A bank is usually defined as a financial institution which deals in money. Today however, the functions of a bank have increased so much that it is considered a very vital agent of development in country like ours. Because of their positive involvement in trade, industry, business finance and a host of their allied services, banks today firm a very important part of an economy. A bank like private commercial Bank helps to develop economy as follows:
The nationalized banks, countries margin operational banking units, could not demonstrates and achieve optimistic results in terms ofoverall economic growth. The gloomy picture of nationalized banks is mainly due to-
- Lack of quality of services.
- Minimum of commitment toward institutions.
- Management inefficiency.
Excessive intervention of collective bargaining agent (CBA)
- Lack of security.
- Documentation of loans and advances debarring legal action in case of default.
- Slow rate of recovery of loan.
- Lack of supervision and monitoring of loans and advances.
- Directive loans.
- Political instability.
- Transitional inconsistency while formulating policy issues on banking.
Due to inefficient and continuous loosing concern of public sector, the main object of privatization policy was
- To reduce deficit of the Govt. to meet continuous loss of public enterprises.
- To improve operative efficiency of enterprises.
- To introduce competitiveness in all spheres of economic activities except few areas where Govt. control of economic activities was unavoidable.
In the country, it was increasingly felt that a number of PCBs might have improved their position putting nationalized banks into competition. The launching of PCBs has finally created a significant impact in quality of services in banking. Banking being a service industry, it is not easy to quantify to performance of this sector like manufacturing. The performance of banking sector in terms of generating of profit, expansion of bank branches, mobilization of deposits, deployment of advances, involvement in foreign trade and generating of employment.
Background of the study:
United Commercial Bank is the largest local commercial bank operating in Bangladesh. They have a huge customer base that is ever growing. United Commercial Bank is mainly providing two types of service.
- Corporate Financial Services
- Consumer Financial Services.
Consumer financial services include account opening, card services, loan facilities, and so on. General Banking is one of the parts of customer financial service. General banking consists of account opening for various types of deposit and saving scheme, card issue, chequebook issue, receiving foreign remittance, and such which will be discussed on the following chapters.
Origin of the Study:
The report entitled “General Banking & Credit Management Activities of United Commercial Bank Limited: A Study on Uttarkhan branch” has been prepared as a partial fulfillment of BBA program authorized by the supervisor M. Mokarrom Hossain, Professor Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business & Economics, Daffodil International University. The key purpose of this report is to identify and analyze the General Banking & Credit Management system of United Commercial Bank Ltd. This report will help me for learning about the General Banking & Credit Management System of United Commercial Bank ltd. This study will also help the authority of United Commercial Bank to find out the major operation of its General Banking & Credit Management system and also to get an idea about how they should offer better services compared to other banks. United Commercial Bank will also be able to know how far Customers are satisfied with their services.
After completing my Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) as a student of DIU, I wanted to complete my Internship program from a reputed Bank which would be helpful for my future professional career. I got the opportunity to perform my internship in the UCBL. I was sent to Gulshan Corporate Branch. It was three months practical orientation program. This report is originated as the requirement of UCBL.
Objective of the Study:
The objective of this study is to have a clear concept and some practical experience about the overall banking Systems of the United Commercial Bank Limited and analyze the ratio of this organization and identify the financial condition of this organization. In addition, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives:
- To find out the General banking activities of UCBL.
- To examine the Credit management activities of UCBL.
- To evaluate the financial analysis of United Commercial Bank Ltd.
- To suggest some possible measures for the improvement of UCBL.
In order to make the report more meaningful and presentable, two sources of data and information have been used widely.
The “Primary Sources” are as follows:
- Face-to-face conversation with the respective officers and staffs of the Branch.
- Informal conversation with the clients.
- Practical work exposures from the different desks of the departments of the Branch covered.
- Relevant file study as provided by the officers concerned.
The “Secondary Sources” of data and information are:
- Annual Report of UCBL.
- Various books, articles, compilations etc. regarding general banking functions, foreign exchange operations and credit policies.
- Different ‘Procedure Manual’, published by UCBL.
- Different circular sent by Head Office of UCBL and Bangladesh Bank.
Data Collection procedure:
- Annual Reports of the UCBL.
- Periodicals Published by Bangladesh Bank.
- Different books, articles etc. regarding Foreign Exchange Operations
In order to process the data MS Excel has been used to analyze the data and to prepare the graphical presentation.
Scope of the Study:
Banking sector of Bangladesh is a prospective, profitable and prestigious sector. These Banking sectors receive increase emphasis from the government over the past few years and achieved a beautiful growth rate annually over the past five years. Currently most of the market share of banking sector is owned by the local owners and some are by the multinational owner. There are several reasons for the dominance of local owners in the Banking sector of Bangladesh, which will be discussed in the following sections. With these advantages it is not surprising that national Banking sector like IBBL, DBBL, are making huge amount of money every year. Thus, undoubtedly there lies a considerable scope in understanding and analyzing this potential sector and identifying the right choice for United Commercial Bank Limited.
This strategic analysis will enable:
- Understanding the Banking sector micro and macro-environmental factors in Bangladesh.
- Understanding the functional, business, corporate, and global level strategy of UCBL.
- Developing a picture of how the future Banking sector will look like.
- Analyzing how strategic planning, implementation and execution are done in UCBL.
- Finally, suggesting in what areas UCBL can adopt changes to make it the market champion
Limitation of the Study:
To prepare the internship I encountered some limitations. The limitations are given below-
Limitation of time was a major constraint in making a complete study, due to time limitation. The duration was only twelve weeks. It was too limited to cover all the banking area. Many aspects could not be discussed in the present study.
Confidentiality of data was another important barrier that was faced during the process of this study.
Lack of comprehension of the respondents was the major problem that created a lot of confusion regarding verification of conceptual question.
As being an intern, it also created some problems as I was unable to acquire hands-on-experience in all the departments, due to the bank’s policy of maintaining secrecy and also because I did not get the opportunity in all the departments.
In Bangladesh, first commercial banks started business back in 1983. United Commercial Bank Ltd. (UCB) is one of the first five private commercial banks started operation in Bangladesh. United Commercial bank Limited was established under the rules & regulations of Bangladesh bank & the Bank companies’ Act 1991, on the 26th June 1983 with the leadership of Late Mr. Shahjahan Kabir, founder chairman who had a long dream of floating a commercial bank which would contribute to the social-economic development of our country. He had a long experience as a good banker. A group of highly qualified and successful entrepreneurs joined their hands with the founder chairman to materialize his dream. Indeed, all of them proved themselves in their respective business as most successful star with their endeavor, intelligence, hard working and talent entrepreneurship. Among them, Mr. M.A. Hashem became the honorable chairman after the demise of the honorable founder chairman. The Bank obtained permission to commerce business with effect from 26 June 1983 and started banking operations on 29 June 1983 with an authorized capital of Tk 100 million ordinary shares of TK 100 each. The paid up capital was Tk 35.5 million but now 119.8 corers. Later, both authorized and paid up capital were increased several times and on 31 December 200, they stood at Tk 1,000 million and Tk 230.16 million respectively. Of the total paid up capital, Tk 101.56 million was paid by its 37 sponsors; 3,048 members of general public shareholder paid Tk 114.54 million and the remaining Tk 14.06 million were subscribed by the government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Reserve fund if the bank comprised statutory reserves and general reserves if Tk 334.78 million in 1999 as against Tk 85.88 million in 1990. The bank is listed with Dhaka and Citation Stock Exchange.
The management of the bank is vested in a 22-member board of director with the managing director as the chief executive. The bank carries out almost all types of commercial banking activities.126th branches covering all major cities of Bangladesh. The Company started its banking operation and entitled to carry out the following types of banking business All types of commercial banking activities including Money Market operations.
- Investment in Merchant Banking activities.
- Investment in Company activities.
- Financiers, Promoters, Capitalists etc.
- Financial Intermediary Services.
- Any related Financial Services.
The Company (Bank) operates through its Head Office at Dhaka and 126th branches. The Company/Bank carries out international business through a Global Network of Foreign Correspondent Banks. The Registered Office of the Bank is: Plot: CWS (A)-1, Road: 34 Gulshan Avenue, Dhaka, Bangladesh. PABX: +88-02-8852500. E-Mail: email@example.com. Web site: http://www.ucbl.com/. S.W.I.F.T: UCBLBDDH
Vision, mission & core values:
To be the bank of first choice through maximizing value for their Clients, shareholders, Investors and Employees and contributing to the national economy with social commitment. To be the best performing community bank in the United States by continuing to expand our franchise in areas of high growth opportunities. To further differentiate ourselves by providing seamless service to customers doing business across the Pacific Rim by establishing offices in strategic locations in Asia
We aspire to be the most admired financial institution in the country, recognized as a dynamic, innovative and client focused company that offers an array of products and services in the search for excellence and to create an impressive economic value. We will provide a sustainable, high level of financial performance, while continuously enhancing shareholder value. We will build long-term customer relationships by offering a full range of financial products and services while adhering to the highest ethical standards and providing quality personalized service. Our customers choose us because we deliver the best. We value and reward both individual initiative and teamwork. We foster an environment in which our employees are proud and eager to work. We actively participate in social and economic programs for the betterment of the communities we serve.
- We put our customers first
- We emphasize on professional ethics
- We maintain quality at all levels
- We believe in being a responsible corporate citizen
- We say what we believe in
- We foster participative management
Objectives of UCBL:
Bangladesh is now integral part of global market. As such there is an urgent requirement for Bangladesh to place the traditional banking pretties in harness with the global trades, of a free market economy by following international banking customs, practices and standards. Today clients of a bank in Bangladesh are exposed as well as international markets. They have to stay update with their practice and standards to meet the demands of achieving harmony in the high standards of a free economy.
United Commercial Bank Limited fully appreciates the importance and implication of the rapidly emerging competition in banking and finance sector of Bangladesh. It intends financing its customer suited to his or her place in the market. In this regards UCBL emphasizes in its employment the software aspects of human resource capability. It also emphasizes competence among its banking professional to cater to vary customer requirements to the modern time.
The objective of UCBL is not only earn profit but also to keep the social commitment and to ensure its co operation to the person of all level, to the businessman, industrialist specially who are engaged in establishing large scale industry by consortium and the agro based export oriented medium and small scale industries by self inspiration.
UCBL is always ready to maintain highest quality of services by upgrading banking technology prudence in management and by applying high standard of business ethic through its established commitment and heritage.
UCBL is committed to ensure its contribution to national economy by increasing its profitability through professional and disciplined growth strategy for its customer and by creating corporate culture.
- Build up a low cost fund base.
- Make sound loan and investment.
- Meet capital adequacy recruitment at all the time.
- Ensure 100% recovery of all advances.
- Ensure a satisfied work force.
- Focus on free based income.
- Adopt an appropriate management technology.
- Install a scientific MIS to monitor banks activities.
CRISL has rated the bank based on December 31, 2011 with ‘AA-`(pronounced as double a minus) in the long term and ST-2 for the short term. The date of rating was April 09, 2012.
Long Term Rating
Short Term Rating
UCBL has been rated as AA- which means Adequate Safety for timely repayment of financial obligations. This level of rating indicates a corporate entity with an adequate credit profile. Risk factors are more variable and greater in periods of economic stress than those rated in the higher categories.
The Short Term rating ST-2 indicates high certainty of timely payment. Liquidity factors are strong and supported by good fundamental production factors. Risk factors are very small.
Performances of UCBL:
The business of banking consists of borrowing and lending. As in other businesses, operation must based on capital, but employ comparatively little of their own capital in relation to the total volume of their transactions. The purpose of capital and reserve accounts is primarily to provide an ultimate cover against losses on loans and investment.
