The purpose of the report is to analyze the operating procedures of the general banking system in Bangladesh and discuss on those issues. Banks in general performs three basic functions valued by the overall economy. Another purpose is to understand various departmental activities and their key responsibilities, to give some suggestion to overcome the weakness and problems that exists in the existing system, to become familiar with organizational culture, to recommend necessary steps to overcome such problems.
A banker must have adequate knowledge on the role of banks in the overall economy of the country. He must possess clear concept on mechanism of banking operation. So, for the purpose banking sector requires skilled and talented personnel. On this point of view this report is prepared to gather adequate knowledge about the operating procedures of the commercial banks of Bangladesh. In this regard the experiences and knowledge gathered during the period of practical orientation and working as an internee in the AB Bank Limited, Head Office was manipulated.
Rationale of the Study
Three types of schedule commercial banks are in operation in our economy. They are Nationalized Commercial Banks, Local Private Commercial Banks and Foreign Private Commercial Banks. ABBL has discovered a new horizon in the field of banking area, which offers different General Banking, Investments and Foreign Exchange banking system. So I have decided to study on the topic “General Banking Operations of AB Bank Limited.”. This also provides an opportunity to me to minimize the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. Students are required to work on specific topics based on their theoretical and practical knowledge acquired in their study life. That is why I have prepared this report.
Objective of the Study
The study has conducted for the following objectives:-
- To observe the working environment in AB bank
- To present an overview of AB Bank.
- To get an overall idea about the condition of Operational Control System of General Banking in AB Bank Limited.
- Acquiring experience for future working life.
- To describe the customer service process of AB Bank Ltd.
- To get knowledge about the products and services offered by AB Bank Ltd.
Scope of the Study
AB Bank Ltd. is one of the largest private commercial bank, which provides its banking services through almost seventy branches in Bangladesh. This bank is a reputed and leading one in our banking sector for its performance. It’s my pleasure to get opportunity work with AB bank. This report has been prepared through extensive discussion with bank employees and with the clients. While preparing this report, I had a great opportunity to have an in depth knowledge General Banking Operations practiced by “AB Bank Ltd.” It also helped me to acquire a firsthand perspective of a leading private Bank in Bangladesh. Specifically the report covers the following areas:
- Background of AB Bank Ltd.
- General Banking Operations of AB Bank Ltd.
- Analysis and evaluation of the strength and performance of ABBL.
Limitation of the Study
From the intention to make the report realistic and properly accepted this report has been conducted. Like any other study the limitations of this study is not out of questions. But the following factors seem to me the main points of weakness of this study, despite all out co-ordination from the bank officials. However, many problems appeared in the way of conducting the study. The study considers following limitations:
- Another limitation was the sensitivity of the data. As it is a highly competitive market, in some cases management were reluctant to give some specific data.
- Limitations of bank’s policy of not disclosing some data and information for obvious reasons, which could be very much useful. For the sake of confidentiality of the organization, employees did not disclose much information.
- Lack of comprehension of the respondents was the major problem that created many confusions regarding verification of conceptual question
- Confidentiality of data was another important barrier that was confronted during the conduct of this study.
Methodology of the Study
Methodology of the study includes direct observations, face-to-face conversation with the employees of different desk, study of files, circular etc. & practical deskwork. In conducting this report basically, there have been two types of data and information used. The name of those two types and their sources to reveal the information for preparing this report has been showed in a flow chart.
Method of data collection & data collection instruments used:
- Bangladesh Bank’s Circular
- Govt. Act & Order
- Annual Report Of ABBL
- AB Bank Operational Manual
- AB Bank Website
- Different guidelines of Head Office, ABBL
- Interview of the employees
- Relevant books, Research papers, Newspapers and Journals.
- Personal observation
- Internet and Study of selected reports.
Presentation of Data
Collected data were compiled in charts and tables and presented in the body of the report.
Processing of Data
Collected data were compiled and processed for the purpose of preparing the report.
AB Bank is known as one of leading bank of the country since its commencement 27 years ago. It is the first private sector bank under Joint Venture with Dubai Bank Ltd, UAE incorporated in Bangladesh on Dec 31, 1981. The bank commenced its operations in April 12, 1982.
