Foreign Exchange Practice of Southeast Bank Limited

Executive summary

BBA is a Bachelor program. To complete this degree Internship course is an associate course which enable the students to gather practical experience where the student wants to make his/her carrier. My internship course was assigned at Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail Branch, under the supervision of Md. Ashfaquer Rahman Assistant professor, Department of Business Administration, of Institute of Science and Technology (IST). My internship was on the foreign Exchange Practice of Southeast Bank Ltd. So my report title is “Foreign Exchange Practice of Southeast Bank Ltd.” So to recover the total financial soundness and management skill I have tried to analyzed how they are operating their banking system. A company’s main objective is to gain more profit to benefit its stakeholders using a perfect management system. Southeast Bank Limited is not different from them. So my internship report entitled “““Foreign Exchange Practice of Southeast Bank Ltd.”” refers how the bank drives its banking operation and how it benefits itself and its stakeholders and there financial assessment.

General banking provides the foundation of banker- customer relation ship. This is an area of keen competition among banks. It is most important and preliminary work of bank. The regular service given to customers such as depositing or drawing money, selling of instruments to them for remittance put-pose, collection of instruments, providing other ancillary services to keep customer for regular satisfaction of the customers.

Foreign trade refers to the trade between the different sovereign nations of countries. Foreign trade are mainly categorizes into export trade and import trade. For development of the economy in a country foreign trade is important. Lending is the core function of commercial bank. For a bank good loans or credits or advances are most profitable assets. The largest portion operating income is derived from lending. A commercial bank usually wins over its competitor only on the quality and quantity of lending.

And the financial analysis indicates the condition of Southeast Bank Limited. The overall performance of the Southeast Bank Limited as a whole is said to be quite standard.

Origin of the Report:

The report has been prepared as a requirement of the internship program which is based on the financial organization Southeast Bank ltd. this report will definitely increase the knowledge of other students to know the banking industry of Bangladesh, and various services SEBL is providing to sustain as leading bank in Bangladesh.

A bank is a government-licensed financial institutionwhose primary activity is to lend money. Many other financial activities were allowed over time. For example banks are important players in financial markets and offer financial services such as investment funds. In some countries such as Germany, banks have historically owned major stakes in industrial corporations while in other countries such as the United- States banks are prohibited from owning non-financial companies.

Banks have influenced economies and politics for centuries. Historically, the primary purpose of a bank was to provide loans to trading companies. Banks provided funds to allow businesses to purchase inventory, and collected those funds back with interest when the goods were sold. For centuries, the banking industry only dealt with businesses, not consumers. Banking services have expanded to include services directed at individuals, and risk in these much smaller transactions is pooled.

Banks today are under great pressure to perform towards achieving the objectives of their stockholders, employees, depositors and borrowing customers, while somehow keeping government regulators satisfied that the bank policies, loans and investment are sound. But the principal reason banks are chartered by state and federal authorities is to make loans to their customers. Indeed, making loan is the principal economic function of banks to fund consumption and investment spending by individuals and businesses. Hoe well a bank performs its lending function has a great deal to do with the economic health of its origin, because bank loan support the growth of new business and jobs within the bank’s trade territory and promote economic vitality. As banking organizations have grown in recent years in Bangladesh, many of them have been forced to turn to the money and capital markets to raise funds by selling stocks and bonds. Banks entry into the open market to raise funds means that their financial statements are increasingly being scrutinized by investors and by the general public. This development has placed management under great pressure to set and meet bank performance goals.

At the same time, competition for banks traditional loan and deposit customers has increased dramatically. Bankers are dealing with risk—especially the risk of loss due to changing interests rates. Today banks are highly complex organizations. Bankers have been called upon to continually reevaluate their loan and deposits policies, review their plans for expansion and growth, assets their returns and risk in the light of this new competitive environment. Thus the effective management tools can be marshaled in a coordinated fashion to handle many of the risks banks face.

In BBA program, everything we have learnt is purely theoretical. It was needed to do some practical work for more clarification. Because of my great interest on Foreign Exchange procedure of bank, the internship had chosen the Southeast Bank Ltd., Kakrail branch.

Rationale of the study:

With the rapid growing competition (due to free market economy) among nationalized, foreign and private commercial banks as to how the banks operates its banking and how customer service can be made more attractive, the expectations of the customers have immensely increased. Reciprocating the sentiment, commercial/private banks are trying to evaluate their traditional banking service to a better standard. Under the above circumstance, it has focused its attention towards the improvement of the customer service. That’s why it is quite justified to make improvement .The study may help formulating policy regarding the ideas relating to the feeling of the customers and banks. Furthermore, Southeast Bank Limited actually executes the policies undertaken by the top management will have a chance to communicate their feelings and will have the feedback about their dealings with the customers.

Objectives of the Study:

The general objective of the study is to get an on-the-job experience to practical business world and an opportunity for translation of theoretical concept into real life situation. However the specific objectives of the study are as follows:

  • To present theoretical aspects of Southeast Bank’s Foreign Exchange mechanism.
  • To achieve Practical idea about overall activities of Bank regarding Foreign Exchange, Credit Dept. and General Banking.
  • To study the Foreign Exchange mechanism of Southeast Bank Ltd.
  • To familiarize with practical job environment.
  • To observe banker-customer relationship.
  • To find out some problems and limitations of Southeast Bank and its Foreign Exchange mechanism.
  • To suggest some possible remedial measures to overcome the problems of Foreign Exchange Division.
  • To have an exposure on the financial institutions such as banking environment of Bangladesh.
  • To relate the theories of banking with the practical in banking.

 Scope of the Study:

In twenty-first century’s world without banking, any organization can’t run in any moments. Basically my topic is “FORIGEN EXCHANGE PRACTICE OF SEBL”. Here knowing scope is available but time is very short. There are many things, which are not invented yet. So there are many scopes for further internee.

 Methodology:

The internship gathered data from the customers and bankers. When they (customers) came for service to this Bank, The internship provided questionnaire to those customers who were interested in participating in the survey. As well as internship asked questionnaire to the bankers, when they were free.

Data Collection:

This internee is prepared on the basis of mixed methodology.  Both the primary and secondary data have been used in this internee.  So the report was based on both the secondary and primary data.

 Sources of Data:   The sources of data were of two types-

Primary Sources

  • Discussion with employees (unstructured questionnaire)
  • Keen observation
  • Conversation with clients.

 Secondary Sources/ External Sources-

  • Official papers of Southeast Bank Ltd.
  • Web site of Southeast Bank Ltd and other bank’s web site.
  • Annual report of Southeast Bank Ltd and other banks.
  • Various journals of various Banks.
  • Various Internship reports of various Banks.
  • Various leaflet of Southeast Bank Ltd.
  • The archive of the Southeast Bank Limited
  • Bangladesh Bank Report.
  • Ø Newspaper, magazines

Data Analysis Procedure:

After collecting the data, it was analyzed by Microsoft Word & Excel. Then the findings were made. Based on the findings, the present situation was explained and recommendation was made.

Limitations of the study:

There are many limitations; the internship tries to mention some of them as below;

  1. Convenience sampling created sampling error.
  2. The sample size was small.
  3. The survey was made at Kakrail Branch office of the Foreign Exchange Department of Southeast Bank Limited.
  4. The main constraint of the study was insufficiency of information, which is highly required for the study. It was unable to provide some formatted documents and data for the study.
  5. Since the bank personnel were very busy, they have no ability to give me enough time to complete the report.
  6. The clients were very busy. So, they were unable to give me much time for interview.
  7. Such a study was carried out by me for the second time. So, inexperience is one of the main factors that constituted the limitation of the study.
  8. I have got idea about Foreign Exchange Transaction only from the employees, Department of Foreign Exchange, Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail branch.
  9. The employees couldn’t maintain their schedule / time due to their business, as well as busyness.

About Southeast Bank Ltd (SEBL)

Southeast Bank Limited is a fast growing second generation bank. SEBL has been achieving a continuous growth rate in different spheres of banking operations since its establishment in the year 1995 The philosophy of the bank is “A Bank with Vision” that indicates its sincerity, integrity as well as the strength of mind to cope with the global competitiveness and advancement.

Overview of Southeast Bank Limited

Table no-1 Overview of Southeast Bank

NameSoutheast Bank Limited
Head OfficeEunoos Trade Center,52-53 dilkusha C/A
Date of Incorporation12th March 1995
Principal ActivityCommercial Banking
Number of Branches56
ChairmanMr. Alamgir Kabir Chowdhury
Telephone No.(8802) 9550081,9567271-2
websitewww.sebankbd.com.

