factors of rural-urban migration, justify of the factors with the opinion of non-migrants of the migrants origin and the perception of the rural-urban migration. And finally according to the segment the study will find out some major findings.
Socio- Economic Characteristics of Migrants
As Duaripara is one of the largest area of low income group people of Mirpur, migration took place here at a high range and also going on. The study is done on 85 people randomly who are living in the slum and migrated from different parts of the country. The main objective was to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the migrants and it was tried to fulfill properly.
Age of the Migrants
One of the few universal generalizations that can be made about human migration is that the young adults are most likely to move. Table 5.1 shows the migrant population by age group. The table shows that most migrants are between 16 and 30 years, comprising 54.1% followed
Table : Age Pattern of the Migrants
|Age group||No. of People||Percentage (%)|
Source: Field Survey, April-2011
by age class 31 to 45 comprising 23.5% of the migrant population respectively. The average age of migrant is 27, with 28 years for men and 26 years for female. Relatively 46 to 60 age group migrants have 14% which is less than above. The people of below 15 and 60+ are very negligible in number in case of rural-urban migration. Migration might thus be seen to deprive the villages of their most active and able members.
Gender/Sex of the Migrants
The study consists of with the profiles of 85 people who are migrated from different parts of the country and living temporarily in the slum. Among 85 people 47% are female and 53% are male. So it has been clearly shown that comparatively male people are decided to come in urban area that female. But female are not in negligible in case of taken decision to migrate.
Source: Field Survey, 2011
Origin of Migrants
In Duaripara some clusters are identified who are from similar parts of the country. As example, a large cluster of people of the slum migrated from the Northern and Southern parts of Bangladesh. People of same places came here through a person of some persons’ source who are living here and built up different communities based on same origins. According to the field study a large potion of migrated people came from Pabna more specifically Chatmohar Upazila which influenced the report to identify the migration factors of Chatmohar area. People also as well as migrated from grater southern part of Bangladesh and from grater Dhaka also. The above graph remarks that about 45% of the studied people are migrated from northern part, 25% from southern part and 10% from grater Dhaka and so on.
According to the field survey it is noticeable that migration trend has a dramatic relation with recent years. The above graph reveals that the migration range was up warding up to the last 9 years. In the recent 1-5 years the trend is a little bit down warding. The highest migration trend is seen from 6-15 years ago, 15-20 years ago the migration trend were only 13%, where after 5 years the percentage increased by more than twice time(13 to 30%).Then the rate was similar for the next 5 years and now a days the percentage is declining.
Educational Pattern of the Migrants
The figure shows that 44% migrants have primary or less than primary education and 31% migrants have secondary or less than secondary education where 20% migrants are fully illiterate. They can not read and write but however some can give only their signature or have little knowledge about counting. At the same time only 5% migrants have more than secondary education. So in this low class people area comparatively less educated people are come from the different part of the country.
Marital Status of the Migrants
The figure shows that the people of married are more that unmarried in case of rural-urban migration in the study area. The real scenario is that 66% people are married and in most cases they are living together. And 34% migrants are unmarried where most are living with mess system or some cases live with relatives. It has been seen that in a family maximum members contribute for their family.
Occupation/ Work Pattern
It has been seen that almost every one of the people who have migrated from different parts is engaged with different works. A high portion of total males are engaged with rickshaw pulling and grocery shop keeping as there is a large retail market in Duaripara. As living cost of Dhaka city is so high, women also work similarly with men. Among women two common work patterns (working in garments and as maid) are identified through field survey. The percentage of garments workers is the highest among the different work patterns. Below the tabular presentation is indicating the different work patterns of people.
Table : The Occupation of the Migrants
|Sl. No||Occupation||No. of People||Percentage|
|06||Rickshaw and Curt Puller||12||14.1|
Source: Field Survey, April-2011
The average income range of the migrated people is 6000-10000. In work Pattern it is noticed that most of the migrated people work as day laborers e.g. rickshaw puller, constructional worker etc. and women also works with an average salary of 6 to 10 thousands. People who have a retail shop or grocery shop earn more than a rickshaw puller (10-15 thousands in a month). Again some people who have a rickshaw garage or own shop have a large income (more than 20 thousands). The house wives are categorized as no income list as they have no income sources.