During the last 27 years, AB Bank Limited has opened 74 Branches in different Business Centers of the country, one foreign Branch in Mumbai, India and also established a wholly owned Subsidiary Finance Company in Hong Kong in the name of AB International Finance Limited. To facilitate cross border trade and payment related services, the Bank has correspondent relationship with over 220 international banks of repute across 58 countries of the World. It is listed on Dhaka Stock Exchange Ltd and Chittagong Stock Exchange Ltd. AB Bank has a branch network of 74 branches in Bangladesh. The overseas operations of the bank are conducted through its Mumbai branch in India and its subsidiary company, the AB International Finance Ltd in Hongkong.
As of December 31, 2009, the Authorized Capital and the Equity (paid up Capital and Reserve) of the Bank are BDT 6000 million and BDT 10,087 million respectively. The 28th Annual General Meeting held on July 15, 2010.
The products and services offered by the company include retail banking, corporate banking, SME banking, project finance, NRB banking, money transfer, Islami banking, investment banking and cards. In the corporate banking segment, the products offered include working capital finance, trade finance, cash management, syndicated finance, and equity finance and corporate advisory services. The bank also has drawing arrangements with 14 exchange/money transfer remittance houses all over the globe to facilitate fast, reliable and hassle
AB Bank Ltd. (ABBL) was incorporated on 31st December 1981, under the company’s act-1913 as a pioneer commercial bank in the private sector in Bangladesh with its Head Office in Dhaka. The bank started functioning from 12th April 1982 with the approval of Bangladesh Bank under the guidelines, rules and regulations given for scheduled commercial banks operating in Bangladesh. It was initially a joint venture commercial bank between Bangladeshi sponsors and Dubai Bank Ltd. Dubai (U.A.E.) having respective share holdings as unde
Subsequently, the Union Bank of Middle East Ltd. inherited the shares of Dubai Bank Ltd. in 1986 and continued as its shareholder till early 1987, when they decided to offload their investment in Bangladesh. As per provisions of the bank Articles of Associations, with the approval of Bangladesh Bank and the controller of Capital issue Government of Bangladesh, the shares (60%) held by the Union Bank of Middle East (UBME), were purchase by the Bangladeshi Sponsored Directors, raising total shares of holding to 80% of total share capital. However, as desired by the government of Bangladesh the sponsors. Directors, who acquired the 60% shareholdings of Union Bank of Middle East (UBME), unclosed 50% of share, purchased by them from UBME to the general public of Bangladesh raising the public share holdings to the 45% of total share capital of the bank. The Objective of the bank is to undertake all kinds of banking and foreign exchange business in Bangladesh as well as abroad through its brandies/correspondents.
Capital Structure of AB Bank Limited
The authorized capital of AB Bank Ltd. is taka 400.00 crore divided into 4.00 crore ordinary shares of taka 100 each, from the existing Tk. 200.00 crore on 05 march, 2008. The total paid up capital rose to taka 743.00 million at the end of 2008. At present the composition of the existing shareholders of the bank is as under:
|Bangladeshi sponsors/ Directors||50%|
|Bangladeshi General Public||49.43%|
|Govt. of Bangladesh||0.57%|
Table: Capital Structure
General banking department is the heart of all banking activities. This is the busiest and important department of a branch, because funds are mobilized, cash transactions are made; clearing remittance and accounting activities are done here. Since bank is confined to provide the services everyday, general banking is also known as ‘Retail banking’. In AB Bank LTD, the following departments are under general banking section:
Account Opening Section
- Cash Section
- Remittance Section
- Clearing Section
- Collection Section
- Pay order
Different Types of Accounts
Account opening is the gateway for client to enter into business with bank. It is the foundation of banker customer relationship. This is one of the most important sections of a branch, because by opening accounts bank mobilizes funds for investment. Various rules and regulations are maintained and various documents are taken while opening an account. A customer can open different types of accounts through this department, Such as:
- Current Deposit.
- Savings Account.
- Short Term Deposit (STD).
- Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR/TDR).
- Monthly Savings Deposit Account.
- Monthly Income Deposit Account.
- Any Other type(s) authorized from time to time.
