Concept of social work education:
Social work is both a profession and social science involving the application of social theories & research methods to study and improve the lives of people, groups, and societies. According to Walter A Friedlander, social work methods are divided into two parts. One is Basic method of social work and another is Auxiliary Method. Basic method is divided into 3 parts such as
(1) social case work
(2) social group work
(3) community social work.
(b) Auxiliary method is divided into 3 parts, such as-
(1) social action
(2) social administration
(3) social research.
Practical Social work is very important for a student who wants to be a professional social worker. It will develop his or her capacity to solve any problems in his professional life. Practical Social work in institutional education is known as field work. It is a combination of theoretical and practical knowledge and makes a bridge among the people to solve their psycho-social and other problems. By this field work a social worker can make him skilled & expert through interviewing, using theories, methods, techniques in practical arena assuring recoding, responding reporting etc.
Social work is the provision of services designed to aid individuals singly or in groups in coping with present or future social and psychological obstacles that prevent or is likely to prevent full and effective participation in society. It refers to a collective approach of reducing suffering and disadvantages and increasingly happiness and advantages of the community members with the active participation and involvement of individuals as well as government and Non-government organization.
Current definition is given by Social Scientists Skidmore & Thakery. They said, “Social Work may be defined as an art, a science a profession that helps people to solve personal, group and community problems and to attain satisfying personal, group and community relationship through social work practice including case work and community organization, administration and research.” Social work provides service for the problematic person just like the following:
Every profession has its knowledge and practice on the basis of which the professionals of that profession engage them in human service and on the basis of their knowledge and educational activities. In the same way social workers have to practice social work on the basis of social work educational activities.
High lighting the theoretical side W.A. Friedlander said, “Social work is a professional service based upon scientific knowledge and skill in human relations, which assists individual alone or in groups to obtain social and personal satisfactions and independence.
Historical background of social work education:
Though the traditional background of social work was originated in England but it was recognized as a profession in America. Coordinated social work was originated and the question of quality and experience of the related persons was being discussed loudly when the separated and the traditional social welfare activities become unable to solve the problem to fulfill the needs of the people. In 1893 Anna L. Dawes is the first man who gives importance on the training of social work profession in social work practice in International Congress of Charities, Correction and Philanthropy in Chicago. (Friedlander, 1982:484)
Then Marry Eileen Richmond, one of the main founders of social work as a profession proposed for a separate school for professional social work practice in National Charitable and Correctional Conference in Toronto, 1987. (Encyclopedia of Social Work, 1965:665) After his declaration New York School of philanthropy was founded in 1898 and has at first a six week training session was arranged on social work. Later the duration of this training was extended at first one year and then 2 years. This New York school kept a great contribution for professional social work education and training. New York School of Social Work was founded to extend social work education in 1904. Mainly from that time professional social work practice education and training courses were started in different universities in America. (Rahman, 1996)
In terms of time social work has become a subject of higher educational institution, which aims to give up the total human welfare by developing the standard of traditional social services through the light of experienced & knowledge collected from the society.
International and modernized social work:
The concept of internationalism was seldom applied in the field of social welfare until a number of socio-political developments took place throughout the world in the very recent past year. The recent realities of a unipolar world, the introduction of a worldwide free market economy and the concept of a global village have driven social thinkers and scientists to conceptualize the concept of welfare in an integrated manner with the current mental/psychological state of the world people being in a smaller village-like world with many common concerns to share. Thus, today the societies/communities spread throughout the globe do not live and exist far apart from each other. Through revolutionary technological advancement like the use of fax, e-mail, website, mobile phone etc besides radio, television, telephone they have overcome their geographical distance and minimized it almost to a zero distance. Dozens and hundreds of civilizations and corresponding societies/communities are now aware of each other and can share their joys and sorrows easily and, in fact, cannot keep their eyes close to the weal and woes of others. That is why the idea of social welfare has today crossed the boundary of a community of nation and assumed within its scope the responsibility to respond to the concerns of other nation/communities/societies.
Journey of social work education in Bangladesh:
Social Work education has started its journey in Bangladesh during the period of Pakistan through a short time training course by the help of the United Nations in 1953 and social work education and training was extended afterwards. College of Social Welfare and Research was established in 1958 and being included under Dhaka University. This college starts its educational programs in the session of 1958-59 with 55 students. Afterwards in 1973 it’s renamed as the institute of Social Welfare and Research (ISWR) under Dhaka University. In 1974 social work was included in the curriculum of graduation (pass) and Higher Secondary level as an optional course. Shahjalal University of Science and Technology started this subject as a B.S.S (Hons.) course in the session of 1993-94. At present this University is providing Honors and Masters degree. On the other hand National University was established in 1992 and from the starting of its establishment it is teaching this subject by the colleges under it. According to the data of 2001 Masters Courses is being taught by 17 colleges and Honors course by the 32 colleges under National University. (Islam 2002:319). Rajshahi University is also providing graduation and post graduation degree on this discipline. Pioneer of social work and social workers a belief that within a short time social work gets professional recognition. To ensure the proper social services for people government should take necessary steps to professionalize the renowned discipline social work.
Limitations of Social Work Education in Bangladesh
Since social work has historically been regarded as non-professional in character in Bangladesh, it has experienced certain limitations. The limitations currently of note are: i) the Department of Social Service (DSS) under the Ministry of Social Welfare recruited social work graduates it’s for various social welfare programs up to 1973. However, since 1974, the government of Bangladesh has changed its recruitment policies to make these fields of services open for masters degree holders from any discipline; ii) There is no professional association/organization such as those developed in other parts of the world. This includes an accreditation body for social work education – such as the council on Social Work Education; a professional organization such as the National Association of Social Workers or a licensing board such as a Board of Behavioral and Social Science Examiners. iii) Although some changes and adjustments in the curriculum have been made, the current curriculum is still not up to an international standard and not in accordance with the changing needs of Bangladesh society; vi) Standard textbooks in mother language-Bangla and indigenous reading materials are not available in accordance with the demands and needs of the students. As a consequence, reading, practicing and teaching of social work is not professionally recognized. There is no aptitude and attitude tests taken like developed countries in selecting students for admission in social work disciplines and courses; and v) Finally, the financial and other resources constraints is an important limiting factors in regard to development of social work education in Bangladesh.
It is significant to note that despite above mentioned limitations, social work is quite popular among students because they find more employment not only with government development agencies e.g. Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), Department of Social Service (DSS), Department of Women Development but also with NGO’s upon completion of social work degrees.
Conceptual analysis of field work:
Field work is an integral part of the social work education. Historically the profession of social work has considered field work a primary means of providing student opportunity to acquire knowledge value and skills. Simply we can say field work refers the process or approach in which social knowledge, value, principles and other social work related discipline are exercised in the arena of social service welfare and sustainable development.
Field work is a peer supervises of learning process a qualitative study qualitative, quantitative data or information, knowledge synthesize and integrate knowledge what is learn in the class room or in laboratory (human services). Field work emphasizes on the area of following chart to make the social worker skilled.Field work means to work in the field work agency. It is considered an integral part of social work education. In this process, we get opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge and techniques in the field work agency to meet the social problems. Social work emphasize on field work to practice or apply its knowledge
For proper conceptual analysis of field work we should see the definition of Institute of Social Work and Research, University of Dhaka. According to the syllabus of M.S.S (2ND Semester) – Field work consists of supervised practice in problem – solving activities with the recipients of social work services which enable students to learn to apply and test social work skills necessary for professional practice. Education experience in field work is designed to integrate practice with theoretical knowledge. Students assignments are planned to give content sequence and progression in learning. The minimum required time for field work is 420 hours to be spread over 60 working days. In addition, 10 days will be allotted for final report writing. Each student is required to write a final report on his/her work which will be examined by the supervisors responsible for field instruction during field work. There will be a viva-voce examination for this course at the end of the session.
Above all, field work is an educationally sponsored attachment of social work students to an institute, agency or a section of community in which they are helped to extend their knowledge and understanding and experience the impact of human need and interest.
