Definition of Job Costing :
Job Costing is method of costing in which we calculate the cost of each job. Job here means a small work or group of small activities which we can identify in any product’s production. It is also necessary for producing any product. Some, customer can order for getting specific job not all product. So, it is very necessary to find that job order’s cost through job costing method.Job cost accounting is the process of assigning the costs you incur to a specific job you or your business is involved with. This term is widely used in the construction industry and it refers to allocating costs to individual construction projects at a company. With the proper system to do job cost accounting the end result is the ability to accurately report on your profitability per project.
Where is Job Costing Used?
Job Costing is used in that industry where we differentiate one job with other job. In that situation, we can collect cost of each work order or product line. For making furniture or machinery or its tools or ship building, its work can be divided in small parts and each part will be collected under job costing.
What is Job or Work Account?
In job costing, we make job account which demonstrates material, labor and direct expenses at different dates because we use these expenses at different period. So, when we expand, we record at that time. After this, we add for calculating prime cost of that job.
Procedure of Job Costing Accounting
1. Material Cost Accounting
In job costing procedure’s first step, we have to identify each job’s material cost and to record it. When any material is issued from store, summary of that material cost of each job is posted to individual job cost sheet. On this basis, we find what is material cost of each job when production is in work-in-process. Here are two points which you should know.
If there is any material which is surplus after using it to specific job, we will return it to store and it will be sent with store debit note and relevant job account will be credited with that cost of material.
If there is any surplus material which is adjusted with any other job work, then we will make a material transfer note and on that basis, we will transfer material and its cost from one job to other job.
2. Labour Cost Accounting
On the basis of job time card or sheet, we can allocate labour cost to each job or work order. We also adjust of total idle time from labour cost in each job.
3. Overhead Cost Accounting
On the basis of machine hour rate, labour hour rate or any other basis we allocate and identify different overhead expenses for each job. It is difficult but with suitable overhead rate to each individual article manufacturing, we identify overhead in each job.
Job Costing Example
Mayur engineering co. engaged in job work has completed all the jobs in hand on 30th dec. 2009 except job no. 447. The cost sheet on 30th dec. 2009 showed direct material and direct labour cost of Rs. 40,000 and Rs. 30,000 respectively as having being incurred on job no. 447. The cost incurred by the business on 30st dec. 2009, the last date of the accounting year were as follows :
Direct material Rs. 2000
Direct labour Rs. 8000
Indirect labour Rs. 2000
Misc. Factory overhead Rs. 3000
The company follows the practice to make job absorbed factory overheads on the basis of 120% of direct labour cost. Prepare a composite job cost sheet for job 447 showing analytical computation. If any, of the value of WIP on job no. 447.