Current account is purely a demand deposit account. There is no restriction on withdrawing money from the account. It is basically justified when funds are to be collected and money is to be paid at frequent interval. Some Important Points are as follows-
- Minimum opening deposit of TK.10007-is required.
- There is no withdrawal limit
- No interest is given upon the deposited money
- Minimum Tk. 1000 balance must always maintain all the time
This deposit is primarily for small-scale savers. Hence, there is a restriction on withdrawals in a month. Heavy withdrawals are permitted only against prior notice. Some Important Points are as follows-
- Minimum opening deposit of ik.5000 is required;
- Minimum Tk 1000 balance must always maintain all the time;
- Withdrawal amount should not be more than l/4th of the total balance at a time and limit twice in a month.
- If withdrawal amount exceed l/4th of the total balance at a time no interest is given upon the deposited money for that month.
Short Term Deposit (STD)
Normally various big companies, organizations, Government Departments keep money in STD account. Frequent withdrawal is discouraged and requires prior notice. The deposit should be kept for at least seven days to get interest. The interest offered for STD is less man mat of savings deposit Interest is calculated based on daily minimum product and paid two times in a year. Interest rate is 6.00%.
Fixes Deposit Receipt (FDR/TPR)
Fixed deposit is a deposit scheme for the customers. The time limit is given in fixed deposit receipt. Depositors have to withdraw the interest after maturity date. If the depositors intend to withdraw the interest earning before expiration of the maturity date the bank is not bound to pay the interest.
OPENING OF FIXED DEPOSIT ACCOUNT
The depositor has to fill an application form where he mentions the amount of deposit, the period for which deposit is to be made and the name in which the fixed deposit receipt is to be issued In case of a deposit in Joint name, AB Bank also takes the intentions regarding payment of money maturity of the deposit The banker also takes the institution regarding payment of money on maturity of the deposit.
PAYMENT OF INTEREST
It is usually paid on maturity of the fixed deposit. AB Bank calculates interest at each maturity date and provision is made on that “Miscellaneous creditor expenditure payable accounts” is debited for the accrued interest. ENCASHMENT OF FDR
In case of premature FDRAB Bank is not bound to accept surrender of the deposit before its maturity date. In order to deter such a tendency the interest on such a fixed deposit is made, cut a certain percentage less than the agreed rate. Normally saving bank interest is during the encashment of the instrument after maturity, the instrument have to be surrendered, the excise duty and income tax (10%) is deducted from the total interest earned during the time of deposit
- LOSS OF FDR
- In case of a loss FDR, the customer is asked to record a GD (General Diary) in the nearest Police Station. After that the customer has to furnish an Indemnity Bond to AB Bank, a duplicate FDR is then issued to the customer by the bank. RENEWAL OF FDR
In AB Bank, the instrument is automatically renewed within seven days after the date of its maturity if the customer does not come to en-cash the FDR. The period for renewal is determined as the previous one.
Monthly Savings deposit Account (MSDS)
MONTHLY SAVING DEPOSIT SHCHEME is a liability product where existing and prospective customers can open an account in his/her name r with an amount of tk.500/- or it’s multiple. The client shall have to agree to deposit similar amount o9n monthly basis for tenure of 5 or 10 years and shall be entitled to receive a fixed amount after completion of the respective as per the terms agreed upon. The product will be designed by H.O. from time to time.
Monthly Income Deposit Account
MONTHLY INCOME DEPOSIT ACCOUNT is a liability product where the existing customer as well as the prospective customer can create Term Deposit in his/her name with a principal amount of tk.100000/- or its multiple for a tenure of three or five years and shall be entitled to receive a fixed income on monthly basis as per the terms and conditions of the product.
The principal amount, tenure and the monthly fixed income to be received by the client (excluding levy, income tax etc. imposed by the government from time to time) will be designed by the H. O time to time.
Deposit Double Scheme Account
“Double your Deposit” scheme allows a customer to double his/her deposit in six years at a market competitive rate. The product offers the flexibility of premature encashment at a predetermined value as well as the convenience of borrowing against amount, details of which are given below:
- Deposit amount will be double in six years.
- Effective rate of interest 12.25% with annual compounding.