Bank Profile:

Southeast Bank Limited is a scheduled commercial bank in the private sector established under the ambit of Bank Company Act, 1991 and incorporated as a Public Limited Company under Companies Act, 1994 on March 12, 1995. The Bank started commercial banking operations on May 25, 1995. During this short span of time the Bank is successful in positioning itself as a progressive and dynamic financial institution in the country. The bank had been widely acclaimed by the business community, from small entrepreneurs to large traders and industrial conglomerates, including the top-rated corporate borrowers for its forward – looking business outlook and innovative financial solutions. Thus within this very short period of time it has been able to create an image and earn significant reputation in the country’s banking sector as a Bank with Vision.

Southeast Bank Limited has been licensed by the Government of Bangladesh as a Scheduled commercial bank in the private sector in pursuance of the policy of liberalization of banking and financial services and facilities in Bangladesh. In view of the above, the Bank within a period of 14 years of its operation achieved a remarkable success and met up capital adequacy requirement of Bangladesh Bank. It has been growing fast as one of the leaders of the new generation banks in the private sector in respect of business and profitability as it is evident from the financial statements for the last 14 years.

Southeast Bank Limited has 56 branches throughout Bangladesh and its aim is to be the leading bank in the country’s principal markets. The bank by concentrating on the activities in its area of specialization has achieved good market reputation with efficient customer service. The Bank is committed to providing continuous training to its staff to keep them up to date with modern practices in their respective fields of work. The Bank also tries to fulfill its share in community responsibilities. By such measures the Bank intends to grow and increase shareholders’ earning per share. Southeast Bank Limited pledges to maximize customer satisfaction through services and build a trusting relationship with customers, which has stood the test of time for the last fourteen years.

 Mission of SEBL

A business mission is the foundation for priorities, strategies, plans and work assignment. Nothing may seem simpler or more oblivious than to know what a company’s business is. Southeast Bank is very much concern about their mission because divergent views among managers can only be revealed and resolved through the mission statement.

  The mission of the hank is stated below:

  High quality financial services with the help of latest technology.

  Fast & accurate customer service.

  Balanced growth strategy.

  High standard business ethics.

  Steady return on shareholders’ equity.

  Innovative banking at a competitive price.

  Deep commitment to the society and the growth of national economy.

  Attract and retain quality human resource.

Vision of SEBL:

It is especial!” important for managers and executives in any organization to agree upon the basic vision that the firm strives of achieve in the long term. A clear vision provides the foundation for developing a comprehensive mission statement. So the vision statement should be established first and foremost. Southeast Bank has established their vision statement to achieve their long-term Objectives,   Their vision is to stand out as a pioneer banking institution in Bangladesh and contribute significantly to the national economy.

Core values of SEBL:

Southeast Bank has established their objectives to achieve their strategic and financial targets to have strong competitive advantage in the banking sector. Their core values or the principles are given below:

  Integrity

  Fairness

  Harmony

  Courtesy

  Commitment

  Insight and Spirit

  Enthusiasm for Work

  Business Ethics

SEBL Services:

General Banking Services:

  • Accounts Opening
  • Account maintaining.
  • Account closing
  • Issuing Pay order.
  • Bank draft.
  • Demand draft.
  • Opening of Fixed Deposit.
  • Clearing of Bank cheques.

Foreign Exchange Business Services:

  • Letter of credit
  • Parties to Letter of Credit
  • Operations of Documentary Letters of Credit
  • L/C Application
  • Scrutiny of Documents
  • Scrutiny of L/C Application

 Investment Services:

  • Investment Scheme for Doctors
  • Small Business Investment Scheme
  • Housing Investment Scheme
  • Small Transport Scheme
  • Car Loan Scheme
  • Transport Investment scheme.
  • Agriculture Implements Investment Scheme Rural Development Scheme

 Other Consumer Savings Schemes:

  • Pension Savings Scheme (PSS)
  • Education Savings scheme (ESS)
  • Marriage Savings Scheme (MSS)

 Sanchaypatra schemes:

  • Eight years Protirakha Sanchaypatra ( PSP)
  • Five years Bangladesh Sanchaypatra (BSP)
  • Sanchaypatra Interest on half yearly rest (SP)
  • Sanchaypatra Interest on quarterly rest (SP)

Network of the Branches:

Southeast Bank has 48 existing branches and some other proposed branch all over Bangladesh to provide better services to their valuable customer. The objective of SEBL is not only to earn profit but also keep the social commitment and to ensure its co-operation to the persons of all levels, to the businessmen, industrialists-specially who are engaged in establishing large scale industries by consortium and the agro-based export oriented medium and small scale industries by self inspiration. SEBL as the largest private bank is committed to continue its endeavor by rapidly increasing the investment of honorable shareholders into asset. The network of this bank is centralize.

Foreign Trade:

The foreign trade department deals with the export and import business of various clients. The clients open L/C for importing and exporting goods from and to abroad through this division. In the case of import, the bank usually works as the issuing bank and in the case of export the bank works as advising bank or negotiating bank or as both. In importing goods from abroad the clients have to give a percentage of total cost of goods, as advance. The clients also have to flay a certain amount of commission to the bank. After receipt of the goods in .ports, the clients have to pay the rest or me money to the banks to clear the goods from the ports. Foreign trade mainly deals with various kinds of documents and papers. These documents and papers work as claim of the credits.

 International and Foreign Exchange Business:

One of the major businesses of the International Division is Foreign Exchange dealing. Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail Branch earned substantial amount from this wing’s operation.

Southeast Bank Limited, kakrail Branch has already established correspondent banking relationship with many important countries of the world to facilitate cross boarder trade and payment.

Below the internship present the FORIGEN EXCHANGE SECTION of Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail Branch.

Import Section:

Import of merchandise involves two things: bringing of goods physically into the country and remittance of foreign exchange towards the cost of merchandise and services. In case of Import, the importers are asked by their exporters to open a letter of credit .So that their payment against goods is ensured. Documentary credit has emerged as a vital system of trade payment. It is a key player of foreign trade. This Department is mainly done two tasks, i.e.

1) Import

2) BLC

 Export Section:

According to Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947, nobody can export by post and otherwise than by post any goods either directly or indirectly to any place outside Bangladesh, unless a declaration is furnished by the exporter to the collector of customs or to such other person as the Bangladesh Bank may specify in this behalf that foreign exchange representing the full Export value of the goods has been or will be disposed of in a manner and within a period specified by Bangladesh Bank. Payment for goods exported from Bangladesh should be received through an Authorized Dealer in freely convertible foreign currency or in Bangladeshi Taka from a Non-Resident Account. The Export section deals with two types of Letter of credit that are as follows-

  1. 1.     Export Letter of Credit
  2. 2.     Back-to-Back Letter of Credit

Remittance Section:

Remittance means transfer of fund. If we pronunciations of the word “Remittance” we under stand transfer of fund through a Bank from one place to another place which may be executed the country or between two countries. Remittance which is affected within the country is called Local Remittance and which is affected between two countries is called Foreign Remittance. Remittance plays a vital role in the development of the country. Without effect of remittance no country can develop her. Bangladesh is rich enough in respect of human resources. So Inward Remittance has great importance in our country. Below discuss in shortly.

 Inward Remittance:

The remittances, which are received from abroad and paid to the beneficiary, are Inward Remittance. In ward remittance are mainly received in US Dollar, pound sterling and Taka Currency. Very few remittances in miscellaneous currencies are also received.

Mode of inward Remittance:

1.     T.T ———-    Telegraphic Transfer.

2.     M.T ———    Mail Transfer.

3.     D.D ———    Demand Draft.

4.     P.O ———-   Payment Order.

5.     I.M.O ——– International Money Order.

5.     T.C ———- Traveler’s Cheque.

Outward remittance: 

The Remittance in Foreign Currency which are effected from our country to abroad is called outward remittance. Form remitter’s point of view is called outward Remittance and from payee’s point of view is called Inward Remittance.

Mode of outward remittance:

The Remittance may be made by means of T.T, D.D& T.C, etc. Ideation to these the sale of Foreign Currency under letter of credit against retirement of bill is include as outward remittance.

 Procedure of payment:

To make payment the points mentioned below are to be observed.

