Foreign Exchange Transaction System of National Bank Ltd
Subject: Economics | Topics:

Executive Summary:

NBL has the glory of being oldest bank owned by the general people of Bangladesh and it servers the nation for last 26 years with largest line of diversified banking services in different sectors. So far, NBL is performing well and listed in the “A” category for long time. With globalization our country also takes part in global and international business. Manpower is now a very potential sector of government to export. There is not need to explain how much we are being engaged with foreign exchange. NBL is helping its customers in every aspect of foreign exchange. The mission is to continue NBL’s support for expansion of activities at home and abroad by adding new dimensions to our banking services which have been ongoing in an unabated manner. Ensuring highest standard of clientele services through best application of latest information technology, making due contribution to the national economy and establishing NBL’s firmly at home and abroad as a front ranking bank of the country have been its cherished vision. There are 19 division of NBL. Its branches have more or less 8 sections. The bank has earned the confidence and reputation as a reliable organization of paying hard-earned money of the expatriate Bangladeshis to their beneficiaries in the country safely and quickly, the bank handled USD 402.57 million (Tk. 2,756.08 crore) in 2007 which was USD 92.85 million. Foreign exchange gives much kind of facilities like L/C opening, export processing, remittance collection, LIM, LTR etc. Its customers are both exporter and importer, resident & non resident Bangladeshis. International Division is the section of NBL Head Office which monitors foreign exchange. Every branch of NBL gives monthly report of international exchange to ID. ID gives exchange rate to different branches and it is the first step to make profit by foreign exchange. Everyday exchange rate is sent to branches for transaction. In marketing strategies NBL follow both internal marketing and Interactive marketing. NBL is following overall cost leadership. Because of its glorious past it is now able to serve its customers in low cost, its low price helps it to achieve a large market share. With a strong deposit balance and Assets National Bank Limited has been trying to operate its business successfully since 1983. The bank has already developed good image and goodwill among its clients by offering excellent services in foreign exchange and other area.

INTRODUCTION

In service sector banking is very emerging field in today’s family and business life. In our country banking is profitable industry than many other5 countries of the world. After the liberation war most of the bank was under government control. National Bank Limited is the first privately owned Bank in Bangladesh. In my report I am going to show what are the services that National bank Limited is offering to the market in foreign exchange.

With globalization our country also takes part in global and international business. Manpower is now a very potential sector of government to export. There is not need to explain how much we are being engaged with foreign exchange. My report is an effort to introduce all the services of NBL regarding foreign exchange. My other objective is to show how for it is to take part in international business. It is a way to encourage our business men to take part in import export business. And the last one is how foreign exchange affect our country’s economy, our family life and soon.

Internship program is helping students to come close to real business world. As a business administration student major in Finance this three month internship program works as a training program before step in real corporate world.

 RATIONAL OF THE STUDY:

With the first growing service sectors of banking, we should have knowledge about the services the bank like NBL is providing. How our life become easy with the new marketing offer of NBL in foreign exchange, we will know with the study. With every growing business world knowledge about the Foreign Exchange is mandatory.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

Main objective of my study is to get in the real field of foreign exchange service and to find out how different marketing strategies are helping NBL to generate profit. The objectives can be divided into two parts. They are given in the following pages –

Primary Objectives-

  1. To meet with the real world of marketing strategies of NBL in foreign exchange
  2. To get acquainted with the foreign exchange services, NBL is providing and their impact in revenue of bank.
  3. How international deviation and foreign exchange is working together

Secondary Objectives-

1. What is the revenue earning sector of foreign exchange?

2. What marketing tools are used by NBL to attract clients?

3. What is the competitive advantage of NBL’s Foreign Service?

4. What terms and conditions NBL is following in foreign exchange regulation.

METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

To get more depth information about foreign exchange of NBL a descriptive research will be conducted. In depth interview of industry experts, executives and officers will helpful. The plan is as following-

1.    Sample selection & size-As I am doing my internship program on NBL at Islampur Road Branch, so this branch was my sample.

2.    Data collection method-The executives, industry experts, customer of  the branch, officers was interviewed. There were no structured Questionnaire.

3.    Data sources- Both primary and secondary sources were used.

4.    Data processing- Data from secondary source was processed manually and a comparison with other bank will be done

5.    Data analysis & interpretation- Personal judgment were used.

Analytical judgment of industry expert’s & executives were used.

SOURCE OF STUDY:

Primary Sources-

1. Executives, officers, stuffs of the branch & head offices.

2. Customers or clients of the branch.

Secondary sources-

  1. Website of NBL
  2. Annual reports of NBL
  3. Bangladesh Bank import export control acts and policies.
  4. Guideline for foreign exchange transaction-by Bangladesh government.

SCOPE & LIMITATIONS

As I am at NBL, Islampur Road Branch, the scope of the study is limited to this branch and head office. Some general function of overall banking is included. The topic of the report on foreign exchange.

Some limitation of the reports are-

  1. Time is limited to know large amount of information.
  2. To get the personnel and ask them question is difficult.
  3. Every information is not disclosed by the executives

CHAPTER TWO

GENERAL BANKING   

HISTORY:

National bank limited has its own prosperous past, glorious present, prospective feature and under processing project and activities. Established as the first private sector bank fully owned by Bangladeshi entrepreneurs, NBL has been flourishing as the largest private sector bank with the passage of time after facing many stress and strain. The members of the board of directors are creative businessman and leading industrialists of the country.