Though it is definitely a lower income range in perspective of living cost of Dhaka, yet 70% of people agreed that they have a higher income than before migration income. A very small percents (20%) opinioned that they have no change in income and 10% opined that they had a better income before migration.
Though the migrated people earn a little money, yet they have to remit money to their village for their dependents. About 80% of migrated people said that they have to remit money and they have to take responsibilities of their dependents are living in the villages. They are transferred money to village for their family to their daily expenses and paid their due load in some cases. Sometimes they keep land in village by their savings. They are also agree to go back to their villages if they got any better opportunity of income and could live a better life.
Socio-Economic Factors of Rural- Urban Migrations
Every migrant have specific reasons to take migration decisions. In this study it is called as socio-economic factors behind rural-urban migration. In most of the forms of rural-urban migration some factors work specifically as influencing factors. They can be categories as factors those are strongly influencing the migration rate. These factors are also seen through the study. The factors mainly seen are shown in the below table and graph:
Table : Socio-Economic Factors of Rural-Urban Migration
|Serial No.||Socio-Economic Factors||No. of People||Percentage %|
|1||No scope of work in village (most are landless or young )/ better employment opportunity in town||30||35.29|
|2||Better income in town than village||25||29.41|
|3||Victim of natural disaster||10||11.76|
|4||Avoid social problems i.e. political threat||15||17.65|
|5||To lead better life in town||5||5.88|
Source: Field Survey, April-2011
From the above table and graph it is found that the highest range of migration usually take place for better employment opportunity or no scope of work in village or scarcity of food and other basic needs. About 35% people take decision to migrate for above causes. Most of them are young people both male and female and some cases landless poor segment of people. About 29% people are migrated due to better income in urban area than rural. Most of them are boredom of agriculture or find out any better opportunity in town. But somehow most people do not meet their demand or the reality in not in their favor. About 18% people come in town for avoiding various social problems like prejudice, fanaticism, political chaos thus threat of life, dominating village elder etc. It also includes cases related to land acquisition, inheritance of properties, failure of repay the loan and so on. Again natural disaster and landlessness are occupied both in fourth position i. e. 12% of total respondent. Various natural disasters like flood, cyclone, draught, river erosion etc. sometimes make their life more hopeless and thus they decide to migration in town for surviving. And the last not in least about 6% people are come in town for better living, better education of children, getting better health facilities and enjoying city amenities, services and availing entertainment. Here only some people opined that they migrated for better living as they had better income sources and earned well. These people only came here for attraction of city life and they don’t want to go back to the village.
The causes of migration are usually explained by using two broad categories, namely, push and pull factors. For example, people of a certain area may be pushed off by poverty to move towards a town and/or industrial base for employment. While a better employment or higher education facility may pull people to avail those opportunities. People’s decision to migrate from one place to another may be influenced by many non-economic factors such as, personal maladjustment in the family or community. When maladjustment arises, economic disadvantage may appear as a strong influential or push factor in migration decision of an individual. The responses reveal that the process of rural-urban migration is strongly influenced by the incidence of push factors, of which the most one is the absence of jobs in the village, and pull factors like the prospect for earning higher income in the cities. Here from the perceived data push factors are playing more dominating role than pull factors in rural-urban migration. Around 65% people are migrating due to push factors at the same time 35% people are responsible for pull factors. The findings however show that it is the economic opportunity that played dominant role in migration decision. From the data it shows that 76% rural-urban migration is occur from economic factors where only 24% is responsible as social factors.
