This internship report was assigned as a part of the academic requirement in order to complete ‘Masters of Business Administration’ program under the ‘Department of Business Administration’ at Northern UniversityBangladesh. To support my internship report, I worked as an intern in ‘Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited, “Paltan Branch” for two months from 02nd May 2011 to 13th June 2011. And we are consigned to help the officers of general banking department, investment department and Foreign exchange department as part of the fulfillment of Internship requirement.
Origin of the report:
The report named “General Banking ,Investment and Foreign exchange of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited” was offered by Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited on 19th April 2011 as a requirement for the completion of the MBA program of Northern UniversityBangladesh. The primary goal of the internship program is to provide the intern with the job experience by orienting the intern with the organization and an opportunity for the intern to relate the theoretical conception in the real business environment.
Scope of the study:
In this report I have focused on all the qualitative which include profiles of IBBL, general banking like account opening, check book issues, local remittance, clearing activities and investment modes like Bai mode, Profit & loss sharing, bearing mode, Rent sharing mode, different schemes of investment such as household durable schemes, housing investment scheme, transport investment scheme, car investment scheme, investment scheme for doctors small business investment scheme, rural development scheme, etc. and lastly financial performances have been depicted.
Objective of the study:
We have tried our level best to know the relationship between theoretical and practical learning as well as the real life situation of IBBL especially in General banking, Investment and Foreign exchange. The various concepts which we have learnt from different courses during my MBA program, focusing the various aspects of IBBL are shortly focused here
- Different types of General Banking of Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL).
- Different mode of Investment of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL).
- Different Investment scheme of IBBL.
- To study Foreign exchange.
- To study the general performance of the bank.
- To gather comprehensive knowledge on overall banking function of IBBL.
Methodology of the study:
The report has been prepared based on secondary data such as: the published IBBL annual report, visiting the IBBL website and various publications. Some sort of primary data was also collected from the supervisor and branch employees of IBBL.
- Annual report of IBBL
- Desk report of the related department
- Other manual information
- Website of Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd.
- Hand out on training from IBTRA.
- To collect from periodical and journals
- Investment statement of branch.
To collect data, we mainly discuss with the associate officers of IBBL in investment and general Banking sector.
Limitation of the study:
In preparing this report, I faced some unavoidable problems. Due to these problems, in spite of our maximum effort there may be some lacking or misleading data. These limitations are:
- Lack of experiences has acted as constraints in the way of meticulous exploration on the topic.
- Lack of current information.
- Shortage of time for preparing the report in order.
- The study was conducted mostly on secondary data.
Definition and concept of Islamic Bank:
The definition of “Islamic Banking” and prove whether its activities are unequal to the conventional banking system & satisfy the principle of Islamic Shari’ah. Definition given by ‘OIC’ is- “An Islami bank is financial institution whose statutes, rules and regulations expressly state its commitment to the principle of Islamic shra’ah and to the banning of the receipt and payment of interest on any of its operation”. This definition indicates that IBBL is more convenient and acceptable to the Muslim mankind.
Islamic Bank is committed to conduct all kinds of banking activities on the basis of profit-loss sharing system. The objective of the Islamic Shari’ah is to promote the welfare of the people which lies in safeguarding their faith, their life, their intellect, their posterity and their wealth. The basis of this Shari’ah is wisdom and welfare of the people in this world as well as the hereafter, which lies in complete justice, mercy, well-being and wisdom.
Basic objective of IBBL:
The primary objective of establishing Islamic banks all over the world is to promote, foster and develop the application of Islamic principles in the business sector. Its objectives are different from conventional banking this are as follows:
- Conducting interest- free banking
- Establishing participatory banking instead of banking on debtor- creditor relationship.
- Investing through different modes permitted under Islamic Shariah.
- Accepting deposits on profit- loss sharing basis
- Establishing welfare oriented banking system.
- Extending co-operation to the poor, the helpless and the low-income group for their economic enlistment
- Playing a pivotal role in human development and employment generation.
Prohibition of interest:
The traditional capitalist banking system depends on interest. It receives interest for providing loans and pays interest for taking loans. The spread between these two interests is the source of its profit. But according to Islamic Shariah all types of interest is banned. So, Islamic bank does not carry on business of interest and it completely avoids the transaction of interest.
Investment based on profit:
After departing from interest, the alternate ways of income for Islamic bank is investment and profit. Thus IBBL gives up any transaction of interest and makes investments based on profit. Bank distributes its profit to its depositors and shareholders.
Investment in Halal business:
Islamic Shariah has banned the business of haram goods. For example, Islam not only forbids the drinking of alcohol but also banned any business of alcohol. Therefore, Islamic bank does not get any haram business and only do halal business.
Mission of IBBL:
To establish Islamic banking through the introduction of a welfare oriented banking system and also ensure equity and justice in the field of all economic activities, achieve balanced growth and equitable development through diversified investment operations particularly in the priority sectors and less developed areas of the country. To encourage socio-economic enlistment and financial services to the low-income community particularly in the rural area.
Vision of IBBL:
My vision is to always strive to achieve superior financial performance, be considered a leading Islamic bank by reputation and performance.
- My goal is to establish and maintain the modern banking techniques, to ensure soundness and development of the financial system based on Islamic principles and to become the strong and efficient organization with highly motivated professionals, working for the benefit of people, based upon accountability, transparency and integrity in order to ensure stability of financial systems.
- I will try to encourage savings in the form of direct investment.
- I will also try to encourage investment particularly in projects, which are more likely to lead to higher employment.
Characteristics of Islamic Bank:
- It is a financial institution.
- It is a business institution.
- It operates its business activities free from interest.
- It is run according to rules and regulation formed and amended by Shariah council.
- It is profit-loss shearing business organization.
- It provide loan as Quard Hasana for social welfare.
- It gives Zakat on its capital according to Islamic Shariah.
- It leads all of its transaction according to Islamic law.
- Functions of IBBL
- To maintain all types of deposit accounts.
- To make investment.
- To conduct foreign exchange business.
- To extend other banking services.
- To conduct social welfare activities through Islami Bank Foundation.
Corporate information at a glance:
|Date of Incorporation||13th March 1983|
|Inauguration of 1st Branch|
(Local office, Dhaka)
|30th March 1983|
|Formal Inauguration||12th August 1983|
|Share of Capital|
|Authorized Capital||Tk.10,000.00 million|
|Paid-up Capital||Tk.7413.12 million|
|Investments (including Investment in Shares)||Tk.263225.00 million 31-12-2010|
|Foreign Exchange Business||Tk.24874.00 million 31-12-2010|
|Number of Branches||251|
|Number of SME Service Centers||30|
|Number of Shareholders||58923|
we worked 45 days in this branch. It was established in 27th June 1998 . In this branch, there are up to bottom 62 employees working in regular. This is an AD branch, it is placed in a busiest area for this reason the branch being busy compare to other Branches. Total investment of Paltan Branch is 12559352 (in thousands) tk. And the total deposit is 2103261(in thousand) tk. The employees of Paltan branch are very much co-operative to each other and the always maintain the rules and regulation of the office.