The emergence of National Bank Limited in the private sector was an important event in the banking area of Bangladesh. When the nation was in the grip of severe recession, the government took the

Farsighted decision to allow the private sector to revive the economy of the country. Several dynamic entrepreneurs came forward for establishing a bank with a motto to revitalize the economy of the country.

National Bank Limited was born as the first hundred percent Bangladeshi owned bank in private sector. From the very inception, it was the firm determination of National Bank Limited to play a vital role in the national economy. We are determined to bring back the long forgotten taste of banking services and flavors. We want to serve each one promptly and with a sense of dedication and dignity.

The then President of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh Justice Ahsanuddin Chowdhury inaugurated the bank formally on the mach 28,1983 but the first branch at 48,Dilkhusha Commercial Area, Dhaka started commercial operation on march 23,1983. The 2nd branch was opened on 11th may 1983 at Khatungonj, Chittagong.

MISSION:

The mission is to continue NBL’s support for expansion of activities at home and abroad by adding new dimension to our banking services which have been ongoing in an unabated manner.

VISSION:

Ensuring highest standard of clientele services through best application of latest information technology, making due contribution to the national economy and establishing NBL’s firmly at home and abroad as a front ranking bank of the country have been its cherished vision.

 BOARD OF DIRECTORS:

                      NAME                   POSITION
Moazzam HossainChairman
Alhaj Khalilur RahmanDirector
Ms. Parveen Haque Sikder Director
Mr. Zainul Haque Sikder Director
Prof. Mahbub Ahmed Director
Mr. Ron Haque SikderDirector
Mr. Rick Haque SikderDirector
Mr. Mabroor RahmanDirector
Mr. A K M Enamul Haque Director
Mr. Salim RahmanDirector
Mr. Md. Abdur Rahman SarkarDirector

 DIVISION OF NBL:

  • Audit and Inspection Division.
  • ATM card division.
  • Board Secretariat.
  • Budget and Monitoring Division.
  • Credit Division-1
  • Credit Division-2
  • Credit Card Division.
  • Classified Loan Recovery Division.
  • Financial Administration Division.
  • General Banking Division.
  • Human Resources Division.
  • International Division.
  • Information System and Technology Division.
  • Marketing Division.
  • Protocol Division.

 NUMBER OF BRANCHES:

National Bank Limited is first private bank in Bangladesh history. It has now 116 branches; it seems that the number of branches is increasing day by day.

Year20022003200420052006200720082009
Number of Branches7676767691101106116

 Management:

The managing director (MD) of the NBL is the Chief Executive of the bank. His duty is numerous. He is responsible for administrating the business affaires of the bank. He is also concerned with planning and its implementation. The managing director also represents the bank to the meeting and response to the various inquiry of the board of directors. The managing director may be appointed on contractual basis for certain period or may be promoted from among the deputy – managing director for certain period. Under the leadership of the managing director, there are three (03) Deputy Managing Director (DMD’s) sixteen (16) divisions are found in NBL, each division is lead by either an Executive Vice President (EVP) or Senior Vice President (SVP) or Vice President (VP).

 Management Committee:

♠    Mr. Md. Abdur Rahman Sarker    ♠          Mr. A F M Shariful Islam

Chairman                                                                     Member

Managing Director                                                      Additional Managing Director

♠    Mr. Mohsin-ul-Karim                                            ♠    Mr. Azizur Rahman

Member                                                                       Member

Deputy Managing Director                                         Deputy Managing Director

♠    Mr. Masqur Ahmed                                              ♠    Mr. Syed Mohammad Bariqullah

Member                                                                       Member

Deputy Managing Director                                         Senior Executive Vice President

♠    Mr. Shamsul Huda Khan                                      ♠    Mr. Nazib Uddin Bhuiyan

Member                                                                       Member

Senior Executive Vice President                                Senior Executive Vice President

♠    Mr. A K M Shafiqur Rahman                               ♠    Mr. Syed Muazzam Hussein

Member                                                                       Member

Senior Executive Vice President                                Executive Vice President

♠    Mr. Md. Mahbub Hussain

HIERARCHY OF NATIONAL BANK:

Chapter-3

Foreign Exchange  

This report is based on Foreign Exchange section of NBL. NBL is glorious history of successful business. Foreign business is playing an important role in increasing their profit. To understand how foreign exchange is helping in increasing profit, what marketing strategy NBL is following in attracting customer, we need to know about what is done by foreign exchange section of NBL.

WHAT IS FOREIGN EXCHANGE

In a bank where people can do transaction in foreign currency is called foreign exchange. Any kinds of dollar transaction are done by this section. NBL’s foreign exchange section is working with the head office Internal division. The full process is governed by Bangladesh bank. Any kind of transaction in foreign currency is a sensitive issued.

DEFINITION OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE

Foreign exchange is a process which is converted one national currency into another and transfer money from one country to another countries.

According to Mr.  H. E. Evit. Foreign exchange is that section of economic science which deals with the means and method by which right to wealth in one country’s currency are converted into right to wealth in term of another country’s currency. it involves the investigation of the method by which the currency of one country is exchanged for that of another, the cause which rented such exchange necessary.

