Banks act as intermediaries between surplus and deficit economic unit by mobilizing fund from surplus economic unit and deploying it to deficit economic unit. The interest earned on the deployed fund is bank’s main source of income. Out of this income they pay interest depositors and meet other expenditures. The difference between the income earned from the borrowers & the interest generates to the depositors is the main source of income of the bank. A banker has to be very cautious while lending money because he lends depositors money which does not belong to the bank and which must be returned on demand. The banker has to keep in mind that lending is for the best interest of the community and lending should be directed to productive sectors only.
The principal of lending is a collection of certain accepted time tested standards, which ensure the proper use of loan fund in a profitable way and its timely recovery. Different authors describe different principals for sound lending. NBL follows the following principles in its lending activity:
Safety should get the prior importance in the time of sanctioning the loan. At the time of maturity the borrower may not or may unable to pay the loan amount. So in the time of sanctioning the loan adequate securities should be taken from the borrowers to recover the loan. Banker should not sacrifice safety for profitability.
Banker should consider the liquidity of the loan in time of sanctioning it. Liquidity is necessary to meet the consumer need.
Banker should be careful in the selection of security to maintain the safety of the loan. Banker should properly evaluate the proper value of the security. If the estimated value is less than or equal to loan amount, the loan should be given against such securities. The more the cash near item the good the security. In the time of valuing the security the Banker should be more conservative.
As a commercial origination Banker should consider the profitability. So banker should consider the interest rate when go for lending. Always Banker should fix such an interest rate for its lending which should be higher than its savings deposits interest rate. To ensure this profitability banker should consider the prospect of the project.
Banker should minimize the fort-polio risk by putting its fund in the different fields. If Bank put its entire loan able fund in one sector it will increase the risk. Banker should distribute its loan able fund in different sectors. So if it faces any problem in any sector it can be covered by the profit of another sector.
The credit & Loan department of National Bank Ltd divided into two sections as Credit service department and Loan Administration department.
Credit service department
Credit is the institutional arrangement of lending funds mainly to the traders and industrial entrepreneurs by the banking company. The major portion of bank’s funds is employed by various ways of loans and advances, which is the most profitable employment of its funds. The major part of bank income is earned from interest and discount on the funds so lent. The job in this department starts from the application made by the client; approve the same, which is disbursed to customers. There are five employees one chief officer, one senior officer, two officers and one asst. officer currently working over desks in this department.
The following are the main functions performed by the credit department:
- Preparation of sanction letter as per Head Office approval.
- Monitoring & follow-up of credit facilities extended from the Branch.
- Compliance of review of Client-wise Position.
- Reporting of daily task force to Head Office.
- Export L/C checking & preparation of credits Memos relating to back-to-back L/ Cs, monitoring Project loans of Garments Project
- Preparation of Statement and maintaining all records of the credit extended under ADB Project.
- Preparation of maintaining record of the Foreign Investments.
- Preparation for proposal of Project loan for board’s Approval.
- Monitoring of Foreign investments in capital market through the branch.
- Preparation of Credit Memos for approval/renewal of the Credit facilities.
- Preparation of Credit Memos for the Credit facilities under Cash L/C.
- Processing of Consumer Credit Loans & preparation of all statements of the Consumer Credit Loans.
CREDIT ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT
The job of loan Administration Department starts from the disbursement of credit facilities to the customers, as they desired. There are four employees one chief officers, one senior officer and two officers in this department performs various jobs to disburse the credit, to keeping the recovery records of credit extended to different types of borrowers.
The following are the main functions performed by the Loan Administration department:
- Bank Guarantee related all works.
- Preparation of Offering Sheet & Memo against Cash Collateral Loans and advances.
- Balancing of non-judicial & adhesive stamps.
- Loan documentation Scrutinizing and preparation of related papers.
- Maintaining records and safety of all Loan Documents/related papers along with the records of the Loan port-folio.
- Preparation of Tickets related to Loans and Advances.
- Execution of Registered Mortgage formalities with the Sub-Registrar.
- Preparation of CIB, and other monthly, quarterly & yearly statements relating to Loans & Advances.
- Preparation of checklist and Offering Sheet.
- Maintaining records, Calculation and Treatment of Interest Suspense for the past due accounts.