(a) Demand Draft:

  1. The D.D must be in original
  2. The name of bank, name of Branch, Date, name and A/C number of the payee, amount in word and figures must be mentioned.
  3. The D.D must be as per prescribed format or specimen copy supplied earlier.
  4. The amount is protecting graphed.
  5. Payment is not stopped.
  6. Draft is not reported lost.
  7. Verification of drawer’s signature.
  8. Telex confirmation from the issuing Bank, if the amount exceeds the limit as per agreement made earlier.

(b) Telegraphic Transfer:

1. The message must be in original.

2. It must be authenticated under test, Test must be decoded and found correct.

3. T.T. must contain the name of Bank, name of Branch, name and A/C number of the beneficiary.

If the above points are Okay, payment made to the beneficiary as soon as possible.

1. Capital Area 24 hours.

2. Major Cities 48 hours.

3. Other Towns 72 hours

4. Remote Areas 120 hours.

(c) Settlement of claims:

As the remittance is received from abroad or remote places, some claim, may occur for non receipts of fund. These claims may arise by the Beneficiary or remittance through issuing/Remitting Bank. As such the claims are to the settled.

If the TT is lost or stolen, remitter will report to the remitting bank. R/B will ask / advise the Beneficiary. Bank to mark stop payment or not to make payment. Beneficiary bank

Will confirm the stop payment to the Remitting. Bank if the DD is not paid earlier. If the DD is paid earlier the mode of payment is to be confirmed to the Remitting, Bank. If necessary a duplicate DD is to be issued to make payment to the beneficiary for settlement of the claim.                                                                 

If the TT contains any wrong information, Beneficiary. Bank is to contact with the issuing remitting Bank for correct information. On getting the correct information payment is to be made accordingly.

Above Remittance Section’s all works were done by General Banking (GB) Section in SEBL; KAKRAIL Branch. The internship doesn’t discuss this section in broadly in another Chapter; so, the internship discusses this section in here shortly, because this Report’s topic is “FORIGEN EXCHANGE PRACTICE OF SEBL”

Export Procedure:

According to Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947, nobody can export by post and otherwise than by post any goods either directly or indirectly to any place outside Bangladesh, unless a declaration is furnished by the exporter to the collector of customs or to such other person as the Bangladesh Bank may specify in this behalf that foreign exchange representing the full export value of the goods has been or will be disposed of in a manner and within a period specified by Bangladesh Bank. Payment for goods exported from Bangladesh should be received through an Authorized Dealer in freely convertible foreign currency or in Bangladeshi Taka from a Non-Resident Account. The Export section deals with two types of Letter of credit that are as follows-

      A) Export Letter of Credit

B) Back-to-Back Letter of Credit

Export financing can be done by Pre-shipment Credit and Post-shipment credit. In case of pre-shipment financing 90% is financed by the bank. Of the portion 75% is by Back-to-Back L/C and 15% by cash credit. Below the internship stated in broadly those two types of L/C.

 Export Letter of Credit:

The other type of L/C facility offered by Southeast Bank Limited Kakrail branch is Export L/C. Bangladesh exports a large quantity of goods and services to foreign households. Readymade textile garments (both knitting and wove) jute, jute-made products, frozen shrimps, tea are the main goods that the Bangladeshi exporters export to foreign countries. Garments sector is the largest sector that exports the lion share of the country’s export. Bangladesh exports most of its readymade garments products to USA and European Community (EC) countries. Bangladesh exports about 40% of its readymade garments products to USA. Most of the exporter who exports through Southeast Bank Limited Kakrail branch is readymade garment exporters. They open L/C in this branch to export their goods, which they open against the import L/C opened by their foreign importers.

Services against Export L/C:

 Advising of Export L/C:

The advising bank getting the import L/C sent by the issuing bank located abroad will advise the L/C to the beneficiary without any engagement or responsibility on their part. It will see the following only:

  1. i.       Authenticity of L/C (Test agreed in case of Telex L/C and signature verified in case (air mail L/C).
  2. ii.      Merchandise specified in the L/C is permissible and clauses incorporated in the L/C are not against country’s regulations.

 Add Confirmation of Export L/C:

Bank may add additional confirmation to export L/C where there is specific instruction from the L/ C issuing bank to do so. Additional confirmation of L/C gives the seller a double assurance of payment. Bank’s requirement of adding confirmation:

  1. i.       Issuing Bank should be a reputed bank.
  2. ii.     Credit line/Arrangement with the L/C issuing bank.
  3. iii.   L/C clause are to be acceptable to confirming bank
  4. iv.   Approval from the competent authority for adding confirmation of export L/C.

Confirmation charges are to be recovered as per rules.

 Negotiation of Export Bill:

‘Negotiation means that negotiating banker pays to the drawer the value of the bill on   the assurance given by the opening banker. When documents are presented for negotiation under letter of credit, the same is thoroughly examined from the point of view of correctness and completeness in all respect of terms of credit. The exporter submits the documents to bank as per requirement of bank.

 Acceptance of Export Bill:

In this case, the exporter presents a bill of exchange payable to him and drawn on a specified future date or event, to the bank that accept it. The bank signs its acceptance on the bill and returns it to the exporter. The exporter then can present it for payment on maturity or he can discount it in order to obtain immediate payment.

 Formalities for Export Letter of Credit:

The Export trade of the country is regulated by the Import & Export (Control) Act, 1950. There are a number of formalities that an exporter has to fulfill before and after shipment of goods. These formalities or procedures are enumerated as follows-

 Export Registration Certificate (ERC):

The exports from Bangladesh are subject to export trade control exercised by the Ministry of Commerce through Chief Controller of Import & Exports (CCI&E). No exporter is allowed to export any commodity permissible for export from Bangladesh unless he is registered with CCI&E and holds valid ERC. The ERC is required to be renewed every year. The ERC number is to be incorporated on EXP (Export) Forms and other documents related with export.

 The EXP Form:

After having the registration, the exporter applies to Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail branch with the Trade License, ERC and the Certificate from the concerned Government Organization to get EXP Form. If the branch is satisfied, an EXP Form is issued to the exporter. An EXP Form usually contains the following –

  1. i.       Name and address of the Authorized Dealer.
  2. ii.     Particulars of the commodity to be exported with description and code number.
  3. iii.   Name and address of the exporter
  4. iv.   Name and address of the importer
  5. v.     Country of origin
  6. vi.   Port of shipment

vii. Port of destination

viii. Quality

  1. ix.   L/C value in foreign currency
  2. x.     Terms of sale
  3. xi.    Bill of lading/ Railway Receipt/ Airway Bill/ Truck Receipt number and date.

xii. Shipment date

xiii. CCI& E’s registration number and date

 Securing the Order:

Upon registration, the exporter may proceed to secure the export order. This can be done by contracting the buyer directly through correspondence.

Signing of the contract:

While making a contract, the following points are to be mentioned: (a) description of goods, (b) quantity of the commodity, (c) price of the commodity, (d) shipment, (e) insurance and marks, (f) inspection.

Procuring the material:

After making the deal and having the L/C opened in his favor, the next step for the exporter is set about task of procuring the merchandise.

Registration of Sale:

This is needed when the proposed items to be exported are raw jute and jute-made good.

 Shipment of Goods:

The following documents are normally involved at the stage of shipment: (a) EXP Form, (b) registration certificate, (c) contract, (d) copy of L/C (e) freight certificate from the bank in case of payment of freight, if the port of lading is involved, (f) truck receipt, railway receipt,(g) shipping instruction,(i) insurance policy.

The following points should be checked-

      The follows terms of L/C are in conformity with those of the contract.

      The L/C is an irrevocable one, preferably confirmed by the Advising Bank.

      The L/C allows sufficient time for shipment and reasonable time for registration.

      If the exporter wants the L/C to be transferable, advisable, he should ensure those stipulation are mentioned in the L/C.

 At last the exporter submits all these documents along with a Letter of Indemnity to Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail branch for negotiation. An officer scrutinizes all the documents. If the documents are clean one the bank might decide to purchases the documents within the limit sanctioned to the exporter, after verifying the confirmed order covering each export. This is known as Foreign Documentary Bill Collection (FDBC).