Historical background of field work:
On the view of field work social work is a dynamic and updated discipline than the other discipline of arts and social science faculty. But field work is not a readymade product of present time. It shows an aged history like social work education Initial stages of field work was not systematic and organized. One of the great pioneers of the social work Mary Richmond first introduced social work practice and she wrote a dramatic and historical book named “Social Diagnosis”. Whish worth, P.I. Park and has inaugurated field practice at the Chicago University of America to evaluate and monitor urban poverty by their students. Dr. Emerson has taken initiatives to send the medical student to social agency at the John Hopkins University in 1902.
Fieldwork practice is indispensable part of social work education. National Social Service Academy of Social Service Department of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh has organized short training course for its Social Service officers and field worker in 1963. Generally three-type training has organized by the department like internal training, primary training and reefers course.
From the mid 18th century to the end of the 19th century social work has evolved from societies to assist and reform a year of full time academic study. Now all over the world there are many courses on social work education. After the independence from then British, India, Pakistan was facing many socio economic problems and government sought United Nations help. After government request UN sent an expert team. According to their recommendation a short course of three months were introduced in 1953 to produce skilled social worker.
In the meaning V-AID program in 1953 and urban community development program were expanding quickly by the government and voluntary organizations. As a result concerned authority felt the need of starting higher education on social work and in 1959 Dhaka University started MA course on social work and also established social work college and research center which was inaugurated by Lt. Colonel Azam khan on 19th March 1963 for its own building. In 1958-59 Social welfare College & Research, in 1965-65. Rajshahi University & in 1992-93 Shahajalal University & under National University started Hon’s & Masters Degree with compulsory Field work.
Goals and objective of field work:
Field practicum is a dynamic course that challenges apprentice social worker to practice knowledge, skills principles of social work and values within an organization and community contest. It is vital dimension of student’s undergraduate and graduate social work education. Field practicum affords experiential assessment and evaluation of student’s development and progress of becoming a helping profession.
In the field of social work, field work is such a way through which the apprentice social workers get the opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge acquired in the class. For this, an apprentice social worker has to apply his knowledge and skills of social work in real sphere under a supervisor. Practical training provides the students opportunity to realize how social problems are influencing the individuals, group, family, organization, and community. It also aims to allow the student to test himself/herself to develop sense of professional discipline to gain self-confidence and to feel him or herself a social worker with beginning competence. (University of Dhaka, 1996) On the other hand, According to American Social Work Council, The objectives of practical training are:
- Making contribution for getting student acquainted comprehensively with all types of social work profession
- Creating a due environment to make students self-consciousness.
- Along with studies the attitude and the skill of the students should have a balanced display in the classroom.
- Making opportunities available to the students to apply social work methods and be experienced.
- Taking necessary steps so that students can acquire primary experience of social work profession.
Practical training in capacity the trainee of practical training to make use of the opportunities available, will enable them to bring about changes in different circumstances, make them acquired them with the elements that influence the administrative process, decision making and realization of those processes and decision; practical training of social work will make them of capable of collecting interviews, reports and other communication related activities.
Utility of field work in Social Work:
Social Work study is subject with high educative value and practical training is indispensable along with textual and classroom knowledge. And the way to acquire this real knowledge is getting learned about practical training. In performing field work a student/social worker gets the chances of mixing with different sections of people and can observe community directly, their behavior, social value, attitude and their socio-culture and economic conditions and their inherent causes. So, to broaden the knowledge of insight field work is unique. And lastly it is undoubtedly clear that field work in present day is a wonderful combination of theoretical knowledge, practical experience and skill which are emergently necessary for students. The impotents of field work in social work will be clearer through the following discussion:
a) Field work makes the apprentice social able to understand how to work with the client.
b) It is important to gather knowledge about different client’s viz, individuals, groups and communities.
c) It develops social work skills on problem solving process.
d) Through field work the apprentice social workers learn how to use social work knowledge, methods and techniques for solving the individuals, groups and community problems
e) It is training before being professional, because social work is a professional help to the clients.
It is more clear that in social work profession, field work or practical training is utmost important. Above all social work is a wonderful combination of theoretical and practical knowledge and skill. That’s why field work is emergently crucial for the professional social work or apprentice social workers.
Inter-relationship between social work education and field work
Mutual relationship between social work education and practice: Modern social work education has two dimensions: theoretical and practical.A social worker gains knowledge about society, social problems, property, social structure, social values, human behavior, social work process when practical training enable them to use this knowledge acquired knowledge in this field for real life purposes. Thus practical training is required for social worker to solve social problems of human beings/society for modern social work. Taking notice of this requirement higher education has been provided with practical training course in its syllabus about social work, through which students can apply theoretical knowledge for solution of problems. Social and Economic Council of United Nations has recognized social work as a profession in 1951 and formulated the following decisions. Social Work is a profession based on trained male and female and who are obtained theoretical and practical knowledge in social work degree from established and recognized educational institutions is mandatory to fulfill by them.Social Work is a practical education, which is learned through theoretical study of society and social work. This is because ‘public good’ can be affected only by applying theoretical knowledge in real life in a scientific way. And practical training helps apprentices to be full-hedged social workers by making arrangements of applying theoretical knowledge in practical life. And these together make social work education and practical training inter-dependent upon each other. Therefore we may say social work education and field work are interrelated concept just like two branches of a tree.
Orientation of Field Agency
Historical Background of the Agency:
STEP began its journey in compliance with the phase out policy of Shapla Neer = Citizens’ Committee in Japan for Overseas Support whose had every intention to institutionalize it’s Community Development Centers (CDCs) to work as locally independent organization to serve better of a particular locality. Shapla Neer (SN) begun forming samity with a hope to see all samity formed to be measured* finally having E grade. As such motivation conscientiousness at thinking level), education (non-formal), appropriate knowledge and skills (in the form of training) were given equally to all samities and continued until drop out results. Having been experienced with the passage of time, SN observe that the real needs at individual level left unassisted even are neither materialized by grading survey nor by samity based yearly planning although paying visit to samity went on quite frequently. Similarly, participatory discussion and planning at samity level, which was supported to be facilitated by the field organizers, were also absent. As a result the desire of individual samity member has not been reflected even at yearly samity based planning.
All these appear to be one way top down approach to samity where samity people would have found no room for involving themselves under participatory process of planning and evaluation. As care and nursing went on tears together in samities yield insignificant results to the extent of those who don’t observe. Eventually, motivation activities also gradually become less effective as their needs are defined otherwise which, in turn, helps samity member becoming less interested and frustrated leading drop out, cases of reformation, grade down, state of inactiveness and similar such pull- back motion in samities.
Amidst development of samity, SN also observes that some samities can’t keep pace with the other who within short span of time become up-grade (matured). Some other could attain certain level of maturity having diverse needs. Some matured samit(E grade) can’t think of what is next to get samity going collectively. In view of the above, SN thought about a participatory process of evaluation and identification of specific and diverse needs putting emphasis on samity individuals and /or their collective efforts as an institution what is call samity categorization.
Shapla Neer believes that all the people in the world have the right to “stand on one’s own feet”, i.e. to enjoy self determination and self-reliance. However, unfortunately, there are quite a many people in Bangladesh who do not have sufficient capacity and power to become self-reliant. Therefore, SN considers “empowerment” of the people to be keynote for its development assistance activities. If people become empowered, they will be able to start protecting their life and improving socio-economic condition by their own initiatives and capacity.
After a long service of Shapla Neer in Manikganj district (since 1974) it intended to put an end of its direct services leaving behind a worthy skilled work force and good will to deal with local issues more dedicatedly. Through handed over of staffs and assets of Shapla Neer in April 2002, STEP started its activities independently. On April 29, 2003 STEP activities were officially launched getting registration from NGO Affairs’ Bureau. STEP, since its inception, kept continued unfinished tasks and dream of Shapla Neer to deepen understanding if the local issues treasuring its experiences and achievement of working as CDC-Poyla (Community Development Center of Shapla Neer-Poyla) over the last two decades. The major activities were awareness development, adolescent development, child care and development, poorest of the poor family development, child & adult education, sanitary latrine and hand tube-well distribution, skill development training, arsenic mitigation, popular theatre, ageing welfare, home stead gardening, disaster risk reduction, micro credit etc
Goal, Vision, Mission and Objectives of the Agency:
Goal: To create a poverty free community.
Vision: Establish a community where people live with peace and social justice.