TYPES OF CREDIT FACILITIES
National Bank Limited has been offering wide range of credit facilities as under:
|Cash Credit||Business capital or working capital|
|SOD (General)||Against F.O, work orders or supply orders|
|SOD (Export)||Payment of Accepted bills at maturity before receipt of export proceeds.|
|Loan (General)||Acquiring capital assets or purchasing, construction, finishing, expansion, repair, renovation of House, Flats or Real estate business etc.|
|LCA (Loans against cash Assistance)||Financing for the period of non-receipt of re-imbursement from Bangladesh Bank|
|LC (Local and Foreign) Sight and on Deferred payment basis||For import or local procurement of goods or services.|
|PAD||For making payment of the L/C obligations against receipt of documents.|
|LTR||Retirement of shipping documents.|
|LIM||Retirement of shipping documents.|
|PC||Meeting financial requirement of the exporter at pre-shipment stage against Export L/C.|
|LDBP/FDBP||As post shipments finance against local or foreign export bills.|
|BTB L/C||Import of raw or packing materials against Export L/C|
|Bank Guarantee local or foreign||For submission of tender or to obtain and offer as security against work order, supply order or for Gas, Electricity connection, or against delivery of goods or against release of goods, without or against partial payments by customer etc.|
Single Borrower or Group Limits/Syndication:
National Bank Limited will continue to pursue the policy of avoiding too much loan concentration to a single borrower or group in order to by pass possible threat in the event of such advances turning sticky. In a bid to keep credit risk at the minimum level in respect of large but prospective advance, National Bank will prefer syndicated financing after proper feasibility study. NBL has been following strictly and will continue its lending operation, in complete obedience to the guidelines circulated by Bangladesh Bank on single party exposure limit to a borrower or group. NBL will not extend credit for more than the percentage on capital of the bank and will follow all modifications, amendments, additions alterations that may be made by Bangladesh Bank from time to time.
However, National Bank will flow the following guidelines of Bangladesh Bank on lending to single borrower or group under one obligor:
lending cap to single borrower
|Total exposure (Funded and Non-funded)||35 percent of Bank’s total capital|
|Maximum funded exposure||15 percent of Bank’s total capital|
|Maximum non-funded exposure where there will be no funded exposure||35 percent of Bank’s total capital|
|Maximum exposure for export sector||50 percent of Bank’s total capital (But funded facility will not exceed 15 percent of the total capital)|
The above single borrower or group exposure is currently mandatory as per Bangladesh Bank instruction, this is subject to change depending on Bangladesh Bank’s policy. The total capital is to be determined in accordance with Section 13 of the Bank Company Act 1991.
National Bank Limited is very much aware of over concentration of credit in a particular area, which may under some situation, create disaster for the bank. Keeping this in consideration and also the over all business, trend, prospects, problems, risks and mitigates, pricing, owner’s stake in business, business competitors involvement, safety, liquidity, security etc. The bank will be guided by the following lending caps (The caps will be revised from time to time depending on the market conditions, shift in Government Policy and National Bank’s credit focus) generally:
|Trade and commerce|
|Industry (Working capital)|
|Project Finance- Long Term|
|Retail or Consumer (CCS)|
|Work or Supply order (Contractual Finance)|
lending interest rate of nbl
The bank has maintained strong position in the financial arena by offering innovative products to the prospective clients. NBL offered different credit products with the aim to provide best possible service at the most competitive price. The new product includes as Micro-Credit which is for poor civilians in the country at low rate of interest price.
|Category of advances||Type of advances||Interest rate (%)|
|Advance against primary products including Agriculture term loans|| |
|Large & Medium Industries||13.00|
|Large & Medium Industries||13.00|
|Import items as mentioned in BRPD circular no.06 & 07|| |
|Other import items||13.00|
|Cash credit (Hypo & pledge)||13.00|
|SOD (Gen) against work order / SOD (Bid bond)||13.00|
|House building loan (commercial) excluding retails||13.00|
|House building loan (general) excluding retails||13.00|
|Consumer credit scheme|| |
Consumer Credit(Fixed & simple)
|Credit card||Per-month (Fixed)||02.00|
|Credit||Non-banking financial institution||14.00-15.00|
|SOD/loan against FDR of other banks, ICB unit||14.50|
|SOD/loan against lien on FDR of other banks|
(above the FDR rate of interest)
|Others (not covered above)||14.00-15.00|
|Festival small business loan (general)||15.00-16.00|
|Small house loan scheme||15.00|
|NBL small business loan||15.00-16.00|
|NBL housing loan||13.50-14.50|
|NBL lease financing||13.00-15.00|
|NBL weaver loan||16.00|
loans and advances configuration of nbl
|Total Loans & Advances||103785||92003||65129||50665||36475|
Loans and advances of the Bank grew by 41.26 percent and stood at Tk. 92,003.56 million in 2010. This growth was due to injecting significant amount of fund in new venture of syndicated loans, project loans, lease finance, SME and Agri-loans.
Credit Risk Management
Banks earn the maximum return when all of their loans pay off interest and principle in full. In reality, some loans default on interest payments, principle payments, or both. Thus the average return on the assets portfolio would be less than the maximum possible return from a no-default case. Basically banks consent this trade-off between maximum to average return on its assets as costs inherited with credit risk, which associated with loans. But today’s Credit/Relationship Managers give their utmost effort to settle down the term ‘Credit Risk’ to make optimum return on their assets.
Credit risk arises from the potential that an obligor is either unwilling to perform on an obligation or its inability to perform such obligation resulting in economic loss to the bank. So inability and unwillingness are two basic sources of credit risk. It may have an adverse impact on the bank’s earnings or capital.
Loans are the largest and most obvious source of credit risk; however, credit risk could stem from various financial instruments along with loans, including inter-bank transactions, trade financing, foreign exchange transactions, and in the extension of commitments and guarantees, and the settlement of transactions. Credit risk originates from a bank’s dealing with individuals, corporate, financial institutions or a sovereign.