Deposit products of Paltan Branch:
1) Al-Wadia Current A/C (AWCA)
2) Mudaraba Savings Account (MSA)
3) Mudaraba Special Notice Account (MSNA)
4) Mudaraba Term Deposit Account (MTDR)
5) Mudaraba Hajj Savings Account (MHSA)
6) Mudaraba Savings Bond Scheme (MSB)
7) Mudaraba Special Savings (Pension) Account (MSS)
8) Mudaraba Monthly Profit Deposit Account (MMPDR)
9) Mudaraba Muhor (Dowry) Savings Account (MMS)
10) Mudaraba Waqf Cash Deposit Account (MWCA)
11) Mudaraba Foreign Currency Deposit Account (MFCDA)
Investment Products of Paltan Branch:
The following products are offering by the branch to the clients by the different mechanism:
- Household Durable Scheme
- Housing Investment Scheme
- Real Estate Investment Scheme
- Transport Investment Scheme
- Car Investment Scheme
- Doctors Investment Scheme
- Small Business Investment Scheme
- Agriculture Implements Investment Scheme
- Rural Development Scheme
- Micro Industries Investment Scheme
The branch offering Investment products through different mechanism and those mechanisms are:
- Hire Purchase Under Shirkatul Melk
Address of Paltan Branch:
Darus Salam Arcade
14, Purana paltan
Functional department of Paltan branch:
The Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), Paltan Branch is headed by on Senior vice president (SVP). There are several section headed by some most skilled and experienced personnel under the SVP. These are:
INTERNSHIP DUTIES AND LEARNING:
Internship Duties & Position:
We have done our internship program in Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited at Paltan Branch. It is one of the leading commercial private bank in our country. This bank based on Sariah. It was established in 1983. After stating the operation of this bank, they always carry on their first position. Their main vision is strive to achieve superior financial performance be considered a leading Islamic bank by reputation and performance. Specially we want to say a\bout Paltan branch. This branch is one of the busiest and AD branch. Our internship program duration was total 60 days It designed by Islami Bank Training and Training Academy(IBTRA). First 2 weeks we have done theoretical got lot of information and knowledge about IBBL and better idea of interest free banking system. After completion of theoretical part, we have gone to Paltan branch.
We worked 45 days in this busiest and AD branch. They have total 18312 clients in this branch but the number of employee only for 62. They are very pleased for receiving service from us. We were working several sections. Those are given bellow.
Duties performed in General Banking:
Account Opening Section:
photocopy for their account open. After fulfilling I worked total two days in this section. This section is one of the busiest sections in this branch. Because of a new client can enter banking system by opening the account. Lot of customer arrived and tries to collect information for account opening. I provide information about the account opening requirements to their clients. Customers needed two copies photo, Introducer’s signature, nominee’s photo, and national identity or commissioner’s certificate or passport’s requirements for opening account necessary entries were given in the account opening register. There were several registers for several accounts as MSA. AWCA, TDR etc. data of opening, name of the account holder, nature of the business, address, initial deposit and introduction and various information were recorded in that register. I provided a new account number from the list of new numbers to the client.
Telegraphic transfer (TT), Pay Order (PO), and Demand Draft (DD) Section:
When any telegraph transfer reached to the TT desk, I enter them in debit voucher, where I ensure that name account number, TT number and dates are correctly printed on the TT voucher. Hence I make sure the signature of two officers and lastly sent this voucher to the computer department. In PO and DD section I was responsible for the same duties. There I performed a duty of making a PO and DD leaf, where I ensure name of the organization, drawer branch, data and amount of money and signature of two officers.
We were working more than 10 days in this section. They have invested their capital in deveral sectors. Our responsibility was to write-down several voucher. We also provided several information to their clients about investment mechanism and types of investment.
I worked three days in this section. When clients deposit their cheque with deposit receipt at first I verified of the deposit receipt such account number, account holder name, signature, date, cheque number, name of issuing bank were verified. Then on the front side of the cheque clearing seal and at the back side endorsement seal were attached. After this I sent it to my senior officer. He was responsible for entry to the computer and completing the other tasks.
Dispatch and Token:
In Dispatch and Token section when client gave me different types of cheque, I accepted that and I wrote a number in the cheque and same number in the token and return the token to client. Then I gave the cheque in computer operator for check their signature. After checking the signature he gave instruction to the cashier to provide cash to the clients.
Transfer Scroll, Clean cash and General Ledger:
In this section I operate the computer and gave entry all types of transaction according to Debit and Credit. This is very important section. Until all debits and credits are not matched no staff can leave the bank.
Computer Operation and ATM :
Here I wrote some voucher for different types of charge that a bank cutting from their client’s account as service charge. I provided from to the client who wanted to collect ATM card and after filling-up the form I accepted it as a document.
Opening of Foreign Exchange Account:
I provide Foreign Exchange Account opening form and said him/her how they fill-up it and what they will be attached with it like accountholder’s picture, passport photocopy, visa’s photocopy and so on.
I showed L/C opening form and knew what document and papers were needed to open it. I wrote some L/C’s date, US dollar and Taka amount, serial number on the L/C’s cover page when an Amendment or Discrepancy occurred. I showed how Lodgment was, collected Fax information and gave seal and serial number. I also showed how they would gave payment after receiving all document and necessary papers to the as per L/C terms and conditions that are known as Retirement of L/C.
I showed Back to Back L/C. I wrote some voucher as a charger for Export, Discrepancy etc. I knew how FBP and IBP are parched.
Foreign Remittance Section:
I filled-up FTT form, wrote 39 form for client who applied for US Dollar to go to India. I gave-up entry 37 Refund share in computer. I also showed how US Dollar payments were transferred into Taka. I wrote six from named as ‘Form C’. I also collected five TT fax, numbering them, sealing them and gave entry into register book.
Among the three departments of the bank, I gave more concentration on Investment Banking department in order to prepare my internship report. As my report finding is covering two major areas. One is “Modes of Investment”, I tried my level best to prepare my report by collecting data from this department.
learning points from my internship work at different departments:
In our 45 days of internship Period I have learnt so many things about the banking activities, profession & other particular works regarding the banking services. At first in IBTRA by 15 days training session I gathered a lot of theoretical knowledge about Islamic Banking. And by next 30 working days we learned some practical knowledge in Islami Bank. We give this as follows:
1 About The Islamic Banking. Islami Bank do not provide loan Islami Bank provide investment.
2 What is the basic difference between Interest and profit?
3 What are the requirement for opening their account.
4 What are the procedures to close an account.
5 Haw to handle a customer enquiry.
6 How to make a group work.
7 An executive level manner.
8 The product and services offered by the IBBL.
9 Account opening system.
10 What are the required documents for making an investment?
11 The difference between Conventional banking & Islamic banking
12 How IBBL collects their deposit.
13 How to issue a cheque.
Investment is the action of deploying funds with the intention and expectation that they will earn a positive return for the owner. Funds may be invested in either real assets or financial assets. When resources are used for purchasing fixed and current assets in a production process or for a trading purpose, then it can be termed as real investment. IBBL, Elephant Road Branch operates its investment through mode wise, sector wise and scheme wise.
The author has done her internship program in Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. at Elephant road Branch. This is a branch of one of the leading commercial private banks in our country. This bank was established in 14th November 2000 based on Islamic sahriah. There are 33 employees. Their vision is strived to achieve superior financial performance and be considered a leading Islamic bank by reputation and performance. This bank internship program duration was for total 60 days that means 45 working days. It was designed by Islami Bank Training and Research Academy (IBTRA). First 15 days she had done theoretical class in IBTRA. Then IBTRA transferred me the Elephant Road branch for gather some practical experience and knowledge with 45 days about Islamic banking and financial system.
The Islamic Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), Elephant Road Branch is headed by on senior vice president (SVP). There are several section headed by some most skilled and experienced person under the SVP. These are:
1 Account opening section.
2 P.O, T.D.R, M.S.B, M.S.S, Haji Section& D.D, T.T section.
3 Transaction entry section.
4 Cash section.
5 Foreign exchange section.
6 Investment section.
7 Clean cash section.
8 Clearing house section.
Modes of investment:
Credit department of IBBL actually invests its money in various sectors of the economy through different modes permitted by shariah and approved by Bangladesh Bank. The modes of investment are as follows:
- Share Mechanism
- Ijara Mechanism
One of the significant and revolutionary developments in the banking area of the world during last four decades is the emergence and extra ordinary development of Islamic banking in different countries of the world which has drawn the attention of the scholars and general public of the Muslim and non-muslim countries including the world bodies like international monetary fund,world bank etc. The special feature of the investment policy of islami banks is to invest on the basis of profit loss sharing system in accordance with the tents and principles of islami shariah. Earning is the not only motives & objectives of the Islami Bank Bangladesh Bank’s investment policy rather emphasis is given in attaining social good and in creating employment opportunities.
Bai-Mechanism (Trading Mode):
Under Bai Mechanism banks are invested their money in some different way. Such as:
The terms “Bai-Murabaha” have been derived from Arabic words and (Bai and Ribhun). Te word means purchase and sale and the word “Ribhun” means an agreed upon profit “Bai-Murabaha” means sale for on agreed upon profit.