Mission: Enhance right and build capacity of the underprivileged by utilizing and mobilizing local resources, creating scope of employment, providing advanced education & technology ensuring participation of all stakeholders.
The main objectives is to establish rights, peace and justice of the under prevailed with especial emphasize on hard-core poor.
To ensure minimum education for all and to provide support for continuity in education.
To equip the community people with appropriate knowledge, education, skills and awareness.
To create better eco-friendly environment, health and hygiene.
To enhance economic empowerment of the beneficiaries through mobilizing of working capital & appropriate technology.
To protect all forms of discrimination from the community.
To develop the appropriate management from the family level to institution level in order to reduce people vulnerabilities and extent of suffering from disasters.
The Projects of the Agency:
Step towards Empowerment of the Poor (STEP) is a non-government service provider as voluntarism status organization, is working to create a poverty free community through improvement of livelihood status by undertaking various programs and projects. STEP has a glorious past. It has promoted several programs that play a significant role in the communities like education, legal issue, capacity building, WATSAN, Micro Finance, Disaster Risk Reduction, Adolescent Development, Poorest of the Development, Aging Welfare and need based relief and rehabilitation. Now I would like to discuss the present projects of STEP in details.
Income Generating Activities/Program (IGA/IGP):
Most of their beneficiaries are very poor. To create a working capital for their beneficiaries they are helping them to be united and collecting savings weekly. They also help them to create employment opportunities and distribution of loan to the beneficiaries as per need. STEP has 395 groups, 6950 members, 5135 loaner covering 6 upazila and 2 districts in 7 branches.
Community Preparedness for Disaster through Adolescent’s Initiatives :
Manikgonj is prone to disaster like flood, river erosion and tornado. As a result the people of these areas have to struggle always against the natural disaster. The hardcore poor people particularly are worst suffers and come under vicious circle of poverty as they can’t cope with such calamity. Day by day the number of the hardcore poor is increasing because of recurrent vulnerabilities. Disaster is the main cause of increasing vulnerabilities. Disaster is a main cause of increasing vulnerabilities. In our community a good number of adolescents are growing up. Basically they are an important segment of the community. They can play a vital role in the society if they guider properly. If they work in the society against disaster risk reduction, poverty will be decreased in families as well as communities ultimately livelihoods of the marginalized people will be uplift to ensure human rights in the society. So, for doing large scale activities with adolescent we would like to implement a 3 years project with adolescent in the proposed are through which the following output will be achieved:
- Adolescent and youth team established as a volunteer to aware community people on disaster preparedness and during disaster.
- Developed a skilled staff team (working force) to ensure quickly work.
- Improvement of livelihood through increase awareness of hard core poor families to mainstreaming them in the society.
- Awareness built at family and community level for better care of old age.
- Planning for better preparedness of disaster at village level.
- Document project leanings and achievements and share with different stake holders and donor.
- Increased Govt. Official’s initiatives to provide safety net facilities for targeted people by regular liaison and communication of responsible person of STEP with them.
Development of Poorest of the Poor (POP):
Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is the first objective of Millennium Development Goal, as set by 179 United Nations Member States in 2000. Over 40 percent of the population in Bangladesh live below the food poverty line, of whom 28 million are “ultra poor/hard core poor/poorest of the poor/extreme poor”- consuming less than 1,800 kcal a day and their income less than S I per day, lacking productive assets and adequate foot to provide for their sustenance. To address MDG STEP has taken 60 individual households having 270 members including 31 hardware ethnic communities (Bagdi) under POP programs. Most of the POP is widow divorced and women headed households. STEP works for their socio-economic development, self-employment and income generating opportunities for potential family members as well as individual households.
In the project area the age-old people living are about 10%. Almost all of them are
Very deprived and some and neglected too either socially or in their own family. No body or no organization works with them. These age-old people are physically weak, social depressed, and mentally upset in many respects. “Nobody looks after carefully; none hear them heartily and helps them economically”. Actually they are experienced; can easily share experience with other and can be involved and contribute social development initiatives too. STEP are committed for betterment of the aging people by providing them mental recreational facilities, medical checkup, family counseling, distribution of stick, organizing them by formulating a clubs and arrange reading habit and arrange meeting with the adolescent group to share their views and ideas and experience of the community people and maintain liaison with various hermitage center to ensure their proper treatment.
Disaster Preparedness & Risk Reduction Program:
Climate change is a risk to development and requires action. Climate changes predicate that climate change would impose significant stress on resources throughout Asia, particularly in least developed countries like Bangladesh and make pro-poor growth more difficult. This action proposes to build on the current PRSP framework and support existing capacities and institutions, specifically Disaster Management Committees and local partner NGOs to promote the translation of good policy into good practice for the benefit of highly vulnerable communities. A Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) approach fits within existing development plans and systems but requires increased capacity and technical input to incorporate risk assessment and risk reduction measures in ongoing development plans and interventions. To aware and reduce seasonal flood losses STEP has taken under mention initiatives like mitigation both infrastructural e.g. Flood walls, flood shelters and non infrastructural e.g. appropriate agricultural practices, introduction of short maturation rice varieties, tree planting for flood protection and secondary uses.
Preparedness e.g. contingency planning, early warning, early warning systems, capacity building of local level Disaster Management Committees and local NGOs) Advocacy e.g. advocating at local and national, regional and international level for adoption of appropriate mitigation measures, establishment of speedy and effective emergency responses and safety net programs and promotion of other issues relating to policy and practices, including allocation of central governments funds, land tenure rights.
Participatory Actions Towards Resilient Schools & Education Systems:
Children are among the most vulnerable population groups during a disaster, especially those attending schools at the time of the catastrophe. During disasters, school buildings are destroyed, taking away the precious lives of children and teachers and stalling access to education in the aftermath of disaster. Rebuilding these schools can take years and are very costly. Learning disaster risks in primary and secondary schools help children to play an important role in saving lives and protecting the members of the community before, during and after a disaster occurs. Making disaster risk education and integral part of the national school curriculum helps to build greater awareness of the issues across entire communities. In addition to their essential role in formal education, schools must also have measures to protect children and reduce hazard in the event of natural disaster. Investing in strengthening school structures before a disaster occurs, reduces long-term costs, protects generations of children and ensures educational continuity after the event.
STEP believes cultural activities can play an important role in the community for social development. So, STEP demonstrates popular theater and observes different national and international days to aware and develops community people on various social issues. STEP encourages adolescents more to take part in these activities.
Emphasizing Point of the Projects:
STEP in its one year interim project, has put emphasis on the Poorest of the Poor in particular and ethnic minority, destitute women, adolescent girls & children and ageing welfare activities to care geriatric complexities and thereby aspiring to reach the project goal. Simultaneously, STEP would like to give special emphasize on staff capacity building to identify local problems and designing new need based program/projects as per requirement of the Poorest of the Poor of the project area.
Emphasis also given on the following outlines:
I. Poorest of the Poor of the society who are not enlisted by other organizations or are not considered being a member of NGOs’ target group. STEP has already enrolled about 50 families and worked in family approach for last three years (2008-2009). STEP would like to categorize these families and declared as Graduate Family whose level of income have been interested by this time and turned into POIP Group approach and continued nursing rest of the POP families as existing Family Approach. Liaison and linkage with Government and Non Government organizations and Local Government Agencies are to be strengthened to facilitate Poorest of the Poor. Members in Government provided social safety net program.
II. Organized Adolescent Clubs as such that they can act as ‘social change maker’. At the same time they will be able to shoulder some social responsibilities. STEP will experiment in the proposed interim period to make boys & girls as volunteers in the community.
III. Emphasis also given to ageing welfare activities to ease geriatric complexities through mental recreation, family counseling and medical facilities.
- STEP put emphasis on staff development to capacitate staff on management and program development with special reference to maintain liaison with the Government functionaries, Local Govt. representatives and different stakeholders of the community.
Strategic direction/strength of the Agency:
- STEP has an experience of project implementation at various capacities, have a trained skill working force especially to work with Adolescent girls, Poorest of the Poor, destitute women in right based approach.
- STEP has a well equipped own office and residential training accommodation.
- STEP has a well managed financial management.
- STEP has covered 1700 direct beneficiaries at 5 upazilas under 5 offices (Manikgang, Ghior, Daulatpur, Harirampur & Saturia, 2008-2009).