Procedure for Foreign Documentary Bill Collection:

After purchasing the documents, Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail branch gives the following  Entries-

Before realization of proceeds:

   FDBC A/C……………………………..Debit

                Customer A/C………………………….Credit

Adjustment after realization

     Southeast Bank, Head office General A/C……………………..Debit

                                              FDBC A/C……………………………Credit

A  FDBC register is maintained for recording all the particulars. The salient contents of a FDBC register are as follows-

  1. i.       FDBC Ref. No
  2. ii.     Date
  3. iii.   Drawer/ Beneficiary
  4. iv.   Drawee / Applicant
  5. v.     Foreign currency
  6. vi.   Rate

vii. Local currency

viii. Margin (% of amount)

  1. ix.   Modes of transport
  2. x.     Merchandise
  3. xi.   Documents

xii. L/C no. and name of the opening bank

xiii. Name of the collecting bank

xiv. Initial, due date, date realized, bank charges recovered with remarks

Negotiation:

If the documents are free from Discrepancy or if the discrepancies are covered by Indemnity of the party, Bank has to negotiate the Export Bills. For negotiation of cash export bill buying rate prevailing on the date of negotiation is applied for conversion of the foreign currency into Bangladesh currency. For this, the following entry is given

Foreign Bills Negotiated A/C………………Debit

                Party A/C…………………………………..Credit

Before the close of the business, a consolidated voucher is passed against the total amount of all the bills negotiated on that particular day.

Southeast Bank, Head office General A/C………………………Debit

                                               Foreign bills negotiated A/C…………….Credit

All the transaction is reported to the Head Office. The Head Office credits the Foreign Bills Negotiated A/C by debit the balance with Foreign banks abroad A/C.

After negotiation of the export bill, the documents are to be sent abroad (Normally to the L/C issuing bank) as per the instruction of L/C and claim Reimbursement of the proceeds from the Bank as mentioned in the L/C.

Risk Involved in Negotiation:

If the bank failed to identify any discrepancy in documents, prepared by the Exporter, on that time if the amounts are paid to the exporter then the Bank face a great loss. In this situation the Negotiating Bank try to contact with the party and if they agree to deliver the required documents, the Bank get rid of the huge loss.

Inland Letter of Credit (ILC):

Inland letter of credit means L/C within the country. This type of L/C is opened when seller does not have trustworthy relationship with the buyer though they are in the same country and also in the case where the business involved a big amount. This L/C‘s are two types:

1) Local L/C (without EPZ)

2) EPZ (Export Processing Zone) L/C

(a) Settlement of Local Bill

The settlement of local bill is done in the following ways-

  • The customer submits the L/C to the branch along with the documents to negotiate;
  • The branch officials scrutinizes the documents to ensure conformity with the terms and conditions;
  • The documents are then forwarded to the L/C Issuing Bank;
  •   The L/C Issuing Bank gives the acceptance and forwards an acceptance letter;
  • Payment is made to the customer on either by collection basis or by purchasing the documents.

Accounting entries are made for purchasing the local bill-

     Local Bill Purchase A/C…………………..Debit

   Client’s A/C……………………………….Credit

   Commission……………………………….Credit

    Interest A/C……………………………….Credit

A Local Bill Purchase (LBP) Register is maintained to record the acceptance of the issuing bank. Until the acceptance is obtained, the record is kept in a collection register.

Back-to-Back Letter of Credit:

Back-to-Back L/C is a secondary L/C opened by the seller’s bank based on the original/ master L/C to purchase the raw materials and accessories for manufacturing of the export products required by the seller.

Under the ‘Back to Back’ concept, the seller as the beneficiary of the master L/C offers it as a security to the advising bank for the issuance of the second L/C. the beneficiary of the Back to Back L/C may be located inside or outside the original beneficiary’s country. In case of Back-to-Back L/C, the bank takes no cash security (margin). Bank liens the Master L/C and the drawn bill is a Time bill.

Readymade garment industries and specialized Textile units have been allowed the facility of importing fabrics and other material/accessories needed for manufacturing garments/specialized textile, free of duty under bonded warehouse system against back-to-back L/C arrangement, without involving cash foreign exchange from Bangladesh Bank. The Bangladesh Bank has therefore allowed the authorized dealer to open Back-to-Back L/C for import of raw materials by the readymade garment industries/ Specialized textile unit to carry out their export orders against export L/C.

In our country, export oriented Garment Industry, operating under bonded warehouse system are availing Back-to-Back facilities. In Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail branch most of the Back-to-Back L/Cs opened on Garment Industry Account. Therefore the discussion is based on account of Garment Industry in Bangladesh.

 Opening of Back-to-Back L/C:

Besides normal formalities and requirements for L/C opening, the following points are considered.

a)     No Back-to-Back L/C on account of Garment industries should be opened without prior approval from Head Office. Branches are required to obtain prior approval from Head Office Division/ Credit Committee for opening all Back-to-Back L/Cs.

b)     While opening of Back-to-Back L/C following instruction should be followed-

  1. i.       Separate L/C number should be used for Back-to-Back L/C and are to be recorded in separate Register.
  2. ii.     L/C opening commission and charges are to be realized as usual.
  3. iii.   The following contingent liability voucher is to be passed at the time of opening the L/C.

                    Customer liability for Back-to-Back L/C…………….Debit

                                               Banker’s liability for Back-to-Back L/C……………..Credit

Documents Required for Opening a Back-to-Back L/C:

In Southeast Bank Limited, kakrail branch, following papers/documents are required for opening a Back-to-Back L/C-

      Master L/C

      Valid Import Registration certificate (IRC) and Export Registration Certificate (ERC).

      L/C Application and LCAF duly filled and signed.

      Performa Invoice

      Indemnity or undertaking

      No objection from previous bank (if any)

      Factory Inspection Certificate

      Insurance cover note with money receipt.

      IMP form duly signed.

      VAT Registration

      In addition to above documents, the following are also required to export oriented garments industries while requesting for opening a Back-to-Back L/C-

      Textile Permission.

      Valid bonded warehouse license.

      Quota Allocation Letter issued by the Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) in favor of applicant for quota items.

      BGMEA Membership

In case the factory premises is a rented one, the Letter of Disclaimer duly executed by the owner of the house / premises to be submitted. A check list to open a Back-to-Back L/C is as follows-

i)       Applicant is registered with CCI&E and has bonded warehouse license;

ii)     The master L/C has adequate validity period and has no defective clause;

iii)    L/C value shall not exceed the admissible percentage of net FOB value of relative    master L/C;

iv)   Usage period is up to 180 days;

Payment of Back-to-Back L/C:

Payment of import bills against Back-to-Back L/Cs are made from relative export proceeds of export oriented Garment Industry operating under bonded warehouse system. Therefore at the time of negotiation of export bills on account of garment factory, bank retains a portion covering to Back-to-Back liability to a separate foreign currency account from the export proceeds. The amount is kept in Deposit Awating for Disposal (DAD) A/C and in Retention Account (Exporter can bear this money without given any answer to customs, if one’s will go aboard.) if customer had given indication. After realization of export proceed, payment against import bills are made from DAD A/C. L/C wise and party wise A/Cs are maintained in DAD A/C ledger.

On 30/60/90/120/180 days of maturity period, deferred payment is made. Payment is given after realizing export proceeds from the L/C Issuing Bank. For garment sector, the duration can be maximum 180 days. In case of export failure or non realization/ short realization of export proceeds forced loan i.e. OAP has to be created in order to settle the Back-to-Back L/C payment.

Vouchers and accounting treatments are the same normal L/C opening except margin.

In this case, no margin is taken by the bank.  After lodgment, maturity date of the import bill is intimated to foreign bank as per L/C terms. The documents are delivered to the order of opener duty endorsed for clearance of goods from custom authority. Goods are cleaned through approved clearing and forwarding agent of the bank.

 Accounting Treatment of Back-to-Back L/C:

Negotiation

     Foreign Bills Purchase……………….Debit

                       FBPARA/C…………………………..Credit

                       (Foreign Bills Purchase Acceptance Register)

                       Party’s A/C…………………………..Credit

     (Deducting import & other liability)

On realization of export proceeds, usual realization vouchers are passed for adjustment of FBP. After realization of export proceeds payment of import bills are made from FBPAR A/C and following vouchers are passed

     FBPAR A/C……………………………………Debit

     (Foreign Bills Purchase Acceptance Register)

          Southeast Bank, Head office General A/C…………………Credit

If the party is paid in foreign currency, BC rate is applied in this regard. Foreign remittance department takes the T.T & O.D rate.

Maintenance of Register:

The sanction must be recorded in the following register:

    Document execution register. All the charge documents must be recorded in this

          Register.

       Limit register

       Liability ledger.