Thus this study reveals that those who were engaged in agricultural laborer, business and unemployed at the place of origin, they were mostly migrated due to poverty; and those who were engaged in agriculture (land owner), job/service, or in study at the place of origin were mostly migrated for job searching. The migration decision has been an individual or a collective one whether the move has benefited the immediate family only or the greater family. One question was asked to the respondent that in future they have any chance to go back their village or not if they get better opportunity in village. More than 64% people replied yes cause they are not satisfy with their present situation, more than 20% were confused, they answer may be they will go back in their origin but 16% respondent answered, they will not go back in village. They are happy in their present situation. The respondents’ perception about go back their origin is presented as graph in below:
Perception of Rural-Urban Migration by affecting factors
As a large number of people of the study migrated from a specific rural area, Chatmohar Upazila of Pabna district (second study area); the report contains a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) of the people of Chatmohar area who are not migrant or somehow taking preparation for migration to identify their points of views about migration and the factors behind rural-urban migration. The people of FGD are called as non-migrants. The FGD is mainly based upon three basic benefits that they get from the migrants and the sample number was 33. The non-migrants have direct or partial relation with migrants in most cases. The FGD was structure based by the answering of mostly yes/no by raise their hand, actually it was basically opinion based of the non-migrants. The result of FGD is presented in the following way:
Justify the Factors of Rural-Urban Migration
As shown in below table, three categories of factors are perceived by non-migrants as important causes for rural-urban migration. The higher is related to the need for education (93.3%) and acquisition of skills in various vocations (72.2%). The second higher reasons are relate to the absence of satisfactory job opportunities in rural areas. These include the scarcity of employment (71.1%), absence of industries and companies (68.9%) and boredom in agriculture (74.4%). The third higher percentage of factors is about social, such as inadequate amenities (62.2%) and expulsion from rural areas due to an offence or crime committed by the migrant (68.9%). The first two sets of factors are common in rural-urban migration literature as factors responsible for the movement of migrants. Among the social factors, only inadequate social amenities have influenced most in rural-urban migration according to the rural people of Chatmohar. It is interesting that 68.9% of the non migrants opined that expulsion due to an offence or crime committed by the migrant could be a reason for migration. It is possible that the focus of several earlier studies on migrants as the unit of study and analysis had hidden this factor so far.
Table : Factors Perceived to Cause Rural-Urban Migration (N = 33)
|Yes (%)||No (%)|
|Advancing in Education Opportunity||93.3||6.7|
|Apprenticeship in Various Vocations||72.2||27.8|
|Absence of Employment||71.1||28.9|
|Report of Cities’ Condition Sent by Migrants||44.4||55.6|
|Absence of Industries/Companies||68.9||31.1|
|Joining a Relative in Town||55.6||44.4|
|Inadequate Social Amenities||62.2||37.8|
|Expulsion due to offence or crime||68.9||31.1|
|To Avoid the Boredom in Agriculture||74.4||25|
Source: FGD, April-2011
By comparing the findings between FGD at rural area and field survey at urban area the common factors are identified. According to above discussion the study consider better employment opportunity in urban area or absence of employment, industries/companies in rural area, better income in town than village or to avoid the boredom in agriculture and to avoid social problems like political treat of life, social crime as major factors behind rural-urban migration.
Benefits of Rural- Urban Migration
On non-migrants’ perception of the area Chatmohar, benefits of rural urban migration, the respondents were asked to express their perception of the benefits of rural-urban migration on different perspectives (Table 5.5). The perspectives were Economic, agricultural, personal, cultural and societal benefits. Each group contained five items. On the economic front, the item for which there is a clear decision by the respondents is that migrants help in the payment of school fees for other members of the family who are in school. Over 70% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with this statement. Of the five statements offered in the group of agricultural benefits, over 10% of the respondent agreed or strongly agreed that the movement of a member of the family to an urban location frees more land space for farming in the rural areas. Respondents also agreed or strongly agreed with two statements of personal benefits that it makes them happy that there is a migrant in the family (87.8%) and that it boosts their morale (81.1%). Two other benefits with which the respondents agreed or strongly agreed are cultural. Over 70% opined that rural-urban migration helps them to appreciate their culture and helps them to understand the culture of other people. Finally, most of the respondents (71.1%) agreed or strongly agreed that migrants bring more investors into the rural economy and the aspect of greater investment in the rural economy arising from rural-urban migration is a key contribution of this study to the start of knowledge in the field.