Risks Associated with Lending
For lending, basically banks have to tackle almost nine categories of risk factors, those are: credit, interest rate, liquidity, foreign exchange, transaction, price, compliance, counter party and reputation. Therefore, a credit/relationship manager must be understood all the risks embedded in the loan portfolio and their potential impact on the institution. However, this report only focuses on the credit risk, which is the most vital and crucial risk between all the risks associated with lending.
Credit risk basically has two main wings: Default Risk and Portfolio Risk. Default risk is the risk that the borrower is unable or unwilling to fulfill the terms promised under the loan contract, whereas portfolio risk includes all the deficiencies in the policies and actions taken by the bank when pursuing lending process. Portfolio risk also comprises with two more forms of risks: – intrinsic risk and concentration risk.
Intrinsic risks emerge from the inception of each portfolio and risk diversification can truncate or limit the probabilities of the bad outcomes in the portfolio. On the other hand, Concentration Risk or Systematic Risk by its nature very difficult to mitigate as this form of risk inherited beyond banks control. The bestowed table shows some sources of intrinsic and concentration risk.
|Deficiencies in Loan policies and procedures||State of economy|
|Absence of prudential credit conc. Limits||Volatility in||Equity markets|
|Inadequately defined lending limits||Commodity markets|
|Deficiency in appraisal||FX markets|
|Excessive dependence on collateral||Interest rates|
|Inadequate risk pricing||Trade restrictions|
|Absence of post sanction surveillance||Economic sanctions|
However some of these risks are being mitigated through a sound credit policy.
Credit Policy Topics
The elements of a credit policy are determined by the specific lending activities and standards of each bank contained by central bank’s legislations. Credit policy also affected by the rules and regulations, banks portfolio objectives, geographic location, economic condition etc. However, most loan policies discuss the topics below.
Loan Authority: The lending policy should delegate power and describe who is authorized to approve credit and should establish specific approval limits for credit approvers. Lending limits may also be set for a group, allowing a combination of officers or a committee to approve loans larger than the members would be permitted to approve individually. The policy should describe reporting procedures and the frequency of committee meetings.
Responsibilities should be segregated between authorities, because segregation improves the knowledge levels and expertise in each department, imposes controls over the disbursement of authorized loan facilities and obtain an objective and independent judgment of credit proposals.
Limiton Aggregate Loans and Commitments: Size or limit of credit portfolio should be established relative to other balance sheet accounts following Bangladesh Bank’s guidelines. Limits should be developed for the aggregate volume of outstanding loans as well as for total commitments.
Traditionally, limits have been set relative to deposits, capital, or total assets. For example BRAC Bank’s policy is to take exposure to single borrower up to 30% (including funded and non-funded) of it’s paid up capital. Usually this limit is being fixed by Bangladesh Bank. A benefit of this approach is that limits are more closely tied to risk. The credit demands of the community, the volatility of the bank’s funding, and the relative level of risk in the loan portfolio should also be considered when limiting the size of the loan portfolio.
Distribution by Loan Category and Product: Banks should establish a specific industry sector exposure cap or a particular loan category or concentration to avoid over concentration in any one-industry sector or loan category. The type of loans that are permitted should be clearly indicated, such as Working Capital, Trade Finance, Term Loan, and Lease Finance etc. Limits may also be placed on individual loan products within a loan category. Loan category and product limits enable a bank to direct the composition of its loan portfolio to achieve strategic objectives.
Types of Loans: The lending policy may identify specific types of loans that the bank views as desirable or undesirable. For example, many banks do not finance business start-ups, and others avoid loans to gambling concerns. These guidelines should be based on the expertise of the lending staff, anticipated credit demands of the community, and the deposit structure of the bank.
Financial performance standards: Financial performance standards usually are based on the purpose and type of loan. At a minimum, the policy should establish repayment requirements that stipulate acceptable primary and secondary sources of repayment, their relative adequacy, and circumstances in which guarantors are required. The policy may also require a certain minimum working capital, customer size, external agency credit rating, access to financial markets, leverage, and debt service coverage ratio.
Financial information: The credit policy should define the financial statement requirements for businesses at various borrowing levels and set guidelines for audited, un-audited, fiscal, interim, operating, cash flow, projections, and other types of statements. At BBL clients have to submit their audited financial statement within 120 days from the ending of fiscal year.
Collateral and structure requirements: Policies usually describe acceptable credit structures and establish permissible collateral types. They also establish limits for the amount financed, which may vary by loan type. For instance, the policy might limit loans to finance the purchase of equipment to 80 percent of purchase price and might limit the amortization schedule of such loans to the lesser of five years or the useful life of the equipment.
Maturity scheduling should be based on a realistic assessment of the anticipated source of repayment, the purpose of the loan, and the useful life of the collateral. For term loans, the lending policy should define the maximum amortization period. Guidelines should be established for lines of credit, including renewal requirements.
Pricing Guidelines: Policies generally describe loan-pricing principles. Interest rates and fees should be set at a level that covers the bank’s cost of funds and overhead, and provides the bank with an acceptable return. In setting profit goals, management should consider the risk/reward relationship.