 Test Key Arrangement:

Test key arrangement is a secret code maintained by the banks for the authentication of their telex messages. It is a systematic procedure by which a test number is given and the person to whom this number is given can easily authenticate the same test number by maintaining the same procedure. Southeast Bank Limited has test arrangements with other banks for the authentication of L/C messages and transfer of funds.

 Confidential Report (C.R) of Beneficiary of L/C:

According to exchange control regulations bankers are required to obtain confidential report of the beneficiary of L/C before opening the same, if the amount of L/C exceeds Tk.5.00 lac. bank can open L/C below Tk.5.00 lac without obtaining C.R .Bankers can write to their foreign correspondents to supply the C.R. But from practical experiences foreign correspondents of different country are not supply timely.

To overcome the above situation bankers can consult reference books i.e. MUWN / DUNN / BRADSTREET / Trade directory of various Chambers of Commerce of different countries.

On receipt of C.R from any source the banker can accumulate the same in one master file.

 Disposal of L/C & LCA Form Copies and Filing:

L/Cs is normally typed in respective banks printed format in many folds. The original L/C is sent to the advising bank for beneficiary’s and  2nd copy sent to the above bank at the same time for their own purpose 3rd copy for importer, 4th copy for reimbursing bank 5th copy office copy of the bank,6th for Bangladesh Bank & 7th copy for CCI & E. One copy for importer is sent to them along with the memo of charges incurred by the opening bank for the L/C stating the amount has been so debited for the amount of Memo including that amount of margin.

LC authorization forms consisting of six copies. 1st copy for exchange control purpose, 2nd copies for the licensing authority,3rd and 4th copy for Bangladesh Bank and customs, 5th copy for the registration unit and 6th is the office copy of the bank.

 Introduction:

Import of merchandise involves two things: bringing of goods physically into the country and remittance of foreign exchange towards the cost of merchandise and services. In case of Import, the importers are asked by their exporters to open a letter of credit. So, that their payment against goods is ensured. Documentary credit has emerged as a vital system of trade payment. It is a key player of foreign trade.

 Classification of Importer:

Importers are those who are authorized by the import Trade Control Authority that is CCI& E for import of goods essential for consumption or for production purposes.

There are mainly three types of Importer, viz:-

  • Commercial Importer
  • Industrial Importer.
  • Importer under Wage Earner Scheme. (WES)

(a) Commercial Importer:

 It means an importer registered under the importers, exporters and indenture registration order 1981 who import goods for sale.

(b) Industrial Importers:

When issued to an industrial consumer, gives the items of import as raw materials and packing materials and spare parts, the value of entitlement and ITC classification.

(c) Importers under WES:

It means registered importers who import only under the WES.  WES importers can be importing all permissible items as declared by the import policy and notification. Besides all registered commercial and industrial importer also can import under WES.

 (d) Another Importer is as follows:

¨       Lease Financing Import.

¨      Govt. Sector Importer.

¨       Import under Bonded Ware-House System.

¨       Import by Actual Users.

¨       Import by E.P.Z.

 Import Mechanism:

An Importer is required to fulfill some conditions/ criteria to be eligible as an importer as per provisions of Import Policy Order and Guidelines for Foreign Exchange Transaction. An importer is required to submit the following documents along with L/C application to get a license to import goods through Southeast Bank-

      An account with Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail Branch.

      Import Registration Certificate (IRC)

      Proforma Invoice/ Indent

      Tax paying Identification (TIN) Number

      Membership Certificate from recognized Chamber of Commerce & Industry.

      Letter of Credit Authorization (LCA) Form duly attested.

      L/C Application duly signed by the importer.

      One set of IMP Form

      Insurance Cover note with money receipt

To import, a person should be competent to be an ‘Importer’. According to Import and Export Control Act, 1950, the Office of Chief Controller of Import and Export provides the registration (IRC) to the importer. After obtaining this, the person has to secure a letter of credit authorization (LCA) from Bangladesh Bank and then he becomes a qualified importer. He is the person who requests or instructs the issuing bank to open a letter of credit. He is also called applicant of the credit.

 Letter of Credit Authorization Form (LCAF):

The Letter Of Credit Authorization Form is the form prescribed for the authorization of opening letter of credit or payment against import and used in lieu of import license. The authorized dealers are empowered to issue LCA forms to the importers to allow import in Bangladesh. If foreign exchange is intended to be bought from Bangladesh Bank against a LCAF, it has to be registered with Bangladesh Bank’s Registration Unit located in the concerned area office of the CCI&E. the LCA forms available with the authorized dealers are issued in a set of five copies each.

First copy is exchange control copy, which is used for opening of L/C and effecting remittance.

 Second copy is the custom purpose copy, which is used for clearance of imported goods from custom authority.

Triplicate and Quadruplicate copy of LCAF are sent to concerned area of CCI&E office by authorized dealer / Registration Unit of Bangladesh Bank.

Quintuplicate copy is kept as office copy by Registration Unit.

 Accounting Procedure in case of L/C Opening:

When the L/C application is found to be in order and the client has sufficient approved credit line for opening an L/C, vouchers are prepared to record the contingent liability for the L/C opened and realized margin, commission, telex charges, postage etc. as per bank’s schedule of charges/ sanction letter. Accounting treatment at the time of L/C opening are as follows-

a) For recording contingent liability –

               Customers liability……………………….Debit  (In equivalent. BDT)

                        Bankers liability…………………………Credit

b)    For realization of margin, commission, telex and other charges –

               Customer’s A/C………………………….Debit (In equivalent. BDT)

                                  Margin on L/C…………………………….Credit

                                  Commission on L/C……………………….Credit

                                  Telex/Postage charge………………………Credit

                                   Misc. charges………………………………Credit

After that, L/C number and above entries are given in the L/C register. L/C opening register has following details-

      Date, L/C number, Name of the customer, Foreign currency amount, Exchange rate, Taka equivalent and source of import.

      Goods, country of origin, advising bank, Expiry date, Margin.

      Charges: commission, postage, SWIFT.

 Distribution of L/C:

After giving the accounting entries the transmission of L/C is done. Southeast Bank takes the following steps, Through SWIFT to advise the L/C to the beneficiary.

a)     Send the signed original L/C together with the copy to the Dispatch section for mailing to the L/C Advising Bank and L/C Reimbursement bank respectively by courier/Airmail.

b)     Send the approved text of L/C and reimbursement authorization to SWIFT service-charge for their onward transmission to advising bank and reimbursing bank respectively.

c)     Deliver the customer copy of the L/C along with the debit advice to the customer over the counter or send the same to the dispatch section for onward delivery to the customer.

d)    Send the original accounting vouchers in batches to the Accounts section for capture and updating of the data-base/ records.

e)     Check the L/C file to ensure that all the related documents i.e. L/C application with supporting documents, approval, L/C copy, reimbursement instruction copy and copy of accounting vouchers are filed properly.

 Amendment of L/C:

Parties involved in a letter of credit, particularly the seller and the buyer cannot always satisfy the terms and conditions in full as expected due to some genuine reasons. In such a situation, the letter of credit is amended. In Revocable letter of credit, it can be amended or cancelled by the issuing bank at any moment and without prior notice to the beneficiary. But in case of irrevocable letter of credit, it can never be amended or cancelled without the agreement of the issuing bank, the confirming bank (if any) and the beneficiary. When the customer approaches for amending the terms and conditions of a letter of credit opened at his request, Southeast Bank checks the following:

1.  The type of amendment the customer is asking for-

      Whether it is concerning an increase or decrease in the L/C amount.

      whether it is concerning extension of shipment/ expiry date of the L/C

      Whether it is relating to change in the merchandise/ mode or route of transportation.

2.  Depending on the type of amendments, bank has to review the matter in the same way as applicable while opening a letter of credit in accordance of the provisions.

Amendment Procedure:

On receipt of a request letter for amendment of L/C from the customer the bank takes the following steps-

a)     Record the date and time of receipt of the application.

b)     Read the request letter for amendment briefly to ensure that concerned L/C number and the instructions mentioned are clear.

c)     If found in order check the request letter for amendment together with all supporting papers.

d)    In case the letter of amendment is not complete or required papers are not submitted, the customer should be contacted promptly for rectification of the defects.

e)     In case the customer does not have approved credit line for increasing/ amending the L/C, the import section has to submit proposal to the Executive Committee of the Board and keep pending of amending the L/C till its approval.

f)      When the request letter for amendment with all papers is found to be in order, record the particular of amendments with date in appropriate column against the relevant L/C in the L/C register.

g)     Prepare the letter of amendment either in mail, Swift or telex format.