FOREIGN TRADE AND FOREIGN EXCHANGE:

International trade refers to trade between the residents of two different countries. Each country functions as a sovereign State with its ser of regulations and currency. The difference in the national of the exporter and the importer presents certain peculiar problems in the conduct of international trade and settlement of the transactions arising there from. Important among such problems are:

  1. Different countries have different monetary units;
  2. Restrictions imposed by countries on import and export of goods;
  3. Restrictions imposed by nations on payment from and into their countries;
  4. Differences in legal practices in different countries.

Foreign exchange means foreign currency and includes:-

  1. All deposits, credits and balances payable  in any foreign currency and any drafts, travelers cheques, letters of credit and bills of exchange, expressed or drawn in Bangladeshi currency but payable in any foreign currency;
  1. Any instrument payable, at the option of the drawer or holder thereof or any other party thereto. Either in Bangladeshi currency or in foreign currency or partly in one and partly in

the other. Thus, foreign exchange includes foreign currency; balances kept abroad and instruments payable in foreign currency.

PRINCIPLES OF FOREIGN GXCHANGE

The following principles are involved in foreign exchange;

  1. The entire system
  2. The media used
  3. The monetary unit

FUNCTION OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE:

The Bank acts as a media for the system of foreign exchange policy. For this reason, the employee who is related of the bank to foreign exchange, specially foreign business should have knowledge of these following functions:-

  • Rate of exchange.
  • How the rate of exchange works.
  • Forward and spot rate.
  • Methods of quoting exchange rate.
  • Premium and discount
  • Risk of exchange rate.
  • Causes of exchange rate.
  • Exchange control.
  • Convertibility.
  • Exchange position.
  • Intervention money.
  • Foreign exchange transaction.
  • Foreign exchange trading.
  • Export and import letter of credit.
  • Non-commercial letter of trade.
  • Financing of foreign trade.
  • Nature and function of foreign exchange market.
  • Rules and regulation used in foreign trade.
  • Exchange arithmetic.

 FOREIGN EXCHANGE SERVICES:

NBL is rendering various kinds of services in international transaction of their clients. Some are described below: –

1.      L/C Opening:

Bangladesh is mainly an import oriented country. So, L/C is a very important import document which is issued by Bank. In international market two parties are not known to each other. The importers of Bangladesh give an L/C to exporters of foreign country to give the assurance of payment. NBL is opening L/C in favor of their clients.

2.      Export processing:

When exporter’s foreign document comes to NBL, NBL collect payment from foreign bank for its party. NBL purchase bill if their party need early cash.

3.      Back to Back and Local L/C:

In against of export L/C NBL give the facility to open Back to Back and Local L/C

 4.      Dollar sale and purchase:

NBL sale dollar against passport. The rate of exchange is given by Bangladesh Bank which is changed every day.

5.      Credit card:

Credit card like Master Card, VISA Card, and NBL’s Power Card is issued, operational by NBL.

6.      Loan facilities:

Loan facility is given to clients to help in foreign exchange. Different types of loan facility are given below-

  1. a.      CC
  2. b.      LYR
  3. c.       LIM
  4. d.      Sanction of L/C

CUSTOMERS:

NBL is a well known bank is foreign exchange business. It is helping the business and people working abroad from the very beginning. The parties of NBL in foreign exchange are as follows:

Serial No.

Kinds of parties

1.

Importer’s of bicycle parts

2.

Importer’s of chemical

3.

Importer’s of fresh fruits

4.

Importer’s of parts & capital machinery

5.

Importer’s of garments accessories

6.

Exporter’s of garments items

7.

People working abroad

8.

Resident & Non – resident Bangladeshis

9.

Government parties working abroad

10.

People travelling from Bangladesh and to Bangladesh

Remittance:

All outward and inward domestic remittance is deal with this section. Pay order, T/T, demand draft, bill collection is done through this section.

National Bank has remittance arrangements with different bank and exchange houses in various countries throughout the world. The bank has earned the confidence and reputation as a reliable organization of paying hard-earned money of the expatriate Bangladeshis to their beneficiaries in the country safely and quickly. The bank handled USD 402.57 million (Tk. 2,756.08 crore) in 2007 which was USD 92.85 million (Tk. 62.69 crore) higher than that of 2006 achieving a growth rate of 29.07 percent. Introduction of products like Home Delivery Scheme, Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT) and different instant payment system and modern technologies like SWIFT and online services have strengthen the  position of the bank.

Foreign Exchange:

Foreign Exchange section is the most important section of NBL. Most of the profit comes from it. It is my area of interest. My report contains broad description of foreign exchange section. In this section foreign exchange related with NBL is focused. NBL is playing an important role in expanding business in the business areas. In NBL most of the branches foreign exchange has huge

L/C opening

Credit card & Dollar sale & Purchase

Related loan

Export L/C & Back to Back to L/C

Local L/C

Bill Purchase

transaction and his section have the large work force. NBL is mainly conducting the import activities that are L/C opening. But some others activities of foreign exchange is given below –

NBL has following kind of parties in foreign exchange: –

Serial No.

Kinds of parties

1.

Importer’s of bicycle parts

2.

Importer’s of chemical

3.

Importer’s of fresh fruits

4.

Importer’s of parts & capital machinery

5.

Importer’s of garments accessories

6.

Exporter’s of garments items

7.

People working abroad

8.

Resident & Non – resident Bangladeshis

9.

Government parties working abroad

10.

People travelling from Bangladesh and to Bangladesh

Advance and Loan:

It is a profitable section of NBL. Loan permission is given by head office. A certain amount can be permitted by branch manager. When loan request is up to the limit every of branches make the risk assessment, field work and help the head office to take the decision.