- STEP has a good Networking & Communication with upazila & district level Government functionaries, Local Government Representatives & Local, National & International NGOs.
- STEP has a good understanding with local elite, local power structure & various stakeholders of the society
Working Area of the Agency:
District Upazila Office Location
Manikganj Manikganj Sadar Manikganj Sadar
Manikganj Ghior Poyla
Manikganj Daulatpur Daulatpur
Manikganj Horirampur Jhitka
Manikganj Saturia Saturia
Tangail Nagorpur Nagorpur
Staffing of the organization (Male & Female)
|Office||Number of Staff|
Management of the Head Office of the Agency :
Management (Head Office)
Assistant Credit Coordinator
Management of the Field Office of the Agency:
Management (Field Office)
Project Manager (PM)
Training & Monitoring Officer (TMO)
Liaison & Communication Officer (LCO)
Branch Manager (BM)
Assigned duties and responsibilities
Duties from the Institute supervisor:
- To take part in the sitting.
- To observe the all programs of STEP.
- Taking Union profile from UP.
- To know about the agency.
- Reading several books related to social work and field work
- To collect data on old-aged people
- To know deeply about my particular program ( CPD through Adolescents Initiatives )
- To prepare a report on STEP and its programs
Duties form the agency Supervisor:
- To attend in an introductory class on programs of STEP.
- To observe all programs of STEP.
- To attend the cultural and sports competition of adolescents club.
- Visit old age people and counsel them.
- Visit the adolescents club and to join with their activities.
- Visit the POP Program.
Performed Duties and Responsibilities
Profile of Poyla Union
For the betterment of the community people and my field work l have known about Manikganj District and Poyla Union (Ghior Upazila). Manikganj was formerly a subdivision of Dhaka District. It is located at 65 kilometer north of Dhaka alongside Dhaka Aricha high way. It was turned into a district in 1984. It has an area to about 1379 sqkm , and is bounded by Tangail Distict on the North, Dhaka District on the East, and mighty Padma and Jamuna are flowing on south and west side . Manikgnj has 7 upazills and 65 union parishads. The Upazillas are Manikgarj Sardar, Singair, Shivalaya, Saturia, Harirampur, Ghior and Daulatpur. Mainly Manikgonj is low laying area most of the area of this district was a river part. Every year flood water visits all over the district. Sometimes tornado also hit the district. On the April 26, 1989, Manikganj was the site of a tornado in terms of loss- of- life up to that period 1,300 people were initially reported as having been killed with 12,000 injured. The towns of Saturia and Manikganj sadar were leveled and 80,000 people were made homeless. Total population of the district is
1301900. 7.5% of total population lives in rural areas. Average household size 4.91 (Urban 4.35,) rural (4.74) Daulatpur is situated on the bank area of Jamuna. Daulatpur has 8 unions in which 4 are in the river side. Ghior upazila situated beside Dulatpur. So, the Characteristic of Ghior upazilla almost same to Daulatpur.The population Ghior & Daulatpur upazila is about 1,70,000 with 63,000 households.
Poyla is the name of a union under Ghior upazila of Manikganj district. It has 28 villages, one of them also named as Poyla where Shapla Neer has been working more than two decades. The rate of literacy under Ghior upazila is 31%.At present Shapla Neer’s working areas fall mostly in 23 villages (out of total 28) under Poyla union. It has a total of 4,285 families with a total of 17,983-estimated population. All 7 upazilla of Manikganj district are characteristically more or less same or similar as regards to the pattern of peoples’ livelihood, cultural heritage and annual flooding situation. The rate of literacy of population of 7 years and above aged in Manikganj district is about 40% which is about 42.5% in the country(statistical pocketbook Bangladesh 2005 & Population Census 2001, published in 2001).As Flood visits almost every year inundataing ahuge cultivated land restricts of more than one crop annually. Generally a single crop i.e. IRRI- Boro paddy is grown under irrigated condition in almost all parts of the district. Finding risk of flooding, people has a little scope of growing rain-fed Aus and Aman paddy. Other than paddy, crops like vegetable are not grown much. The floodwater carries huge quantities of sands every year and as such the topsoil gets loosely textured.Potatoes, Groundnut, Watermelon is good growing crops. Mustard, Sunflower is found frowing in parts of the area. Agriculture is the main source of family consumption, 85% of people of these areas depend on it .Agriculture, fishing, small business, day labour are the main occupation of the people. There is a chart of population of households category by main occupation of Ghior & Daulatpur showed below-
Total Area : 9.35 Sq km
Total Land : 4866.76acre (approximate)
Village : 28
Ward : 9
Mouza : 24
Total Population : 40, 983 (Approximate)
House : 300
Male : 19,038
Female : 18,945
Main Occupation : Agriculture
Rate of education : 66%
Main Religion : Islam
Main cultural Function : 16th December ( Bijoy Dibas)
NGOs : SONALI, JUBOBAI SAMITI, STEP, BRAC,
GRAMEEN BANK, KARITASH.
The Ratio of Rich and poor : 25:75
Average Age of marriage : 18 years.
Rate of Birth : 8 (In thousands)
Rate of Death : 5 (In thousands)
Total Birth Registration : 20,100
Govt. Primary School : 8
Registered Primary School : 2
High school : 1
College : 1(Tarosree Degree College)
Tube well : 470
Deep tube well : 11
Shallow Machine : 470
Mosque : 19
Madrasha : 4
Temple : 9
Road (Pitched) : 5
Bridge : 9
Culvert : 11
River : 1
Playground : 1
Graveyard : 28
Cemetery : 3
Pond (personal) : 21
Number of dam : 3(Bailjori Pond,Chorbailjori Damp, Niloar Damp)
Family planning office : 1
Health Centre : 1
Post Office : 2(Non-govt)
Hut : 3
Bazar : 4
(Source: Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, 2001, Statistical Pocketbook, 2002, and Bangladesh Population Census, 1991)
The industrial sector in this district is not yet developed. The rural communication network is very poor and all kancha roads come under destruction in every year by flood snatching communication among the rural networks of upazila and even between upazila and district headquarter. On the basis of the aforesaid statistics, STEP has implemented an integrated development program from 2005-2008 for development of live & livelihood under the financial assistance of Shapla Neer. To contribution to reduction poverty through initiating process of capacity building of community people by enhancement of their rights in the society during the project period 2008-2009 in the project area STEP would like to work in the same project area to enhance the rights of community people with special emphasize on poorest of the poor. Directly 5000 beneficiaries (approximately) will be benefited by this project in the fiscal year 200-2010.
Socio-economic condition of this area:
Lowland with annual flooding, soil is sandy textured. Village is arranged in clustered form. Houses are built on raised land. There are fewer number of shallow water bodies. Big hat- bazar but road communication within upazila is very poor usually mud built.
Mostly single crop is grown annually but growing of other crops is subject to annual flooding. Agriculture production is based on share cropping basis. More fertilizers are required for growing of crops as the soil is poorly textured.
Basically agriculture based with low income groups. Industrial sector is not well-organized/developed to supplement income opportunity of the large number of people of the district. Cottage industries are about to extinct and it seldom employs rural people. In the recent past years, the rapid expansion of poultry industries brings hope for many youths.
People are politically conscious that help leading political stability. Harmony between political parties makes the differences. People are culturally developed and cultural heritage is well endorsed and bonded with social norms, customs and tradition irrespective of religious identity and built with the respect of each other religious over year.
Rural communication network are poorly developed. Roads are built on mud (kancha). Communication is one of the barriers in the context of rural development curt driven by horse and bullock, rickshaw, van are principal means of communication among the unions. So to say, people feel comfort during this time for transportation of commodities with cheap price.
Women and children are mostly suffered from malnutrition. Although eligible couple have accepted family planning methods following Government and NGO initiatives but some reports of health hazard arisen out of that. Qualified doctors (MBBS) are not available. Sanitation facilities are good and people are very conscious about sanitation. Recently, Arsenic has become a serious concern with an anticipation of future health hazard.