Definition of Bai-Murabaha:
“Bai-Murabaha” may be defined as a contract between a buyer and a seller under which the seller sells certain specific goods permissible under Islamic Shariah and the Law of the land to the buyer at a cost plus an agreed profit payable today or on same date in the future in lump-sum or by installment. The profit may be either a fixed sum or based on a percentage of the price of the good.
Types of Bai-Murabaha:
In respect of dealing parties Bai-Murabaha may be of two types:
Ordinary Bai-Murabaha is a direct transaction between a buyer and a seller. Here the seller is ordinary traders who purchase goods from the market in the hopes of selling these goods to anther party for a profit. In this case, the seller undertakes the entire risk of his capital investment in the goods purchased. Where or not he earns a profit depends on his ability to find a buyer for the merchandise he has acquire .
Bai-Murabaha on order and promise:
This transaction involves three parties the buyer, the seller and Bank. Under this arrangement the bank acts as an intermediary trader between the buyer and seller. In other words, upon receipt of an order and arrangement to purchase product from the buyer, the bank will purchase the product from the seller to fulfill the order.
1 A client can make an offer to purchase particular goods from the bank for a specific agreed upon price, including the cost of the goods plus a profit.
2 A client make the promise to purchase from the bank that is he is to either satisfy the promise or to indemnity any losses incurred from the breaking the promise without excuse.
3 Documentation of the debt resulting from Bai-Murabaha by a guarantor or a mortgage or both like other bent is permissible. Mortgage/ Guarantee/ Cash security may be obtained prior to the signing of the agreement or at the time singing the agreement.
4 Upon acquiring the goods the bank assumes the risk of ownership. In other words the bank is responsible for damage, defects, and/ or spoilage to the merchandise until such time that it is actually delivered to the buyer.
5 Stock and availability of goods is a basic condition for signing a Bai-Murabaha Agreement. Therefore, the bank must purchase the goods as per specification of the Client to acquire ownership of the same before signing the Bai-Murabaha agreement with the Client.
After purchase of goods the Bank must bear the risk of goods until those are actually sold and delivered to the Client buyer, the Bank shall bear the consequences of any damages or defects, unless there is an agreement with the Client releasing the Bank of the defects, that means, if the goods are damaged, Bank is liable, if the goods are defective, (a defect that is not included in the release) the Bank bears the responsibility.
7 The bank must deliver the specified to the Client on specified date and at specified place of delivery as per Contract.
8 The Bank shall sell the goods at a higher price (Cost + Profit) to earn profit. The cost of goods sold and profit mark-up therewith shall separately and clearly be mentioned in the Bai-Murabaha Agreement. The profit mark-up may be mentioned in lump sum or in percentage of the purchase/cost price of the goods. But, under no circumstances, the percentage of the profit shall have any relation with time or expressed in relation with time, such as month, per annum etc.
9 The price once fixed as per agreement and deferred cannot be further increased.
10 It is permissible for the Bank to authorize any third party to buy and receive the goods on Bank’s behalf. The authorized must be in a separate contract.
The areas of application of Bai-Murabaha are discussed below-
Application of Bai-Murabaha
Murabaha is the most frequently used form of finance in Islamic banking throughout the world. It is suitable for financing the different investment activities of customers with regard to the manufacturing of finished goods, procurement of raw materials, machinery, and other required plant and equipment purchases.
Bai-Muajjal (Deferred Sale):
Meaning of Bai-Muajjal:
The terms “Bai” and “Muajjal” are derived from the Arabic words ‘Bai’ and ‘Ajal’. The word ‘Bai’ means purchase and sale and the word ‘Ajal’ means a fixed time or a fixed period. “Bai-Muajjal” is a sale for which payment is made at a future fixed date or within a fixed period. In short, it is a sale on credit.
Definition:The Bai-Muajjal may be defined as a contract between a buyer and a seller under which the seller sells certain specific goods, permissible under Shariah and law of the country, to the buyer at an agreed fixed price payable at a certain fixed future date in lump sum or in fixed installments.
Meaning of Bai-Salam:
The term “Bai” means sales and purchase and “Salam” means advance.”Bai-Salam” means advance sales and purchase.
Bai-Salam may be defined as a contract between a buyer and a seller under which the seller sells in advance in the certain commodity (ies)/ products (s) permissible under Islamic Shariah and the law of the land to the buyer at a agreed price payable on execution of the said contract and the commodity (ies)/ products (s) to the buyer at a future time in exchange of an advance price fully paid on the spot.
Application of Bai-Salam:
Salam sales are frequently used to finance the agricultural industry. Banks advance cash to farmers today for delivery of the crop during the harvest season. Thus banks provide farmers with the capital necessary to finance the cost of producing a crop. Salam sale are also used to finance commercial and industrial activities. Once again the bank advances cash to businesses necessary to finance the cost of production, operations and expenses in exchange for future delivery of the end product.
Meaning of Bai-Istisna’a
The word Istisna’a has been derived from the word “sana” which means Industry. Istisna’a means to purchase specific products by placing order to a manufacturer or to sale specific products after having the same manufactured against order of a buyer.
Definition of Istisna’a Sale:
Intishna’a sale is a contract in which the price is paid in advance at the time of the contract and the object of sale is manufactured and delivered later. The majority of the jurist considered Intishna’a as one of the divisions of Salam; therefore, it is subsumed under the definition of Salam.
Rules of Istisna’a Sale:
1 It is a condition in the Istisna’a contract to clearly define dimensions and specifications of the product being purchased. This is important to ensure that there is no room for dispute over what is required.
2 The Istisna’a contract is only used for objects that can be manufactured. It can not be used to purchase corn, wheat, barley, fruit or any natural product.
3 The object sold in an Istisna’a contract is a fixed liability debt and it is permissible for the object to be a custom manufactured product, made in accordance with certain specifications.
4 The maker should supply the materials. If they are supplied by the buyer, the contract is Ijara and not Istisna’a.
5 Once the contract is drawn the ownership of the asset is confirmed to the buyer and the purchase price is confirmed to the manufacturer.
6 It is not a condition in the Istisna’a contract to advance the price. Usually part of the price is paid in advance and the remainder is withheld until the time of delivery.
7 It is a condition that the time of delivery be specified in the agreement to avoid confusion that may lead to a dispute over the transaction.
It is a condition that the place of delivery be stated in the contract if the commodity requires special handling and delivering arrangements.
The buyer may stipulate in the Istisna’a contract that the commodity shall be manufactured or produced by a specific manufacturer, or manufactured with specific materials. This is not permitted in a case of Salam Sale.
Application of Istisna’a Sale:
The Istisna’a contract allows Islamic banks to finance the public needs and the vital interests of the society to develop the Islamic economy in accordance with Islamic teachings. Finally, the Istisna’a contract is also applied in the construction industry such as apartment buildings, hospitals, schools, and universities to whatever that makes the network for modern life.
The word “Quard” is an Arabic word” which means loan or credit on advance. The literal meaning of Quard is giving “Fungible goods” for use without any extra value returning those goods. It must follow the principle of equal for equal return with homogeneous goods. Fungible goods may be rice, oil, salt, money etc. In banking sector, money is used as quard. Quard is HaIaI by Islam for not to pay any extra or interest in return.
Characteristics of Fungible goods:
1. Goods which are vanished /converted for one time use.
2. No flow of service.
3. Service can’t be separated from the actual goods.
Characteristics of Quard:
1 There should have fungible goods.
2 Goods must be returned equally.
3 There is no extra payment.
4 To specific period for returning goods.
Quard-E-Hasana is also one kind of Quard which is given with the expectation of return or not.
Mudaraba (Share Mechanism):
Meaning of Mudaraba:
The term Mudaraba come from Arabic word “Travel” means for undertaking business.
Definition of Mudaraba:
It is a form of partnership where one party provides the funds while the other provides the expertise and management. The first party is called the Sahib-Al-Maal and the latter is referred to as the Mudarib. Any profits accrued are shared between the two parties on a pre-agreed basis, while capital loss is exclusively borne by the partner providing the capital.