Table : Perceived Benefits of Rural Urban Migration (N=33)
|Benefits of rural-urban migration||Strongly|
|The migrant help you to pay school fees.||22|
|The migrant pay the house rent.||8|
|Your income increase because he migrated||8.9|
|The migrant get better job opportunity||22.2|
|The migrant tells you how to get credit|
facilities in town
|It provide more land space for farming in rural area||3.3|
|The migrant introduce new innovation to the village||11.1|
|It helps to locate better market in town for farm products||8.9|
|Improved seed varieties are brought by the migrant||6.7|
|The migrant taught farmer methods of disease control.||12.2|
|You are happy that you have a migrant in your family||35.6|
|It increases your morale||24.4|
|It increases your property acquisition||7.8|
|It relieves you of your responsibility on the migrant||17.8|
|It exposes you to new devise and how to operate them.||13.3|
|Rural-urban migrant help us to appreciate our culture||17.8|
|Rural-urban migration help us to abolish bad custom||11.1|
|It can change people orientation on ritual|
|It help us to understand other people culture||21.1|
|It exposes our culture to other people.||33.3|
|The migrant being more investors to the rural areas||22.2|
|Migration make the to be widely known||14.4|
|Migrant contribute to the building of town hall||13.3|
|Migrant contribute to the construction of|
|It make government to focus on your village||7.8|
Source: FGD, April-2011
Problems of Rural Urban Migration
Non-migrant’s perception of the problems of rural-urban migration was also identified using a 5 group table containing 19 statements (Table 5.6). As shown in this table, there is no clear agreement among the respondents on the economic problems derived from rural-urban migration. In case of agricultural problems, most of the respondents (75.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that the migration of people from rural area decreases the labor available for farm work. Similarly, non-migrants agreed on the personal front that they often miss the absence of loved ones (the migrants) who may choose not to return to the village. In fact, over 60% of the respondents agreed that migrants often miss family or village festivals and that rural-urban migration results in higher transport costs for agricultural products which reduces the frequency of movements and as a result rural transport service is less profitable for transport service providers.
Table : Perceived Problems of Rural Urban Migration (N=33)
|Problems of Rural-Urban Migration||Strongly|
|Agree (%)||Undecided (%)||Disagreed|
|The migrant family waste money||30.0||15.6||8.9||5.6||18.9|
|The migrant family incur more debt||33.3||34.4||33.3||11.1||6.7|
|The migrant require much money to depart|
|The migrant demand more from home after|
|The movement decreases labor force for|
|It bring about introduction of harmful chemical|
to supplement loss of labor force
|The use of machine destroy the soil structure|
due to decrease in labor force
|You miss your loved one||57.8||24.4||10.0||16.7||28.9|
|The migrant refuse to come back to the village||34.4||31.1||22.2||2.2||10|
|The movement, left more for you to do||15.6||12.2||8.9||25.6||37.6|
|The migrant find it difficult to cope with the city life style||42.2||2.2||5.6||5.6|
|The migrant miss the family festival||27.8||6.7||6.7||10.0||37.8|
|The migrant lost right to chieftaincy post||31.1||13.3||45.6||2.2||3.3|
|The migrant miss out at the ceremonial rite||11.1||21.1||28.9||43.3||46.7|
|Migrant often take some cultural symbols for|
sale in cities
|Rural-urban migration facilitate urban market|
hence increase transport cost for agriculture
|The investors steal your resources||22.2||18.9||33.3||12.2||17.8|
|Industries created cause pollution||32.2||8.9||21.1||47.8||36.7|
|Land of village are sold at cheaper rate to|
Source: FGD, April-2011
These are the major benefits and problems on the perspective of rural people of Chatmohar who are non migrants, but want to migrate. From the study it is found that people who have migrated fewer problems than benefits. The people who are helped by migrants are in better condition than the other people.