The total population of the union is 17,983 of which 55% male and 45% female. Average family size is 4 plus. Almost all households are having average 2 children (Ref: Upazila Statistical Office,’91 census
The literacy rate of Poyla union is 27%. Male literacy is 33.60% and female literacy is 19.50%. In Ghior Upazila there are 77 educational institutes of which 61 Government Primary School, 16 non-government registered school. Apart from these a total of 175 non-formal primary education centers (class1-4) run by the NGOs. Because of lack of furniture, insufficient accommodation for the students, system of education, attendance of students, quality education, and non-arability of book made the parents not interested to send their children into school. People are eager to accept adult education. Side by side with NGO, Government initiatives are there for adult education. (Upazila Statistical Office, 1991 census)
Recently some new bazar (market) has been developed in the village. 95% of them built on poor (Kancha- Pucca) structure with tin/ straw shed roof. Roads, bridge, culverts are not so developed and are subject to collapse or threat to flood. (CDC own survey and eye observation)
Week social control and management like prevalence of early marriage, dowry and polygamy. Female are allowed to outdoor works and people are cultural minded.
For physical and mental growth of children there are limited numbers of playgrounds in the union. People are generally bit idle and credit oriented.
My participation in particular program:
Community Preparedness for Disaster through adolescent’s Initiatives: Manikganj is prone to disaster like flood river erosion and tornado. As a result, the people of these areas have to struggle always against the natural disaster. The hardcore people particularly are worst suffers and come under vicious circle of poverty as they can’t cope with such calamity. Day by day the number of the hard core poor is increasing because of recurrent vulnerabilities. Disaster is a main cause of increasing vulnerabilities of this area.
In our community a good number of adolescents are growing up. Basically they are an important segment of the community. They can play a vital role in the society if they are guided properly. If they work in the society against disaster risk reduction, poverty will be decreased in families as well as communities and ultimately livelihoods to the marginalized peoples will be uplift.
STEP has a good experience to work for Adolescent Development Program through UMPERS (Uplift the Marginalized People to Enhance their Rights in the Society) Project. Now STEP has taken 3 years CPD Project with adolescent to ensure human rights in the society.
Objectives of CDP Program:
ü To reduce discrimination from the society through initiating process of mainstreaming (increase monthly income &social awareness) ultra poor.
To ensure involvement of ethnic group in socio-economic development activities.
To reduce the rate of dropout from Primary Education, increase rate of literacy.
To develop adolescent as a change maker in the society.
To sensitize the community people about the importance of care giving to old age people.
To ensure quality services to the target beneficiaries by enhancing skills of the staffs.
Immediate Objectives of CPD Program:
Capacity building of the adolescent is the main purpose of this program. 14% of total population is adolescent. Adolescent are providing voluntary services for the development of the community. They work only for mental satisfaction. Today’s adolescent is the future of the community. If the adolescents develop capacities on disaster, they able to work to reduce wealth losses, take care old age people, look after our under privileged people and the lesson will be continued among the future generation. Community will safe gradually form disaster losses to follow this process. To build their capacity it’s not sufficient to teach them only on disaster related issue they have to be known and understand in wider range also. So its immediate objectives are:
- To find out their own and community problem.
- To aware and act about their rights.
- To make them free form social restrictions and serve for the community
- To raise their voice against social crime and fulfilling their demands.
- To mange crises applying appropriate knowledge and skill.
There are three activities under CDP Project. These activities are-
- Development of Adolescent girls as a social change maker.
- Mainstreaming Hard Core Poor in the society.
- Welfare of old aged people.
I work all of these activities especially Development of Adolescent girls as a social
Change maker. Though I work in particular field I would like to disclose all of these
Activities in detail-
1. Development of Adolescent girls as a social change maker:
STEP has an experienced to work with adolescent girls at Poyla & Daulatpur project area. At present 25 Adolescent Girls Club is available having 475 girls. Their previous experience proved that adolescent girls have played an important role during last devastating flood in the field of emergency response. They have covered 134 poorest of the poor flood affected victim families through distribution of dry food, rice, pulse, candle etc. by their own initiative mobilizing fund from the community. Simultaneously, they were made four bamboo bridges by their own initiative at Poyla and administrated a Flag station through flagging having prior mobile SMS from Center for Environment & Geographical Information Services (CEGIS). They have disseminated the message of dowry, early marriage, arsenic, HIV AIDS through demonstration of drama in the same project area.
Considering the above mentioned situation of adolescent girls it is the high time to explore their development thoughts for community development efforts in the positive manner. They would play more vital role in such area if they were provided support and positive guideline from STEP. For capacity building of adolescent girls & children it is very necessary to continue their study, group efforts, social & cultural activities. Most of the boys & girls are from poorest of the poor families they are interested to continue membership with their own club and shoulder some social responsibilities. They would like to identify local problems, disseminate messages to the community people through demonstration of open drama, debate competition, wall magazine etc. besides, their mental & cultural development. Children were also interested to be enrolled in the adolescent club to receive major project interventions or support from STEP. To develop adolescent girls and children as a social change maker they should be continued study. So, STEP would like to disburse study loan among the adolescent girls and boys and to ensure continuation in study and to involve them to shoulder responsibility of social activities.
- To increase the level of awareness on various development issues of children and adolescent girls.
- To develop adolescent as a change maker in the society.
- Awareness rising.
- Day observance.
- Open drama.
- Cultural activities.
- Making Change Agent.
- Development guideline for study loan.
- Impart Training on Reproductive Health.
- Impart Training on HIV AIDS.
Criteria of Adolescent:
- Girls within 12-18 years from all families.
- Permanent resident of same village or area.
- School going, dropout and left out girls.
- Have concurrence of guardian.
When anybody will be able to fulfill these characteristics, she will be a member of adolescents club. On the other hand, when a girl reached at 18 years old, she will be an advisor of adolescents club not a member.
Four FO will do routine of 25 clubs and impart monthly issue based discussion following guideline will be developed by Program Director. Concerned FO will assist group members to design activity of Day Observance on World Literacy Day and facilitate those to conceptual of the significance of these two days. FO will assist to prepare scripts of 10 dramas at 10 villages will be demonstrated by 10 clubs on the identified issues to aware community people about these selected issues. All of the planned activities will be accomplished by the adolescent girls with the direct guidance of the concerned FO of STEP. Besides this, all clubs members will share their future thinking and present activities in annual convocation.
A guideline of study loan will be developed where system of loan disbursement, criteria of loan recipient will be incorporated by March, 2009. List of training will be collected by the FO, the training on reproductive health will be facilitated by the staff and facilitator will have to hire for HIV AIDS.
- Girls become aware on social development issues, child rights & personal health, hygiene, early marriage & dowry etc.
- 100% girls observed World Literacy Day, World Environment Day & known about the significance of these days.
- Community people become aware on early marriage, dowry, HIV AIDS, child labor & child trafficking.
- 60% girl attendant in sports & cultural events.
- All club members are devoted & inspired to provide voluntary services by their own initiative & started to shoulder few social responsibilities.
- A guide line for study loan developed.
- 40% girls’ attendant training on Reproductive Health and become aware of mother health, adolescent health & responsibility during pregnancy.
- 40% girls’ attendant training on HIV AIDS and shared with all children at their respective clubs.
My participation in Adolescents club:
I have performed my assigned duties and responsibilities. I have gone to the adolescents club in the field level and observed their activities. I have attended at their cultural program. Now I am writing about the activities of adolescents club which I have observed.
1. Group Formation and Nursing:
Nine field officers prepare groups. There are 37 adolescents club at Poyla (25) and Daulatpur (12) and 210 youth in 12 clusters. Clusters are formed by the discussion with staffs. The total member of Poyla club is 506. Nine field officers conduct weekly meeting in every club and impart monthly issue based discussion following guideline. Twelve fixed selected issues are discussed in 12 months. Sometimes it changes according to time and community’s demand like as swine Flu, Anthrax (Time’s demand). STEP counts its fiscal year from April to March.
2. Skill and Awareness Raising:
For raising skill and awareness, STEP provides various training to the adolescents. These are:
- Training on Disaster Risk Reduction.
- Training on Aviculture
- Mushroom cultivation.
STEP is providing training the adolescents gradually. Disaster Risk Reduction training is much more effective for reducing losses to disaster women, children, old age people eventually adolescent girls are more vulnerable in during disaster. By taking Disaster Risk Reduction training, adolescents are able to work to reduce wealth losses, takes care old age people and children, look after of under privileged people. By taking these training programmers, they are able to-
- Safe themselves during disaster
- Aware other people
- Develop speaking capacity
- Develop leadership
- Develop cultural compliance
- Turn them risk to resource.