UCBL was incorporated as a public Limited company on the 2nd June 1999 under Company Act 1994. The Bank started commercial banking operations effective from 3rd August 1999. During this short span of time the Bank has been successful to position itself as a progressive and dynamic financial institution in the country. The Bank widely acclaimed by the business community, from small business/entrepreneurs to large traders and industrial conglomerates, including the top rated corporate borrowers from forward-looking business outlook and innovative financing solutions. In year 2009 UCBL made commendable in all business arenas like Deposit, Credit, Fund Management, Investment and Foreign Exchange related business. Year-wise performance analysis of UCBL in different business arenas is shown below:
Corporate Social Responsibility:
Though business is a process of generating g revenue through economic transaction; At UCB we believe it is not a phenomenon out of the society. Aligned with revenue generation, there are some moral obligations for our Bank to contribute towards society. These moral obligations combined together in the form of charity or development is corporate social responsibilities. Certainly the Bank has moral debt for social commitment to integrate social, Environmental and economic concerns into its values and day to day operations activities.
United commercial Bank limited. One of the largest private banks of the country is highly concerned about the assimilation of social cause in its core process. As a part of our commitment to create real value in a changing world, we are determined to hold ourselves accountable for the social, Environmental and economic impacts of our operations. And we are committed to developing policies.
Business practices and social services which drive change in our industry we use the power of our brand the energy and passion of our people and the scale of our business to create meaningful changes in society.
United commercial Bank has long been practicing CSR In education sector through scholarship for poor and brilliant students, Education promotion scheme education for underprivileged children, Donation to education institution etc.
A donation was given to the One degree initiative to facilitate learning sessions for poor children in April 2011. Since children from poor and unfortunate families lack opportunities in having education and proper recreation in our country its urgent to take proper and adequate initiatives for the development of this less fortunate group. UCB and one degree initiative jointly made an attempt to conduct a learning session consisting of a series of intra and inter school quiz competition as well several recreational events in 11diffrent schools.
Financial assistance was provided to department of applied chemistry and comical engineering, university of Dhaka for enhancing their modern educational facilities during January 2011.
UCB always encourages the participation of students in extracurricular activities. Therefore a donation was made to st. Joseph higher secondary school for arranging their annual science fair 2001. On February 2011 a donation was also made to shikkhar manunnayane shammilito pracheshta a joint endeavor of the major schools and colleges of greater Dhaka for arranging a fair as a part of their ongoing education programmer named education and cultural fair 2011 on February 07 2011
UCB have always been directly or indirectly involved in projects for improvement in health sector of Bangladesh. As a continuous effort, UCB made a donation of BDT 1500000 to BIRDEM Dental Department to install a complete dental unit and dimplant surgical kit. BIRDEM dental department serve people since 1987 on that note with a social responsibly aspect this financial support was provided with an objective of better treatment of mass people.
A donation of taka 25lac was also given to Chittagong samitee for establishment of a hospital in Chittagong on December 2011.A donation was also made for sandman a voluntary institute of maniacal student of faridpur medical college unit for supporting their voluntary activates in January 2011
Financial assistance was also provided on November 01 2011 to Mr. Mohammad Mahboob Hosssain Khan. Assistant professor department of Bio-Technology & Genetic Engineering kushtia Islamic university, As he was suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
As a conscious corporate citizen UCB is not only promoting environment friendly projects but also advising its clients to make their projects compliant as regards to environmental issues. Consequently the corporate where UCB financed be it large or small are becoming fully aware of environmental impacts and complying with the banks requirements besides UCB also provided financial support for a number of causes last year.
A donation was also provided for to the department of soil water and environment Dhaka university during June 24-26-2011 with an objective to enhance their environmental research work.
As a socially responsible corporate body UCB always comes forward whenever the country is stricken with a natural disaster or a tragic accident a fatal accident occurred on July 11 2011 in mirsarai Chittagong 41 school students died and 17 more were severely injured in a tragic road accident at mirsarai Chittagong most of them were 13 to 16 year old and students of Abu Torab high school. The tragic death of these young students shocked the whole country. While the country is still trying to recover from this massive shock, Different banks, business groups, professional organization, educational institutions donated to help the affected families from the accident. A donation was also made to AXIATA limited for fund generation for the tsunami affected people on June 13, 2011.
Art & Culture:
Over the year UCB has been contributing for the development of art and culture sector in Bangladesh which includes donation to different cultural institution financial assistance to young and budding talents. Promoting agar and culture in grass root level etc. year 2011 was no exception accordingly a donation was made for Bangladesh shish academy Chittagong to construct the main entrance gate boundary wall and a room adjacent almost 2800 students are getting trained on different ground Of arts and aesthetics in this academy to promote the future artists UCB came forward with financial support to this academy as a part of banks social responsibility. A donation was given to” chattagram samity” Dhaka for organizing mezban and Chittagong festival 2011 held during December 1-3 2011 at sultana kamal stadium dhanmondi Dhaka mezban is the most popular local festival in Chittagong and in year 2011 they celebrated their 100years journey since inception.
UC B is currently highlighting on youth development and sports UCB takes initiatives mostly to grass level so that the talents and skills may come from rural and district level.
Beside cricket has been supporting some other sports too. For example a donation of taka thirty five lack was made to late shikh jamal dhanmondi club football team in February 2011 financial assistance was provided to organize Olympic day 2011 arranged by Bangladeshi Olympic association the day was observed in all of the seven division of the country on June 23, 2011 from all over the country 30000 participants took part on this “Olympic Day”
Again, a donation was also given to organize bijoy dibosh hockey tournament 2011 hold during 10-20th December, 2011at moulana bhashani hockey stadium, Dhaka.
General banking is one of the main departments of any bank A Bank starts its banking work through General Banking. General Banking helps to do other activities of the Bank smoothly.
General Banking Division consists of the following fields of activities:
- Customer service.
- Account opening to closing.
- Payment Order Issue
- Demand Draft Issue/Collection
- T.T. Issue/Collection
- IBC/OBC Collection.
- Locker service.
- Account department.
Customer service of UCBL:
Professional merit and Competency, Flexibility, Determination and Dedication are the core resources that UCBL consider to be of paramount importance for building a client oriented modern banking. Customer satisfaction is UCBL foremost professional undertaking. Therefore, a satisfied client is UCBL precious product and they consider them UCBL ambassador in the market.
United Commercial Bank Limited offers customers a hassle free and low charges savings account through the branches all over Bangladesh.
Benefits (Condition Apply)
- Interest rate of 4.50% on minimum monthly balance.
- Minimum balance Tk.500.
- Maintenance charge half-yearly Tk. 345.
- No hidden costs.
- Standing Instruction Arrangement are available for operating account.
- 2 copies of recent photograph of account holder.
- Nominee’s Photograph.
- Valid photocopy of Voter ID Card.
United Commercial Bank Limited offers customers current deposit facility for day-to-day business transaction without any restriction.
Benefits (Condition Apply)
- Minimum balance Tk.1000.
- Minimum maintenance charges half yearly Tk.545.
- No hidden costs.
- Standing Instruction Arrangement are available for operating account.
- Easy access to our other facilities.
- 2 copies of recent photograph of account holder.
- TIN certificate.
- Nominee’s Photograph.
- Valid photocopy of Voter ID Card.
- Seal of company.
Fixed deposit is one, which is repayable after the expiry of a predetermined period fixed by him. The period varies from 1 month to 12 months. These deposits are not repayable on demand but they are withdrawing able subject to a period of notice. Hence, it is a popularly known as ‘Time Deposit’ or ‘Time Liabilities”. Normally the money on a fixed deposit is not repayable before the expiry of a fixed period. In case of Fixed Deposit Account the Bank needs to maintain a cash reserve. So UCBL offers a high interest rate in Fixed Deposit accounts that is 12.50%.
DPS of UCBL:
United Commercial Bank Limited offers customers to different type of deposit pension scream (DPS).
- 2 copies of recent photograph of account holder.
- Nominee’s Photograph.
- Valid photocopy of Voter ID Card.
DPS Scream of UCBL:
UCBL Consumer Banking Products are:
1. UCB DPS Plan Scheme
2. Monthly Benefit Plan
3. Save Everyday Plan
4. Children Education Plan
5. Consumer Credit Scheme
6. Best invest Plan
7. Unique Savings Plan
Some of UCBL Consumer Products
UCB DPS Plan Scheme:
Monthly Installment 5 Years* 10 Years*
The maturity value is an indicative figure. Tax/Excise Duty will be deducted as per govt. rules. 80% Loan Advantage on deposited amount. Thereafter in multiples of Tk. 5000 up to a limit of Tk. 100,000.
UCB Monthly Benefit Plan:
Deposit Amount Income Amount for 3-year plan* Income Amount for 5-year plan The maturity value is an indicative figure. Tax/Excise Duty will be deducted as per govt. rules. 90% Loan Advantage on deposited amount.
Save Everyday Plan:
Saving money for the future is a common practice in any society. Savings help you to build a better tomorrow. Regular saving makes a man become disciplined, self confident and successful. UCBL offers you “Save Everyday” Plan. The primary advantage of this plan is that you are absolutely free to choose your own time for depositing money into this account. You can deposit daily, weekly or monthly. The choice is yours, but the transactions will have to be within the Bank’s transaction hour. This is a 5 year plan and you will be required to open the account with an initial deposit of Tk. 2500/= only. We offer you very attractive interest rate which is accrued in this account on a daily basis.
Consumer Credit Scheme:
In order to make a significant contribution in the living standards of the people of medium and low income category, UCBL has introduced a scheme called “Consumer Credit Scheme”. With a view to materialize the dreams of those who are unable to make one time investment from their own savings, one can now afford to buy necessary household equipments and thus improve the standard of living.All sorts of household durables e.g. Television, Refrigerators, Computers, Air Conditioners, Video Cameras, Washing/ Drying Machines and Furniture’s are allowed under this scheme. One can buy Motorcycle too under this programmed. The collateral security is minimum and the interest rates are one of the lowest in the market. Please contact the nearest branch for details.
Best invest offers you efficient high return investment plan. This plan helps you to build up a sizeable income in easy and affordable installments. This plan allows you to own 5 times the initial invested amount. Best invest offers two separate and convenient term deposit periods for 4 years and 6 years respectively.
Best invest is available in units worth Tk.50, 000 each. You will invest Tk. 10, 0000 as down payment for purchasing 1 (one) unit and the Bank will provide loan for Tk.40, 0000. The customer also has the option to buy units in multiples of Tk. 50, 000- but maximum up to Tk. 1, 00, 00, 000- (one crore). This is a unique high return plan catering to all income groups. So do not miss the opportunity.
Customized Products are:
- UCB Double Saver Plan:Deposit Amount Maturity Value after 8 Years*
- The maturity value is an indicative figure. Tax/Excise Duty will be deducted as per govt. rules. 90% Loan Advantage on deposited amount.
- UCB Triple Saver Plan: Deposit Amount Maturity Value after 12 Years*
- The maturity value is an indicative figure. Tax/Excise Duty will be deducted as per govt. rules. 90% Loan Advantage on deposited amount.
- UCB Millionaire Plan: Monthly Installment Year Maturity Value*
- The maturity value is an indicative figure. Tax/Excise Duty will be deducted as per govt. rules. 90% Loan Advantage on deposited amount.
UCB Unique Savings Plan:
Unique Savings Plan is an any day, any amount savings plan. The beauty of this plan is that a customer can deposit any day, any time and any amount.