Reasons for Non-Migration
Obviously, most of the rural population has chosen not to migrate. Asked why they had not chosen to move, a variety of answers were given. Many were heads of the households (mostly women), who had the ultimate responsibility for the management of the household. There are others who have social obligation such as taking care of old parents and young children while others like the village lay priests, astrologers and communal leaders remain to fulfill communal obligations. Fewer still claimed to remain because of sentimental attachment to their ancestral properties and to uphold village traditions. Some remain for fear that absence from the household would negate their chances of inheriting. Some respondents indicated that they could not migrate due to lack of basic education, inexperience in non-farm jobs, or the lack of capital to start a business. Others said that they would not like to leave their land fallow and that the present agriculture practice is reliable, secure and economically viable. Further, they could also earn cash income through sale of surplus farm produce.
General views on Rural-Urban Migration
During the preliminary study on rural urban migration, respondents were asked for their views as to whether rural-urban migration should be enhanced, reduced or left without intervention to take its own course. Most respondents expressed that it should be sought reduced, while 32% feel that migration should be left to take its course without any intervention. 19% has the opinion that migration should be encouraged as it relieves the rural populace of many difficulties.
Overall Findings from the Research
According to the both study on specific area explores some major characteristics of migrants, factors for rural to urban migration and perception about migration. As characteristics of migrants only state here as major finding which play a domination role in the destination of migrants. The broad factors of migration also explore some specific factors of rural urban migration as push and pull factors. The push-pull model for migration has drawn from classical economic theory which is closely related with the labor market. The finding will be closed here with the perception of rural-urban migration in general thinking by the opinion of non-migrants who are taking preparation for further migration in most cases.
Findings as Characteristics of Migrants in Dominating Role
From the data and analysis the study has find out some common characteristics of migrants who are now live in Duaripara, Mirpur as their present destination. The characteristics are playing a dominating role from the perceived data and analysis. And these are summarized as following way:
- Most of the migrants are between 16-30 age group where male are greater in number than female, within male young male are playing a dominating role. Migrants are usually come from various part of the country, but maximum are coming from north part of the country and staying here from 6 to 15 years. They usually married in large number having primary or less than primary level education;
- The migrants are engaged in diversified profession but most of them are engaged in mainly as garments worker, rickshaw and curt puller and grocery shop keeper. The average income of the migrants is from 6000 to 10000/- per month. Majority has opinioned that they have improved their present situation comparing their past, besides that about 80% migrants remit money in their village by contributing their family expenses or bye assets in their origin.
Findings of Factors behind Rural-Urban Migration
From the above detail study it could be summarized that as causes of migration 65% push factors are responsible where 70% economic factors are responsible for rural-urban migration. Those broad factors of migration also explore some specific factors of rural urban migration as push and pull factors. The determinants usually can be seen after analysis of migration behavior of people. Between them push factors alone have accounted for approximately two thirds of the total. The findings as push and pull factors are as follows:
Push Factors: It is known to all that push factors are the conditions or factors that drive people to leave their homes. The push factors are mainly: Search of work, failure to repay NGO loan, urge of livelihood (extreme poverty), homelessness and landlessness , threatened by opposition, natural disaster, marital factor (divorce, newly married etc) and loss of income sources.
- Search of Work: In is the most common scenario of rural urban migration of Bangladesh. Rural areas of Bangladesh are less developed and people do not know the scientific methods instead of traditional methods of farming. Besides that the economy of Bangladesh usually fails to provide the proper value of the crop to the cultivators. As a result they usually do not get sufficient profit and tend to change their occupation to informal sectors. In this case migration from rural to urban is the most common scenario of our country and condition seems homogenous in case of migration in Duaripara.
- Failure to Repay NGO Loan: In Bangladesh several NGOs are working in rural based area. NGOs usually gives loan in an easy process like easier loan conditions, micro credit loans for small business or agricultural purposes. There is no denying fact that NGOs are improving the condition of poor in rural area, but it also true that rate of repay of their lone is high and time of is limited. Sometimes poor people have no way to repay the loan and they migrate to urban area for better income and also for repaying the loan.
- Urge Livelihood: In the rural part of Bangladesh, maximum people are living below the poverty line. They usually don’t have home or land and can hardly earn a minimum livelihood. These people come to urban areas to earn and to lead a better life.
- Homelessness and Landlessness: People who don’t have home and land can not manage their daily food as they have no way to cultivate or creating the poultry farm. They also do not have the condition to take loans and repay it timely. So, they usually migrate to urban area to meet up the basic requirements.