Various national and international days are observed and prepared wall magazine by the adolescents under the consultancy of Field officers. Under the guidance of field officers two drama scripts on disaster related issue are prepared by club members .Some rehearsal are arranged to follow the final demonstration in the village or during day observation time . I was also present with my teachers in the final demonstration of a drama which was related to disaster. Club based half yearly cultural competition is arranged by respective field officer and token prize are presented among the winners arranging an informal ceremony where parents and local elites are guest. A club level competition is arranged. Winner of all groups participate in cluster based competition. Winners of cluster based competition take part in the annual cultural competition which is held in office campus. I have attended some weekly cultural program. Annual convocation is arranged by field officers in the office campus in which all club members are presented their last year activity and next year plan. Local elites, parents, govt. Officials are invited here.
1. Mainstreaming Hard Core Poor in the Society/Poorest of the Poor:
STEP has started to work with Poorest of the Poor in 2003. Development of Poorest of the Poor program was included in the last integrated project Community Participation & mobilization for Better Livelihood Development for initiating process for mainstreaming of the poorest of the poor household in the community. To achieve this initiative was taken to increase capacity of these backward sections of community people. A total of 44 families having 208 members were enrolled and provided support in family approach. In December 2006 a survey was conducted among 24 POP family according to the survey findings it was found that all family members have had a 3 times meal. It is very remarkable here that they did not have regular food intake due to poverty. Basically, they did not have any asset and were not involved with any Income Generating Activities. STEP has provided motivation on personal health & hygiene, environment, homestead gardening and selection of more profitable occupation. Now 10 POP family members have changed their heritage occupation of fishing & labor. Consequently, their monthly income has been increased. They did not have any capacity to deposit any savings and pay weekly installment of loan. In the last year 15 POP families took loan from STEP and invested that in various income Generating Activities, and realized weekly loan installment without any delay which indicates that their economic condition have been improved. A total of 17 goats were providing among 17 families. Through these kinds of support 3 families are now having more than one milking Cow that them to be economically empowered. Out of existing 44 POP families 28 frami8lies are now ready to be enrolled in the Group Approach.
Considering the above mentioned scenario a new strategy may be taken to work with the POP. In the proposed project STEP will classify 50 POP’s to work in family approach & group approach.
To increase level of awareness on personal health hygiene, environment and various development issues.
To increase level of income.
To create scope of income and access to self employment.
To ensure involvement of ethnic group in socio-economic development activities.
Criteria of POP family:
- Monthly income is less than tk.2000/.
- Have not own homestead, living in neighbors or others land.
- Have not regular food intake.
- Have not any own asset.
- Not enrolled with any other NGO’s.
- Have not any idea about personal health and hygiene.
- Have not any loan with any financial institution.
- Have lived on hand to mouth.
- Have more than three kinds and not going to school.
The above mentioned activities will be implemented at Poyla and Daulatpur project area in 50 POP families where 35 POP including 31 Ethnic POP will be treated as POP group following the below mentioned criteria-
Monthly income is about tk.2000 per month.
- Kids are going to school.
- Have own home.
- Not getting any benefit from other NGO’s.
- Have a regular food intake.
- Have a capacity to deposit weekly savings.
- Involved in income generating activities.
- Can put signature.
- Level of awareness on health & hygiene, environment, food & nutrition increased.
- 40% POP family heads and earning members changed their present occupation.
- 90% POP family members become able to have meal thrice a day regularly.
- All POP family members school going aged children went to school
Welfare of old aged people:
In the project area about 10% of the age-old people live. Almost all of them are very deprived and some are neglected too either socially or in their own family. Nobody or no organization works with them. These age-old people are physically weak, socially neglected, and mentally upset in many respects. Many of these people found suffering from old age complexity, diseases & loneliness and do not have any source of income earning. “Nobody looks after carefully; none hear them heartily and helps them financially”. A gathering was held at Daulatpur & Poyla and discussion was held with them to identify their problems. They have told that in the cases they feel alone they need mental recreation and cooperation from family as well as from family as well as from neighbors and other community peoples. So, to design an independent program we need to conduct a survey to prioritize their real problems. STEP would like to start family counseling to extend their family cooperation and make a data base of old aged people.
- To sensitize the communi9ty people about the importance of care giving to old aged people.
- To develop a data base of old aged people.
- To identify problems of old aged people.
- Prepare a data base of old aged people.
- Family Counseling.
- Medical Support.
- Idea Shearing & learning.
- Provide assistive materials.
Criteria of old aged people to be covered:
- Aged above 60.
- Persons from hard core poor.
- Persons live alone.
- Family members do not take care of.
Following the above mentioned criteria 10 families will b selected from 20 villages in Poyla union for routine counseling who are not takes care of by the family members and also treated as burden.
- A data base on current situation of old aged people living in 20 villages of Poyla project area prepared.
- At least 20 old aged person’s family members sensitized about their responsibilities up on them.
- About 50% of old aged people received health check-up at their residence.
- About 250 old aged persons received medical treatment.
- A day long gathering was held and identified problems & prospects of old aged persons.
- 50 old aged persons of hard core poor received walking stick.
Case Studies and FGDs
Case Study: 01
Md Islam Uddin Khan is about 45 year’s old shopper. He started his business nearable 20 years ago. In that time he got married. So he came to the business for developing financial situation of his family. He has no institutional education but his memory is very sharp. He could not write down anything what he sold so he should memorize everything. He has three sons and one daughter. Md Islam Uddin Khan started his business with a very little capital. But later he needed more money to enlarge his shop and purchase different item. In that time a field worker from STEP has come to him and told him about micro credit. The worker informed him about loan and managed everything to get it.He took out a loan for 30.000 Taka as enterprise development in 2000. It was his first loan. After two years he completed all the installment of first loan and he took second loan.Now Md. Islam Uddin has the biggest shop in Terosry bazaar. His elder son is CNG driver and also married but lives with parents. His second son is student of H.S.C. the younger son of Islam Uddin is reading in class nine. He is a brilliant student. The only one daughter of Islam Uddin named Rehena is student of class five.
Economic and Social Condition:
Md Islam Uddin Khan was a son of Rickshaw puller. When he opened his shop at first time it was very small in size. But now his shop is the largest in Terosry bazaar. He could not study for lacking money but now he has a smart income by which he can maintain his family easily. He has enough money and this is why he can send his children in school. His social status is much batter then the past situation and he is one of the respective people in his society. Now he is satisfied about his present life.
Md Islam Uddin Khan is not interested any other business. He always tries his best to make more profit. In near future he is interested to make his business larger. For that reason he needs a large amount of loan. He is hoping that he will get a large loan from STEP, which will be helpful to expand the business. If he did not get large amount he will try to get loan from any other commercial bank. Now he is running his business smoothly without any problem.
Case Study: 02
Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader is a 55 years old businessman. He started his business in 1980. In that time he started his business as a part time profession. He used his relatives to maintain his business and he worked in a consulting farm. But few days later he leaved his consulting firm job and joined in his optic business. He gave all of his time in his optics business to establish it. Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader is a well-educated person. He has completed his BA Honours in Political Science from National University. He and his wife have one child. He is a student of university and he is doing his MA. Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader’s wife is not employed in any income generating activities.
Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader starts his business with 15.0000 Taka. He brought the shop location in 1980. So he has no need to pay and rent. It’s a plus point for his business. At the very beginning time he needs more capital for his business. At the same time he informed about micro credit of STEP by the field worker of STEP. So he communicated to the STEP head office to get an enterprise development loan. At first he took out a loan for 50.000 Taka. After finish first loan installment he took out second loan. Now his running loan is 50.000 Taka and it’s the 6th time loan he had took out from STEP.
Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader is a well-educated person. Before he starts his optics business he was a consultant in a consult farm. But he leaves his job and started optics business as a family profession. At first he has no employees to maintain his business. But now he has six employees for his business maintenance.