Unique Savings Plan offers you to deposit any amount of your choice but not less than Tk. 5007- for 3/4/5 years. This is a high income plan with withdrawal facilities. The withdrawal facility will help you at the time of any emergency. You can withdraw 50% of the deposited balance for once a month. At maturity you will get a handsome amount.
Interest Posting to Client’s account:
Bangladesh Government has circulated that, 10%D deduction from the Bank’s Internal Account’s. 10% tax deduction from the client’s interest. Otherwise another circulation is that, from the OBCD collection every bank cut off their OBC commission as income account, here Bangladesh Bank said that 15% money cut off from the OBC collection as Vat on Others.
Cheque Book Issues:
- Types of Cheque Book’s:
- Savings Account – 20 Leaves
- Current Deposit Account – 25 Leaves
- Current Deposit Account – 50 Leaves
Cheque Issuing is Two Types:
- Direct requisition slips
- Cheque Book’s requisition slip
Customers Service Officer receives these types of slip from the client’s and gives the cheque books under processing. Processing means Cheque Book’s collect from the VOLT and the put account number in the Cheque book; write down the serial number of the cheque book in the requisition slip and cheque book register, then Verified client signature. After all this things the Principal Officer sign in the cheque leaves and sent the cheque book to another Principal officer for sign, after his sign the client
Receive the cheque book. These things the Principal Officer for sign, after his sign the client receive the cheque book. Then Principal Officer posting that cheque books leaves number in the computer data processing system.
A cover file containing the requisition slip is effectively preserved as vouchers. If any defect is noticed by the ledger keeper, he makes a remark to that effect on the requisition slip and forward it to the cancellation officer to decide whether a new checkbook to be issued to the customer or not
For two reasons, one can be closed. One is by banker and other is by the customer. If any customer doesn’t maintain any transaction within six years and the A/C balance becomes lower than the minimum balance, banker has the right to close an A/C.By customer: If the customer wants to close his A/C, he writes an application to the manager urging him to close his A/C.
Different procedures are followed in cash of different types of A/C to close:
Fixed de posit A/C is closed after the termination of the period. Brick by Brick A/C is very easily closing if one of the clients didn’t pay his/her monthly installment at the bank three months one after one, in this way three months. Another account’s will be closed on the parties advice, if they want to close any one of the account clients must have to submit an A/C closing letter through des pass. Then the Sr. Principal Officer checks it out and closes the A/C.
Closing process for current & savings A/C:
After receiving customer’s application the officer verifies the balance of the A/C. He then calculates interest and other charges accumulated on the A/C. If it bears a credit balance, the officer writes advice voucher. He gives necessary accounting entries post to accounts section. The balance is returned to the customer. And lastly the A/C is closed. But in practice, normally the customers don’t close A/C willingly. At times, customers don’t maintain any transaction for long time. Is this situation at first, the A/C becomes dormant and ultimately it is closed by the bank.
Remittance of funds is ancillary services of UCBL. It aids to remit fund from one place to another place on behalf of its customers as well as non- customers of Bank. UCB has its branches in the major cities of the country and therefore, it serves as one of the best mediums for remittance of funds from one place to another. The main instruments used by UCBL, Savar Branch for remittance of funds.
- Payment Order Issue/Collection
- Demand Draft Issue/Collection
- T.T. Issue/Collection
- Travelers Cheque Issuance
- IBC/OBC Collection.
Payment Order Issue/Collection:
The pay order is an instrument issued by bank, instructing itself a certain amount of money mentioned in the instrument taking amount of money and commission when it is presented in bank. Only the branch of the bank that has issued it will make the payment of pay order.
Issuing of Pay Order:
- The procedures for issuing a Pay Order are as follows:
- Deposit money by the customer along with application form.
- Give necessary entry in the bills payable (Pay Order) register where payee’s name, date, PO no, etc is mentioned.
- Prepared the instrument.
- After scrutinizing and approval of the instrument by the authority, it is delivered to customer. Signature of customer is taken on the counterpart.
Demand Draft Issue/Collection;
The person intending to remit the money through a Demand Draft (DD) has to deposit the money to be remitted with the commission which the banker charges for its services. The amount of commission depends on the amount to be remitted. On issue of the DD, the remitter does not remain a party to the instrument: i) Drawer branch ii) Drawee branch iii) Payee. This is treated as the current liability of the bank as the banker on the presentation of the instrument should pay the money. The banker event on receiving instructions from the remitter cannot stop the payment of the instrument. Stop payment can be done in the following cases:
Loss of draft before endorsement: In this case, “Draft reported to be lost, payee’s endorsement requires verification” is marked.
Loss of draft after endorsement: In this case, the branch first satisfies itself about the claimant and the endorsement in his favor.
Issuing of Duplicate DD:
If the customer wants to issue a duplicate DD, than customer is asked to do the following formalities:
Make a general diary (GD) in the nearest Policed Station. Furnishing an Indemnity Bond in Tk.50/= stamp
The banker immediately marks “stop payment” in the register after receiving the application from the customer and a duplicate DD is issued.
By OBC, we mean that those cheques drawn on other banks which are not within the same clearing house. Officer gives OBC seal on this type of cheques and later sends a letter to the manager of the branch of the some Bank located in the branch on which cheque has been drawn. After collection of that bill branch advises the concerned branch in which cheques has been presented to credit the customer account through Inter Branch Credit Advice (IBCA).
In absence of the branch of the same bank, officer sends letter to manager of the bank on which the cheques is drawn. That bank will send pay order in the name of the branch. This is the procedure of OBC mechanism.
Actually OBC comes from the outside bank’s branch, or inter branches. Suppose AGRANI Bank, Jatrabari Branch sent a Cheque, which no: 012536, Tk. 5, 00,000 to United Commercial Bank Limited against AGRANI Bank Motijheel Corp. Branch. So this cheque could be an OBC. Now what United Commercial Bank Limited has to do? UCBL tries to collect this cheque through Bangladesh Bank Clearing House, and credited clients account.In this condition UCBL got the cheque amount of Tk. 5,00,000, but after cut off the commission, vat and postage recovery UCBL will be credited the amount Tk. (5,00,000 -595)= Tk. 4,99,405 in party account.
Bangladesh Bank Circulation about OBC:
Bangladesh Bank has circulated some things about OBC. These are given below: If the cheque amount will be under Tk. 1, 00,000 then bank’s OBC commission will be charged at .15%.If the cheque amount will be above Tk. 1, 00,000 to Tk. 5, 00,000 then Bank’s OBC commission will be charged at .10%.If the cheque amount will be above Tk. 5, 00,000 then Bank’s OBC commission will be charged at .5%. Against the OBC the Government Tax will be realized on 15% on Commission. Amount Postage Recovery will be realized Tk. 20 for each OBC.
UCBL Uttarkhan Branch is providing facility of locker service for the purpose of safeguarding the valuable property of customers. The person or organization that has any account in bank branch can enjoy this service. They keep their valuable assets in banker’s custody. Customers have right to look after with a key of their individual locker provided by bank. UCBL maintains the following types of lockers:
- Large locker.
- Medium locker.
- Small locker.
For enjoying this service, clients have to give charge yearly Tk.2500/-, Tk.2000/- and Tk.1500/- for large, medium and small locker respectively.
Accounts Department is play most vital role in Banking. Accounts Department is a department with which each and every department is related. It records the profit & loss A/C and statement of assets and liabilities by applying “Golden Rules” of book-keeping. The functions of it are theoretical & computerized based. UCBL Uttarkhan Branch records its accounts daily, weekly, and monthly every record. UCBL Uttarkhan Branch Accounts Department in Charge: Mr. Keshob lal sarker, Officer Cash (having 13 years of experience in banking sector). Another officer’s are: Mr. Md. Rashedul Islam, (Senior Officer), Mr. Md. Nurul Islam Talukder (S.E.O).
This entire executive’s helps me a lot in my internship program at UCBL. They didn’t guide me as an Internee; they guide me as a training officer of UCBL to gather practical knowledge about Banking. They tried their best to inform me everything about accounts department. I hope I knew everything that gave me as a new comer in banking sector.
Basically Accounts Department is not alone. Accounts department is a mix of as follows:
Shakhawat Hossain Akand (OC), Mehedi Hossain (ACO) and Md. Anwar Hossain (ACO) are the cash in charge. Both of the two senior executives helps me lot to get practical knowledge and prepare this report.
The cash section of any branch plays very significant role in Accounts Department. Because, it deals with most liquid assets the UCBL Uttarkhan Branch has an equipped cash section. This section receives cash from depositors and pay cash against cheque, draft, PO, and pay in slip over the counter. Every Bank must have a cash counter where customer withdrawn and deposit there money. When the valued client’s deposit their money at the cash counter they must have to full fill the deposit slip his/her own, then they sing as the depositor option’s then they deposit their money through cash officer at the cash counter.
SEVERAL TYPES OF DEPOSIT SLIP:
There are several types of deposit slip as follows: Current Deposit A/C Slip, Saving’s Deposit A/C Slip, Festival Deposit A/C Slip, UCB DPS PLUS Deposit A/C Slip, Pay order Slip, Demand Draft Slip.
After paying this kind’s of slip, the valued client waits for the deposit slip book out side of the cash counter. The cash officer deposit the money in there account through computer software, while the depositors account credited, then the cash officer put a seal in the deposit slip and return it to the client.
Any people who want to deposit money will fill up the deposit slip and give the form along with the money to the cash officer over the counter. The cash officer counts the cash and compares with the figure written in the deposit slip. Then he put his signature on the slip along with the ‘cash received’ seal and records in the cash receive register book against A/C number.
At the end of the procedure, the cash officer passes the deposit slip to the counter section for posting purpose and delivers duplicate slip to the clients.
The drawn who wants to receive money against cheque cornes to the payment counter and presents his cheque to the officer. He verifies the following information:
Date of the cheque Signature of the A/C holder Material alteration Whether the cheque is crossed or not Whether the cheque is endorsed or not Whether the amount in figure and in word correspondent or not Then he checks the cheque from computer for further verification. Here the following information is checked. Whether there is sufficient balance or not Whether there is stop payment instruction or not Whether there is any legal obstruction (Garnishee Order) or not After checking everything, if all are in order the cash officer gives amount to the holder and records in the paid register.
The cash section of UCBL deals with all types of negotiable instruments, cash and other instruments and treated as a sensitive section of the bank. It includes the vault which is used as the store of cash instruments. The vault is insured up to Tk. 80 lacs. If the cash stock goes beyond this limit, the excess cash is then transferred to Principle Branch Office. When the excess cash is transferred to UCBL Principle Branch Office the cash officer issues IBDA.
Transfer is not a critical sector in banking but it is very important. Transfers play a vital role in banking sector. So now we have to know what transfer is: basically transfer is a type of register maintaining matter. In this register officer write down every day transactions in Debit and Credit side then the officer calculate both the side of the register if both side shown same amount, it means that the total day’s transaction is completely okay.
Clearing is one of the magical parts of banking. I really enjoyed this part of the accounts department and banking sector. In United Commercial Bank Limited clearing in charges A.L.M. Khairul Bari (Officer), I did work with him.
Clearing House Process:
Every bank has an officer of clearinghouse who is work with Bangladesh Bank clearing house. Actually most of major client deposit their account in different kinds of bank cheques. Clearing officer check all the cheques and deposit slip very carefully and then he received the cheque. After the clearing officer posting all the cheques in computer software which is recognized through Bangladesh bank computer department. Then clearing officer seal all the cheques in advance date after that the officer endorsement all the cheques and sign all the cheques.