Banks may also use pricing to implement their strategic credit goals or to modify their risk profiles. Rates and fees may be set at levels that either encourage or discourage specific lines of business, certain industries, or certain types of customers. Pricing is one of the most effective ways that a bank can control or change its risk profile.
Documentation Standards: Policies should establish guidelines for the internal and legal documents on various types loans. Internal documents include such items as borrowing resolutions, credit memoranda, financial analysis, appraisals, insurance, and processing documents; common legal documents are mortgages, security agreements etc.
Collections and Charge-Offs: The lending policy should require a systematic collection process that grows more aggressive as the risk of loss increases. Guidelines should specify charge-off requirements.
Reporting: The lending policy may describe the types, contents, and frequency of reports provided to senior management and the board of directors. Common management reports include summaries of the level and trends of loans that are delinquent, non-accrual, non-performing, or charged off. Reports on larger problem credits should include information on the level of risk, loss potential, and alternative courses of action.
Other Matters: The policy may also address affiliate transactions, the code of ethics, community support, appraisal requirements, environmental assessment requirements, relevant accounting issues (such as non-performing loans, and debt restructuring), and the allowance for loan and clients credit policy. Any administrative requirements for granting loans should be
covered in the policy. Policies and procedures should also ensure compliance with laws and regulations
Credit Policy Enforcement
Policies do not have any value unless those are being worked-out. Consistent Credit Policy Enforcement ensures application of credit policies to loan generation, administration, and maintenance. The results include reduced credit risk and increased productivity.
Banks should have an internal control and compliance department who will conduct audits of all departments. This audit should be done frequently or at least once in a year. One of the main job of this department should be to ensures that the credit administration comply with regulatory guidelines, internal procedures, lending guidelines and Bangladesh Bank Requirements.
Importance of Credit Risk Management
Since lending or offering credit is a Banks core business transaction, credit risk carries the potential of wiping out enough of a bank’s capital fund or even to force bank into bankruptcy. This horizon draw significant concentration on credit risk management throughout the world, in fact this is very true for country like us, where credit market is not yet structured, rules and regulation are not practiced properly or corruption plays a crucial role in credit administration. So managing this kind of risk has always been one of the predominant challenges in running a bank. An effective credit risk management system can ensure:
- Efficient Use of Economic and Regulatory Capital
- Sound Credit Approval and Limit Monitoring
- Business Opportunity Analysis
- Prudence Reserve Management
- Portfolio Management
- Earnings Potentiality
- Confidence in the market place
TRADEOFF BETWEEN Credit Risk and Expected Return
Risk management as commonly perceived does not mean minimizing risk; rather the goal of risk management is to optimize risk-reward trade -off. Notwithstanding the fact that banks are in the business of taking risk, it should be recognized that an institution need not engage in business in a manner that unnecessarily imposes risk upon it: nor it should absorb risk that can be transferred to other participants. Rather it should accept those risks that are uniquely part of the array of bank’s services.
Ideally, a bank will manage its assets so as to simultaneously maximize return on assets and minimize credit risk. But, obviously, both objectives cannot be achieved simultaneously. The return on any bank assets depends on the risk involved. Because riskier assets offer higher returns, a bank’s strategy to increase its return on assets will typically entail an increase in the overall credit risk of its assets portfolio. This way a bank attempts to earn a reasonable return on its overall assets portfolio and maintain credit risk at a tolerable level.
Credit Culture and Risk Profile
Credit culture refers to an implicit understanding among bank personnel that certain standards of underwriting and loan management must be maintained, even in the face of constant pressures to increase revenues and bring in new business. The credit culture exerts a strong influence on a bank’s lending and credit risk management.
Risk profile describes the various levels and types of risk in the portfolio. The profile evolves from the credit culture, strategic planning, and the day-to-day activities of making and collecting loans.
Quality of risk profile directly depends upon credit culture and bank’s objectives for asset quality, growth, and earnings shape credit culture. For example some banks approach credit very conservatively, lending only to financially strong, well-established borrowers. This type of bank will have conservative credit culture, consequently less risky profile. On the other hand growth-oriented banks may approach lending more aggressively and hence require more detailed credit policies and more controlling administrative and monitoring systems to manage credit risk properly.