1 Bank supplies capital as Sahib-Al-Mall and the client invest if in the business with his experience.
2 Administration and management is maintained by the client.Profit is divided as per management.
3 Bank bears the actual loss alone.
4 Client can not take another investment for that specific business without the permission of the Bank.
Definition of Musharaka:
It’s An Islamic financial technique that involves different types of profit and loss sharing partnership. Share both in the capital and management of a project so that profits will be distributed among them as per rations, where loss is shared according to ratios of their equity participation. In this case both the bank and the client provide capital at an agreed upon ratio and manage the business jointly. Share the cent as per agreed upon ratio and bear the loss, If any, in proportion to their respective equity.
Bank may move itself with the selected client for conducting any shariah permissible business under Musharaka mode.
1 The investment client will normally run and manage the business.
2 The Bank shall take part in the policy and decision making as well as overseeing (supervision and monitoring) the operations of the business of the client. The Bank may appoint suitable person(s) to manage the business and to maintain books of accounts of the business property.
3 As the investment client shall manage the enterprise, the Bank may pay more share of profit to him than that of his proportionate capital contribution.
4 Loss, if any, shall be shared on the basis of capital ratio
Financing through a Musharaka partnership is investment-based. The capital provider has full control in the management of the business. In addition, he shares proportionately in both the profits and losses of the business. Therefore, the rate of return is uncertain and can be either positive or negative. The cost of capital is also uncertain and there exists perfect correlation between the relationship of cost of capital and rate of return on capital.
Ijara mechanism (Leasing Mode):
Higher purchase under Sirkatul Melk (HPSM):
Under this mode the Bank may supply implements/equipments/goods on rental basis. The ownership of the implements/equipments/goods will be with the Bank and the client jointly and the portion of the client will remain to the Bank as mortgage until the closer of the investment account, but the client will be authorized to possess the equipment for certain period. The client, after completion of the installment, will be the owner of the implements/equipments/goods.
Hire purchase under Sirkatul Meelk is a special type of contract, which has been developed through practices. Actually, it is a synthesis of three contracts:
These may be defined as follows
Sirkatul means partnership. Sirkatul Meelk means share in ownership. When two or more person supply equity, purchase an asset, own the same jointly, and share the benefits as per agreement and bear the loss in proportion to their respective equity, the contract is called Sirkatul Meelk contract.
The term Ijarah has been divided from the Arabic word (Air) and (Ujrat) which means consideration, return, and wages, rent. This is really the exchange value or consideration, return, wage, rent of service of an ASSET. Ijarah has been defining as a contract between two parties, the Hire and Hire where the Hire enjoys or reaps a specific service or benefit against a specified consideration or rent from the asset owned by the Hire. It is Hire agreement under which a certain asset is hired out by the Hire to a Hirer against fixed rent or rentals for a specified period.
1 In case of Hire Purchase under Sirkatul Meelk transaction the asset/property involved is jointly purchase by the Hire (Bank) and the Hirer (Client) with specified equity participation under a Sirkatul Meelk Contract in which the amount of equity and shear in ownership of the asset of each partner (Hire Bank & Hire Client) are clearly mentioned. Under this agreement, the Hire & the Hirer becomes co-owner of the asset under transaction in proportion to their respective equity participation.
2 In Hire purchase under Sirkatul Meelk Agreement, the exact ownership of both the Hire (Bank) and the Hirer (Client) must be recognized. However, if the partner agree and wish that the asset purchase may be registered in the name of any one of them or in the name of any third party, clearly mentioning the same in the Hire Purchase under Sirkatul Meelk Agreement. However, in IBBL, no third party registration shall be allowed.
3 The share/party of the purchased asset owned by the hire (Bank) is put at the disposal/possession of the Hire (Client) keeping the ownership with him (Bank) for a fixed period under a hire agreement in which the amount of rent per unit of time and the benefit for which rent to be paid along with all other agreed upon stipulations are also to be clearly stated. Under this agreement, the Hire (Client) becomes the owner of the benefit of the asset but not all the asset itself, in accordance with the specific provisions of the contract which entitles the Hire (Bank) is entitled for the rentals.
4 In the Hire purchase under Sirkatul Meelk Agreement the Hire (Bank) does not sell or the Hirer (Client) does not purchase the asset but the Hirer (Client) pays the price/equity/agreed price as fixed for the asset as per stipulation within agreed upon period on which the Hirer also gives undertakings.
5 The promise to transfer legal title by the Hirer and undertakings given by the Hirer to purchase ownership of the hire asset upon payment part by part as per stipulations are effected only when it is actually done by a separate sale contract.
6 As soon as any part of Hire’s (Bank’s) ownership of the asset is transferred to the Hirer (Client) that becomes the property of the Hirer and hire contract for the share/ part and entitlement for rent there of lapses.
7 In Hire Purchase under Sirkatul Meelk Agreement, the Sirkatul Meelk contract is affected from the day the equity of both parties deposited and the asset is purchased and continues up to the day on which the full title of Hire’s (Bank’s) is transferred to the Hirer (Client).
8 The hire contract becomes effective from the day which the Hirer transferred the possession of the hire asset is good order and usable condition to the Hirer, so that the Hirer may make use of the same as per provision of the agreement.
9 Under this agreement the Bank act of the partner, as a Hire and at lest as a seller; on the other hand the client acts as partners, as a Hirer and lastly as a purchaser. Ownership risk is borne by both the Hire and Hirer in proportion to their retained ownership/equity.
10 Under this agreement the role of Hirer is one that of a trustee, the hire asset is being a trust property in his hands; he will manage, maintain the asset in favors of the interest of the Hirer at his own cost as the exact subject of the Hirer except in case of any accident due to any event entirely beyond control of the hirer and natural calamity/disaster (Acts of Allah) to be determined by the Bank after proper investigation within the knowledge of the Hirer.
11 Hire purchase under Sirkatul Meelk transaction facilities the Client (Hirer) to get benefit from the hired asset in exchange of rental and also to become full owner of the asset by purchasing it part by part.
12 The Hirer to secure the Bank (Hire) will pledge/hypothecate/mortgage his portion/part/share in the asset (acquired/to be acquired) or any other asset/property of his own/third party guarantor to the Bank to fulfill his all.
This is a sale contract between a buyer and a seller under which the ownership of certain goods or asset is transferred by seller to the buyer against agreed upon price to be paid by the buyer.
Induction of Client:
1 Hole preliminary discussion with the prospective client regarding his investment needs, business experience, viability of the project and Shariah permissibility of the asset the business and the uses of the asset.
2 Bank considers five C’s of the client. After successful completion of the discussion between the bank and the clients, bank selects its client. It is to be noted that client and customer must agree with the banks rules and regulations. Generally banks analysis the five C’s of the clients:
4 Collateral, and
1 Look to the past performance of the Client, Check-up Head Office Current Investment Policy and Branch’s track record of previous investments.
2 If the Proposal is found permissible under Islamic principles and suitable, advise the Client to submit formal Application. If not found suitable, regret politely.
3 Request potential Client to open an Al-Wadeeah Current account. Let him maintain the Current account. Let him maintain the current Account satisfactorily for a reasonable period. (This will generally mean six month).
1 Obtain application in triplicate from the client of F-167A and record the same in the Investment Proposal Received and Disposal Register (B-53).
2 Obtain and affix attested photograph(s) of the Proprietor /Partner/Directors/ Trustee/ Administrator on the top right hand corner of the application.
3 Trade license photocopy (for proprietorship)
4 Abridged pro forma income statement
5 Attested copy of partnership deed (For partnership business).
6 Prior three years audited balance sheet
7 Prior three years three years business transaction statement for the musharaka/ mudaraba investment.
8 Abridged pro forma income statement for musharaka/mudaraba investment.
9 Attested copy of memorandum of Association & Articles of association for Joint Stock Company.
10 Attested copy of the Tax Identification Number (TIN) including final assessment.
11 Tenders of the proposed assets (in case of HPSM).
12 Detailed summery of the sundry debtors & creditors.
13 Summery of the personal moveable & immovable assets, and others.
14 Scrutinize the application of the Client to see that-
a) All columns are properly field in;
b) Particulars and information given therein are complete and correct in all respects;
c) All required Documents/papers as listed in the footnote for the application is submitted;
d) It is signed by the client as per specimen signature with the bank and duly verified by the authorized official of the bank.