- Threatened by Opposition: Sometimes political factors are being responsible for migration. Politically harassment, threatened, police cases or cases for property etc are another type of cause of migration. Though a less number of people migrate for the reason, yet village politics is growing rapidly and migration for political reasons also increasing.
- Natural Disaster: In Bangladesh migration for natural disaster is quite enough familiar. Every year people migrate temporarily or permanently when the face a severe damage of crops and land because of natural disaster. In fact mainly Duaripara, a low income group area was introduced after 1988’s severe flood as DND embankment was made and the area was high enough. Again it is seen in north Bengal people usually migrate seasonally in the season of draught and go back to the village at the time of sowing the crops.
- Loss of Income Source: It is another important factor for migration. Income sources like land, home or wealth can be lost by accident, natural disaster, political cases and so on and to regain it people usually migrate to urban area to earn a better wage.
Pull Factors: Pull factors are the conditions that attract people to a new area. Rural to urban migration also happens for pull factors. The main pull factors are higher standards of living/ higher wage, labor demand, political and religious Freedom, better facilities and amenities.
- Higher standards of living/Higher wages: Economics provide the both biggest push and pull factor for potential migrants. People moving to more developed areas will often find that the same work they were doing at home is rewarded abroad with higher wages. They will also find a greater safety net of welfare benefits should they be unable to work. Aware of this situation, migrants are drawn to those countries where they can maximize benefits.
- Labor Demand: Almost all developed areas have found that they have a well enough labor demand. Rich economies create millions of jobs that domestic workers refuse to fill but migrant workers will cross borders to take. Again there are variations of works in urban area where it can not be seen in rural.
- Political and Religious Freedom: Usually urban area is an over populated area. Here, people remain so busy most of the time and also have a grater context. So, people get maximum political and religious freedom here.
- Better Facilities and Amenities: Urban areas usually have the well utility services like electricity, supplied water and gas etc and as well as also have higher amenities like parks, cinema halls etc which attract people. Rural based people when migrate to urban area, these facilities attract them and they want to live permanently in the urban area.
Findings as Perception of Rural-Urban Migration
These are the major findings of both two areas and people migrate and want to migrate for overall these problems and prospects. Though their condition in city do not match with their expectation and have to suffer a lot, yet they do not want to go back until they have a better opportunity and condition than city life. From the studied perception of rural-urban migration, it has been found that people who have migrated fewer problems than benefits. The people who are helped by migrants are in better condition than the other people. More that 50% people think that this situation should be changed. If they get another better alternative way of income in village then they will not migrate by breaking their roots. About 80% people think that they will go back their homeland when they will save a lots of money or get better opportunity in their origin.
Major Findings of the Research
- Most of the migrants are between 16-30 age group, where male are greater in number than female and within male young male are playing a dominating role;
- Maximum migrants are coming from north part of the country and staying here from 6 to 15 years where married in large number having primary or less than primary level education;
- The migrants are engaged in diversified profession but most of them are engaged in mainly as garments worker, rickshaw and curt puller and grocery shop keeper;
- The average income of the migrants is from 6000 to 10000/- per month where majority has opinioned that they have improved their present situation comparing their past;
- About 80% migrants remit money in their village by contributing their family expenses or bye assets in their origin;
- Migration is a fundamental part of rural livelihood strategies and rural transformation is not simply a way to escape rural areas where destinations and reasons for moving vary by gender and education;
- Both push and pull factors area responsible to rural-urban migration, where the main push factors are no work in village, failure to repay NGO loans, threaten by opposition and natural disaster; in the same time pull factors are employment opportunity, political and religious freedom, higher standard of living or higher wages and better facilities and amenities;
- The migrants condition in city do not match with their expectation, most of the time they do suffer a lot;
- Yet, they do not want to go back until they have a better opportunity and condition than city life;
- The people who are helped by migrants are in better condition than the other people and they have no wish to go back at all;
- More than 50% people think that this situation should be changed where 80% people think that they will go back their homeland when they will save a lots of money or get better opportunity in their origin.