All the Cheques are posted in the computer by branch wise, then officer print the entire document and staple all the cheques by branch wise this is called schedule of clearing house. It is a very difficult job to staple all the cheques, because some time’s the cheques are huge in quantity, it may be 250 to 400, this is very vital job because every cheque must have to staple very carefully, it means cheque amount and the print sheet amount and cheque branch must have to be same. If the cheques staple in wrong direction, the cheque may be return from another bank, that’s why UCBL not to be able to credited party account.
Then the clearinghouse officer copying all the document in two floppy disk as per Bangladesh Bank requirement. When the clearing officers enter the clearinghouse, his first job is that the floppy delivered to the Bangladesh Bank computer department.
All of the procedure the clearing in charge goes to the Bangladesh Bank clearing house before 10 am in the morning. The clearing officer check all the bank’s cheque and he put all the cheques in bank wise, like as this another bank’s delivered there cheques in UBBL desk. Then the officers of UCBL have to calculate all the cheques by using calculator machine, Staple pin remover, and then he divided all the cheques as UCBL Branch wise.
Types of Clearing Cheque:
UCBL Savar Branch performs the bill clearing function through Bangladesh Bank. UCBL Savar Branch acts as the agent of all UCBL branches for the clearing house of the Bangladesh Bank. There are two types of cheque which are-
1. Inward clearing cheque
2. Outward clearing cheque.
RECOGNIZED BANK’S AS THE MEMBER OF BANGLADESH BANK CLEARING HOUSE WITH THEIR CLEARINGHOUSE CODE:
Name of Bank
|2||Al-Baraka Bank Bangladesh Limited||49|
|3||AI-Arafah Islami Bank Limited||57|
|4||Arab Bangladesh Bank Limited||41|
|6||Bangladesh Commerce Bank||64|
|7||Bangladesh Krishi Bank||31|
|8||Bangladesh Shilpho Bank||32|
|9||Bangladesh Shilpo Rin Sangstha||34|
|10||Bank Asia Limited||51|
|11||Brae Bank Limited||72|
|12||Citi N.A Bank Limited||26|
|13||Cradit Agricole Indosuez||27|
|14||Dhaka Bank Limited||56|
|15||Dutch Bangla Bank Limited||59|
|16||Eastern Bank Limited||52|
|17||First Security Bank Limited||67|
|18||Habib Bank Limited||25|
|20||IFIC Bank Limited||45|
|21||Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited||42|
|22||Jamuna Bank Limited||71|
|24||Marcentile Bank Limited||60|
|25||Mutual Trust Bank Limited||65|
|26||National Bank Limited||43|
|27||National Bank of Pakistan||28|
|28||National Credit and Commerce Bank Limited||53|
|29||One Bank Limited||62|
|30||Prime Bank Limited||54|
|31||Pubali Bank Limited||47|
|32||United Commercial Bank Limited||63|
Through its Credit Card, United Commercial Bank Limited has not only initiated a new scheme but also brought a new life style concept in Bangladesh. Now the dangers and the worries of carrying cash money are memories of the past. Credit Card comes in both local and international forms, giving the client power to buy all over the World. Now enjoy the conveniences and advantages of Credit Card as you step into the new millennium.
UCBL ATM Service:
United Commercial Bank Limited has introduced ATM service to its Customers. The card will enable to save our valued customers from any kind of predicament in emergency situation and time consuming formalities. UCBL ATM Card will give our distinguished Clients the opportunity to withdraw cash at any time, even in holidays, 24 hours a day, and 7 days a week.
Joining with the world’s largest money transfer service “Western Union”, UCBL has introduced Bangladesh to the faster track of money remittance. Now money transfer between Bangladesh and any other part of the globe is safer and faster than ever before.
This simple transfer system, being on line eliminates the complex process and makes it easy and convenient for both the sender and the receiver. Through UCBL – Western Union Money Transfer Service, your money will reach its destination within a few minutes.
Western Union is a global leader in Money transfer and message services. With the help of western Union a consumer or a Businessman can transfer money or make payments more quickly and more securely from one part to another part of the world. There are 1, 17,000 Western Union Agent Locations over 185 countries in the world. It’s the largest network in the world. Western Union markets transact more than one quarter Billion money every year.
Credit Management of UCBL:
The word credit comes from the Latin word “Credo” meaning “I believe”. It is a lender’s trust in a person’s/ firm’s/ or company’s ability or potential ability and intention to repay. In other words, credit is the ability to command goods or services of another in return for promise to pay such goods or services at some specified time in the future. For a bank, it is the main source of profit and on the other hand, the wrong use of credit would bring disaster not only for the bank but also for the economy as a whole.
United Commercial Bank Limited is a third generation bank, which is committed to provide high quality financial services/products to contribute to GDP through stimulating trade & commerce, accelerating the pace of industrialization and boosting up export by allowing credit facilities. The failure of the commercial bank is mainly occurs due to bad loans, which occurs due to inefficient management of the loan and advance portfolio. The objective of the credit management is to maximize the performing asset and the minimization of the non-performing asset as well as ensuring the optimal point of loan and advance and their efficient management. Credit management is a dynamic field where a certain standard of long-range planning is needed to allocate the fund in diverse field and to minimize the risk and maximizing the return on the invested fund. Continuous supervision, monitoring and follow-up are highly required for ensuring the timely repayment and minimizing the default.
Therefore, while analyzing the credit management of BBL, it is required to analyze its credit policy, credit procedure and quality of credit portfolio. These three aspects of credit management are now discussed in the following section.
Credit Policy of UCBL:
One of the most important ways, a bank can make sure that its loan meet organizational and regularity standards and they profitable is to establish a loan policy. Such a policy gives loan management a specific guideline in making individual loans decisions and in shaping the bank’s overall loan portfolio.
Credit facilities provided to the customers who transact agro business falls under this category. It is divided into two major sub-sectors:
- Loans to primary producers: This sub-sector of agricultural financing refers to the credit facilities allowed to production units engaged in farming, fishing, forestry or livestock.
- Loans to input dealers/distributors: It refers to the financing allowed to input dealers and (or) distributors in the agricultural sectors.
- Loan to Agriculture sector may include short, medium and long term loans as well as continuous
- Credits. As a product, it may fall under Term Loan/ Time Loan/Hire-Purchase/Lease
- Finance/Cash Credit/Overdraft etc.
Term Loan to Large & Medium Scale Industry:
This category of advances accommodate the medium and long term financing for capital asset
formation of new Industries or for BMRE of the existing units who are engaged in Manufacturing of goods and services.
Term loan to tea gardens may also be included in this category depending on the nature and size.
As the financing under this category have fixed repayment schedule it may fall under the heads
Term Loan/Time Loan /Hire-Purchase/Lease Financing etc.
Medium & Long term loans to weaver are also included in this category. Like the Large &Medium Scale Industry it is also allowed in the form of Term Loan/Time Loan/Hire Purchase/Lease Financing etc.
Loans allowed to the manufacturing units to meet their working capital requirements, irrespective of their size – big, medium or small, fall under this category. These are usually continuous credits and as such fall under the head “Cash Credit” or” Overdraft”.
Credit facilities allowed to facilitate export of all items against Letter of Credit and/or confirmed export orders fall under this category. It is accommodated under the heads “Export Cash Credit (ECC)”, Packing Credit (PC), Foreign Documentary Bill Purchased (FBPD), Inland Documentary Bill Purchased (LBPD) etc.
Short term Loans and continuous credits allowed for commercial purposes other than exports fall under this category. It includes import financing for local trade, service establishment etc. No medium and long term loans are accommodated here. This category of advance is allowed in the form of (I) Loan against Imported Merchandise (LlM), (ii) Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR),
Payment Against Documents (PAD), (iv) Overdraft (OD), (v) Cash Credit etc. for commercial purposes.
Any loan that does not fall in any of the above categories is considered under the category “Others”. It includes loan to (i) transport equipments, (ii) construction works including housing (commercial/residential), (iii) work order finance, (iv) personal loans, etc.
Types of Credit:
Credit may be classified with reference to elements of time, nature of financing and provision base. Generally National Bank, Elephant Road Branch given these loans that are given below:
- Secured Overdraft (SOD)
- Loan against Imported Merchandise (LTM)
- Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR)
- Payment against Document (PAD)
- HouseBuilding Loan
- House Building Loan (staff)
- Term Loan.
- Loan (general)
- Bank Guarantee »
- Export Cash Credit
- Cash Credit (Pledge)
- Cash Credit (Hypo)
- Foreign Documentary Bill Purchase (FDBP)
- Local Documentary Bill Purchase (LDBP)
Secured Overdraft (SOD):
It is a continuous advance facility. By this agreement, the banker allows his customer to overdraft his current account up to his credit limits sanctioned by the bank. The interest is charged on the amount, which he withdraws, not on the sanctioned amount. UCB Bank sanctions SOD against different security.
Advance allowed to individual/ firms against financial obligation (i.e. lien on FDR\ DR/PSP/BSP/ insurance policy share etc.) This may or may not be a continuous Credit.
Advances allowed against assignment of work order or execution of contractual works falls under this head. This advance is generally allowed for a definite period and specific purpose i.e. it is not a continuous credit. It falls under the category “others”
Advance allowed for purchasing foreign currency for payment against L/Cs (Back to Back) where the exports do not materialize before the import payment. This is also an advance for temporary period, which is known as export finance and under the category “commercial lending”.
LIM (Loan against Imported Merchandise):
Advances allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through L/C taking effective control over the goods by pledge in go downs under Banks lock & key fall under this type of advance. This is also a temporary advance connected with import, which is known as post-import financing, falls under the category “commercial lending”.
LTR (Loan against trust receipt):
Advance allowed for retirement of shipping documents, release of goods imported through L/C falls under trust with the arrangement that sale proceed should be deposited to liquidate within a given period- This is also a temporary advance connected with import, which is known as post-import financing, falls under the category “commercial lending”.
PAD (payment against document):
Payment made by the Bank against lodgment of shipping documents of goods imported through L/C falls under this head. It is an interim advance connected with import and is generally liquidated against payments usually made by the party for retirement of the documents for release of imported goods from the customer’s authority. It falls under the category “commercial Bank”.
House building Loan (General):
Loans allowed to individual/ enterprise construction of house (residential or commercial) fall under this of advance. The amount is repayable by monthly installment within a specified period, advances are known as Loan (HBL-GEN).
House building loans (staff):
Loans allowed to the Bank employees for purchase/construction of house shall be known as Staff Loan (HBFC-STAFP).
UCB Bank considers the loans, which are sanctioned for more than one year as term loan. Under this facility, an enterprise is financed from the starting to its finishing, i.e. from installation to its production.
Short term and long term loans allowed to individual/ firms / industries for a specific purpose but a definite period and generally repayable by the installments fall under this head. These types of lending are mainly allowed to accommodate financing under the categories.
a) Large and Medium Scale Industries-
b) Small and Cottage Industries, Very often term financing for agriculture and others are also included here.
The bank is very often requested by his customer to issue guarantees on their behalf to a third party – committing to make an unconditional payment of certain amount of money to the third party, if the customer (on whose behalf it gives guarantee) becomes liable, or creates any loss or damage to the third party.
Export cash credit:
Financial accommodation allowed to customer for exports of goods falls under this head is categorized as “Export Credit “. The advances must be liquidated out of export proceeds within 180 days.
The mortgage of movable property for securing loan is called hypothecation. Hypothecation is a legal transaction whereby goods are made available to the lending banker as security for a debt without transferring either the property in the goods or either possession. The banker has only equitable charge on stocks, which practically means nothing. Since the goods always remain in the physical possession of the borrower, there is much risk to the bank. So, it is granted to parties of undoubted means with the highest integrity.