Categories the proposal as under:
1 Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Commercial: Investment on hire purchase under Shirkatul Melk mode to individual /firm/company /society for commercial purpose shall be termed as hire purchase under Shirkatul Melk Commercial.
2 Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Industrial: Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk investment to industrial undertaking in the form of land, building, machineries, equipment, transport, etc shall be termed as Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Industrial
3 Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Agriculture: Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk investment to agriculture sector in the form of Agriculture equipments, machineries, shallow Tube–well, Tractor, trailers, Transport etc. shall be termed as Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk agriculture.
4 Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Transport: Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Industrial in the form of transport –Bus, truck, car, taxi, lunch, steamer, cargo vessel, air transport etc. shall be termed as Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk transport.
5 Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Real Estate: Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Industrial in the form of land building, market, apartments, for use /rental shall be termed as Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Real Estate.
Processing and Appraisal:
Enter the Application in the “Investment Proposal Received and Disposal Register (B-53) and allot a Serial Number to it.
1 Examine shariah permissibility of the goods. Reject the proposal outright, if not permitted by Islamic Shariah.
2 Check-up Credit Restriction Schedule of Bangladesh Bank and Head Office Current Investment Policy Guidelines.
3 Visit the Business establishment of the Client. Talk to the business and important personalities of the locality to ascertain the Honesty, Integrity and Business dealings of the Client.
4 Request for confidential report of the client from local Bank Branches. Confident Report from Credit Information Bureau (CIB) of Bangladesh Bank through Head Office Investment Division as per Instruction Circular of Head Office in this Regard.
5 Obtain Financial Statement/Balance Sheet of the Client for the last three consecutive years for Investment Proposals of Tk. 50.00 lac or above as per Head Office Instruction.
6 Inspect Land, Building, other Assets and Properties proposed to be Mortgaged or Hypothecated.
7 Forward Documents, Title Deeds and other relevant Papers to approve Lawyer of the Bank for examination and furnishing his opinion.
8 Obtain Lawyer’s Opinion as per clause No. 8.02.
9 Please study the following carefully and note down the actual findings in the Appraisal Form against each item :
10 Effective demand, price of the goods, short or long-term duration, quality and other specifications of the goods, availability, etc. of the said or projected goods.
11 Where sale price of the goods is payable by the client at specified future date in lump sum or installments as per proposal.
12 For Bai-Murabaha Commercial and Bai Murabaha Industrial Investment, prepare Appraisal Report on F-167B. For appraisal Bai-Murabaha agriculture and For Bai-Murabaha Import use special Appraisal Form devised for each of those, if any, otherwise F-167B providing the available/required supplementary information. In course of preparation of the appraisal report please ensure incorporation of all information of all information, particulars figures and statistics in Appraisal Form correctly with special attention to the following: Contact primarily with the producers/sellers/suppliers of the goods in the market, study the market price and work out the purchase and sale prices of the goods as per guidelines.
On completion of Appraisal as provided herein above, of the Proposal is found viable, issue Sanction Advice (F-188) if it is within the business power of the Branch mentioning all the terms and condition is duplicate to the Client and endorse copies to Zonal and Head Offices retaining one copy in the Client’s file duly accepted by the Client.
1 If the proposal is not within the Discretionary Power of the Branch, the Branch shall with Appraisal Report on F-167A and F-167B to Zonal Office/Head Office.
2 If the proposal is within the Business Power of the Zonal Office, Zonal Office shall accord Approval /Regret the Proposal.
3 If the proposal is not within the Business of the Zonal Office shall forward the proposal to Head Office with their views and recommendations.
4 On receiving the proposal and the Appraisal Report along with supporting papers Head Office will either approve or Regret.
5 If the Branch/the Zonal Office /Head Office, the branch will issue the Sanction advice (F-188) with a copy to Zo/HO duly recorded in /Facility Sanctioned Register (B-119) with authority to the investment Client for the limit.
6 If the client duly accepts the sanction terms and conditions enter the particulars of the sanctioned proposal in the limit Register (B-117) allotting a Fixed Serial number for each Client as per Limit Register which shall remain permanent irrespective of the mode(s) so long the Client continues business with the Bank.
7 Open file Client-wise, affixing the Fixed Number allotted to him as per Limit Register (B-117) and Client’s name, address, telephone number be recorded prominently in the inner side of the investment File for easy tracing in case of need.
8 In case of investment to the existing Client, obtain required papers, document with the past performance and outstanding liabilities of the Client, if any and process of sanction the propsal as per instruction laid down here-in-above after due evaluation or study.
At this stage, usually the bank analysis whether required documents are in order. In the documentation stage, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) checks the following documents of the clients.
1 Tax payment Certificate.
2 Stock report.
3 Trade license (renewal).
4 VAT certificate.
5 Liability Statement for different parties.
6 Receivable from different clients.
7 Other assets statements.
8 Commitment deed.
9 Declaration letter.
10 Three years net income business transaction.
11 Performance report with the bank.
12 Account Statement from of the bank.
13 Valuation certificate.
14 Particulars of the proposal.
15 Particulars of the mortgagors.
16 Particulars of the properties.
17 Outstanding liability position of the bank.
18 Credit information bureau report (CIB).
At this stage bank decides to pay out money. Here the clients get his/her desired fund or goods. It is to be noted that before disbursement a “site plan” showing the exact location of each mortgage property needs to be physically verified.
Monitoring and Recovery Stage:
At the final stage of investment processing of the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), bank will contract with the client continually; for example-bank can obtain monthly stock report from the client in case of macro investment. Here the bank will keep his eye on over the investment taker .if needed bank will physically verify the clients operations. Also if bank feels anything is going wrong then it tries to recover its investment by some way.
1 Telephonic communication
2 Issuing letter.
3 Final notice
4 Legal notice.
5 Suit filing.
Some Special Investment Schemes:
The Bank, since its inception, has been working for the uplift and emancipation of the underprivileged, downtrodden and neglected sections of the populace and has taken up various schemes for their well being. The objectives of these schemes are to raise the standard of living of low-income group, development of human resources and creation of avenues for self-employment.
Household Durables Scheme:
The objective of the scheme is to increase standard of filing and qualify of life of the fixed income group by extending them investment facilities to purchase household articles such as furniture like Almirah, sofa set, wardrobe; electric and electronic equipment like television, refrigerator, gas cooker; air conditioner, PC, washing machine; electric generator-IPS, UPS; motor cycle; corrugated iron sheet, cement, rod, wood etc, for construction of dwelling house; gold ornaments, tube-well, mobile telephone set etc; medical/ engineering instruments/equipment, computer, books etc for students.
Housing Investment Scheme:
The Bank has introduced this scheme recently to ease the serious housing problem in the urban areas and to make arrangement for comfortable accommodation of the fixed income group.
Officials of the Defense Forces:
Permanent Officials of Government, Semi-Government and Autonomous Organizations; Teachers of the established Universities, University Colleges & Medical College: Graduate Engineers, Doctors and Established professionals; Bangladeshi Officials of reputed Multinational Companies, International Financial Organizations, Donor Agencies, Foreign Embassies etc. Officials of local established & reputed public Limited Companies; Wage Earner professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Accountants, Teachers and other profession doing good job abroad with hand-some pay-package shall be eligible to apply for availing investment facilities under the Scheme.
Real Estate Investment Program:
Professionals, Service-holders, Businessmen, Real Estate Developer and other categories of people who are not entitled for availing investment facilities under Housing investment Scheme, shall be eligible under this program. Investment is to be extension/ completion of the house already constructed, commercial building, shopping complex, flat/ apartment etc.