In 2008, foreign remittance brought into the country through NBL was USD 582.47 million showing an increase of USD 179.90 million over the previous year, which registered an attractive growth of 45 percent. This growth was possible due to introduction of different instant payment products and technology including extending

Chapter – 4

Letter of Credit (L/C) Import

 DEFINITION OF L/C:

On behalf of the importer if the bank undertakes to make payment to the foreign bank is known as documentary credit.

A letter of credit is known as instrument issued by bank to a customer placing at the letters disposal such agreed sums in foreign currency as stipulated. An importer is a country requests his bank to open a credit in foreign currency in favor of his exporter at a bank in the letters country. The letter of credit is issued against payment of amount by the importer or against satisfactory security.

FORMS OF LETTER OF CREDIT:

A letter of credit (L/C) may be two forms. These as follows:

i) Revocable letter of credit.

ii) Irrevocable letter of credit.

i)                    Revocable L/C: If any letter of credit can be amendment or change of any clause or cancelled by consent of the exporter and importer is known as revocable letter of credit.

ii)                  Irrevocable L/C: If a letter of credit can not be changed or amendment without the consent of the importer and exporter is known as irrevocable letter of credit.

TYPES OF LETTER OF CREDIT:

Letters of Credit are classified into various types according to the method of settlement employed. All credits must clearly indicate in major categories.

  1. Sight payment credit
  2. Deferred payment credit
  3. Acceptance credit
  4. Negotiation credit
  5. Red close credit
  6. Revolving credit
  7. Stand by credit
  8. Transferable credit

PARTIES TO A LETTER OF CREDIT:

A letter of credit is issued by a bank at the request of an importer in favor of an exporter from whom he has contracted to purchases some commodity or commodities. The importer, the exporter and the issuing bank are parties to the latter of credit. There are

however, one or more than one banks that are involved in various capacities and at various stages to play an important role in the total operation of the credit.

  1. The Opening Bank
  2. The Advising Bank
  3. The Buyer and the Beneficiary
  4. The Paying Bank
  5. The Negotiating Bank
  6. The Confirming Bank

CONTENTS OF THE LETTER OF CREDIT:

Banks normally issued letter of credit (L/C) on forms which clearly indicate the banks name and extent of the banks obligation under the credit. The contents of the L/C of different. In general L/C contains the following information:

i)                    Name of the buyer: Who is also known as the accounted since it is for his account that the credit has been opened?

ii)                  Name of the seller: Who is also known as the beneficiary of the credit?

iii)                Moment of the credit: Which should be the value of the merchandise plus any shipping charges intent to be paid under the credit?

iv)                Trade terms: Such as F.O.B. and C.I.F.

v)                  Expiration date: Which is specified the latest date document may be presented. In this manner or by including additionally a latest date, the buyer may exercise control over the time of shipping.

vi)                Documents required: Which will normally include commercial invoice consular or customer invoice, insurance policies as certificate.

vii)              General description of the merchandise: Which briefly and in a general manner duly describes the merchandise covered by a letter of credit?

DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT (IMPORT/EXPORT DOCUMENTATION):

Documentary letter of credit is such kinds of commercial letter which a bank issue on behalf of foreign seller (exporter) according to the direction of the (importer) purchaser. The documents shown under are known as export documents form the importer’s side. These are:

(1) Bill of Exchange: The bill of exchange is that particular instrument through which payment is effected in trade internal and international. The payment for the goods is recovered by the seller through the medium of a bill of exchange drawn on the buyer for

the amount depending on the contract. It is a negotiable instrument. There are five main parties involved in a bill of exchange. They are:-

(a)    Drawer

(b)   Drawee

(c)    Payee

(d)   Endorser

(e)    Endorsee

(2) Bill of lading: A bill lading is a document of title to goods entitling the holder to receiver the goods as beneficiary or endorsee and it is with the help of this document on receipt form the exporter that the importer takes possession of the goods form the carrying vessel at the port of destination.

(3) Airway bill / Railway receipt: When goods to be transported are small in bulk or requiring speedy delivery or those are perishable in nature on the deal is in between the neighboring countries then mode of transports other then shipping may be resorted to far the carriage of the goods Airways bill /Railway receipt take place of Bill of lading depending on the nature of the carrier.

(4) Commercial invoice: It is the seller’s bill for the merchandise. It contains a description of goods, the price per unite at a particular location, total value of the goods, packing specifications, terms of sale, latter of credit bill of lading number etc. There is no standard form far a commercial invoice. The invoice is made out by the seller under his signature in the name of the buyer and must be submitted in a set of at least 3copies.

(5) Insurance policy:  In the international trade insurance policy is a must to cover the risk of loss on consignments while they are on seas, roads, and airways. The insurance is the responsibility of the buyer (consignee) under FAS, FOB and C F contracts and of the seller (consignor) under CIF contract. The policy must be of the type as specified in the relative /credit.

(6) Certificate of origin: This is a certificate issued by a recognized authority in exporting country certifying the country of origin of the goods. It is usually by the chambers of commerce. Some time, it is certified by local consul or Trade Representative of the importing country as per terms of the credit.

(7) Packing list: The exporter must prepare an accurate packing list showing item by item, the contents of the consignment to enable the receiver of the shipment to check the contents of the goods, number and marks of the package, quality, per package net weight, gross weight, measurement etc.