Recommendation and Conclusion
Bangladesh is characterized by heavy concentration in a few large cities. The country is also poor and vulnerable to many natural hazards. From the earlier analysis it can be predict that the future of urbanization is not at all bright. But we need to think forward. From the analysis and findings it is clear that the gap between rural and urban must be reduced. It has been concentrated on not only urban but also rural area as well. It is recommended that government should encourage the people of rural areas by making available job opportunities and amenities that would encourage the stay of the migrants.
It is very important to smooth coordination of every responsible sector, i.e. government sector, private sector, policy maker; civil society and general people itself should perform their role appropriately for the sustainable development of the rural area as well as urban development and management. The following initiatives should be implemented by ensure the proper role of each and every relevant department of the country of Bangladesh:
- The role of Government should be ensured infrastructure development in rural area, coordinated and effective urban management system, establish agro-based industries and introduce modern tech. in agriculture through encouraging young adults;
- Ensure the role of non-government organizations to establish different cottage industries and create employment opportunities in the rural areas;
- Introducing modern technology in rural area and give training on young adult and in the same time creates technology bases employment opportunity specially for the young people;
- A national human settlements policy is needed for guiding the progress of the country, which will include policy on urbanization, migration to urban areas and urban development;
- Ensure urban development in a planned way. For this, establish planning departments/cells by recruiting planner in each city and municipality even upazila/thana even union level, and ensure participatory urban planning for inclusive development of urban area and integrated development of rural area;
- Empower the civil society to ensure better participation, transparency and accountability of public sector institutions and local governments. Provide scope for participation of defense forces along side civilians in critical urban development activities, such as in construction of roads, embankments, land and housing development, urban forestry and urban agriculture;
- Provide potential market participants, especially marginalized and vulnerable groups, with the mechanisms, knowledge, and right to participate in markets; and pay special attention to areas where markets are missing or not competitive and may need regulation or assistance to overcome institutional barriers;
- Disaster planning and risk reduction strategies must account for the new challenges of climate induced disasters;
- Policy makers must start planning now to solve this problem with participatory research action in bottom-up approach;
- Ensure smooth coordination of every responsible sector, i.e. government sector, private sector, policy maker; civil society and general people;
Besides above telecommunications and other information technologies should be expanded as this would not only create employment opportunities but also help to decentralize businesses from large cities to potentially lower-cost smaller cities. This would benefit smaller cities and strengthen links with rural areas. If the government or private developers build small local townships with adequate municipal facilities (like electricity, sanitation, schools and medical services) all over the country it would reduce the burden of rural-urban migration to the existing large cities.
Migration is one of the vital forces that contribute to fast urbanization generally associated with higher levels of efficiency and expansion. Migration is a root and outcome of socio-economic alteration. It is considered as a behavioral attribute that reflects the dedication of the people of origin and destination to reach. Rural-urban migration currently becomes a common fact and the situation is not in control. This study may help the planners and social scientists for implementing and extending the rural development programs, as it gives an overview of the people involved in rural-urban migration process and also identifies the main factors or causes of migration at individual and household level. Further proper urban planning can be designed since this study also provides some ideas about the migration intentions and directions. People migrated to urban area because they are attracted by livelihood opportunities. The migrated population can find diversified livelihood opportunities with various incomes in the towns and cities. Thus, the poor rural population considers migration a livelihood coping strategy. Their condition in city does not match with their expectation. They are still doing very hard work and suffering a lot. Life is very tough here but yet they do not want to go back their origin until a better opportunity and condition than city life. So there is no alternative than need immediate actions.
The study is different and unique in that it did not only show the factors and effects affecting rural-urban migration like several previous studies but also revealed the perception of the non-migrants on benefits and problems of rural-urban migration. The study has demonstrated that perception of non migrants on benefits to be gained and problem to be faced from rural-urban. This study will be helpful for Government to realize the real situation and priority of implementation and for policy maker to make problem free policy for rural and urban development. Further research can be conducted on this issue in a large scale to find out not only causes of migration but also the priority based solution in rural-urban migration.