Accounting Entries of Amendment:

After preparing the letter of amendment, the bank prepares the vouchers so amend the amount of contingent liability for increase (in case of increase in L/C value) and commission & charges. In case of decrease in L/C value, refund the margin to the credit of customer account if the L/C was established under 100% margin, otherwise management consent is required. The Accounting treatments are-

i) For amending contingent liability

  1. a.      Increase of L/C value

                Customer liability…………………………Debit

 Banker’s liability…………………………Credit

  1. b.     Decrease of L/C value

                  Banker’s liability…………………………..Debit

                  Customer liability………………………….Credit

ii) For increase of L/C value

              Customer A/C (in BDT)………………………Debit

              Margin on L/C…………………………………Credit

              Commission on L/C……………………………Credit

              Misc. charges…………………………………..Credit

              Telex/ Postage charges…………………………Credit

iii) For refunding customer liability (after the amendment by the advising bank)

                 Margin A/C……………………………………Debit

                 CD account customer………………………….Credit

Southeast Bank Limited, Kakrail branch transmits the letter of amendment to the advising bank and L/C reimbursing bank respectively by Courier/ Airmail. A letter of amendment executed by issuing bank becomes enforceable / valid only after agreement of the parties in documentary credit operation.

 Adding Confirmation:

Sometimes beneficiary or supplier of the goods insists the importer for adding confirmation to L/C or to issue L/C with added confirmation. In that case, at the request of the importer, the issuing bank request the advising bank or the third bank to add their confirmation to the L/C. Normally the charge of confirmation is borne by the beneficiary and it differs from bank to bank.

 Examination of Shipping Document:

The seller being satisfied with the terms and conditions of the credit proceeds to dispatch the required goods to the buyer, has to present the documents evidencing dispatching of goods to the Negotiating Bank. The exporter will submit those documents in accordance with the terms and conditions as mentioned in L/C. Generally the Exporter sends the following documents.

  1. Commercial invoice
  2. Bill of lading
  3. Packing list
  4. Certificate of origin
  5. Bill of exchange
  6. Clean report of finding (CRF)
  7. Weight list
  8. Insurance cover note
  9. Pre-shipment certificate

The negotiating bank carefully checks the documents provided by the exporter against the credit, and if the documents meet all the requirement of the credit, the bank will pay, accept, or negotiate in accordance with the terms and conditions of the credit. Then the bank sends the documents to the L/C Issuing Bank /opening bank.

 Scrutiny of Documents:

First of all it must be ensured that full set of documents as mentioned in the L/C has been received. On receipt of shipping documents from the Negotiating bank, Southeast Bank officials check whether these documents have any discrepency or not. ‘Discrepency’ means the dissimilarity of any of the documents with the terms and conditions of the L/C. the same. If any discrepency noticed or there is any deviations of the terms and conditions of L/C , the same should be immediately brought to the notice of the importer for his written instruction before lodgement. If the importer refuges to accept the documents it should be notified to the Negotiating bank advising them within reasonable time but not more than 7 working days from the date of receipt of the shipping documents. Some of the usual discrepencies are—

      L/C expired

      Late shipment

      Amount drawn in excess of the letter of credit

      Bill of Exchange not properly drawn

      Description of the goods differ

      Interest clause is missing in Bill of Exchange

      Bill of Lading or Airway Bill stale or Bill of Lading is issued under a charter party.

      Insurance cover note as per terms of L/C and insurance does not cover the entire voyage and insurance policy is not properly stamped.

The branch will proceed  carefully look into some main points of each of the documents keeping in view the terms of L/C. Some key check points for the documents are as follows-

(a) Bill of Exchange:

Bill of exchange is an unconditional order written (signed) by the drawer, to another person (the drawee) which directs to pay a certain sum at sight or at fixed or further determinable date to the order of the party which is to receive payment. Officials check the following-

      That the bill of exchange has been properly drawn and signed by the beneficiary as mentioned in the L/C terms.

      That the draft amount drawn does not exceed the amount available under the credit.

      That the amount is identical with that amount mentioned in the invoice.

      That the bill of exchange is in order and endorsed properly.

(b) Commercial Invoice:

Commercial Invoice issued by exporter is the book keeping instruments for the importer. The invoice is the list of articles containing their particulars and prices. Here the following points are checked-

      That the merchandise is properly invoiced by the beneficiary.

      That the merchandise is invoiced to the importer on account of whome the L/C was opened.

      That the description of the merchandise as shown in the invoice correspond to that required in the L/C.

      That the unit price of the merchandise in the invoice tallies with that of the unit price stipulated in the L/C and indent.

      That the invoice has been correctly and properly drawn and signed by the beneficiary as per terms of L/C.

      That the relevant LCA form number, IRC number of the importer alongwith the Registration number of the indentor with Bangladesh Bank, are correctly incorporated in the invoice.

(c) Bill of lading:

A bill of lading is a document generally issued by a carrier to a shipper, usually stipulated in a credit when exporter dispatches the goods. It is an evidence of a contract of carriage,and is a document of title to goods. It also constitutes a document that is or may be, needed to support an insurance claim. The key check points are-

      That the bill of lading is clean “Shipped on Board” B/L showing freight prepaid and properly endorsed.

      That the bill of lading covers the merchandise described in the invoice.

      That the port of shipment, port of destination, date of shipment, the name of the consignee etc. shown in B/L are in agreement with those mentioned in the L/C.

      That the bill of lading is properly signed by authorized signatory of the Shipping Company or by their authorized agents.

      That the bill of lading is not stale and has been produced in full set as per terms of L/C.

(d)Certificate of Origin:

In case of certificate of origin the officials check that the certificate of origin of the merchandise is in conformity with that stipulated in the L/C.

(e) Other Documents:

Other documents called for in the credit such as packing list, weight list, inspection certificate etc. to be checked whether drawn and issued in accordance with the terms of the credit.

Lodgment of Import Documents:

On scrutiny, if it is found that the documents drawn in conformity with the terms of the credit, Southeast Bank KAKRAIL branch lodges the documents in Inland Bill Purcshe( IMP) register/ database giving a bill reference serially in numerical order.

The bank that opens the letter of credit is bound to honor its commitment to pay for import bills when these are presented for payment, if drawn strictly in terms of letter of credit. The opening bank will lodge the shipping documents to their book and will respond to the debit advice originated by the foreign correspondent to the debit of “Inland Bill Purcshe A/C” or “Bills of Exchange A/C” and present the bill to the importer for payment.

The following steps are involved in lodgement-

      First all the particulars of the documents are entered in the IMP register and IMP No. Seal is given on all the copies of the received documents.

      Convert the foreign currency into Bangladeshi currency.

      Reverse the contingent liability and entry made in the liability register.

      Prepare lodgement voucher.

      Send IBCA to the Head Office.

      Make intimation to the importe Worry

Accounting Entries

     Payment Against Document A/C …………………..Debit

     Head Office General A/C…………………………………..Credit

     Exchange Earnings………………………………… ……..Credit

For Contingent liability the reversal entries are as follows-

       Bankers Liability…………………………Debit

                      Customer Liability………………………Credit

After realizing the charges, the shipping documents are then stamped with IMP number and are entered in the IMP register. Intimation is given to the customer calling on the bank’s counter requesting retirement of the shipping documents.

 Retirement of Documents:

The importer receives the intimation and gives necessary instruction to the bank for retirement of the bills or for the disposal of the shipping documents to release the imported goods from the customs authority. The importer may instruct the bank to retire the documents by debiting his account with the bank. During delivery of the documents the following accounting entry is given-

        Customer A/C or LTR a/c ( with IMP interest)…..Debit

         Margin on L/C A/C……………………………….Debit

         IMP A/C………………………………………….Credit

         Interest/ Commission A/C…………………………Credit

Shipping Guarantee:

In the absence original documents, goods may be cleared by non-negotiable copies of documents against shipping guarantee issued by L/C opening bank. The importer requests the bank to issue shipping guarantee/ indemnity for clearance of consignment against non-negotiable copies of documents received directly from the exporter as per clause incorporated in the L/C. before issuance of shipping guarantee, bank recover full value of import documents and collect an undertaking from the importer that they will accept original documents inspire of any discrepancy and bear rate fluctuation of foreign currency at the time of lodgment.