(8) Weighting and Measurement: Issued by recognized authority (like chambers of commerce and industry) in exporting country certifying correct weighting and measurement of the goods exported.

(9) Bill of Entry: A bill of entry is a document which contains the particulars of the imported goods as well as the amount of customs duty payable.

PAYMENT AGAINST DOCUMENTS (PAD):

Banks deal in documents and not in goods. If the shipping document against the L/C is in order then the L/C opening bank must have to payment to the foreign bank within 3 days or 72 hours according as Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credit (UCPDC) 500 of revision of ICC.

If the shipping documents have any discrepancy, then the L/C opening bank informed to the negotiating bank within 7. Otherwise, the shipping documents have not discrepancy. If the importer have not adequate funds in the bank account then the bank payment to the foreign bank against the shipping documents.

Chapter – 5

Back to back & Export L/C

Back to Back L/C

Back to back L/C is very popular in Bangladesh. What is back to back L/C? To define we can say Back to Back is the situation where the end user opens a L/C in favor of the importers, the importers than asks his / her bank for a companion L/C to be issued to the supplier. Therefore, the original L/C acts as the financial basis for the second L/C. Many banks do not look favorable upon this type of financing of other options are available.

NBL receive a big amount of profit from back to back L/C. NBL is not a mysterious entity. They are business people just like the importers & exporter. They are in the business of lending money for the purpose of financing attractive proposals. The suggestions they make can save considerable expense and Tim of international businessman. NBL can work as advising bank or issuing bank.

Kinds of Back to Back L/C

Back to Back L/C can be divided into two types: Foreign and local. In foreign back to back L/C is opened against a muster L/C favoring a foreign party. Local back to back L/C.

1. Foreign Back to Back L/C:

 NBL issue or advice this kind of L/C. It is opened against a master L/C to do business aboard. Payment is given in other country.

 2. Local L/C:

 Local back to back L/C is opened against a master L/C to pay the local businessman. Business within Bangladesh.

 Local L/C can be divided into two types-

 a) Cash L/C:

 It is the L/C normally open for a bank acceptance. No master L/C is needed. Sometime people want a bank guarantee. It is one of them. It can be at sight and may be defer.

 b) Local back to back

It is used to do business in Bangladesh. It is opened against a master L/C.

SERVICE PROVIED BY BANK AGAINST BACK TO BACK L/C:

  • LDBC
  • LDBP

Is opened in favor of national’s party:

In back to back L/C following limit of loan facilities is given-

  • 90% loan against master L/C is given
  • 75%  can be received opening back to back L/C
  • Rest 15% is given when bank receive export document.

Fort example against $ 100000 master L/C, $ 90000 loan facilities is given. $ 75000 is given when L/C is opened $ 15000 is given after receiving documents.

LDBC:

Local documentary bill collection is a service of NBL to collect the bill of their party for payment. When NBL is advising bank they can collect payment against the document.

When in back to back L/C NBL is advising bank. After the maturation period NBL collect they payment by LDBC.

Steps in LDBC:

The procedure is as following:

  1. Exporter presents the documents to NBL for collection from importer within 3 days of shipment. The document contains-

a)      Track receipt.

b)      Commercial invoice.

c)      Packing list.

d)     Delivery receipt.

e)      Country of origin.

f)        Bill of exchange.

  1. NBL sends the documents to issuing bank for collection.
  1. NBL use a controlling no or LDBC No.
  1. If back to back L/C is not on sight the issuing bank will not give the payment to NBL on receiving day. So an acceptance is sent to NBL, saying that the payment will be made after maturation period. It may be 90 days, 120 days etc.
  1. After that they NBL get payment by pay order.
  1. NBL will send the pay order for clearing.
  1. After payment is received by NBL through clearing NBL will collect change and give the money to party.

Charges

Advice chargeTk. 500
CommissionTk.  730- Tk. 1000
Postage chargeTk. 20

 LDBP:

Local documentary bill purchase is a great source of profit for NBL. Here when the export documents comes the party want to get payment without waiting for the maturation date. So NBL, finance for that day and charge interest.

For example- Cat Textile Mills Ltd. Exports finished shirt to Sweden and buy clothes from M/S Sushi chemicals of Bangladesh. Here Cat Textile Mills Ltd’s bank is AB bank and M/S Sushi chemicals bank is NBL. So in this case the parties involved is as following:

Now if Sushi chemicals want to get payment before the bill maturation, NBL can purchase the bill. It is called LDBP.

Steps in LDBP:

1. At first a party brings a document of back to back L/C to NBL. The officer cheeks the documents. He/she emphasize on =

  • Name of two parties.
  • USD $ or other currency
  • L/C/C No.
  • Opening data.

Than a number is given (LDBP No) and as advice is sent to issuing bank.

2. Issuing bank sends an ‘advice of acceptance’ to NBL

3. Party makes following documents.

a)      Bill of exchange.

b)      Track receipt.

c)      Commercial invoice.

d)     Packing list.

e)      Delivery challan.

f)       Delivery receipt.

g)      Country of origin.

4. Next party comes for selling the bill to NBL, with all documents.

5. NBL purchases the bill. The account treatment is as follows

LDBP………….dr

Party’s name…… cr

The bill maturation date may be 90 days, 120 days etc.but by selling bill party is getting the payment of 90% today. So they have to pay 13% interest  and other charges from the day of  purchase and maturation of the bill. It is source of revenue for NBL.