Transport Investment Scheme:
To ease the existing transportation problem and ensure speedy economic growth and development of the country particularly the expansion of trade, commerce and industry, the Bank has taken up this Scheme. Under this Scheme investment is being allowed to the existing successful businessmen and potential entrepreneurs in this sector for all types of road and water transport like bus, mini-bus, truck, launch, cargo-vessel, transport for rent-a-car service; and baby taxi, tempo, pick-up van for self-employment; and ambulance for clinic & hospital. The Bank is also extending investment facilities to multinational companies, established business houses and well to do officials and professionals for acquisition of private cars, microbus and jeeps.
Car Investment Scheme:
Car is considered as an essential mode of transport in the modern society, particularly by a section of the officials, business houses and business executives and established professionals for movement in discharging their duties and responsibilities punctually and efficiently. To meet this need, Islami Bank has introduced the “Car investment Scheme” for the mid and high ranking officials of government and semi-government organizations, corporations, executives and directors of big business houses and companies and also for persons of different professional groups on easy payment terms and conditions.
Investment Scheme for Doctors:
The Bank has taken up this Scheme to help unemployed qualified doctors to go for self- employment and to provide latest medical equipments to specialist doctors to extend modern Medicare facilities throughout the country.
Small Business Investment Scheme:
This Scheme has been taken up for self-employment of educated unemployed youths of rural and urban areas and to provide investment to small businessmen and entrepreneurs. Investment is extended for about 200 economic activities in sectors as live-stock, fishery, agro-trading/shop-keeping, transportation, agricultural implements, forestry and service viz. laundry, signboard painting etc.
Agriculture Implements Investment Scheme:
In keeping with view of the people-oriented and welfare objectives of the Bank, this scheme has been introduced to provide power tillers, power pumps, shallow tube wells, thresher machines etc. on easy terms to unemployed rural youths for self-employment and to the farmers to help augment production in agricultural sector.
Micro-Industries Investment Scheme:
To create wider base for industries as well as to encourage establishment of micro-industries in different areas of the country by the potential entrepreneurs and for diversification of the Bank’s investment port-folio, the Bank introduced ‘Micro industrieal nvestment Scheme’. Different sectors including food and agriculture based industries, plastic & rubber industries, forestry and forestry and furniture industries, engineering industries, leather industries, chemical industries, textile industries, recycling industries, service industries, electrical accessories industries, computer technology industries, paper products industries, handicrafts industries, fishery & live stock farming, hollow bricks, roof tiles and any other viable micro-industries have been identified for financing under the Scheme.
Rural Development Scheme:
Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country with vast majority living in rural areas. Near than 60% of the people live below the poverty line. Seasonal unemployment and under idle and without job in most of the time of the year. As a result people in large number are migrating to urban areas, particularly in metro polish in search of employment thereby creating social and environment hazards. Islami Bank has, therefore, taken up a Scheme to reactive the rural economy and develops model villages through integrated rural development approach. The objective of the Scheme is to create income generating and productive self-employment opportunities through extension of investment for the development of rural areas and thereby contribute in alleviating rural poverty. Investment will be allowed for the purpose of, amongst others, production of 21 types of main crops viz. food, cereals and cash crops, off-farm activities like dairy, beef fattening, goat rearing, poultry, shop keeping, peddling etc, rural transport like rickshaw, rickshaw-van, cart etc; irrigation equipment, hand tube-well, housing materials. in all covering about 343 types of economic activities, Islami Bank Foundation, a subsidiary of the Bank, engaged in social welfare activities shall, side by side, take care of the requirement of sanitation, Medicare and education of the villages through integrated area development approach under Islamic model.
Some Islamic New Investment Products:
1) Ijara Muntahin Bittamleek (Financial Lease)
Ijara is a form of leasing where a property is leased by the lessor to the lessee in a way that at the end of an agreed lease period, the lessees become the owner of the property by purchasing it from the lessor during or at the end of the lease period at an agreed sale price.
2) Mudaraba on Lands
Literally, Mudaraba means selling on profit. The Shari’ah application of this term is as follows:
A purchaser approaches a seller, provides the details of goods he wants to purchase from a seller & gives promise to the seller that he will purchase the goods from him at a price, which percentage of profit. Applying this mechanism, the bank purchases a plot of land as per clients’ specifications & their promise to purchase it from the bank on deferred basis.
3) Istissnaa (Manufacturing sale)
It is contract by a spot purchase of a non available commodity or equipment is affected. The manufacturer is committed to deliver the commodity or the equipment as per the agreed upon specifications, price & date. Spot payment is not required as the case with Salam sale.
The agreed commodity upon manufacturing is delivered to the bank on a forward date along with payment of the price subject to the terms of a contract. After delivery, the bank sells the commodity in the market or to clients that have applied for the purchase previously.
Istizrar is type of business permissible under Islamic Shariah. Under this mode, the buyer purchases the goods in different quantities time to time from a specific seller as per his requirement. Late of the total cost of the goods, taken by the buyer in different times is calculated at the market price.
Shari’ah Council of IBBL in its 15th meeting (dated 08.07.2009) approved this mode of investment to introduce in IBBL.
Jueala is a specific mechanism where the bank will make an agreement with the intending client, to accomplish a specific work. Bank will realize commission or service charge against the services rendered.
Bank can also use this mechanism by providing financial services to the students for completion of higher study & those who intends to perform Holy Hajj & Umrah & the clients who intends to go abroad for job etc.
It is mentionable here that, The Shari’ah council of IBBL include it as an agenda for studying examining the feasibilities & Shari’ah permissibility of the product.
Tawarruk is special types of investment. It means buying a commodity with deferred payment & selling it to a person other than the seller for a lower price with immediate payment. The cash requirement of the clients can be met by practicing this mode.
7) Islamic Pawning
Under this mode, Bank provides a certain amount in client’s under Quard al Hasan mode. They pawn the gold or other valuable assets against the Quard. The Bank takes safe keeping charge from the client for safe keeping that asst on basis of Al Wadiah Ad Damanah.This mode may be exercised to meet the cash.
The chart of investment, operating profit and growth rate of Paltan Branch from 2006 to 2010:
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Scenery of Investment, Operating profit and Growth rate of Paltan Branch from 2006 to 2010.
It is observed that the General Investment of Paltan Branch in 2006 was taka 3348.27 million it was the lowest investment and the highest Investment was taka 12559.46 million in 2010. The operating profit of 2006 was taka 118.84 million that was the lowest operating profit and the highest operating was taka 380.74 million taka in 2008.The highest growth of operating profit was 79% in 2007 and lowest growth rate -41% in 2009.
General Banking activities are the most important part of any bank. It also play a vital role in deposit mobilization of the branch. General banking is the heart of all business banking activities. This department performs the core function of the bank, operates the day-to-day transaction. It is the storage point of the all kinds of transaction of foreign exchange department, Loans and advance department and itself. So general banking section is the lifeblood in banking service.
The relationship between customer and banker begins with opening an account by the customer. Opening an account binds banker and customer into contractual relationship. All kinds of fraud and forgery are initiated by opening an account. Therefore , the bank should take extreme caution in selecting customers. Various general banking activities are given stated below:
Functions of General Banking:
Functions of general banking department are as follows:
- Account opening section
- Requirement of opening an account
- Remittance Section
- Cash Section
- Deposit section
- Clearing and collection section
- Accounts sections
- Check book issue
- Saving all transaction record in computer
- Closing and transfer different types of accounts
- Keeping good relation with valued customers
- Providing necessary support to the customers
Types of Account:
Bank receives deposit by different accounts. There are two types of accounts.
- Al-wadeeah Current Account (AWCA)
- Mudaraba Saving Account (MSA)
Al-wadeeah Current Account: Current account is conducted under Al-wadeeah system.
Mudaraba Saving Account: Under the Mudaraba mode, client are called Sahib Al-Mall and bank plays role as a Mudarib.