Economic and Social Condition:
Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader’s economic condition is now very good. He can pay for all of his family. His son is doing masters from a Private University. He has a well-decorated home and healthy savings. He purchased some land in his village and helped his father financially. A good relationship has been established between Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader and the STEP. Md Liakoth Ali Hawlader said that STEP staff is monitoring his business regularly. He never forgets STEP’s support. Now he is much satisfied on his present social and economic condition.
Md Liakyt Ali Hawlader is now a well-established businessman. He is now trying to setup more showrooms. For that purpose he needs a large amount of capital. Md Liakoth Ali Hawlader has taken loan 6th time from STEP. But he is no longer interested to take loan from STEP. His future plan is to expand the business on a large scale. If he does it he will took loan from any commercial bank.
Case Study: 03
Md. Mojibur Rahman is an old farmer, lives at Soto Poyla, in Manikgong. He is a 72 years old man. I took him as my case for some special fact. He studied at class 8. He has married for two times. He got first married when he was 25 years old and his wife was 17 years old named Sajeda Akter. Their conjugal lives were 10 years. After 10 years his first wife died in an unwanted situation. Then he got second married. In that time he was 36 years and his second wife was 20 years old. In this conjugal live his wife bearded 4 children. Two of them are female and two of them male. His two daughters have married and they are now living in their husband’s houses. At now he lives with his family and there are six members in his family. They are- his wife, two sons, one grand-daughter and daughter-in-law. He lives a united family. He believes in Islam and he is a pious man. Although he was a farmer, now he is disable to work in the field. He has some cultivatable land but he does not plough it. So he and his whole family depend on his son’s income. Sometimes he gets essential money from his married daughter.
He thinks that foods, cloth, shelter, well treatment are very much important matter for living. Almost every day he eats rich, vegetable and fish but he can’t eat any meat every day though he desires it. One or two days in a month he can eat meat or any good food.
He lives in a separate room and it is his own. He wears medium standard dress and gets those from his son and daughter. His health condition is not totally good and totally bad. Sometimes he feels wrist pain and suffers from asthma.
Most time of the day he spends his time by gossiping with other older person, grand-daughter and neighbor. He prays salat regularly. Sometimes he reads newspaper and watch TV.
His son and daughter-in-law behave well with him. They don’t torture on him. Sometimes he gets ill. Then he is sent hospital or doctors by his family members or relatives. He is hardly involved with many organizations. He desires sympathy to all older people from society. He said that he wants government and non government organizations or any great person of society will come to help all older people and specially respect them until death.
Case Study: 4
Mrs. Rahima Begum is 65 years old woman & now she is widow. Her husband Md. Fazlur Rahman died about 20 years ago. Now she lives with her two sons. It’s a united family. There are eight members in her family. Her both of sons are married. Her elder son Mahbubur Rahman has married 17 years ago. He has one daughter and one son. Her younger son Md. Saidur Rahman also married person. She has a baby aged 3 years.
Rahima Begum Lives united family. After death of her husband he is living in a single room. Every day she wakes very early. She starts her day with prayer. After prayer she helps her daughter in law in as much possible. He eats in breakfast rice of wheat. In lunch she eats rice, vegetable and fish. Her husband left behind some land so they get some foods from its. Most of things they have should buy from market Rahima Begum wants to eat meat or any costly fruits but his sons are not able to buy that’s regularly.
Rahima Begum suffers from diabetes and high presser. Sometimes she feels very sickness, but it is about impossible to go to a good doctor in town. So, It very difficult condition she goes govt. hospital in rural area.
She can out read or write. There is no television in her room. So, she goes not get any recreation.
She is involved with an N.G.O She got some training from here all thing she is not literarily she know the value of education.
She spends her time praying salt, helping daughter-in-law in cooking, playing with grandson & daughter and gossiping with nephews.
Sometime she goes to meet her brother who lives in near the village she get some financial help from her brother and nephews she has good relation with relatives.
She gets cloths from her sons at every Eid. She collects Shari of Jakat. She is quite happy. She says I am at around the death. I have no so much demand. Only I want respect from all specially from my family.
I want every one respects their parents. I hope I can die with respect and my family will remain good.
Case Study 5
Md. Abdus Salam is 35 years old Tea Stallman. His village is Terosry. He has a tea stall in terosry bazaar. There are six members in his family. His parents, wife & his son and daughter. His 10 years old son is reading in class four and 7 years old daughter in class one. Salam’s father is a poor farmer. He has a little land but it is insufficient for them. So they should buy everything for live. Abdus Salam carries on his tea stall from first morning to late night. From this tea stall he can earn only 200 taka to 400 taka per day. This amount of money is not enough to carry the all expenses of family. Because of increasing price of daily products, always it is very difficult to carry other expenses including children education, medicine, cloths & other cost.
On the other hand to carry on a tea stall is much taught. So Salam wants to change his business. He would like to start a small business such as a grosser shop. To start a grosser shop he needs capital which is not possible to accumulate from family and other internal sources. Now to accumulate this capital to open this business, external source is a good possible way. He is well informed that many people of his village got loan from external sources and successfully run their business with continuous improvement. STEP is a famous NGO in his area and it has been operating its activities since 1972. STEP is successfully implementing micro credit project in village. Now Salam is interested to get the financial aid from the micro credit part of STEP.
Social &Economic Situation:
Abdus Salam is a hard working person. He would like to change his economic condition & social status by his effort. He wants that his son and daughter will educated and establish in society with high respect. He believes that economic development is very important matter to establish in our society. So Salam always tries to overcome various obstacles in development.
I saw that Md.Abdus Salam is a hard working & target oriented man. I think, if he gets some support from any organization he will establish in future. I recommended STEP to aid Abdus Salam so that he starts his business properly. I wish if he continue his restless job Salam wills success in his life.
All of the interviewees are between 65-70 years old. They all are Muslim. Their educational qualification is between classes one to five. They live in combined family. Their wives are alive. They are uneducated &their main occupation is agriculture. They have not any other income source. They all are unable to work for their poor health. They have less than one acre of agricultural land. Most of them are dependent on their sons. They have not taken family planning in their lifetime.
Information of Basic Human Needs:
Most of the interviewees are educated but poor. So, by basic human needs they mean the daily foods, cloths, healthcare, habitations etc. Most of these basic needs they cannot fulfill. Most of days they takes rice with vegetables as breakfast; rice with vegetables (sometimes fishes) as lunch &same as dinner. They get fish 2 times per week &they get meat 1 time per month. They live in little houses with their wives. They have usually 2-3 dresses. They are unable to buy their dresses. So, they have to depend on their sons for their dresses. They are unable to visit doctor in the time of their illness. If their physical conditions deteriorate much then they want help from their children. Otherwise, they take primary treatment from village doctor. They spend their pastime by praying & gossiping with neighbors.
Information of Human Rights Situations:
All of the interviewees are living with their sons in their own house. So, they have a right to live in their house until they want. They are educated person, so they are able to participate in education & training programs. They have opportunity to give idea about social development policies that is related to their well-being. They have achieved knowledge & experience to share with the youth society. In the time of their illness & other problems their neighbors & relatives help them. Although they are poor, their social status is not bad. Most of the people of society respect them. Because of their age they are able to build up a friendly relationship with adults. To develop their standard of life they have little opportunity to decide & give opinion. Their role in educational, religious & socio-cultural activities in a society is as an experienced spectator.
Information of the Problems in Getting Human Rights:
All of the interviewees are able to move. But because of old age & scarcity of fulfilling basic needs they suffer from different types of physical problems such as lack of sight, reducing listening power, heart disease, cold etc. All of them are chain smoker. It tells upon their health. Most of time because of their economic inability they cannot visit doctor. Because of price hiking economic inability they cannot buy food for them. They live in vulnerable houses that are totally unsecured for their life. They have not enough cloth to wear.
Recommendations Given by the Interviewee
To Solve Problems in Getting Human Rights:
They think that govt. should take necessary steps to provide free
Treatment to the old people of village for their physical safety. Govt. should provide food for old age people, reduce the price of food products & increase the old age allowance. Govt. also should provide dresses for old age people in winter season. They think that rich people of the society & non-govt. organizations should come ahead for the wellbeing of village’s old age people. They want more respect from the society in social activities.
All of the interviewee is between 60-65 years old. They all are Muslim. They live in combined family. Their husbands are alive. They are uneducated &their main occupation is house-making. They have not any other income source.They all are unable to work for their poor health. They have no agricultural land. Most of them are dependent on their sons. They have not taken family planning in their lifetime.