These are the advances having no fixed repayment schedule but have a date at which it is renewable on satisfactory performance of the clients. Continuous loan mainly includes “Cash credit both hypothecation and pledge” and “Overdraft”.
Demand loan is used as one of the import finances. In opening letter of credit (L/C), the clients have to provide the full L/C amount in foreign exchange to the bank. To purchase this foreign exchange, bank extends demand loan to the clients at stipulated margin. No specific repayment date is fixed. However, as soon as the L/C documents arrive, the bank requests the clients to adjust their loan and to retire the L/C documents. Demand loans mainly include “Loan against imported merchandise (LIM)” and “Later of Trust Receipt”.
These are the advances made by the bank with a fixed repayment schedule. Terms loans mainly include “Consumer credit scheme”, “Lease finance”,” Hire purchase”, and “Staff loan”. The term loans are defined as follows:
Short-term loan: Up to 12 months.
Medium term loan: More than 12 months & up to 36 months.
Long-term loan: More than 36 months.
Classification on The Basis of Characteristics of Financing:
The making of loan and advance is always profitable to the bank. As the bank mobilize savings from the general people in the form of deposit the most important task of it is to disburse the said deposit as loan or advance to the mass people for the development of commercial, industrial, agricultural, who are in need of fund for investment. Like other business firm, the main purpose of the commercial banking is making profit. The profitability of the banks depends on the efficient manner and avenues in which the resources are employed. The United Commercial Bank Limited has made so far efficient use of the deposit and classified rates are almost zero. The UCBL disburse loan in different form. It varies in purpose wise. Mode wise and sector wise.
The varieties types of credit facilities provided by UCBL are briefly described below with the common terms and condition. The credit facilities of UCBL may be broadly classified into five categories. They are as follows:
- Cash Credit
- Bills purchased and discounted
- Consumer Credit
In case of loan the banker advances a lump sum for a certain period at an agreed rate of interest. The entire amount is paid on an occasion either in cash or by credit in his current account, which he can draw at any time. The interest is charged for the full amount sanctioned whether he withdraws the money from his account or not. The loan may be repaid in installments or at expiry of a certain period. Loan may be demand loan or a term loan.
Eligibility: Loans normally allowed to those parties who have either fixed source of income or who desire to pay it in lump sum.
Interest Rate: 15%-17% per annum (Quarterly paid).
In Cash credit, banker specifies a limit called the cash credit limit, for each customer, up to which the customer is allow to borrow against the security of tangible assets or guarantees The distinction between the current account and a cash credit account is that the former is intended to be an account with credit balance and the latter an account for drawing of advances. Operation of cash credit is same as that of overdraft. The purpose of cash credit is to meet working capital need of traders, farmers and industrialists.
Cash credit in true sense is against pledge of goods. Cash credit is also allowed against hypothecation of goods. In case of hypothecation the ownership and possession of the goods remain with the borrower. By virtue of the hypothecation agreement bank can take possession of the goods hypothecated, if the borrower defaults.
Overdrafts are those drawings, which are allowed by the banker in excess of the balance in the current account up to a specified amount for definite period as arranged for. These advances are secured, immovable, like land & building and hypothecation of trade, if it is for working capital finance. The overdraft may extend against finished product of any industry as against pledge of the products. The loan holder can freely draw money from this account up to the limit and can deposit money in the account off course, this loan has an expiry date after which renewal or enhancement is necessary for enjoying such facility. Overdraft facility is given to the businessmen for increasing their business activity.
Eligibility: Overdraft facilities are generally granted to businessmen for expansion of their business, against the securities of stock-in-trade, shares, debenture, Government promissory notes, fixed deposit, life policies etc
Guiding Principle of Credit appraisal of UCBL:
The main objective of the relationship manager is to establish long-term relationships with clients with the expectation for on going commercial business. This type of business is expected to provide stability and growth in earnings in the short run as well as to continue in the long run, and therefore, also, should be diversified to avoid over reliance on any particular client group / industry segment.
To determine the worth of a client for such a relationship and thereby decide on development of the relationship, the following conceptual exercises should be undertaken. There are no fixed and set methods to perform credit-marketing job, and scope for application of individual judgment/ perception always plays over set rules in such work. For example, drop in revenue of a contractor may indicate the clients’ failure to get work, or it may be due to adaptation of policy to do higher margin, quality jobs.
Credit Ratification Authority of UCBL:
Credit decisions are heart of all credit works. The person who is held responsible for appraising a loan proposal is called the relationship manager. The customer request for credit limit and the relationship manager must decide whether to accept or refuse proposal. Making this decision is the most important credit activity; all other activities of the credit Department are supportive to this decision. To ensure the proper and orderly conduct of the business of the bank, the Board of Directors authorized the Managing Director and other top-level executive, that is, DMD and EVP to sanction the credit. It is mentionable that principal branch operates the credit division under the supervision of VP. The relationship manager of principal branch furnishes the credit proposal with the required information and sends it to the final authority, i.e. EVP, DMD & MD, of head office for final approval.
Credit Evaluation Principles:
In order to get the optimum returns from the deployed funds in different kinds of lending, more emphasis shall be given on refund of loans and advances out of fund generated by the borrower from their business activities instead of realization of money by disposing of the securities held against the advance which is very much uncertain and time consuming . Some principles or standards of lending are maintained loans in order to keep the risk to a minimum level and for successful banking business. The main principles of lending are:
- Adequate yield
Safety should get the prior importance in the time of sanctioning the loan. At the time of maturity the borrower may not will or may unable to pay the loan amount. Therefore, in the time of sanctioning the loan adequate securities should be taken from the borrowers to recover the loan. Banker should not sacrifice safety for profitability.
UCB Bank Ltd- exercises the lending function only when it is safe and that the risk factor is adequately mitigated and covered. Safety depends upon:
- The security offered by the borrower; and
- The repaying capacity and willingness of the debtor to repay the loan with interest.
Banker should consider the liquidity of the loan in time of sanctioning it. Liquidity is necessary to meet the consumer need.
Banker should be careful in the selection of security to maintain the safety of the loan. Banker should properly evaluate the proper value of the security. If the estimated value is less than or equal to loan amount, the loan should be given against such securities. The more the cash near item the good the security, in the time of valuing the security, the Banker should be more conservative.
As a commercial origination, Banker should consider the profitability. So banker should consider the interest rate when go for lending. Always Banker should fix such an interest rate for its lending which should be higher than its savings deposits interest rate. To ensure this profitability Banker should consider the prospect of the project
Banker should minimize the portfolio risk by putting its fund in the different fields. If Bank put its entire loan able fund in one sector it will increase the risk. Banker should distribute its loan able fund in different sectors. So if it faces any problem in any sector it can be covered by the profit of another sector.
Process of Credit Management:
The function of commercial bank is to accept deposit from the common people and to invest deposited money in different sectors for overall development of the economy of the country. So the banks have to be very much careful in credit appraisal. The person who is held responsible for appraising a loan proposal in United Commercial Bank Limited is called the relationship manager. The customer request for credit limit and the relationship manager must decide whether to accept or refuse proposal. Making this decision is the most important credit activity; all other activities of the credit department are supportive to this decision. To ensure the proper and orderly conduct of the business of the bank, the Board of Directors authorized the Managing Director and other top-level executive, that is, DMD and EVP to sanction the credit. It is mentionable that principal branch operates the credit division under the supervision of VP. The relationship manager of principal branch furnishes the credit proposal with the required information and sends it to the final authority, i.e. EVP, DMD & MD, of head office for final approval.
Steps Involved In Credit Processing:
There are several steps involved in credit processing in BBL. The steps are as follows:
Application for loan
Applicant applies for the loan in the prescribed form of bank. The purpose of this forms is to eliminate the unwanted borrowers at the first sight and select those who have the potential to utilize the credit and pay it back in due time.
Getting Credit information
Then the bank collects credit information about the borrower from the following sources:
- Personal Investigation
- Confidential report from other bank/ Head office/Branch/Chamber of commerce
- CIB report from central bank
Scrutinizing and Investigation
Bank then starts examination that whether the loan applied for is complying with its lending policy. If comply, than it examines the documents submitted and the credit worthiness. Credit worthiness analysis, i.e. analysis of financial conditions of the loan applicant is very important. Then bank goes for Lending Risk Analysis (LRA) and spreadsheet analysis, which are recently introduced by Bangladesh Bank. According to Bangladesh Bank rule, LRA and SA is must for the loan exceeding one core. If these two analyses reflect favorable condition and documents submitted appears to be satisfactory then, bank goes for further action.
The C’s of Good & Bad Loan
The relationship managers of NBL try to judge the possible client based on some criteria. These criteria are called the C’s of good and bad loans. These C’s are described below:
The outcome of analyzing the character is to have overall idea about the integrity, experience, and business sense of the borrower. Two variables, Interaction/interview and Market Research are used to analyze the character of the borrower.
Interaction/interview: the indicators are:
- Prompt and consistent information supply, information given has not been found false
- CIB also reveals business character.
- Willingness to give owns stake/equity & collateral to cover.
- Tax payer.
Information on business is verified. Dealing with supplier and or customer as supplier is also a kind of lender; the payment character can also be verified.
For identifying the capital invested in the business can be disclosed using the following indicators.
- Financial Statements
- Receivable, Payable, statements to practically assess the business positions. Net worth through financial statements or from declaration of Assets & Liabilities.
Capability of the borrower in running the business is highly emphasized in the time of selecting a good borrower. As the management of the business is the sole authority to run the business that is use the fund efficiently, effectively and profitably. The indicators help to identify the capacity of the borrower.
- Entrepreneurship skills i.e. risk taking attitude shown by equity mobilization.
- Management competencies both marketing and products detail, ability to take decision.
- Resilience or shock absorption: Connection, Back up (if first time falls second lines come to help.)
Documents for Credit:
For execution of different types of loans the bank usually uses two types of documents. One is application form and other is charge document. A detail of these documents are given below:
National bank ltd uses two types of application form for different types of loans. For CC (H), CC (P), Loan (G), UCBL, Project / Term loan, BG etc, the application form contains:
1. Name of the Applicant /Firm/ Company.
2. Applicant’s Address.
3. Nature of the A/C
4. Telephone/ Fax number.
5. Particulars of proprietor.
6. Nature of Business/ Industry.
7. Trade License No. and Validity
8. Date of Establishment/ Commencement/ Incorporation of Business.
9. Nature and Amount of Limit
12. Mode of Repayment.
13. Details of Security Offered.
14. Particular of Guarantor.
15. Full particulars of Liabilities (if any) of the Borrower and their Allied/ sister concerns
with UCBL, other Banks and Financial Institutions etc.
16. Other Relevant Particular/ Information.
18. Certificate of the organization
19. Photograph (two copies)
Before disbursing the loan, the following documents must be completed by borrower. On these documents, the stamp needed for legislative reasons, which is paid by the borrower.
1. Letter of Guarantee
2. Letter of Hypothecation
3. Demand Promissory Note
4. Letter of Disbursement
5. Letter of Agreement
6. Letter of Authority
7. Letter of installment
Fees of Loans and Advances:
Pre Sanction Charge:
- 3 copy CIB inquiry from tk.50 each
- Survey Report Charge: Tk.2000 and above (based on collaterals value and
- Legal opinion charge about the security offered to mortgage.
Post Sanction Charge:
- Stamp charge: Tk.150 to Tk.550
- Mortgage Fee: From Tk.5000 to above (Based on collateral assets’ value )
- Insurance of hypothecated goods (If goods are pawned as security) : Insurance
- Charge on the hypothecated goods’ value.