Under the Mudaraba Mode:
There are many types of product under this Mode. These are as follows:
MSA-Mudaraba Savings Account
MHSA-Mudaraba Hajj Savings Account
MSB- Mudaraba Savings Bond
MSS-Mudaraba Special Scheme
MTDR-Mudaraba Term Deposit Receipt
MMPDS-Mudaraba Monthly Profit Deposit Scheme
MMS-Mudaraba Mahor Savings Account
MSNA-Mudaraba Short Notice Account
General Characteristics of deposit accounts:
Al-wadeeah Current Account(AWCA):
AWCA accounts are unproductive in nature as far as banks loan able investment fund is concerned sufficient fund has to be kept in liquid form, as current deposits are demand liabilities. Thus huge portion of this fund becomes nonperforming. For this reason banks do not pay any of AWCA account holder. Business and companies are the main customers of this product.
Mudaraba Savings Account(MSA):
As per Bangladesh Bank instruction 90% of SA deposits are treated as time liability and 10% of it as demand liability . In IBBL there is a restriction on drawing money from SB account but anytime holder may draw money of any amount with prior notice, generally householder and individuals are the clients of this account.
Mudaraba Short Notice Account (MSN):
MSNA accounts can be treated as semi term deposit . Deposit should be kept in these accounts for at least seven days to get profit of MSNA accounts is less then SB accounts . As 5.6% generally profit, but may increase to 6% or more depending on the fund . Check book issued to them but frequent use of checkbook is discouraged. Government organization , big corporate house and banks are generally the clients of this account . The volume of this account is generally large and notice has to be given to draw money .
Mudaraba Term Deposit Receipt (MTDR):
Fixed deposit is of two kinds , one is midterm deposit (MTD) and another one is term deposit (TD) instrument. Whose maturity period is within one year are known as midterm deposit MTD and those above one year are considered as term deposit TD. Calculation of profit TDR and provisioning regarding this is quite complicated issue. Profit is calculation at each maturity date and provision is made on that . Also at the month and provision of profit is mode.
Taka 10 or 50 = each for twice a year is debited from customers AWCA account for rendering service to him . Taka 50= each is debited from customers account for providing him solvency certificate .
Profit : IBBL offers a competitive price to attract depositors on the basis of market forces 6.4.6 Table: Profit on Deposit
|Year||MTDR A/Cn|| |
General Practice in account opening section:
Who can open account?
Persons over 18 years (except some restricted persons)
- Account of club
- Illiterate persons etc
KYC (know Your Customer) :
This type of form is mandatory for opening account . For opening A/C the following things are mandatory-
- Commissioner Certificate
- Two copy passport size photograph of client
- One copy nominee photograph
- Sign of introducer is verified.
Account Opening Register:
After fulfilling the requirements for opening account, necessary entries are given in the account opening register.
There are several registers for several accounts as MSA, AWCA and MTDR etc . Date of opening, name of the holder, nature of the business, address, initial deposit and introducer’s information are recorded in that register. New accounts number is given from the list of new numbers provided by the computer department.
Check book is issued to the new customer after seven days of opening account. Two separate checkbooks are given for current and saving accounts. AWCA accounts check book consists 25 and 50 leafs, while MSA account checkbooks has 10 leafs. There has a check book issue register in this regard; where check book number, leaf number, date issue etc. information are kept on the register. All the necessary numbers are sent to the computer department to give entry in the program.
Account Closing :
For account closing, first a customer has to submit an application with his or her signature mentioning that he/she wants to close his/her account. Then the signature will be verified by the officer. Customer has to certify by different department of bank that he/she had no liability to the bank. After that the customer’s A/C is debited and then the bank issue a pay order in the name of account holder.
Account Transfer :
Customer has to submit an application mentioning that he/she wants to transfer his/ her account to his/ her desired branch and the officer will verify the signature. Customer has to certify by different department of bank that he/ she has no liabilities to this branch of the bank. Then total particulars of the A/C holder will prepare and sent to the customer’s desired branch. Liability of reorganizer is secondary and account holder is primary.
Local Remittance :
IBBL sells and purchase P.O., D.D. and T.T. to its customers only. IT dose not offer remittance service frequently to those other than its customer.
Pay Order (PO) :
Pay order is and instrument that is used to remit money within a city through banking channel the instruments are generally safe as most of them are crossed.
- Accounting entries for issuance of payment order
Cash / party’s A/C……………….Dr.
Payment order A/C………………Cr.
Income A/C commission…………Cr.
- Accounting entries for issuance of PO
Payment order A/C…………………Dr.
Charges for P.O:
TK. 1to TK. 10,000 TK. 10/-
TK. 10,000 to Tk.100,000 TK.20/-
TK. 100,001 to TK. 500,000 Tk. 30/-
Tk. 500,001 to Tk.1000000 Tk. 40/-
Tk.10, 00,001 and above Tk. 50/-
15% of principle amount
Demand Draft (DD):
Demand Draft is very much popular instrument for remitting money from one corners of a country another. The instrument is basically used for transfer and payment. Difference between pay order and demand draft is in terms of place. Only P.O. issued for remitting money within the city whereas D.D. is issued for within the country. D.D. too constitutes current liability on the part of a bank. At IBBL D.D. is not sold to people other than its customer.
Accounting entries for issuance of DD:
Cash/ party’s A/C………………..Dr.
Income A/C: commission……….Cr.
Charges for issuing DD
Tk. 1 to Tk.10,000 Tk.107/-
Above Tk. 10,000 1 Tk.for every 1,000
15% of principle amount
Telegraphic Transfer (TT):
Telegraphic transfer is one of the faster means of transferring money from one branch to another or from one to another. The T.T. issuing bank instructs its counterpart by tested telex message regarding remittance of money. No instrument is given for T.T.unless both parties have account , as money is transferred.
Accounting entries for issuance of TT
Cash/Remitter’s A/C Cheque………………Dr.
IBG A/C …………………………………..Cr.
Income A/C :Commission………………….Cr.
Telex/Telephone Charge A/C………………Cr.
Charges for issuing T.T.
Telegraphic Charge: Tk. 30/-
Service Charge :
Tk. 1 to Tk.10,000 Tk.107-
Above Tk. 10,000 Tk. 1 Tk. For every 1,000
Vat:15% of principle amount
Clearing and Collection Department:
As far safety is concerned customers get crossed check for the transaction. As we known crossed check cannot be enchased for counter, rather it has through been collected through banking channel i.e. clearing. A client of IBBL received a check of another bank, which is located within the clearing rage, deposit the check in the account at IBBL. Now IBBL will he will not the money until the check is honored.
Cheque dishonor :
When any branch sends the cheque of paltan branch to clearing house ( may be internal clearing house or Bd. Bank clearing house) for collection, then clearing house will provide debit advice (with cheque) to paltan branch. If paltan branch response to this advise, automatically local office is credited to paltan branch. Then, if cheque is honored, there is no problem. But if cheque is dishonored for any reason, then Paltan Branch, will provide debit advice to local office. If local office responses to this advice, then Romna Branch is credited to local office. So, ultimate effect is zero.
Cheque may be dishonored
- If the cheque leaf is toned.
- If there is no date.
- If there is no similarity between the amount and word.
Transfer delivery is a cheque collection procedure among internal branches within the clearing house. When a cheque of a branch office is deposited if the cheque is dishonored then authorized branch send the cheque to the local office and local office send the cheque to the collecting Branch on the collecting date.
Debit Advice :
Suppose the Paltan Branch of IBBL has gotten the cheque of some clearing house. Then Paltan Branch will send debit advice to local office for collection. That means Paltan Branch do debit the local office branch and local office branch will debit Paltan Branch.
When local office makes a payment in favor of Paltan Branch( assume), then Paltan Branch, will send credit advice to local office because local office is accounts payable to Paltan Branch.
Outward bill collection when cheque is required to collect the bill outside the clearing zone, the OBC is used.
When bill is collected, then-
Instrument A/C – Dr.
Client A/C – Cr.
Pay order : When the client place the cheque at branch for pay order, the treatment is –
Client A/C Dr.
Pay order Cr.
Income ( service +Commission) Cr.
S/D (Vat on pay order ) Cr.
For T.T, D.D.& pay order, client account is necessary at branch.
Financial Administration Division (FAD) : The transaction is occurred within same clearing house that is calculated at the en d of the year finally to find out the receivable and payable at FAD in favour of branch.