6. Maturation  day comes and NBL, get money through T/T from issuing bank no NBL’s other branch.

7.  Account treatment on maturation of the bill is-

Sundry deposit A/C sundry creditor’s dr.

                  LDBP……………….       Cr.

                  Interest on LDBP……      Cr.

                  Advising Change……       Cr.

                  Postage……………..        Cr.

                  Commission………..        Cr.

                  Party’s A/C…………       Cr.

From the account treatment we can find NBL’s income.

8. The party collect the voucher and receive payment, rest of the amount which was not purchased by NBL. NBL cut the cost of party from it.

EXPORT L/C:

Export L/C is issued by a foreign bank favoring Bangladeshi exports through our banks having correspondent relationship with them.

NBL provides different services to the exporter of Bangladesh. To get export facility the party must have following requirements-

  1. Current deposit (CD)
  2. ERC (Export registration certificate)
  3. Mortgage

NBL permit 50% to 70% loan against mortgage. Other loan facility are –

  1. Back to back- 75% of export L/C
  2. Cash credit-90% in FDBP

Packing credit (PC)- 90% of export L/C

Export advance & loan facility is sanctioned by head office. According to the prospect of party they take the loan decision.

SERVICES PROVIDED BY BANK AGAINST EXPORT L/C:

A.    Advising of export L/C: The advising bank getting the import L/C sent by the issuing bank located abroad will advise the L/C to the beneficiary without any engagement or responsibly on their part. It will see the following only:

a. Authenticity of L/C (Test agreed in case of Telex L/C and signature verified in case air mail L/C.

b.Merchandise specified in the L.C is permissible and clauses incorporated in the L/C are not against country’s regulations.

B.     Add Confirmation of Export L/C: Bank may add additional confirmation to export L/C where there is specific instruction from the L/C issuing bank to do so. Additional confirmation of L/C gives the seller a double assurance of payment. Bank’s requirement of adding confirmation:

    1. Issuing Bank should be a reputed bank.
    2. Credit line/ Arrangement with the L/C issuing bank.
    3. L/C clause are to be acceptable to confirming bank
    4. Approval from the competent authority for adding confirmation of export L/C/
    5. Confirmation charges are to be recovered as per rules.
  1. C.    Negotiating of Export L/C: Documents / papers to be submitted by exporter to bank for negotiation/ collection against export L/C. The exportersubmit the documents to bank as per requirement of bank. List of export documents is as follows:
  1. Export L/C
  2. EXP Form
  3. Bill of exchange
  4. Invoice
  5. Bill of Lading
  6. Packing List
  7. Certificate of Origin
  8. Inspection Certificate
  9. Insurance Document
  10. Weight List
  11. Any other documents as per L/C

Bank must scrutinize all the documents stipulated in the credit with reasonable care to ascertain whether they confirm with the terms of the credit, the bank may negotiate and pay the value of export bill to the exporter at:

      ♠ OD buying rate (Sight Draft)

      ♠ Usage rate (For DA Bill)

      ♠ Appropriate rate (For DP Bill)

  1. D.    FDBC: If the export document is not purchase by NBL it is called Foreign Documentary Bill Collection. At the maturation data of export bill NBL collect the payment for party. The collection process is same as LDBC. Only the postage charge is high.

The postage charge is Tk. 800 within SAARC countries within Asia Tk.1500 and outside Asia is Tk. 2000.

  1. E.     FDBP: If the exporter need money before that the maturation of export document. He/ She can sale it to NBL. It is called Foreign Documentary Bill Purchase. The steps of FDBP are discussed with an example. Let, J.J. Enterprise is a party of NBL who export shirt to Nepal at $20000/-. In Nepal Impex Co. buys it and their bank is Everest Bank. The Steps are as follows:
    1. NBL is receive a L/C of $ 20000 from Everest Bank of Nepal.
    2. NBL inform J.J. Enterprise about L/C
    3. J.J. Enterprise what the money right now. So they sale to NBL and get 90% of payment. NBL gives an FDBP No.
  1. When bill is purchased, NBL creates a FDBP $20000×90%=18,000 will be given to J.J. Enterprise right now.
  2. When NBL receive payment from Everest Bank, NBL charge J.J. Enterprise the following cost-
Interest13%
Postage chargeTk.800 (SAARC), Tk.1500 (Asia),

Tk. 2000 ( Outside Asia)

Exp chargeTk.250
Handling chargeTk.500
  1. After these cost is deducted from rest of 10% L/C amount. J.J Enterprise get the payment.

COLLECTION DOCUMENTS:

Export documents not covered by and L/C documents not drawn in terms of the credit are accepted on collection basis with the shipper authority at their documents are forwarded through foreign correspondents to the drawee for payment or acceptance. After realization off the bills on collection export is paid appropriate rate after adjustment of liabilities on his account (if any).

Voucher to be passed:

Lodgment (Accepted for sending on collection):

FBPL A/C

Dr.

FBPC A/C

Cr.

 Realization: (Reverse of Contra Voucher)

FDPC A/CDr.
FBPL A/CCr.
H/O (ID) A/CDr.
Party’s A/CCr.

 Chapter-6

Foreign Remittance

 INTERNATIONAL DEVIATION:

International Deviation is the section of NBL Head Office monitor foreign exchange. Every branch of NBL give monthly report of international exchange to ID. ID gives exchange rate to different branches and it is the first step to make profit by foreign exchange. Everyday exchange rate is sent to branches for transaction.