- Service Charge: 1% o the total loan amount.
- Security Charge (For Small Business Loan, House Renovation and Repairing
- Loan, Personal Loan): 1% on total loan value.
- Risk Charge (For Small Business Loan, House Renovation and Repairing Loan,
- Personal Loan): 1% on total loan value.
Security against Advances:
The different types of securities that may be offered to a banker are as follows:
(a) Immovable property
(b) Movable property
Pratiraksha Sanchaya Patra, Bangladesh Sanchaya Patra, ICB unit certificate, wage earner development bond.Pledge of goods Hypothecation of goods, produce and machinery Fixed assets of manufacturing unit. Shipping documents.
Modes of Charging Security:
A wide range of securities is offered to banks as cover for loan, in case of borrower inability to repay, the banker can full upon the securities. In order to make the securities available to banker, in case of default of customer, a charge should be created on the security. Creating charge means making it available as a cover for advance. The following modes of charging securities are applied in the National Bank.
Pledge is the bailment of the goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise. A pledge may be in respect of goods including stocks and share as well as documents of title to goods such as railway receipt, bills of lading, dock warrants etc. duly endorsed in bank’s favor.
In case of hypothecation the possession and the ownership of the goods both rest the borrower. The borrower to the banker creates an equitable charge on the security. The borrower does this by executing a document known as Agreement of Hypothecation in favor of the lending bank.
Lien is the right of the banker to retain the goods of the borrower until the Investment is repaid. The bankers’ lien is general lien. A banker can retain all securities in his possession till all claims against the concern person are satisfied.
According to section (58) of the Transfer of Property Act,1882 mortgage is the ‘’transfer of an profit in specific immovable property for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced or to be advanced by way of Investment, existing or future debt or the performance of an engagement which may give rise to a pecuniary liability”. In this case the mortgagor dose not transfer the ownership of the specific immovable property to the mortgagee only transfers some of his rights as an owner. The banker exercises the equitable mortgage.
Lending Risk Analysis:
The Financial Sector Reform Project (FSRP) has designed the LRA package, which provides a systematic procedure for analyzing and quantifying the potential credit risk. Bangladesh Bank has directed all commercial bank to use LRA technique for evaluating credit proposal amounting to Tk. 10 million and above. The objective of LRA is to assess the credit risk in quantifiable manner and then find out ways & means to cover the risk. However, some commercial banks employ LRA technique as a credit appraisal tool for evaluating credit proposals amounting to Tk. 5 million and above. Broadly LRA package divides the credit risk into two categories, namely ‑‑‑‑‑ Business risk and Security risk. A detail interpretation of these risks and the procedure for evaluating the credit as follows:
It refers to the risk that the business falls to generate sufficient cash flow to repay the loan. Business risk is subdivided into two categories.
Risk; that the company falls for external reason. It is subdivide into supplies and sales risk.
It indicates that the business suffers from external disruption to the supply of imputes. Components of supplies risk are as raw material, Labor, power, machinery, equipment, factory premises etc. Supply risk is assessed by a cost breakdown of the imputes and then assessing the risk of disruption of supplies of each item.
This refers to the risk that the business suffers from external disruption of sales. Sales may be disrupted by changes to market size, increasing in competition, and change in the regulation or due to the loss of single large customer. Sales risk is determined by analyzing production or marketing system, industry situation, Government policy, and competitor profile and companies strategies.
This refers to the risk that the company fails for internal reasons. Company risk is subdivided into company position risk and Management risks.
Company position risk
Within an industry each and every company holds a position. This position is very competitive. Due to the weakness in the company’s position in the industry, a company is the risk for failure. That means company position risk is the risk of failure due to weakness in the companies’ position in the industry. It is subdivided into performance risk and resilience risk.
This risk refers to the risk that the company’s position is so weak that it will be unable to repay the loan even under Favor able external condition. Performance risk assessed by SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) analysis, Trend analysis, and Cash flow forecast analysis and credit report analysis (i.e. CIB repot from Bangladesh Bank).
Resilience means to recover early injury, this refers to risk that the company falls due to resilience to unexpected external conditions. The resilience of a company depends on its leverage, liquidity and strength of connection of its owner or directors. The resilience risk is determined by analyzing different financial ratio, flexibility of production process, shareholders willingness to support the company if need arise
The management risk refers to the risk that the company fails due to management not exploiting effectively the companies’ position. Management risk is subdivided into management competence risk and integrity risk.
Management competence risk
This refers to the risk that falls because the management is incompetent. The competence of management depends upon their ability to manage the company’s business efficiently and effectively. The assessment of management competence depends on management ability and management teamwork. Management ability is determined by analyzing the ability of owner or board of the members first and then key personnel for finance and operation.
This sort of risk is associated with the realized value of the security, which may not cover the exposure of loan. Exposure means principal plus outstanding interest. The security risk is subdivided into two major heads i.e. security control risk and security cover risk.
Management integrity risk
This refers to the risk that the company fails to repay the loan amount due to lack of management integrity. Management integrity is a combination of honesty and dependability. Management integrity risk is determined by assessing management honesty, which requires evaluating the reliability of information supplied and then management dependability.
Before completing the LRA form, the relationship manager collects data especially industry specific from published sources and company specific data that not usually published by personally visiting the company. After collecting the necessary data he/ she prepare financial spreadsheet. This spreadsheet provides a quick method of assessing business trend & efficiency and helps to assess the borrower ability to pay the loan obligation.
Credit Appraising & Presentation of Credit Proposal for Final Approval:
When relationship manager is satisfied with applicant’s credit worthiness, financial capability, management ability and feasibility of the project through credit appraisal on the basis above guiding principle, the applicant may hope for credit from the bank. Then relationship manger sent this credit proposal (Credit Memorandum) to higher authority (EVP, DMD & MD) for final approval.
Financial Analysis of UCBL:
Financial analysis is divided into three parts. That’s are haven below
- Vertical/Common Size Analysis
- Horizontal/Trend Analysis
- Ratio Analysis
Vertical/Common Size Analysis:
Vertical/Common size statements came from the problems in comparing the financial statements of firms that differ in size. In the balance sheet, for example, the assets as well as the liabilities and equity are each expressed as a 100% and each item in these categories is expressed as a percentage of the respective totals. In the common size income statement, turnover is expressed as 100% and every item in the income statement is expressed as a percentage of turnover (sales). Here bank has no sales so that I have considered the operating as 100%.
As on December 31, 2011 & 2010
Property and assets
Cash in hand
Balance with Bangladesh
Bank & Agent Bank
Balance with other banks & financial Institutions :
Money at call and sort notice
Loan and advance :
Loans, cash credit, overdrafts etc.
Bills purchase and discounts
Fixed assets including premises, furniture & fixture
Total Property and assets
Liabilities and Capital
Borrowing from other Banks, Financial Institutions & agents
Deposits and other accounts :
Current deposit & other accounts
Savings Bank deposits
Capital/shareholders equity :
Paid up capital
Total stockholder’s equity
Total liabilities and stockholder’s equity
Net Asset Value (NAV)
From the vertical analysis above, we can compare the percentage mark-up of asset items and how they have been financed. The strategies may include increase/decrease the holding of certain assets. The analyst may as well observe the trend of the increase in the assets and liabilities over several years. It can be observed that there is an increase in the holding of the current assets of the company. The management can seek the reasons of why the holding of these assets is continuously increasing. Though both the assets and liabilities are increasing but proportionately liabilities were a little higher than the assets, which may make some ratio lower. The above analysis also shows that total liabilities has increase but stock holder’s equity has decreased, which indicates that UCBL is more debt financed than the equity.
Profit and Loss Account
For the year ended December 31, 2011 & 2010
Profit and Loss Account
Less Interest Paid on Deposits & Borrowing etc.
Net Interest Income
Income from investments
Commission, exchange & brokerage
Other operating income
Total operation income
Less : Operation expenditure
Salary & allowances
Chip Executive’s salary and fees
Rent, tax, insurance, electricity
Postage, stamps, telegram & telephone
Printing, stationary, advertising
Depreciation on & repairs to banks
Total operating expenditure
Profit Before provision
Less : Provision against loans & advances
Provision for diminution in value of investment
Profit before Tax
Less : Provision for tax current
Net Profit after tax
Earning per share(EPS)
A second method of common size analysis is a means of comparing figures within a single P & L. A common size profit and loss statement, for example, compares all components of the P & L to total operating income. In other words, Total operating income is defined as “100% and all other figures on the statement are expressed as a percentage of that. In this way, we not only get an automatic indication of approximate profit margin, we also can see the importance of all of your costs and expenses relative to operating income. Vertical analysis can also be done on these common size percentages in order to identify trends in the relative sizes of categories like costs, expenses, or margins. The above analysis shows that UCBL has higher net interest income than 2010 to 2011. But after tax net profit has decreased because they paid more provision against loan and advances. On the other hand they paid lower tax in 2010. In the year 2011 UCBL has comparatively higher expenditure, but marginally lower percentage, which was not good signal for the bank.
It is conducted by setting consecutive balance sheet, income statement or statement of cash flow side-by-side and reviewing changes in individual categories on a year-to-year or multiyear basis. The most important item revealed by comparative financial statement analysis is trend.
UCBL performance for 2011 compared to 2010 & 2010 compared to 2009.
|Paid up Capital|
|Total Loans and Advances|
|Total Contingent liabilities|
|Profit before provision and tax|
|Net profit after provision and tax|
|Non-interest Earning Assets|
A comparison of statements over several years reveals direction, speed and extent of a trend(s). The horizontal financial statements analysis is done by restating amount of each item or group of items as a percentage. Such percentages are calculated by selecting a base year and assign a weight of 100 to the amount of each item in the base year statement. Thereafter, the amounts of similar items or groups of items in prior or subsequent financial statements are expressed as a percentage of the base year amount. The resulting figures are called index numbers or trend ratios. The above analysis shows that UCBL performance trend is quite better in 2011, but somewhere it was not good. Their import was too higher, which is not good. Their capital was higher in 2011 but stockholders equity has decreased. As compared 2010 though their asset and deposit was higher but they had very low investment as well as UCBL was highly debt financed.
Ratio analysis is a study of the relationships between financial variables. It is very important in fundamental analysis which investigates the financial health of any financial institution. This ratio analysis gives frank financial information in this current business world. By giving a glance anyone will be able to know what the position that institution is now. Therefore managers, shareholders, creditors etc. all take interest in ratio analysis. For example using liquidity ratios managers can use the information if the institution’s liquidity is struggling and they may have to take out short term finance. For this reason to evaluate the performance of UCBL the ratio analysis has been selected. Here in this report contains the most common ratios and analyze to evaluate the performance of UCBL over the year 2008, 2009 and 2010. The following types of ratios frequently are used:
1. Liquidity ratios
2. Leverage ratios
3. Profitability ratios
4. Dividend policy ratios
Liquidity ratios are the first ones to come in the picture. These ratios actually show the relationship of a firm’s cash and other current assets to its current liabilities. Two ratios are discussed under Liquidity ratios. They are:
This ratio is calculated by dividing the total current assets of an institution by its total current liabilities. It shows how any institution like UCBL meets its current liabilities through its current assets.
According to result the current ratio of UCBL was 3.69 in 2010, 2.58 in 2009 and 3.61 in 2008. In 2010 the current ratio was 3.69 which mean UCBL had 3.69 taka of currents assets against 1 taka of short term debt or liability. It means UCBL had the ability to pay off its current liabilities with its current assets. In 2009 the current ratio was 2.58 which was a little than 2010 which means in 2009 UCBL invested less in short term assets. On the other hand in 2008 the current ratio was 3.61 which mean UCBL investment in current assets was lower than 2010 but higher than 2009. In fact the higher the current ratio is better for the institution because this higher ratio helps to prevent getting default.