Voucher to be passed:

Reversal of contra voucher passed at the time of opening of the L/C

      Banker’s liability for L/C……………………..Debit

                       Customer liability……………………………..Credit

 Contra voucher

        Customer liability on Shipping Guarantee…….Debit

                       Banker’s liability on Shipping Guarantee……..Credit

          Importer A/C………………………………….Debit

          Margin on L/C………………………………..Debit

                       Margin on shipping Guarantee………………..Credit

                        Commission/ charges………………………….Credit

On receipt of original documents, lodgment of the same is made as usual and on retirement following vouchers is passed.

Reversal of contra voucher passed at the time of issuance of Shipping Guarantee

          Banker’s liability on S.G……………………..Debit

                                  Customer liability on S.G……………………..Credit

           Margin on shipping guarantee………………..Debit

          Importer’s A/C……………………………….Debit

                                  Payment against document……………………Credit

                             Charges/ interest A/C………………………….Credit

Import Financing:

If there is no available in cash in importer’s hand, he can request the bank to grant loan against the documents for the purpose of post import  finance. There are two following forms of  import finance-

  1. Loan against imported merchandise (LIM).
  2. Loan against trust receipt (LTR)

 LTR facility is available in SoutheastBank,KAKRAIL Branch, but LIM is not provided.

The following steps are involved for retirement of documents-

      Calculation of interest.

      Calculation of other charges.

      Passing vouchers.

      Entry in register.

      Endorsement made on the back of the bill of exchange as ‘Received Payment’ and bill of lading or other transport document is endorsed under two authorezed signatures of the bank’s officers.

      Finally documents are delivered to the Importer.

(a) Loan Against Imported Merchandise(LIM):

On the arrival of goods and lodgment of import documents, importer may request the bank for clearance of goods from the port (custom) and keep the same to bank godown. Proper sanction from the cxompetent authority is to be obatained before clearance of consignment.

In case of Loan Against Imported Merchandise, L/C department alongwith credit department take prior approval of Head Office credit committee with other necessary instructions regarding payment of duty and other taxes and mode of transportation from Chittagong/ Chalna. After getting approval from H/O, bank grants loan in the form of either LTR or LIM. This facility is not available in SoutheastBank,KAKRAIL Branch.

(b)  Loan against Trust Receipt Facility (LTR):

Loan against Trust Receipt is post import finance, offered by SoutheastBank,KAKRAIL Branch.From bank’s point of view; it is risky because usually no security is taken. When customer’s commitment is as good as cash, LTR is then issued. Loan is sanctioned based on trust receipt (prescribed form) only, in this case the title and possession of goods both lying with the customer. Documents are also handed over to the importer against LTR facility

For clearance of the goods, the goods are handed over to the importer under trust with the arrangement that sale proceeds should be deposited to liquidate the advances within the specified period.

Accounting treatment:

While creating LIM facility following vouchers to be passed-

      Margin on L/C…………………….Debit

       LTR A/C………………………….Debit

                                  IMP A/C…………………………Credit

On delivery of goods part/ whole the LTR liability should be adjusted part/ whole to comply the instruction of Head Office sanction advice passing following vouchers-

      Customer A/C………………………Debit

                       LTR A/C……………………………Credit

 Interest on LTR……………………..Credit

 Making Payment of Foreign Bill:

The L/C issuing bank, after getting the documents, checks immediately and if they are in order and meet the credit requirements, it will arrange to make payment against L/C through reimbursement bank and documents will be handed over to the importer or his duly authorized clearing or forwarding agent for clearance of the goods from customs at his own account. But if there is any discrepancy in the documents, the L/C isssuing bank send message to the negotiating bank to rectify it under its risks and responsibilities. Payment is the most sensitive task of import department. The officials have to be very careful while making payment.

 Procedure for Obtaining IRC (Import Registration Certificate):

To perform the import business registration with the licensing authority of the area is an urgent.  Through public notice the chief controller of Imports and Exports invites applications usually for registration of importers.  For getting this registration the following papers/ documents are required for submission to  CCI&E or area office of CCI &E for import registration certificate: –

  1. Application form
  2. Nationality certificate
  3. Income tax registration certificate
  4. Trade License from the municipal or the local authority
  5. Membership Certificate
  6. partnership Certificate (for partnership concern)
  7. Certificate of Registration with the registrar of joint Stock Company.
  8. Memorandum of Association in case of Limited Company.
  9. Bank Certificate.
  10. Ownership documents or rent receipts of the place of business.
  11. Original Copy of Treasury Challan being payment of registration fees.
  12. Other documents prescribed in the import policy.

The nominated bank of the applicant will examine the papers/ documents and verify the signature of the applicant and forward the same to the concerned office of the CCI&E with a forwarding schedule through Bank’s representative. The duplication copy of the same bearing the acknowledgment of CCI&E office of the receipt of the documents is received back by the bank and is preserved.

If the documents are found in order and the CCI&E is satisfied the IRC is issued to the applicant and sent direct to the nominated bank. The pass book is also issued by the CCI & E simultaneously to the importer and sent direct to the nominated bank.

The IRC and pass book are security documents issued under embossing seal of the CCI & E and duly signed by the authorized official of CCI & E.

The IRC is to be renewed every year on payment of usual fees through Bangladesh Bank challan or cash payment in their bank’s A/C directly.

Fees shall be paid in Bangladesh Bank or in the Government Treasury or in Sonali Bank under the Head “42 Trade & Commerce fees realized under Import and Export Control Act, 1950”.

Reporting to Bangladesh Bank:

At the end of every month, the reporting to Bangladesh Bank regarding the following information is mandatory-

  1. i.       Filling of E-2/P-2 Schedule of S-1 category that covers the entire month’s amount of import, category of goods, currency, country etc.
  2. ii.     Filling of E-3/P-3 Schedule for all charges, commission with T/M Form.
  3. iii.   Disposal of IMP Form that includes:

(a) Original IMP is forwarded to Bangladesh Bank with invoice and indent,

(b) Duplicate IMP is kept with the branch along with the Bill of Entry/ Certified invoice,

(c) Triplicate IMP is kept with the branch for office record,

(d) Quadruplicate is kept for submission to Bangladesh Bank in case of import where documents are retired.

 Introduction:

For the purpose of analysis use various bar diagram, trend analysis and standard deviation, co-efficient of variance etc. All these are effectively used in most of analytical report.

 Import Business Analysis:

Table no -1

Import Business Analysis Table (In million taka)

Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Average

STD

CV

Import

2022.96

2907.93

3512.51

3847.03

5801.97

6958.29

4605.55

1704.3187

37%

Growth rate 

30.43%

17.21%

8.70%

33.69%

16.62%

 

 Explanation: From Table- 2, It is founded that the average Import is Tk.4,605.55(million), where STD (Standard Deviation) is 1704.3187 & CV (Co-efficient of variation) is 37%, which is the sign of medium degree of variation. Here CV didn’t cross 50% so, this is reasonable and indicate positive situation. Here growth rates are also increased. So we can easily comment that Import of SEBL is very stable and good in position. We have explained the above table with representation of various graphs.

Graph no-1: Year wise Import

Explanation:  From graph no-1, It is founded that the Import of 2009 is 6958.29 (Tk in million), which is the Highest in position of Bar diagram. On the other hand the Import of 2004 is 2022.96 (Tk in million), which is the worst in position of Bar diagram. So we can easily comment that Import of 2009 is very good in position and there have positive growing tendency.  

Graph no-2: Year wise growth of Import

Explanation: From graph no-2, It is founded that the Import growth rate of 2009 is 16.62%. On the other hand the Import of 2005 is 30.43% and in the middle years the growth were fluctuated. But the growth is always in increasing. So I can command that the growth is moderate compare to the others in a reason that there are lots of competitions in this sector.

Import position of SEBL is better than Export position of SEBL. But there have positive growing tendency in both sections.

Export Business Analysis:

Table- 2: Export Business Analysis

Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Average

STD

CV

Export

676.19

1351.11

2587.46

2877.14

4217.86

4672.45

3141.20

1330.85

 42.37%

Growth rate

49.95%

47.78%

10.07%

31.79%

9.73%

 Explanation: From Table- 3, It is founded that the average Export is Tk.3,141.20(million), where STD (Standard Deviation) is 1330.85 & CV (Co-efficient of variation) is 42%, which is the sign of medium degree of variation. Here CV didn’t cross 50% so, this is reasonable and indicate positive situation. Here growth rates are also increased. So we can easily comment that Export of SEBL is very stable and good in position. We have explained the above table with representation of various graphs.