To achieve the bank’s goal for maximizing the stockholders’ value and protect the interest of the depositors as well as to improve the quality of banks assets as fundamentally sound financial institution, the bank will be abided by but will not be limited to the following credit principles, which should guide the bank’s behavior in lending decision:
|Assessment of the customer’s character, integrity and willingness to repay will form basis of lending.|
|Customers having capacity and ability to repay shall only be lent|
|Possibility of default will be worked out before lending|
|Credit will be extended in the areas risks of which can be sufficiently understood and managed.|
|Independent credit participation in the credit process shall be ensured.|
|Ethical behavior in all credit activities shall be ensured.|
|Be proactive in identifying, managing and communicating credit risk.|
|Be diligent in ensuring that credit exposures and activities including processing function complying with NBL requirements as well requirement of regulatory authority.|
|Risk and reward to be optimized.|
|Diversified Credit Portfolio to be built and maintained.|
|Credit will normally be financed from customers’ deposits and not out of short-term temporary funds or borrowing from other banks.|
|The bank shall provide suitable credit services and products for the market in which it operates.|
|Credit will be allowed in a manner which will in on way compromise with the Bank’s standard of excellence and to customers who will not compromise such standards.|
|All credit extension must comply with the requirement of banking companies Act. 1991 and amendments thereof from time to time.|
National Bank Limited will follow the following credit evaluation process:
|Prevailing credit practices in the market.|
|Credit worthiness, background and track records of the borrower.|
|Financial standing of the borrower supported by financial statement and other documentary evidences.|
|Legal jurisdiction and implications of applicable laws.|
|Effect of any applicable regulations and laws.|
|Purpose of the loan or facility.|
|Tenure of the loan or facility.|
|Viability of business concern.|
|Cash flow analysis and also projections thereof.|
|Quality, value and adequacy of security, if available.|
|Risk taking capacity of the borrower.|
|Reliability of the sources of repayment.|
|Volume of risk in relation to the risk taking capacity of the bank or company concern.|
|Profitability of the proposal to the bank or company concerned.|
|Credit risk grading.|
|Yield from the facility.|
|Total global exposure of the borrower|
LOAN FACILITY PARAMETERS
National Bank Limited extends and will extend credit for various genuine purposes. One type of advance requires to be treated differently from other types. Depending on the type financed, ownership pattern, business mode, cash flow, security and other related matters facility parameters are to be set. However the general parameters in facility will be as under:
Nature of Advances:
Each advance to be made will be categorized under one of the arranged types and will be governed under the terms and conditions related thereto.
Lending will be guided by legitimate purpose. Financing for hoarding, speculative purpose and which will be utilized for degrading the character of the people will be avoided. Credit which will contribute to production, trade, commerce, import, development of industries, development activities/ economic growth, infrastructural development, employment generation, poverty alleviation etc will be stressed.
Limit/Amount of Facility/Maximum Size:
Facility will be considered based on assessment of requirement and justification subject to the overall lending cap as per Bangladesh Bank single party exposure limit.
It will be the general policy of the bank to judiciously ensure stake of the borrower in any financing plan. Margin will; however, be subject to institutional policy in this regard and central bank policy where applicable.
Rate of Interest/Commission and Other Charges:
Rate of interest will be charged as per declared rate of the bank. Pricing will be basically risk based. Higher price will be considered for riskier borrowers because of their higher risk involved. Similarly lower price will be considered for prime clients on the basis of their low risk. Commission/charges on credit facilities will be realized taking the competing scenario in the banking market into account, involved risks in financing and overall policy of the bank.
Mode of Disbursement:
In disbursing credit the bank ensures drawing for the purpose the loan has been sanctioned. Where required visit of the business/site etc are suggested and all subsequent disbursements are made conditional to full utilization of disbursed money in the preceding phase. In case of disbursement of loan, money for acquisition of assets, payment is suggested after receipt of the assets by the borrower. For commercial lending, storage of merchandise against which facilities have been sanctioned is ensured either in shop/show room or in go down. Against LIM/pledge, colonizing required stock is ensured.
Mode of Adjustment/Repayment:
For the borrower to exhibit capability to periodically adjust the drawings taken and as such to have idea regarding the rationale for continuation of the facility, adjustment mode is given. In term of lending, where revolving transaction is not allowed, adherence to adjustment stipulation is suggested to ensure recovery of the loan disbursed. By perusing adherence/non-adherence to the stipulated adjustment mode, status of the advances, capability of the borrower, how the account to be treated and course of action to be taken, etc are decided.
The bank mostly relies/will continue to rely on security based lending, taking into consideration, the character of the borrower, nature of business cash flow, environmental, economic, business and other influencing factors. In obtaining security primary and collateral security are suggested. Primary securities are valued on the basis of landed cost in case on imported goods/ex-mill or factory price/wholesale market price for the local goods. Collateral security of acceptable type having adequate market/sale value is accepted. Collateral property is judiciously valued before accepting the same. The property is valued by the branch officials by applying prudence and considering prevailing rate in the location area of the property. The bank has some potential values engaged to assess the valuation of the mortgagable property. These appraisers assess the value of the property independently and submit the same to the bank directly. Assets in the form of goods pledged as security are duly insured protecting the Bank’s interest. Goods and machinery taken as primary security are also insured.
Validity/Expiry date for continuous credit is set a period exceeding one year. Short term loan mostly is allowed for trade/commerce. This expiry date is virtually the date for adjustment/review of the facility, subject to periodical and satisfactory turn over of the limit. Conduct of the business during the whole of validity period determines the fact of continuation of the facility for the next period. Loans for short/medium/long term are also sanctioned depending upon the requirement thereof and also on cash flow generation, repayment capability and over all lending feasibility. Such loans are allowed for adjustment in installments.
|Short term||Up to 12 months|
|Medium term||More than 12 months and up to 60months|
|Long term||More than 60 months|
General/special conditions/covenants will be according to the nature of advance, security arrangements, ownership pattern, and mode of acquisition, institutional norms/instructions, and guides lines of the central bank /regulatory authority.