- Ensures substantial return on customer’s deposit.
- Create long-term core deposit base for the bank.
- Deposit will be treated as fixed deposit with option of premature encashment
- Loan 80% of deposit amount.
- Opportunity to grow secured loan portfolio.
- Applicable tax on interest and other government charges will be borne by the depositor (the amount will be deducted from the final payment to the customer).
- Minimum deposit amount BDT. 50000.
- Maximum deposit amount BDT. 5000000.
- KYC requirements: As applicable.
The product allows the flexibility of premature encashment with predetermined rates, which is a unique feature in that no other bank offers this flexibility.
- Introduction of the account
- Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the introducer.
- Identity (copy of passport / Employer s certificate/A certificate issued by ward commissioner or Chairman of any respectable persons who is acceptable to the bank regarding identification & Nationality of the person concerned).
- Joint Declaration Form (For joint a/c only)
- Trade License
- Tin Number (if possible).
- Employee’s history.
- A transaction profile
- Introduction of the account.
- 2. Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the introducer.
- Valid copy of Trade License.
- Rubber stamp.
- TIN number (if possible).
- Identity (Copy of passport/ Employer’s certificate/ a certificate issued by ward commissioner or Chairman of any respectable persons who is acceptable to the bank regarding identification & Nationality of the person concerned).
- Trade License
- Introduction of the account
- Two photographs of the signatories duly attested by the Introducer.
- Valid copy of Trade License.
- Board resolution of opening A/C duly certified by the Chairman/Managing Director.
- Certificate of Incorporation.
- Article of Association
- Memorandum of Association.
- All information Stated in individuals A/c
- Trade License
- Certificate of Commencement (In case of Public limited company).
- List of directors along with designation & specimen signature.
- Rubber Stamp (Seal with designation of each person)
- Certificate of registration (hi case of Insurance Company – Obtained from department of Insurance from the Peoples Republic of BD).
Club / Societies Account
- Introduction of the account
- Two photographs of the Signatories duly attested by the introducer.
- Bio data of office bears
- Bye laws or constitution
- Board Resolution for Opening A/C duly certified by President’ Secretary.
- List of Existing Managing Committee.
- Registration (if any).
- Rubber Stamp.
- Permission letter from Bureau of N.G.O. (In case of N.G.O, A/C).
- All information Stated in individuals A/c
Closing of an Account
- The closing of an account may happen,
- If the customer is desirous to close the account
- If the AB Bank finds that the account is inoperative for a long duration.
- If the court of AB Bank issues garnishee order.
A customer may close his/her account any time by submitting an application to the branch. The customer should be asked to draw the final check for the amount standing to the credit of his/her account less the amount of closing another incidental charge and surrender the unused check leaves. The account should be debited for the account closing charge etc. and the authorized officer of the bank should destroy unused check. In case of joint account the application for closing the account should be signed by the joint account holder.
Issue of Duplicate Cheque Book
Cheque Book in lieu of lost one should be issued only when the account holder (s) personally approaches the bank with an application/ letter of Indemnity in the prescribed pro-forma agree to indemnify the bank branch for the lost cheque book. Fresh cheque book in the lieu of lost one issued after verification of the signature of the account holder (s) from the specimen signature card and only with prior approval of Manager/ second manager of the branch Cheque series number of the new cheque book is recorded in computer ledger as usual.
All sorts of transaction considering cash are taken in to care in the cash department. Cash is deposited in the name Of concern in the Bank and disbursed to the client by this department. The functions of a cash department are described below:
Table – Functions of Cash Department
Remittance is another significant part of the general Banking. The bank receives and transfers various types of bills through the remittance within the country. The bank charges commission on the basis of bill amount.