Outward Bill for collection (OBC)
Customers deposit check , drafts etc. for collection, attaching with their deposit sleep .
Instrument within the range of clearing are collected through local clearing house, but the others which are outside the clearing range are collected through OBC mechanism. A customer of IBBL principal branch Local office Dhaka is depositing a check, of Sonali Bank, coxes bazaar . Now as a collecting bank IBBL principal branch will perform the following task;
- Received seal on deposit slip.
- IBBL local office principal branch crossing indicating them as collecting banks,
- Endorsement given ‘’payees A/C” will be credited on realization.
- Entry on register, from where a controlling number is given.
Collecting bank can collect it either by its branch of by the drawer’s bank. They will forward the bill then to that particular branch. OBC number will be given on the following letter. Now following procedures will take place in case of the following two cases.
- Bills (Toileted through branch):
If the bill is forwarded to a branch, they will collect it through IBC procedure. Collecting branch will receive and I.B.C.A form that particular agent branch according treatment from the angle of collecting branch will be.
A/C concerned branch…………….. Dr.
Customer A/C ………………………. Cr.
Income A/C commission ; postage…… Cr.
In this case commission will be charged by the collecting branch , not the agent branch.
- Bills Collected Through Drawer’s Bank:
Accounting treatment for the collecting branch will be
Clearing …………………………… Dr.
Customer A/C……………………. Cr.
Inward Bills for Collection ( OBC)
In this case bank will work as an agent of the collection bank. The branch receives a forwarding letter and the bill. Next steps are-
- Entry in the I.B.C. registers number given
- Endorsement given –“our branch endorsement confirmed’’
- The instrument is sent to clearing for collection…………… Dr.
- Miscellaneous creditor A/C OBC ……………………… Cr.
Now following procedures will take place in case of the following two cases-
Cash section demonstrates liquidity strength of a bank . it also sensitive as it deals with liquid money . Maximum concentration is given while wording on this section. As far as safety is concerned special precaution is also taken. Tense situation prevails if there is any imbalance in the case.
There are some functions of cash section-
- Cash receipt
- Cash payment
- Passing, cancellation and payment of cheque
- Inward mail, other than those which are registered, marked confidential and addressed personally to same official , may be opened by authorized member of staff who should enter in the inward mail register and mention the serial number of the mail register on the letter / paper received , affix “received” date stamp on it and delivery the same to the concerned officials against acknowledgement.
- Letters addressed personally to any official shall be opened by the address only.
- Registered mails and mails marked confidential will be opened by an officer or management in small Branches. All these letters shall however enter in the inward mails registers.
- Stop payment instructions and court orders shall be received authorized officials who will immediately note date & time on it and take necessary steps.
- Outward dispatch letters must be serial number and entry in register with name and address.
- Each types will maintain a typist master file and dispatch clerk also maintain a separate master file for future record.
- Local letters may be delivered through peon book. If the area is large and letters are many then service are given through post office.
- Letter dispatched must be entered in the outward mail register and bear proper postal stamps , if sent through post office.
- If the letters are sent by registered post or courier service, postal/ courier receipt must be maintained by the dispatch department in a file. Similarly acknowledgements received back should be maintained in the file.
SWOT analysis in brief of Paltan Branch:
Every organization is composed of some internal strengths and weaknesses and also has some external opportunities and threats in its whole life cycle.
- Paltan Branch provides its customer excellent and consistent quality in every service.
- This branch is a financially sound company.
- This Branch utilizes state-of- the art technology to ensure consistent quality and operation.
- Paltan Branch provides its works force an excellent place to work.
- It has already achieved a good relation with their clients.
- This Branch is a AD Branch.
- This Branch faces shortage of efficient manpower almost in every department.
- The procedure of credit facility is to long compare to other banks.
- Employees are not motivated in some areas.
- Work load on the employees are too heavy for them to provide proper answer to request of clients which sometimes develop client dissatisfaction.
- Emergence of E-banking will open more scope for the Paltan Branch.
- IBBL can introduce more innovative and modern customer service.
- Many branches can be opened in remote location.
- This Branch can recruit experiences, efficient and knowledgeable work force as it offers good working environment.
- As many new foreign and local commercial bank are entering into the market, this will open the door for creating improved customer sevices by IBBL.
- The worldwide trend of mergers and acquisition in financial institutions is causing problem.
- Frequent taka devaluation and foreign exchange rate fluctuation is causing problem.
- Lots of new banks are coming in the scenario with new service.
- Local competitors can capture huge market share by offering similar products.
- New banks will hire talented young and experience officers with higher remuneration, for the IBBL could lose its present skilled manpower(Many executives, officers etc).
Findings about the Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited, Paltan Branch:
On the basis of previous analysis and practical experiences of two months internship program, the following findings are observed during the research period.
- Islmi Bank does not tolerate any illegal activities.
- IBBL takes carefully Investment decisions.
- They do not take any bribe.
- They do not follow any nepotism in investment.
- Lack of Islamic education of our country.
- Investment activity is not comfortable.
- IBBL use Arabic word for mention investment mode, which confused clients.
- Not sufficient technology according to demand.
- Lack of appropriate non-interest govt. financial instrument.
- Employees are very friendly about customer service in IBBL.
- Customers are satisfied about the cleanliness of the branch.
- Customers are satisfied with the different types of services are available of IBBL.
- Customers are satisfied about the accessibility of the facility of IBBL.
- Most of the customers are satisfied about the quality and quick service of IBBL.
- Most of the customers are frequently come to take facility.
Islami bank Bangladesh limited is a bank which operates its activities according to Quaran and Sunnah. It’s banking activities are based on pjrofit/ loss sharing. It does not create any illegal pressure of client. The strength of Islami Bank Bangladesh limited is employees of Islamic Bank Bangladesh Ltd. Are honest because they strongly believe in Islamic rules and regulations.
They do not take any types of bribe from client. So believes of people are increasing on the activities of Islamic Bank Bangladesh limited. Many people of Bangladesh are involving with IBBL for doing their daily financial activities. It has a bright future because it has got huge customers then other conventional banks in Bangladesh that are based on profit. Ialami Bank is a financial institution whose atatutes, rules and procedures expressly state its commitment to the principles of Islamic Shariah and to the banning of the receipt and payment of interest on an of its operations.
The perception of Islamic banking has been bloomed from the inspiration of building up a society on justice in accordance with basic socio-economic principles of Islam. The difference between Islamic bank and conventional bank is on principles. The functions of this type of bank are completely different. This bank is established on Islamic Shariah and all types of transactions are free from interest. Justified profit is the basis financial transaction of this bank. This bank is committed of establish socio-economic justice. After all, although it is facing some problem, it has a bright future and day-by-day it is enhancing it’s financial activities over the country. Many organizations are following to IBBL and they are starting their business baaed in Islamic Shariah in our economy.
It is not unexpected to have many problems in any organization. It is observed that some of the problems of General Banking section of IBBL. To solve these problems, I can suggest following recommendations.
- In case of transferring of accounts from this branch to another branch, a proper step should be followed, otherwise customers might be dissatisfied.
- Customer information desk must be equipped with adequate employees and resources so that any query of customer unreturned.
- Bank should develop their internet facilities very well
- IBBL should increase their salary structure to appointed manpower so that they can provide better customer services to clients.
- In a modern banking era, Each and every commercial bank has to utilize technological innovations properly. IBBL, Paltan branch lags behind in this case. So, It is badly needed to utilize modern technologies to keep pace with the modern tome for this branch.
- Employee must be provided with more training which will ensure the competent workforce.
- This Branch should arrange a wide varieties of regular programs like Islamic Jalsa, Oaaz mahfil, Seminer and Mosque-Based Dicussion etc. about Islamic Banking activities over the country to remove the negative impression about IBBL.
- Inclusion of more subjects based of the Quran and Sunnah in the Training courses of the Islami Bank Training & Research Academy in order to develop human resourcesIn the context of Bangladesh, considering the necessity Banking system, the Government should establish Mudaraba company/Bank.