CROSS BORDER RISK
The bank takes or will take care of analyze the risks involved with Cross Border lending. Risks associated with import of commodity is kept in mind which may basically take the form of failure of the foreign supplier to-
- Supply goods of specified standard and quality.
- Supply the contracted goods timely.
The risks are tried to be handled by obtaining satisfactory credit report on the supplier before opening L/C. Track record of the exporter, past performance, capability of the seller to comply with the terms of sale-purchase, timely shipment etc are examined before opening the L/C. Risks involved in export deal is also taken care of. Besides, the country risks both of the importing and exporting countries are kept in view in respect of handling the import-export deal.
A thorough credit and risk assessment should be conducted prior to the granting of loans, and at least annually thereafter for all facilities. The results of this assessment will be presented in a Credit Application duly signed/approved by the official of the branch.
The official of the branch should be the owner of the customer relationship, and must be held responsible to ensure the accuracy of the entire credit application submitted for approval. The officials must be followed with the National Bank’s Lending Guidelines and will conduct due diligence on new borrowers, principals, and guarantors to ensure such parties are in fact who they represent themselves to be. They will also adhere to the NBL’s established Know Your Customer (KYC), Money Laundering guidelines and Bangladesh Bank regulations.
Credit Applications will summaries the results of the credit official’s risk assessment and include, as a minimum, the following details:
- Amount and type of loan(s) proposed.
- Purpose of loans.
- Loan Structure (Tenor, Covenants, Repayment Schedule, Interest), and
- Security Arrangements.
Risk Assessment Areas:
Borrower Analysis: The majority shareholders, management team and group or affiliate companies will be assessed. Any issues regarding lack of management depth, complicated ownership structures or inter-group transactions will be addressed, and risks mitigated.
Industry Analysis: The key risk factors of the borrower’s industry will be assessed. Any issues regarding the borrower’s position in the industry, overall industry concerns or competitive forces must be addressed and the strengths and weaknesses of the borrower relative to its competition should be identified.
Supplier/Buyer Analysis: Any customer or supplier concentration must be addressed, as these could have a significant impact on the future viability of the borrower.
Historical Financial Analysis: An analysis of a minimum of 3 years historical financial statements of the borrower will be presented. Where reliance is placed on a corporate guarantor, guarantor financial statements will also be analyzed. The analysis must address the quality and sustainability of earnings, cash flow and the strength of the borrower’s balance sheet. Specifically, cash flow, leverage and profitability must be analyzed.
Projected Financial Performance: Where term facilities (tenor > 1 year) are being proposed, a projection of the borrower’s future financial performance will be provided, indicating an analysis of the sufficiency of cash flow to service debt repayments. Loans must not be granted if projected cash flow is insufficient to repay debts.
Account Conduct: For existing borrowers, the historic performance in meeting repayment obligations (trade payments, cheques, interest and principal payments, etc) will be assessed.
Adherence to Lending Guidelines: Credit Applications should clearly state whether or not the proposed application is in compliance with the bank’s Lending Guidelines. The Bank’s Head of Credit or Managing Director/CEO will approve Credit Applications that do not adhere to the bank’s Lending Guidelines.
Mitigating Factors: Mitigating factors for risks identified in the credit assessment will be identified. Possible risks include, but are not limited to: margin sustainability and/or volatility, high debt load (leverage/gearing), overstocking or debtor issues; rapid growth, acquisition or expansion; new business line/product expansion; management changes or succession issues; customer or supplier concentrations; and lack of transparency or industry issues.
Loan Structure: The amounts and tenors of financing proposed must be justified based on the projected repayment ability and loan purpose. Excessive tenor or amount relative to business needs increases the risk of fund diversion and may adversely impact the borrower’s repayment ability.
Security: A current valuation of collateral must be obtained and the quality and priority of security being proposed should be assessed. Loans must not be granted based solely on security. Adequacy and the extent of the insurance coverage will be assessed.
Name Lending: Credit proposals will not be unduly influenced by an over reliance on the sponsoring principal’s reputation, reported independent means, or their perceived willingness to inject funds into various business enterprises in case of need. These situations will be discouraged and treated with great caution. Rather, credit proposals and the granting of loans will be based on sound fundamentals, supported by a thorough financial and risk analysis.