Telegraph transfer, mail transfer, traveler’s cheque, and drafts and cheque can do remittance. There are two steps of remittance:
- INLAND REMITTANCE
- When one bank sends these IT, M.T, T.C or cheque to another bank then it will be chatted as inland remittance. It is done within the country from one bank to another
TYPES OF REMITTANCE
- Between bank and non-banks customers
- Between banks in the same country
- Between banks in the different country
- Between banks and central banking the same country
According to the article 37(2) of Bangladesh Bank Order 1972, the banks, which are the member of the clearinghouse, are earned as Scheduled Banks. The scheduled banks clear the cheque drawn upon one another through clearinghouse. This is an arrangement by the central bank where every day the representative of the member banks gamers to clear the cheque. Banks for credit of the proceeds to the customer’s account accept cheque and other similar instruments. The bank receives many such instruments during the day from account holders. Many of these instruments are drawn payable at other banks. If they were to be presented at the drawer banks to collect the proceeds it would be necessary to employ many messengers for the purpose. Similarly there would be many cheque draft on this the messengers or other banks would present bank and then at the counter. The whole process of collection and payment would involve considerable labor, delay, risk and expenditure. All the labor, risk, delay and expenditure are substantially reduced by the representative of all the banks meeting at a specific time, for exchanging the instruments and arriving at the net position regarding receipt or payment. The place where the banks meet and settle their dues is called the Clearinghouse. The clearinghouse sits for two times a working day.
REASON FOR DISHONORED CHEQUE
Following are the general reasons to dishonor cheque in the process of clearing by the bank of clearing:
- Refer to drawer.
- Not arranged tor.
- Balance insufficient.
- Effects not cleared may be presented again.
- Exceed arrangements.
- Full cover not received.
- Payment stopped by drawer.
- Payee’s endorsement irregular/illegible/ required
- Payee’s endorsement irregular, require banks confirmation.
- Drawer’s signature differs/ required.
- Alterations in date/ figures words require drawer’s full signature.
- Cheque is post dated/out of date mutilated.
- Amount in words and figure differs.
- Crossed cheque must be presented through a bank.
- Clearing stamp required/ requires cancellation.
- Addition to Bank’s discharge should be authenticated.
- Cheque crossed “Account payee only” (18) Collecting discharge irregular/ required.
TYPES OF CLEARING
1. Outward Clearing: When the Branches of a Bank receive cheques from its customers drawn on the other Banks within the local clearing zone for collection through Clearing House, it is Outward Clearing.
2. Inward Clearing: When the Banks receive cheque drawn on them from other Banks in the Clearing House, it is Inward Clearing.
Types of clearing house:
There are two type of clearing house:
- 1. Normal Clearing House
- 2. Same Day Clearing House
1. Normal clearing house
a) 1st house: 1st house normally stands at 10 a.m. to 11 a.m
b) 2nd house: 2nd house normally stands after 3 p.m. and it is known as return house.
2. Same day clearing house
a) 1st house: 1st house normally stands at 11 a.m. to 12 p.m
b) 2nd house: 2nd house normally stands after 2 p.m. and it is known as return house.
Who will deposit cheque for Clearing: Only the regular customers i.e. who have Savings, Current, STD & Loan Account in the bank can deposit cheque for collection of fund through clearing house.
Precaution at the time of cheque receiving for Clearing, Collection of LBC, OBC & Transfer:
- Name of the account holder same in the cheque & deposit slip.
- Amount in The cheque & deposit slip must be same in words & in figure
- Date in the cheque may be on or before (but not more than six months back) clearing house date.
- Bank & Branch name of the cheque, its number & date in the Deposit slip.
- Cheque must be signed
- Signature for confirmation of date, amount in words / in figure Cutting
- Multilatitation of cheque.
- Cheque should be crossed (not for bearer cheque).
- Account number is in the deposit sleep must be clear.
- Depositor’s signature in the deposit sleep. As an internee, I got the opportunity to observe the performance of AB Bank Limited, their competitive advantage and success over the banking industry. Based on my observation, experience and knowledge, I tried to make company analysis of AB Bank Limited. For the purpose, I used two effective tools of company analysis- SWOT Analysis and Competitive Forces- Porter’s 5 Forces Model. This tool will elaborate the strength, opportunity of ABBL as well as its threats and competitive factors in the banking industry. Before analyzing, a brief description of these two tools is given here under.SWOT AnalysisThe acronym for SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness, opportunity, and Threat. The SWOT analysis comprises of the Organization’s internal strength and weakness and external opportunities and threats. SWOT analysis gives an organization an insight of what they can do in future and how they can compete with their existing competitors. This tool is very important to identify the current position of organization relative to others, who are playing in the same field and also used in the strategic analysis of the organization.The strengths of the company are the most important building blocks required for growth to take place. AB Bank is a company that has much strength in the industry. The followings are the few of the most relevant strengths that AB Bank has at the present time.