Exchange Rates:

Different types of exchange rate and their use area are given below-

Rate

Use

TT & OD (Selling rate)Used when dollar is given to head office by branches. For example-ETCA
BC Selling rateAny cash selling of dollar. Example-Cash dollar endorsement, opening L/C etc
TT Clean rate (Buying rate)To bring any fund from head office. For example-LDBP, to clear, FDBP back to back, Foreign bill etc.
TT DOC (Buying rate)Collection of export document, Example-LDBC, FDBC, Export Bill.
OD Sight Exp (Buying rate)Export document, LDBP, FDBP, adjustment after final payment comes. NBL is buying dollar and giving payment to parties in Tk.
OD Transfer (Buying rate)Buying travel cheque by bank, gift voucher, cross cheque.

 Use of rate in Foreign Exchange Services:

Service wise use of rate is given below-

Import L/C:

  1. To open L/C-TT & DOC
  2. PAD (Payment Against Document)-BC selling.

Back to back:

TT clean rate, TT, DOC

Export L/C:

OD sight export. TT clean, TT DOC

Chapter-8

Impact of International Transaction

 Bangladesh takes part both import and export business. The commercial bank of Bangladesh is helping in international trade. NBL is very well known bank to businessman of our country. A large number of people is working abroad they send their earnings to their dear one in Bangladesh. NBL is helping to transfer money. In a economy like Bangladesh, foreign exchange has a great impact. So foreign exchange is directly governed by Bangladesh Bank along with the help of commercial bank.

EXPORT IMPORT PRODUCTS:

Exportable Products: If not referred to differently, and except the ones enlisted in Annex 1, I.e. export prohibited products and the products for which the export is contingent to certain conditions, all other products shall be freely exportable. E.g. bicycle, garments item, goods from hide and skin, agriculture products etc.

Important Products: Export oriented readymade garments industry, Export oriented mechanized shoe industry, Export oriented tannery industry, Other Exporters/Manufacturers, Crude Palm Olean, Nuclear Reactors & its parts, Acid, Chemical Fertilizer, Pesticides & Insecticides, Second-hand Clothing, Sweater, Ladies Cardigan, Neb’s jacket including zipper jackets, Men’s trouser, Blanket, shirts of synthetic blended fabric, Medicine, Cigarette, Computer, Gold & Silver, Gas in cylinder, Petroleum oil & all kinds of oil obtained from bituminous mineral crude & LPG etc.

EXPORT –IMPORT OF BANGLADESH:

Export-Import Bureau, Bangladesh

Export performance for the Month of July – June, 2008-09

Overall position

Mn.US $

Products

Export target for

2008-09

Export performance for

July-June, 2008-09

% Change of export performance over export target

Export performance for July-June,2007-08

% Change of export performance

 July-June, 2008-09

Over

July-June,2007-08

1

3

5

6

7

8

All Products

16298.43

15565.19

-4.50

14110.80

+10.31

Products recorded growth over last year’s performance & also over target

Woven Garments

5684.00

5918.51

+4.13

5167.28

+14.54

Terry towel

124.17

132.57

+6.76

112.88

+17.44

Handicrafts

6.04

6.44

+6.62

5.49

+17.30

Computer Service

30.00

30.48(July-May)

+1.60

24.82

+22.80

Chemical Products:

243.83

279.55

+14.65

215.78

+29.55

a) Pharmaceuticals

53.75

45.67

-15.03

43.00

+6.21

b) Chemical Fertilizer

100.40

140.22

+39.66

91.27

+53.63

c) Others

89.66

93.66

+4.46

81.51

+14.91

Products recorded growth over last year’s performance but not over target
Knitwear

6583.70

6429.26

-2.35

5532.52

+16.21

Foot war

211.58

186.93

-11.65

169.60

+10.22

Home textile

343.84

313.51

-8.82

291.39

+7.59

Textile Fabrics

79.88

76.32

-5.46

66.57

+14.65

Agri. Products:

168.18

122.29

-27.29

120.13

+1.80

a)  Vegetables

84.66

44.67

-47.24

60.47

-26.13

b) Tobacco

31.33

40.54

+29.27

22.38

+80.97

c) Others

52.19

37.12

-28.88

37.28

-0.43

Other mfd. Goods:

587.81

510.54

-13.14

489.84

+4.23

a) Melamine tableware

0.50

0.59

+18.00

0.41

+43.90

b) Camera parts

22.88

14.07

-38.51

18.75

-24.96

c) Leather bags & purses

10.20

16.89

+65.59

8.87

+90.42

d) Others

554.23

478.99

-13.58

461.81

+3.72

Products recorded decline over last year’s performance and also over target
Raw jute

192.30

148.17

-22.95

165.06

-10.23

Tea

16.38

12.29

-24.97

14.89

-17.46

Jute goods

331.07

269.25

-18.67

318.34

-60.42

Electronics

3.86

1.19

-69.17

2.97

-59.93

Leather

304.32

177.32

-41.73

284.41

-37.65

Frozen food

574.13

454.53

-20.83

534.07

-14.89

Ceramic products

47.91

31.70

-33.83

38.33

-17.30

Petroleum bi products

220.28

142.03

-35.52

185.11

-23.27

Other primary Com:

314.50

132.83

-57.76

153.41

-13.42

a) Cut flower/ foliage

114.70

32.49

-71.67

55.98

-41.96

b) Agro. Process food

83.34

46.68

-43.99

40.65

+14.83

c) Others

116.40

53.66

-53.90

56.78

-5.49

Engineering Products:

230.66

189.48

-17.85

219.68

-13.75

a) Bicycle

70.71

84.54

+19.56

64.28

+31.52

b) Iron chain

2.30

1.62

-29.57

2.09

-22.49

c) Others

157.65

103.32

-34.46

153.31

-32.61

46 Pages of 54

National Bank Limited

Export performance of primary & manufactured products

Primary Products

1265.49

870.11

-31.24

987.56

-11.89

Mfd. products

15032.94

14695.08

-2.25

13123.24

+11.98

 

Total export

Primary product

Mfd. product

Index by price

-1.60%

+3.17%

-1.86%

Index by volume

+11.91%

-15.06%

+13.84%

Export performance for the month of June, 2009

Products

Export target for June 2009

Export performance for June,2009

% Change of export performance over export target

Export performance for June,2008

% Change of export performance

 June, 2009

Over

June, 2008

All Products

1693.41

1421.55

-16.05

1469.51

-3.26

 Chapter-9

Reporting & Monitoring of Bangladesh Bank

To full control of foreign Exchange Bangladesh Bank, has many controlling form and information system for all commercial bank. NBL also has to follow it. NBL has many type of reporting form and one IT system to inform Bangladesh Bank about dollar transaction.

DECLARATION FORM

  1. 1.      IMP form:

When import L/C is issued by a bank or NBL IMP form is needed to keep a record and inform Bangladesh Bank.

  1. 2.      LCA form:

It is 6 copy from 1st copy is used to report Bangladesh Bank.2nd copy is to get the delivery of product. 3rd and 4th copy is for CCI. Now this record kept by Bangladesh Bank. 5th and 6th copy is kept in foreign exchange L/C file of NBL.

  1. 3.      EXP Form:

Exp form is used in export like IMP form is used in import. To get Exp for party have to show L/C and contract like preformed invoice commercial invoice etc. Exp form has to be verified by customs and then exporter ship the goods.

  1. 4.      TM Form:

TM form is used to sell cash dollar. When cash dollar is going out Bangladesh Bank need a reporting TM form?

  1. 5.      C Form:

When remittance is coming in Bangladesh a C form given by NBL to Bangladesh Bank.

REPORTING BY INTERNET

  1. 1.     Foreign currency transaction system:

At eh month end how much import, export, foreign remittance comes and goes out is reported by this software program. At first the officer will give the posting, then make schedule, checked by foreign exchange head that statement is created and sent to Bangladesh Bank with different colored pages. The month end statements should be submitted within date 5 of a month, wrong posting is punishable worth Tk. 5,00,000 for the Branch and Tk. 10,00,000 for the officer.

  1. 2.     L/C Monitoring System:

It is a every day program governed by Bangladesh Bank. When L /C is opened foreign exchange officer give the posting in a 3 step L/C monitoring system by internet.

All the monitoring, reporting is governed by Bangladesh Bank because foreign has the precise impact on the economy.

Chapter-10

Recommendation & Conclusion

Recommendation

After analyzing over all performance of NBL, we have some recommendation to

improve the foreign exchange services.

  1. Businessman are very much interested in import L/C. Export l/c is small in number. So NBL should attract exporter.

2.   Local l/c is not introduced in our society very much. NBL can make a work force

      to attract local businessman and make them understand about the benefit of local

      L/C.

  1. NBL should open their branches in the business area like near EPZ, port etc. SO

      that importer and exporter need not to find NBL’s branches.

  1.  Number of AD branches need to be increased.
  1.  Employees of NBL proper training to serve the customers. Not only academic

       training but also mental setup training is needed.

  1. NBL should be more conscious about the promotional activities. NBL should use

      aggressive marketing campaign to attract clients.

  1. NBL can pursue a diversification strategy in expanding its current line of  business. The management can consider options of starting retail banking.

8.   NBL should perform more welfare activities.

  1. NBL should redesign the service scheme to provide better interest rate.

Conclusion:

          With a strong deposit balance and Assets National Bank Ltd. operates efficiently in our country as a pioneer in private banking sector. National Bank Limited has been trying to operate its business successfully since 1983. The bank has already developed good image and goodwill among its clients by offering excellent services in foreign exchange and other area. As a newly established Branch, NBNL is serving at its locality with utmost satisfaction of the customer. So, NBL has to comet e with government-affiliated banks as well as with other Commercial Banks. Today, the whole Banking sector is facing a tough competition and challenge. In this situation NBL is in good position than any other Bank of its locality and day-by-day NBL is increasing its activities and goodwill.

          Finally, I can say that among the entire private bank in Bangladesh, National Bank limited always providing the efficient service with very affordable price. It is expanding their business. Overall performance satisfies the investor of the bank. It is a good bank to operate financial activities.

Bibliography:

  1. Shekhar & Shekhar. Banking  Theory & Practies, 18th Edition, .
  2. Gordon. E & Natarajan. K, Banking Theory, Law and Practice, 11th Edition, Himalaya Publishing House, p. 180, 181.
  1. Rose P.S. Commercial Bank Management 5th Edition
  2. Annual Report of National Bank Limited, 2002-2009.
  3. Modern Accountancy- Hanif Mukharjee.
  4. Bedi B.L. Hardikar,V.k Practical Banking Advance 10th Edition
  5. www.nbl.bd.com
  6. www.bangladesh-bank.org

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