This ratio indicates the firm’s liquidity position as well. It actually refers to the extent to which current liabilities are covered by those assets except inventories.
This ratio portray the idea that UCBL has so far an almost constant liquidity position which is good at some point, but at the same token it can be said that they have not been able to improve them-selves. Standing at this point, we can make an assumption that may be their profit margin was not so high that they can make some investments paying off the liabilities that could result in an increase in assets and decrease in liabilities to make the liquidity position far better.
Leverage ratios are used to calculate the financial leverage of an institution. It helps to get an idea of the institution’s methods of financing or to measure its ability to meet financial obligations. There are several types of ratios which main factors are debt, equity, assets and interest expenses.
LONG-TERM DEBT TO EQUITY RATIO
Long term debt to equity ratio is one of the financial leverage ratios which are used in banking sectors to know the link between the long term debt and equity. The ratio is calculated by taking the institution’s long-term debt and dividing it by the total value of its equity.
This ratio measures UCBL’s long-term sources of fund. Here from this figures it is noticed that most of the UCBL’s long term sources of fund come through the long term liability like fixed deposits and multiple saving schemes. In 2010 this leverage ratio was 11.41 which mean UCBL long term funds come from depositors’ deposits rather than the stockholders ‘equity. On the other hand in 2009 and 2008 the Long-term Debt to Equity Ratio was respectively 9.13 and 9.93 which was less than 2010.
TOTAL DEBT TO TOTAL ASSET RATIO
Total debt to total asset ratio measures a bank’s financial risk. It determines how much of the bank’s assets have been financed by the debt. It is calculated by total debt dividing by the institution’s total assets.
Total Debt to Total Asset Ratio = Total Debt / Total Asset
|Total Debt to Total Asset Ratio||93.98%||93.69%||93.23%|
Table: Total Debt to Total Asset Ratio
Almost all of the UCBL’s assets are financed by its debt. It works by taking the deposits from the general and invest it in different sectors. From the year 2008 to 2010 the ratios were 93.98%, 93.69% and 93.23% which are almost same. The higher ratio may increase more risk because if UCBL defaults in any investment than the depositors will also default.
TOTAL EQUITY TO TOTAL ASSET RATIO
Total equity to total asset ratio is one of the leverage ratios which is used by the organization like banking sectors. It determines how much of the bank’s assets have been financed by the equity.
Total Equity to Total Asset Ratio = Total Equity / Total Asset
|Total Equity to Total Asset Ratio||6.02%||6.31%||6.77%|
Table: Total Equity to Total Asset Ratio
UCBL’s almost all the fund collected from the depositors so the shareholder’s contribution on this organization is too low. The outcome of this ratio over the years was downward. In year 2010, 2009 and 2008 the ratios were 6.02%, 6.31% and 6.77%. The reason behind this downward slope was that the bank’s deposits are increasing over years and shareholders are less exposed to the risk than the depositors or debtors are.
Profitability Ratios measure the overall earnings performance of an institution and its efficiency in utilizing assets, liabilities and equity.
NET PROFIT MARGIN
Net Profit Margin is a ratio of profitability which is calculated by dividing the net profit after taxation by revenues or net interest income. It measures how much UCBL’s is actually earning from its every taka of revenue.
Net Profit Margin = Net Profit after Taxation / Net interest Income
|Net Profit Margin||56.88%||35.65%||38.07%|
Table: Net Profit Margin
The greater the outcome the better the UCBL’s performance is. In 2010 the result was 56.88% that means in 100 taka of net interest income UCBL’s net profit was 56.88 taka. On the other hand in 2009 and 2008 the net profit was taka 35.65 and 38.07 against 100 taka of net interest. Between the years in 2010 the bank had a handsome profit margin in percentages and oppositely in 2008 UCBL net profit margin was better than the year 2009.
RETURN ON EQUITY
Return on equity measures a bank’s profitability which calculates how much net profit that bank may generates with the money that shareholders have invested as equity.
ROE is very popular ratio toward the shareholders of any bank. After doing the analysis from UCBL’s financial statements its shows those in years 2010, 2009, and 2008 the return from 100 taka invested by the shareholders was respectively 27.91, 16.35 and 17.44. The higher the percentage is the better for the bank as well as for shareholders.
RETURN ON ASSETS
ROA is a profitability ratio which shows how profitable a bank is related to its total assets. ROA gives an idea that how efficient the management of a bank is to generate profits using its assets.
Return on Assets = Net Profit after Taxation / Total Assets
|Return on Assets||1.68%||1.03%||1.18%|
Table: Return on Assets
ROA is the most used profitability ratio. As UCBL was a part of banking industry and its most of the assets come from the debt which was the reasons for its low net profit as well as poor ROA. As a result the UCBL had low ROA in the year of 2010, 2009 and 2008 which were 1.68%, 1.03% and 1.18% respectively. In the year 2010 the net profit of the bank had increased as a better growth rate rather than its assets growth.
Gross Profit Margin= Gross profit / Sales
|Gross Profit Margin||41.69||29.54||31.21|
Table: Gross Profit Margin
From the above analysis we can see that, UCBL has a higher Gross Profit Margin which indicates that they earning more that will be paid to its shareholders.
Dividend Policy ratio:
It describes how a firm pays their divided as they earn. On the other hand it also shows that a firm may earn and provide the dividend to its shareholders.
Dividend payout = Dividend/Net income
Table: Dividend payout
Generally, growth firms have low dividend payout ratios as they retain most of their income to finance future expansion. Here UCBL has a high pay out rations, which indicates it is a well-established bank.
SWOT Analysis of United Commercial Bank at a Glance:
SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and Threats involved in a business venture. In banking sectors it is important to identify the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve its objectives. From the SWOT analysis we can figure out ongoing scenario of the bank. So to have a better view of the present banking practice of UCBL, the SOWT analysis of UCBL is given below-
It is an internal factor. It deals with the organizations own strength. UCBL’s strengths are
1. Usage of faster pc bank software which is PC BANK 2000
2. Efficient administration
3. Corporation with each other
4. Fewer default loans.
5. Membership with SWIFT
6. Good banker-customer relationship
7. Energetic as well as smart work force
8. Well-furnished and air-conditioned bank
9. Not engage in unfair business practice
Weakness is also an internal factor of SWOT analysis. UCBL’s weaknesses are
1. Existing manual vouchers
2. Limited consumer credit scheme
3. Enhance of new private banks
4. Lack of training facility
5. Lack of promotional activities
6. Officers in the junior level are not highly qualified
Opportunities are external factors which indicate the industry’s advantages available for the companies.
1. Huge business area
2. Introducing different debit and credit card
3. Industry’s positive growth
4. Introducing any branch banking through online
5. Flexible credit schemes
6. Reliably to local public
Threats are external factors of SWOT analysis. The threats for UCBL are
1. Different classic services of foreign banks
2. Better developed card division of other private banks
3. Uses of modern technologies by the rival banks
4. Political unrest and government restricted banking strategies
5. The number of rivalry is too high into the banking industry.
As a pioneer of welfare banking, United Commercial Bank Limited has contributed a lot to the national economy as well as to social welfare through financial structure under Islamic banking. During the internship period in United Commercial Bank Limited (UCBL) I have found various things, which are as follows:
UCBL has a good set of customer service environment. It has provided very potential and dynamic customer service to its customer.
UCBL has a good set of institutional owners, which gives a better board of directors than many other banking companies.
UCBL has successfully developed a professional job environment where each officer has substantial level of authority and responsibility.
The organization is divided in to departments, and then in to units and subunits and thus the total flow of work has become very systematic.
The bank uses “PC Bank 2000” software for its banking operations as a computerized bank.
The marketing strategy and customer care department is not up to the mark.
This Bank can’t intestinal economic sectors, which are prohibited by the law of Islam.
This bank has limited activity to capitalize the huge potentials of the credit card market. It will verse that tomorrows payment will be considered of only plastic money (Credit Card). A large part of business transaction will be done by credit card III near future. So the branch should give special attention on credit card.
The bank has taken a 5-year plan from 2007-2012 to make a flexible and comfortable service to its clients.
It has diversified product line.
The growth of the bank has so far been very steady and high.
It lacks of ATM and Credit card facilities.
UCBL Bank Limited also hasn’t proper monitoring system.
This bank started on-line service newly. As a resulted customers are not getting the full service by the on-line service. Sometimes they have to face problem with on-line account.
The number of human resources in the Computer section is really insufficient to give services to huge number of customers.
I have the practical experience in UCBL for only two months. United Commercial Bank Ltd introduces a new dimension of business among the local bank in the financial market of Bangladesh in Retail Product Management. But in the complex business environment and diversified business world these products cannot meet the customer needs. Today, customer classes are vibrant and it is difficult to keep the customers without an appropriately designed and also is not properly market driven. Developing a market driven product management system is essential for any company if the company would like to win the competitive condition and would like to survive in futuristic competitive market setting. In this regard, following specific recommendations are forwarded for the development of product management of United Commercial Bank Ltd.
United Commercial Bank limited is a leading Private commercial bank in Bangladesh with superior customer bases that are loyal, faithful, worthy towards the bank. The service provided by the young energetic officials of the United Commercial Bank Limited is very satisfactory. As a commercial bank UCBL has to follow the rules of Bangladesh bank despite the fact that these rules sometime restrict the foreign business to some extent. During my internship in this branch I have found its Investment department to be very efficient; therefore this department plays a major role in the overall profitability of the branch and to the Bank as a whole.
The Bank’s drive towards market leadership as well as quality in choosing business will continue in the coming years although competition is intensified with the opening of more financial institutions. The Bank is optimistic that the volume of business will increase in future through pragmatic and market friendly policies. The Bank shall continue to explore new Branches for Banking. We shall endeavor to adopt customer-oriented policies and introduce new techniques that will help to earn profit and increase greater confidence of the existing/ prospective customers. If United Commercial Bank Ltd, Uttarkhan Branch adopts professionalism within the framework of commercial, they will be able to earn handsome and higher return to the depositors and shareholders. Ultimately, public will get more confidence on this type of Banking.
Taking into consideration of the experiences from working in the Uttarkhan branch, the following recommendations can be referred:
- Though the performance of general customer services is very good, it has some problem of efficiency.
- Officials whom are involved in Customer Services should be trained properly. Because some time they cannot give proper suggestions to the customer queries.
- Their jobs should be mentioned more frequently.
- They should be made somewhat free from doing business.
- Link between Customer Service Officer’s and Customer Service Manager should be easier.
- To provide better &smarter services, UCBL should also improve their call center service.
- The bank should introduce more product and service based on market demand.
- Number of ATM booth needed to be increased.
- ATM should take good care. Because it has been seen that most of the time they remain out of order or out of cash.
- Relationship between Bank and customer should be increased.
- Charges and fees may be reduced for more customer satisfaction.
- There should be a code of conduct for the UCBL officials, which should followed.
- Uttarkhan Branch should have computerized token system.
- The website of UCBL should upgrade regularly.
- There sitting or waiting arrangement should be increased with cozy furniture.
- Some officers behaviors are very infuriate, they should change this type of attitude.
- Being a clear transparent the bank can provide the best support to customer as earn profit.
United Commercial Bank Limited has formulate “Business Policy and Perspective Plan” to attain the financial strength, sustainable growth and operational efficiency. To protect the interest of the stakeholders, bank has formulated the perspective plan for consolidation of the growth and profitability. During the period of perspective plan, bank has the main objective to attain the highest operational excellence and consolidation to turn the bank into a dynamic Bank in the country.