Credit Risk Grading:
National Bank Limited adopts a credit risk grading system. The system may define the risk profile of borrower’s to ensure that account management, structure and pricing are commensurate with the risk involved. Risk grading is a key measurement of a Bank’s asset quality, and as such, it is essential that grading is a robust process. All facilities will be assigned a risk grade. Where deterioration in risk is noted, the Risk Grade assigned to a borrower and its facilities may be immediately changed. Borrower Risk Grades will be clearly stated on Credit Applications. The following Risk Grade Matrix is provided in following. The more conservative risk grade (higher) will be applied if there is a difference between the personal judgment and the Risk Grade Scorecard results. It is recognized that the bank has more or less Risk Grades; however, monitoring standards and account management must be appropriate given the assigned Risk Grade:
|Superior – Low Risk|
|Facilities are fully secured by cash deposits, government bonds or a counter guarantee from a top tier international bank. All security documentation will be in place.|
|Good – Satisfactory Risk|
|The repayment capacity of the borrower is strong. The borrower will have excellent liquidity and low leverage. The company may demonstrate consistently strong earnings and cash flow and have an unblemished track record. All security documentation will be in place. Aggregate Score of 95 or greater based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Acceptable – Fair Risk|
|Adequate financial condition though may not be able to sustain any major or continued set backs. These borrowers are not as strong as Grade 2 borrowers, but will still demonstrate consistent earnings, cash flow and have a good track record. A borrower will not be graded better than 3 if realistic audited financial statements are not received. These assets would normally be secured by acceptable collateral (1st charge over stocks/debtors/equipment/ property). Borrowers will have adequate liquidity, cash flow and earnings. An Aggregate Score of 75-94 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Marginal – Watch list|
|Grade 4 assets warrant greater attention due to conditions affecting the borrower, the industry or the economic environment. These borrowers have an above average risk due to strained liquidity, higher than normal leverage, thin cash flow and/or inconsistent earnings. Facilities may be downgraded to 4 if the borrower incurs a loss, loan payments routinely fall past due, account conduct is poor, or other untoward factors are present. An Aggregate Score of 65-74 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Grade 5 assets have potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention. If left uncorrected, these weaknesses may result in a deterioration of the repayment prospects of the borrower. Facilities will be downgraded to 5 if sustained deterioration in financial condition is noted (consecutive losses, negative net worth, excessive leverage), if loan payments remain past due for 30-60 days, or if a significant petition or claim is lodged against the borrower. Full repayment of facilities is still expected and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 55-64 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Financial condition is weak and capacity or inclination to repay is in doubt. These weaknesses jeopardize the full settlement of loans. Loans may be downgraded to 6 if loan payments remain past due for 60-90 days, if the customer intends to create a lender group for debt restructuring purposes, the operation has ceased trading or any indication suggesting the winding up or closure of the borrower is discovered. Not yet considered non-performing as the correction of the deficiencies may result in an improved condition, and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 45-54 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Doubtful and Bad|
|Full repayment of principal and interest is unlikely and the possibility of loss is extremely high. However, due to specifically identifiable pending factors, such as litigation, liquidation procedures or capital injection, the asset is not yet classified as Loss. Assets may be downgraded to 7 if loan payments remain past due in excess of 90 days, and interest income will be taken into suspense (non accrual). Loan loss provisions must be raised against the estimated|
|Unrealizable amount of all facilities. The adequacy of provisions must be reviewed at least quarterly on all non-performing loans, and the bank must pursue legal options to enforce security to obtain repayment or negotiate an appropriate loan rescheduling. In all cases, the requirements of Bangladesh Bank in CIB reporting, loan rescheduling and provisioning must be followed. An Aggregate Score of 35-44 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|08||Assets graded 8 are long outstanding with no progress in obtaining repayment (in excess of 180 days past due) or in the late stages of wind up/liquidation. The prospect of recovery is poor and legal options have been pursued. The proceeds expected from the liquidation or realization of security will be awaited. The continuance of the loan as a bankable asset is not warranted, and the anticipated loss will have been provided for. This classification reflects that it is not practical or desirable to defer writing off this basically worthless asset even though partial recovery may be affected in the future. Bangladesh Bank guidelines for timely write off of bad loans must be adhered to. An Aggregate Score of 35 or less based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Superior||100 percent cash covered, government and international bank guarantees|
|Bad and Loss|
Credit Risk Grading Review:
Credit Risk Grading for each borrower should be assigned at the inception of lending and should be periodically updated. Consistency and accuracy of the Risk grade should be examined periodically by the branch and Internal Control and Compliance Division while conducting inspection it must also be ensured that CRG has been properly done and periodically updated. Frequencies of the review of the credit risk grading are mentioned below:
review frequency (at least)
|Bad and Loss|
CREDIT APPROVAL AUTHORITY
The authority to sanction/approve loans must be clearly delegated to senior credit executives by the Managing Director/CEO & Board based on the executive’s knowledge and experience. Approval authority is delegated to individual executives and not to committees to ensure accountability in the approval process. The following guidelines must apply in the approval/sanctioning of loans:
Credit approval authority must be delegated in writing from the MD/CEO & Board (as appropriate), acknowledged by recipients, and records of all delegation retained in CRM.
Delegated approval authorities must be reviewed annually by MD/CEO/Board.
The credit approval function should be separate from the marketing/ relationship management (RM) function.
The role of Credit Committee is restricted to only review of proposals i.e. recommendations or review of the bank’s loan portfolios.
Approvals must be evidenced in writing, or by electronic signature. Approval records must be kept on file with the Credit Applications.
All credit risks must be authorized by executives within the authority limit delegated to them by the MD/CEO. The “pooling” or combining of authority limits should not be permitted.
Credit approval should be centralized within the CRM function. Regional credit centers may be established, however, all large loans must be approved by the Head of Credit and Risk Management or Managing Director/ CEO/ Board or delegated Head Office credit executive.
The aggregate exposure to any borrower or borrowing group must be used to determine the approval authority required.