Accountable Corporate Governance
Good Corporate Governance is an issue of vital importance to the Board and Management of AB Bank. The Board of Directors, as the apex level of authority, is responsible and accountable for the overall direction and is ultimately answerable to regulatory authorities and shareholders for the activities, strategies and performance of the company.
AB Bank board has a formal schedule of matters especially reserved for its decision including corporate strategy, approval of budgets and balance sheet, annual financial results, Director’s appointment, proposal for dividend, approval of major corporate transactions and credit proposals beyond the delegated business power of the management.
Experienced Senior Management
The senior management of the bank is responsible for promoting the highest level of business ethics and integrity. Their aim is to create and foster a culture throughout the bank that emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of maintaining high business ethics and close relationship with customers.
Qualify Customer service
Customers are the focal point of all the banks activities. AB Bank is committed to its customers for excellent, innovative and speedy solutions across all customer segments. The bank provides a full range of banking services to small and medium size companies and also to private individuals and entrepreneurs. They have expertise corporate banking, retail banking and trade finance.
AB Bank maintains an equal opportunity in recruitment, training and promotion of all employees regardless of gender or ethnic origin. The bank tries to pay all its employees the best compensation package. Accordingly, AB Bank’s salary structure is revised upward on a regular basis. The bank also keeps in employees informed about the progress of the business and their part in it for their constant commitment to the bank. They also encourage the development of the employee involvement in the bank through formal and informal meetings.
AB Bank Shares
Shares of AB Bank are one of the most actively traded stocks on the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) and Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE). The continual improvement in the bank’s underlying profitability is the reason for trust and confidence of investors on the bank.
AB Bank has fully commitment towards serving the communities in which it operates. The bank believes that healthy economy and sound banking go together. A chunk of the bank’s annual profit is being given to the AB Bank Foundation for social welfare. The main objective of the foundation was to invest part of the bank’s profit in poverty alleviation and community welfare.
Online Banking Services
AB Bank is among the few banks in Bangladesh, which provides the online banking services to its customers. By using the modern banking services, AB Bank customer can withdraw or deposit an amount of cash under the AB Bank account no matter in which branch the actual account exist. This service gives its customer huge flexibility. More and more- urban customers are becoming attracted to this service day by day.
Training and Development
AB Bank has a personnel-training society with good resources. They give regular training to the officer of both middle and lower levels. Again if there is any strategy or technology change, there will be special training program arranged based on individual needs.
AB Bank Limited is a first generation private commercial bank in the country with commendable operating performance directed by the mission to provide prompt and efficient service to clients. It is providing a wide range of commercial banking service. AB Bank has achieved success among its peer group within a short span of time with its professional and dedicated team of management having long experience, commendable knowledge and expertise in conversion with modem banking. With all its resources, the management of the bank firmly believes that the bank would be able to encounter problem that may arise both at micro and macroeconomic levels. The management of the bank is maintaining an efficient portfolio in order to have a healthy growth and retain customer satisfaction. AB Bank is engaged in modem banking. It is expected that AB Bank by its efficient asset and liability management will not be able to maintain its trend of growth and thus overcome the threat. Neither AB Bank nor any other commercial bank can effectively combat risk. However, AB Bank having small and target niche market, is likely to be less affected by restricted monetary and fiscal policy. The management of the bank is planning to meet the required capital adequacy within the stipulated time frame. Although AB Bank is yet to be fully automated, the bank has an adequate modem technology to meet its present requirement and it is proceeding aggressively to enhance its technology level. Thus it can enhance its operational procedures and can be able to take the competitive advantage over others in the industry.
This report is being done on the subject of “General Banking Operations of AB Bank Limited” .From the survey and observation of the study I try to gain some practical experience on both general banking system. From the observation of my internship I have gain some practical knowledge on general banking system as well as some elements of payment solution system. I think this experience will set me in the advantageous position in future.