Graph no- 4: Year wise Export Business

Explanation: From graph no- 6, the internship find that the Export of 2005 is 1351.11(Tk in million), which is the Highest in position of Bar diagram. On the other hand the Import of 2002 is 226.35 (Tk in million), which is the worst in position of Bar diagram. So we can easily comment that Export of 2005 is very good in position and also there have positive growing tendency.

Graph no- 5: Year wise growth rate of Export Business

Explanation: From graph no-6, It is founded that the Export growth rate of 2005 is 49%; which is the Highest in position of diagram. On the other hand the Export of 2007 is 10 %, which is the worst in position of Bar diagram. So we can easily comment that Export of 2005 is the best in position and 2007 is the worst. But more importantly there have positive growing tendency.

 SWOT Analysis:

SWOT analysis facilitates the organization to make their existing line of performance and also foresee the future to improve their performance in comparison to their competitors. As though this tool, an organization can also study its current position, it can also be considered as an important tool for making changes in the strategic management of the organization.

(a) STRENGTHS

SEBL has already established a favorable reputation in the banking industry of the country with its significant business growth. Within a period of 14 years, SEBL has already established a firm footing in the banking sector having tremendous growth in the profits and deposits. All these have leaded them to earn a reputation in the banking field.

SEBL is showing upward trend in profitability which can indicate the fact that the bank is growing to its potential year by year and achieving business growth steadily.

SEBL has established fin-n footing comers in the banking industry of Bangladesh. They have already achieved a high growth rate accompanied by an impressive profit growth rate in 2009. The number of deposits and the loans and advances are also increasing rapidly from year to year.

Southeast Bank Limited has strong, financial resources to run the banking business. It is expected that in the near future the banks financial resources will get much stronger.

(b) WEAKNESSES    

The greatest irony is that despite claiming to be “A Bank with Vision” which is used as its advertising platform and mission statement, the bank as of today has failed to develop a prescribed set of vision as it embarks in to the cyber age of twenty first century. The bank still could not identify the core area of business and where it should concentrate in its business, as the new millennium is about to start. The bank does not have any long-term strategies of whether it wants to focus on retail banking or become a corporate bank. Till now, the bank is in a nowhere situation. Unofficially, retail banking is discouraged but at the same time the bank is not being able to pull itself away from retail banking. At the same time SEBL has failed to be a full-fledged corporate bank. The path for the future should be determined right now.

Significant shortage in capital adequacy is another major setback that Southeast bank Limited is facing in recent years. Its capital adequacy ratio is just above the requirement of 9.00% set by Bangladesh Bank and this aspect needs to be improved.

This has also become growing problem at SEBL. Currently there are “Too many heads but few hands.” Again this is related to the problem of reference appointment. There are people who are only drawing salaries at the end of the month but making a minimum or no contribution towards the organization. On the other hand there are officers who work hard but are not apprised accordingly.

(c) OPPORTUNITIES

SEBL can pursue a diversification strategy in expanding its current line of business.  The management can consider options of starting client service in its merchant banking division. There are several opportunities for SEBL to expand its product line. In this competitive environment SEBL must expand its product line to enhance its Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA). As a part of its product line proliferation, SEBL can concentrate more on SME & Agro based industrial loan because these two sectors have huge potential. If SEBL can grab this opportunity then it will be better for the bank.

SEBL should move towards the real time on line banking operations. It is high time that they should go for this because the foreign banks as well as some local banks are already in to the total on line banking operations.

(d) THREATS:

Multinational Banks: The emergence of the multinational banks and their rapid expansion poses a potential threat to the new PCB’s. Due to the booming energy sector, more foreign banks are expected to arrive in Bangladesh. Moreover, the already existing foreign banks such as Standard Chartered are now pursuing an aggressive branch expansion strategy. These banks are establishing more branches countrywide and are expected to get into for operation soon. Since the foreign banks have tremendous financial strength, it will pose a threat to local banks to a certain extent in terms of grabbing the lucrative clients.

Upcoming Banks: The upcoming private local banks can also pose a threat to the existing PCB’S. It is expected that in the next few years more local private banks may emerge. If that happens the intensity of competition will rise further and banks will have to develop strategies to complete against an on slaughter of foreign banks.

Mergers and acquisitions: The worldwide trend of mergers and acquisition in financial institutions is causing concentration in power in the industry and competitors are increasing in power in their respective areas.

Contemporary Banks: The contemporary banks of SEBL such as Dhaka Bank, Prime Bank Eastern Bank and Dutch-Bangla Bank are its major rivals. Prime Bank and others are carrying out aggressive campaign to attract lucrative corporate clients as well as big time depositors. SEBL should remain vigilant about the steps taken by these banks as these will in turn affect SEBL strategies.

 Finding of the study:

We have found the following things in my study-

a)      Southeast Bank is very much expert in export import trade handling.

b)      Southeast Bank is also cautious in export import trade financing to avoid any types of fraud.

c)      The culture of Southeast Bank is very much suitable.

d)      Clients are also very pleased on their services.

e)      All documentary credit is following the UCPDC rules and regulations.

f)       Most of the years, import and Export Both are positively increased.

g)      As usually Bank’s branches, employee and also Correspondent’s growth rate is highly increased.

 Conclusion:

Southeast Bank Limited has been a more successful second-generation bank. The Bank has followed a slightly conservative and balanced banking which has enabled it to achieve steady growth in profit and wealth together. Besides these, blended recruitment of new and experienced bankers in all the levels of management level has been very fruitful. The recruits have carried forward their social connections and ultimately contributed to strengthen the asset and liability base of the bank. Although Southeast Bank Limited is good in operation of export import trade handling and financing.

The Bank’s vision has always been to give customer service one step forward from its competitors and ultimately contribute to the national economy. The fact of being successful in its journey of 14 long years speaks for itself and the Bank is hoped to continue its competitive edge in the coming years.

Recommendations:

In the light of above studies we have found that banking sector requires to be studied in right perspective and individual bank has mapped out of its own course of action /business strategy to survive and to do good with the nation of survival of the fittest. Here we have attempted to draw some recommendations in the light of my study of Southeast Bank Limited.

  1. Though the Southeast Bank is very much specialized on export import dealing so it is very much necessary to take care of export import department.
  2. Few persons are working in export import department. So, more should be recruited.
  3. One stop care service point should be opened to give better service to the clients.
  4. Modern technology should be installed to cope up in this competitive era.
  5. Customer’s waiting room in Foreign Exchange Section is essential.
  6. More space should be required in Foreign Exchange Section.
  7. Recording and Filling system should be up dated.
  8. Banking is a service -oriented marketing .Its business profit depends on its service quality. That’s why the authority always should be aware about their service quality.
  9. To provide quality service to the customer it is necessary to have a trained team of an organization or an institution .For this reason the bank should recruit more fresh, bright and energetic persons such as MBA, BBA, MBM etc.
  10. The bank has a provision for internship program, but it is not well organized. Although the officials are very careful and cooperative with the interns, the authority should be more structured .If they can properly make them trained it will be very fruitful to recruit them. Because-they learn overall banking in the internship period, so in the beginning of the job they can work as experienced persons. It is also very important that they should give an honorarium to the intern.
  11. As soon as possible the bank should start more branches in Dhaka city as well as the other cities of the country.
  12. One of the business strategies is promotion. Successful business depends how they can promote their products or service to the customer .In this connection to improve the business status bank should introduce more promotional programs.
  13. The recruitment process of the bank is very lengthy. The bank should reduce the cost and select the employee by restructuring the lengthy process.
  14. In addition with the present services, they should include more services. It is badly needed to provide more services to the customer in order to compete in the market.

Bibliography

1.       Anonymous, 2000. Bank Loan Application Procedures; A Hand book for SEMS, First ed. JOBS, Dhaka.

2.       Gordon & K. Batrajan, Banking Theory, Law and Practice, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, 1996.

3.       The Southeast Bank Limited  home page 2010, viewed on 1st January          2010,www.sebankbd.com

4.      The Southeast Bank’s annual report-2010

6.    Wilson, R. (1983). Banking and Finance in Arab Middleast. London: Macmillan        Publisher Ltd.

7.     Annual Import 2009-2010 –Statistic Department, Bangladesh Bank.

8.      Annual Export receipts 2009-2010 – Statistic Department, Bangladesh Bank.

9.     Foreign Exchange Policy, Bangladesh Bank F, E Circular no. 5, 10 June,2010

Southeast Bank Limited