Information of Basic Human Needs:
Most of the interviewee is uneducated & poor. So, by basic human needs they mean the daily foods, cloths, habitations etc. Most of these basic needs they cannot fulfill. Most of days they takes rice with vegetables as breakfast; rice with vegetables (sometimes fishes) as lunch &same as dinner. They get fish 2 times per week &they get meat 1 time per month. They live in little houses with their husbands. They have usually 2-3 dresses. They are unable to buy their dresses. So, they have to depend on their sons for their dresses. They are unable to visit doctor in the time of their illness. If their physical conditions deteriorate much then they want help from their children. Otherwise, they take primary treatment from village doctor. They spend their pastime by praying & gossiping with neighbors.
Information of Human Rights Situations:
All of the interviewee is living with their sons in their own house. So, they have a right to live in their house until they want. They are uneducated person, so they are unable to participate in education & training programs. They have no idea about social development policies that is related to their well-being. They have no achieved knowledge & experience to share with the youth society. In the time of their illness & other problems their neighbors & relatives help them. As they are uneducated & poor so their social status is not good. Most of the people of society do not respect them. Because of their age they are ignored instead of building up a friendly relationship with them. To develop their standard of life they have no opportunity to decide & give opinion. Their role in educational, religious & socio-cultural activities in a society is as valueless spectator.
Information of the Problems in Getting Human Rights:
Because of old age & scarcity of fulfilling basic needs they suffer from different types of physical problems such as lack of sight, reducing listening power, heart disease, cold etc. Most of time because of their economic inability they cannot visit doctor. Because of price hiking economic inability they cannot buy food for him. They live in a vulnerable house that is totally unsecured for their life. They have not enough cloth to wear.
Recommendations Given by the Interviewee
To Solve Problems in Getting Human Rights:
They think that govt. should take necessary steps to provide free
Treatment to the old people of village for their physical safety. Govt. should provide food for old age people, reduce the price of food products & increase the old age allowance. Govt. also should provide dresses for old age people in winter season. They think that rich people of the society & non-govt. organizations should come ahead for the wellbeing of village’s old age people. They want more respect from the society in social activities
Application of Social Work Methods in Field Work Practice
A social worker has to have two types knowledge for practicing social work. These are the theoretical and practical. Social worker gain knowledge about society, social problems, property, social structure, social values human behavior and social work will be practical when social workers enable to use this acquire knowledge in field for real life purposes. STEP is a rural based local NGO which helps social worker to apply their theoretical knowledge in Field level.
Social work is a collective term which helps people irrespective by race, color, religion, language, gender, geographic location etc. STEP also leads its programs irrespectively.
Social Work values:
Social work values are insight dignity of a person rights of self determination self independent, democratic values, spontaneous, participation, Justice and equality, freedom and peace. These values are attended to STEP.
Motivation is an important term of social work which is applied in STEP when the field officers form an adolescent’s chub; they motivate the girls and their guardian which is highly interrelated to social work. On the other hand, the Field officers motivate the old family members so that they look after her.
The field officers of STEP counsel their clients specially the old .The old age programmed of STEP is highly appreciated because they listen their problems and counsel them how to remove of overcome the problems. They also attend time passing activities with them. After listening to their problem, they help them by counseling which are related to social work approach.
The field officers of STEP arrange a weekly meeting in every adolescents and youth club. If they see that anyone doesn’t come to the club, they go to their home and to identify the cause and manage them and their guardian to ensure their coming in the club, which is the method of social work.
They visit the adolescent’s home. Besides this, they visit the old person of their home those are the guidance of them. Home visit program is also related to social work approach.
Social work is an enabling process and STEP also emphasizes on this. STEP emphasizes on under privileged person’s like- women, children (Adolescents), old. It provides money that helps them to increase their income. As a result, they are become self-independent. Another important term is adolescents club by which they are become resource in lieu of risk in during of disaster.
So we can say that in STEP Social work methods practice.
Experience, Limitation & Recommendation
Social work is not only a theory based subject but it has a practical field to implement its various norms & values. It was my great opportunity to work with local based NGO like STEP. I passed 40(forty) days in Manikgonj for my Field Work activities. The experience of working I gathered from STEP is so good. This experience is totally different because it gives me an opportunity to interact with rural people. For this I am very much grateful to my Institute to select me for such kind of agency. I could realize rural functions like their life style, status, culture, norms, values, occupation, Institutions, festivals and their problems. I could understand the staff functions and interrelationships, advantages and disadvantages of NGO sector especially local NGO. This experience will help me to adjust with like this NGO and its environment. I am especially glad to interact with older and adolescent girls and participate with their programs. They cordially accept me and help to reach near of their heart. It makes my work easy. There is no artificial attitude of their cordiality. Overall this is a great experience for me practicing theoretical knowledge.
Limitations of STEP:
Some limitations of STEP are given below:-
- There are no enough programs.
- Lack of training programmer.
- The welfare programs are totally depend on foreign aids.
- The beginning of the adolescents chub was so good but it is not active like the beginning now.
- The funding system isn’t assured.
- Some staffs aren’t well educated.
- Salary of staffs is very poor
- The medical camp for the old isn’t enough.
- The annual report of every year isn’t available.
- The working area of STEP is very small.
- No post for social worker.
To make STEP more effective voluntary organization some recommendations are given below-
- To extend the training programs in various sector.
- To provide financial support those adolescents who are unable to continue their study.
- To strengthen the monitoring and evaluation system.
- The adolescents club should be strong.
- To continue the programmers regularly.
- To publish annual report regularly
- To appoint skill staff for STEP.
- To open more branches in more districts.
- To create post for social worker.
- To ensure funding of STEP.
- Follow-up system should be improved when the adolescents will be reached in eighteenth.
- To ensure active involvement of the apprentice social worker with entire system of STEP so that they contribute more for the effectiveness of STEP.
- To conduct some research and investigative works to find out more effective way for developing the programmers of STEP.
- To arrange staff development or training program of the better efficiency of the staff.
- Savings Credit Group (SCG) should be increased to ensure the constant funding to STEP.
- To provide more funding for ageing welfare.
- To open website of STEP.
In conclusion I can say that Field work helps a student to develop and expand his skill, experience, knowledge and education. Every theory gets fulfillments by its successful application .Institute of social work & Research sends novice social worker to field to apply theoretical knowledge of social work in real field. I was sent to SEEP for field work. I am very much glad that I could work in this agency which is working for empowerment of people .I am really astonished coming here for field work, I have got chance to observe closely life style of different classes of people. I understood that only government initiative is not enough for a balanced development. NGOs have come forward to work in this sector. They are keeping great contribution in various sectors. STEP is like that and it is one of the best NGOs in Bangladesh.
Finally I hope that STEP will success in its efforts.
01.Friendlander, Walter, A. &Apte. Robert, Z. (1982). Introduction to Social Welfare, New Delhi, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.
02.Skidmore, R.A.&Thackerary, M.G. (1964). Introduction to Social Work, New York, Appleton-Century, Crafts, Division of Meredith Publishing Company.
03.Encyclopedia of Social Work. 1965. National Association of Social Workers and Oxford University Press.
04.Taher M & Rahman A (1993), Social Work in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects,The Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol.4, Oct 1993.
05.Morales, Armando and Sheafor W. Breadford. (1998). Social Work: A Profession of Many Faces, Massachusetts, Allyn and Becon Inc. Boston.
06.Dhaka University Website. 2011. Dhaka University. www.univdhk.edu. (website accessed on November 8, 2011).
07.Institute of Social welfare and Research (ISWR). 1996. Field Work Manual (Edited). Dhaka. University of Dhaka Press.
08.Friendlander, Walter, A. &Apte. Robert, Z. (1982). Introduction to Social Welfare, New Delhi, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.
09.American National Council of Social Work. 2011. ANCSW. www.acssw.org. (Website accessed on November 8, 2011).
10.Barker, Robert L. (ed.). (1995). The Social Work Dictionary, Washington D.C. NASW Press.
11.Momin, M.A. 1990. Social Work Education in Bangladesh: University Level. Bangladesh Social Work Teachers Society. Rajsahi.
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