During the period from 2007 to 2012, new & potential avenues of business in all areas of operation to be explored and expanded through the network of existing100 branches and more new branches to be opened gradually during the plan period subject to permission of Bangladesh Bank. The bank ensures optimum utilization of bank’s invested fund/ deposit to be mobilized in future in an organized way to maximize banks profit consolidating the financial strength of the bank and to achieve the overall objective, mission & vision of the bank as a whole.
It is great pleasure for me to have practical exposure in United Commercial Bank Limited, Uttarkhan Branch. Because without practical exposure it could not be possible for me to compare the theory with practice, and it is well established that theory without practice is blind. I have completed my internship in Uttarkhan Branch of United Commercial Bank Limited. During the practical orientation, I have observed the function of overall banking activities like cash department, clearing section, customer client division & various laws that comply with the sound business operations of United Commercial Bank of Bangladesh. The Bank which is fully customer oriented. Its performance specially based on prompt and swift services is busier than other department of United Commercial Bank Limited of Uttarkhan Branch. The more and more are coming in the branch through this department resulting deposit of the branch is increasing day to day.
On the other hand, for the concept of commercial banking system most valuable, and affluent, wise client are step forwarding to the corridor of the United Commercial Bank Limited. As a result, the Accountholder & liability of the bank is growing time to time, which will help to makes proper investment. That is why the number of account is opening more than previous year, which signifies the positive sign for our developing economy. In a word, the performance of United Commercial Bank Limited, Uttarkhan branch is growing rapidly and the volume of remittance is increasing effectively.
At last it can be said that, United Commercial Bank Limited will be turned into a dynamic commercial Bank in the country and will expand its Banking Business all over the country to provide the banking services to the groups including the deserving Economic groups of the society who have no easy access to the banking channel. This will help for alleviation of the poverty, income generation, creation of employment opportunity, up-gradation of the standard of living of the lower economic groups, which will also contribute to the emancipation of national economy of the country. The bank follows the Bank Companies Act 1991, the Companies Act 1994, the Negotiable Instrument Act 1881, the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act 1973 and many more to make the banking business in Bangladesh lawfully.
As a student of Business Administration, I have completed my internship report on “General Banking & Credit Management Activities of United Commercial Bank Limited: A Study on Uttarkhan branch”. During internship program, I have tried my best to collect the information related to study topic and prepared the report within a very short time. That is why, there may have some unexpected mistakes in the report. I regret for any mistake in this report.
I worked in United Commercial Bank- Uttarkhan Branch, as full time internee from October 16, 2012 to January 16, 2013. The internship aimed at allowing fresh candidates to get an insight view of the overall function of UCBL.
The best feature of my internship program was the access to a motivated and hard-working team of highly knowledgeable banking professionals. The most important skill that I learnt was the ability to work in a team. I also picked up considerable skills in handing team communication, training others, getting trained me, and the ability to adapt to the ever changing banking scenario.
In this report I am extremely grateful to my Supervisor M. Mokarrom Hossain, Professor Daffodil International University.
Md. Shahan Reza
BBA (Major in Finance)
Department of Business Administration
First of all I would like to acknowledge “The Almighty Allah”, the supreme authority of the universe. This is an exclusive instance of professional life. I passed and enjoyed in the time of my internship, which help me to prepare this report. A single individual can achieve no noble objective. Completion of anything requires support from various sources. I am very much fortunate to get the sincere guidance and supervision from a number of people.
I am deeply indebted to my internship supervisor M. Mokarrom Hossain whole-hearted guidance and supervision. His suggestion and comments to make the report a good one was really a great source of spirit for me.
I am very much grateful to the executives of UCBL who extended their whole-hearted cooperation during my internship period. I would like to extend my gratitude to Md. Suruzzamzn (First Asstt.Vice President & Head of Branch) of United Commercial Bank Ltd, Md. Amir Hamza Chowdhury (Executive Officer & Manager Operation), Md. Jalal Uddin Chowdhury(Executive Officer), Abdullah Al Masum(Senior Officer), kazi Mashqur Ahmed (Officer), A.L.M. Khairul Bari (Officer) and all other employees of United Commercial Bank Limited, Uttarkhan Branch.
Besides I am also grateful to the authors, researchers, and article writers who’s Books, Reports, and Journals have helped me to prepare my Internship Report successfully.
I thank them all from the core of my heart.
LETTERT OF TRANSMITTAL
January 20, 2013
M. Mokarrom Hossain
Department of Business Administration
Subject: Submission of the Internship report on “General Banking & Credit Management Activities of United Commercial Bank Limited: A Study on Uttarkhan branch”.
It’s my pleasure to submit my internship report on “General Banking & Credit Management Activities of United Commercial Bank Limited: A Study on Uttarkhan branch”. I have tried myself to explain all my learning experience I have gathered from my internship program briefly in this report.
The entire report is based on my practical experience in the bank. I have put my best effort in completing the report with all the information that I have collected during my stay in United Commercial Bank Limited.
I hope that the report will meet your expectation and aid you in getting a clear idea about the topic. Please do call me for any clarification regarding the report, if required.
LETTER OF ACCEPTANCE
This is to certify that Md.Shahan Reza, ID. NO. 092-11-1086, a student of Daffodil International University of BBA program has completed the internship report titled “General Banking & Credit Management Activities of United Commercial Bank Limited: A Study on Uttarkhan branch” under my supervision. His internship placement was at United Commercial Bank Limited, Uttarkhan branch. I am pleased to state that Md. Shahan Reza worded hard in preparing this report and he has been able to present a good picture of the concerned organization. The data and findings presented in the report seem to be authentic.
Md. Shahan Reza, hereby declare that the presented report of internship titled “General Banking & Credit Management Activities of United Commercial Bank Limited: A Study on Uttarkhan branch” is prepared by me after the completion of three months work in Uttarkhan Branch of united commercial bank Ltd.
I also confirm that, the report is only prepared for my academic requirement not for any other purpose. It might not be used with the interest of opposite party of the corporation.
Acronyms & Elaboration
|3.||B/L||Bill of Lading|
|5.||BOE||Bill of exchange|
|6.||CCI & E||Chief Controller of Import & Export|
|7.||CFR||Cost & Freight|
|8.||CIB||Credit Information Bureau|
|9.||CIF||Cost Insurance & Freight|
|11.||DP Note||Demand Promissory Note|
|12.||EPB||Export Promotion Bureau|
|14.||ERC||Export Registration Certificate|
|15.||FDD||Foreign Demand Draft|
|17.||FDR||Fixed deposit receipt|
|18.||FOB||Free On Board|
|19.||HS Code||Harmonized system of coding|
|20.||IBC||Inward Bills for Collection|
|21.||IBCA||Inter Branch Credit Advice|
|22.||IBCT||Inter branch Credit Transaction|
|23.||IBDA||Inter Branch Debit Advice|
|25.||IRC||Import Registration Certificate|
|26.||L/C||Letter of Credit|
|27.||LCAF||Letter of Credit Authorization Form|
|28.||LIM||Loan against Imported Merchandise|
|29.||LTR||Loan against Trust Receipt|
|31.||PS||Pay in Slip|
|32.||PSI||Pre Shipment Inspection|
|34.||STD||Short Term Deposits|
|35.||SSS||Special Savings Scheme|
|36.||SFDS||Special Fixed Deposits Scheme|
|37.||SWIFT||Society for Worldwide Inter bank Financial|
|39.||TIN||Tax Identification Number|
|46.||UCBL||United Commercial Bank Limited|
As a partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) program the internship is designed to fill-up the gap between academic knowledge and the practical to some extent. It is really a great opportunity to have on real life experience while passing through the process of theoretical learning. The report is prepared with to Three month’s internship program in the United Commercial Bank Ltd.
Banking system of Bangladesh has gone through three phases of development- Nationalization, Privatization, and Lastly Financial Sector Reform. United Commercial Bank Of Bangladesh Limited has started its journey as a private commercial bank on June 26, 1983.
Banking sector plays vital role for economic development of Bangladesh. Foreign exchange department of commercial banks facilitates the import and export of a country and thus develops the international trade.
United Commercial Bank is one of the largest Banks in Bangladesh. Day by day UCBL has become a giant in the banking sector. General Banking and Credit Management department of this bank is well renowned. The report was made on the basis of primary and secondary data. Primary data have been collected through discussions with the officers of the Credit Management and foreign exchange department of the bank. Secondary data have been collected from the bank’s record books, publications, annual reports, websites and other sources. For analyzing the data and explaining the performance both tables and graphs have been presented.
General banking deals with retail banking services to customers. Banks perform this function in two ways-1 .taking deposits from various areas in different forms.2 1ending that accumulated amount of money to the potential investors in other different forms.
General Banking is the starting point of the entire bank operating. General Banking department aids in taking deposits and simultaneously provides some ancillaries services. It provides those customers who come frequently and those customers who come one time in banking for enjoying ancillary services. In some general banking activities, there is no relation between banker and customers who will take only one service form bank. On the other hand, there are some customers with whom bank are doing its business frequently. It is the department, which provides day-to-day services to the customers. Everyday it receives deposits from the customers and meets their demand for cash by honoring cheques. It opens new accounts, demit funds, issue bank drafts and pay orders etc. since bank in confined to provide the service everyday general banking is also known as retail banking.
Under General Banking Division, I was working as an intern in the front desk. This department mainly provides service by opening various deposit accounts, saving scheme to customers for a wide variety of purposes. They are always on the run to search for new customers.
This report is based on finding out their way to satisfy the consumer as well as how UCBL is financially performing. My overall objective of UCBL financial statement analysis is the examination of financial position and returns in relation to risk. This must be done with a view to forecasting the firm’s future prospective.
At the end part of the report I have stated some recommendations, which I hope will be helpful for ban to recover all the weaknesses.
|Letter of Transmittal|
|Letter of Acceptance|
|Acronyms & Elaborations|
|Table of Contents|
|Background of the Study|
|Origin of the Study|
|Objective of the Study|
|Scope of the Study|
|Limitation of the Study|
Organizational Profile of United Commercial Bank Limited
|Vision ,Mission & Core Values|
|Objectives of UCBL|
|Commitments of UCBL|
|Organogram of UCBL|
|Product & Service|
|Board of Directors|
|Hierarchy of UCBL|
|Performance of UCBL|
|Typical Structure of a Branch|
|Corporate Social Responsibility|
General Banking Activities of UCBL
|Customer Service of UCBL|
|Account Opening to Closing|
|UCBL ATM Service|
Credit Management Activities of UCBL
|Credit Management of UCBL|
|Credit Policy of UCBL|
|Types of Credit|
|Classification on The Basis of Time|
|Classification on The Basis of Characteristics of Financing|
|Guiding Principle of Credit appraisal of UCBL|
|Credit Ratification Authority of UCBL|
|Credit Evaluation Principles|
|Process of Credit Management|
|Steps Involved In Credit Processing|
|Documents for Credit|
|Fees of Loans and Advances|
|Security against Advances|
|Modes of Charging Security|
|Lending Risk Analysis (LRA)|
|Credit Appraising & Presentation of Credit Proposal for Final Approval|
Financial Analysis of UCBL
|Financial analysis of UCBL|
|Vertical/Common Size analysis|
Major Finding, Recommendation & Conclusion
|Appendix-1||Questionnaire for customer|
|Appendix-2||Audited Annual Report 2011|
|Appendix-3||Balance Sheet & Income Statement|