Any credit proposal that does not comply with Lending Guidelines, regardless of amount, should be referred to Head Office for Approval
MD/Head of Credit Risk Management must approve and monitor any cross border exposure risk, and any breaches of lending authority should be reported to MD/CEO, Head of Internal Control, and Head of CRM.
Approving authority should have the knowledge of the following areas:
A monthly summary of all new facilities approved, renewed, enhanced, and a list of proposals declined stating reasons thereof should be reported by CRM to the CEO/MD.
CREDIT APPROVAL PROCESS
National Bank conducts its banking operation under branch banking system. For administrative control and smoothing its day-to-day operation and extension of appropriate and quick services, quick credit delivery, some branches have been placed under some regional offices. Responding to the requirement of customers in the state of full computerization facilities of the branches and on line banking facilities some credit sanctioning powers have been delegated to the Branch Managers and the Regional Managers.
Credit proposal are generally originated at branch. However proposals may also be received at Head Office for syndication and also from big clients, Financial Institutions. At the branch level, the officers/executives of credit department will have full knowledge of the policy and procedures of credit operations. The credit officers/executives after obtaining credit applications through Branch Manager along with all required papers/documents ensure sufficiency and consistency of the papers/documents. They will originate credit proposals, prepare detailed credit memorandum after undertaking a through credit cheek and conducting credit risk assessment of the client in light of credit policy Guidelines of the Bank. The fully documented Credit Memorandum will placed to the branch credit committee by the in charge credit. Credit committee after thoroughly and critically examining the proposal will recommend it to the Branch Manager who will approve credit under his delegated authority. When the proposal falls beyond the power of the Branch Manager, it will be sent by the Branch Manager to the Regional Manager with his recommendation. Regional Manager will get the proposal critically examined by the credit officers and recommended by the credit committee at regional office and will approve under his delegation of business power, if the proposal is found approval worthy.
When the proposal falls beyond Regional Manager’s power he will send it to Head Office, Credit Division. Divisional Head, Credit will get credit and risk assessed by credit officials. The proposal being found acceptable will be placed to Head office credit committee if the proposal falls under the delegated authority of the Management. When the proposal will be under the approval authority of the executive committee, the proposal, having been assessed by the credit officers/executives will be placed to the Executive Committee, through Divisional Head, Credit, DMD (Credit) and the Managing Director, where the approval will be accorded. If a proposal does not meet the basic lending criteria as per CRM guidelines and banking norms, it will be declined and Credit Operation Division will inform the decision to the branch accordingly. Head Office Credit Operations Division will keep credit files under proper control number and its use will be restricted to the authorized officials only.
Credit Administration Function:
The Credit Administration function is critical in ensuring that proper documentation and approvals are in place prior to the disbursement of loan facilities. For this reason, it is essential that the functions of Credit Administration be strictly segregated from Relationship Management/Marketing in order to avoid the possibility of controls being compromised or issues not being highlighted at the appropriate level.
Security documents are prepared in accordance with approval terms and are legally enforceable. Standard loan facility documentation that has been reviewed by legal counsel should be used in all cases. Exceptions will be referred to legal counsel for advice based on authorization from an appropriate executive in CRM. Disbursements under loan facilities are only be made when all security documentation is in place. CIB report will reflect/include the name of all the lenders with facility, limit & outstanding. All formalities regarding large loans & loans to Directors must be guided by Bangladesh Bank circulars & related section of Banking Companies Act. All Credit Approval terms have been met.
Loan disbursements and the preparation and storage of security documents will be centralized in the regional credit centers. Appropriate insurance coverage is maintained (and renewed on a timely basis) on assets pledged as collateral. Security documentation is held under strict control, preferably in locked fireproof storage.
To minimize credit losses, monitoring procedures and systems should be in place that provides an early indication of the deteriorating financial health of a borrower. At a minimum, systems will be in place to report the following exceptions to relevant executives in CRM and RM team:
- Past due principal or interest payments, past due trade bills, account excesses, and breach of loan covenants;
- Loan terms and conditions are monitored, financial statements are received on a regular basis, and any covenant breaches or exceptions are referred to CRM and the RM team for timely follow-up.
- Timely corrective action is taken to address findings of any internal, external or regulator inspection/audit.
- All borrower relationships/loan facilities are reviewed and approved through the submission of a Credit Application at least annually.
Computer systems are able to produce the above information for central/head office as well as local review. Where automated systems are not available, a manual process has the capability to produce accurate exception reports. Exceptions must be followed up on and corrective action taken in a timely manner before the account deteriorates further.
The Recovery Unit (RU) of CRM directly manages accounts with sustained deterioration (a Risk Rating of Sub Standard (6) or worse). The Bank wishes to transfer EXIT accounts graded 4-5 to the RU for efficient exit based on recommendation of CRM and Corporate Banking. Whenever an account is handed over from Relationship Management to RU, a Handover/Downgrade Checklist will be completed.
The RU’s primary functions are:
- Determine Account Action Plan/Recovery Strategy
- Pursue all options to maximize recovery, including placing customers into receivership or liquidation as appropriate.
- Ensure adequate and timely loan loss provisions are made based on actual and expected losses.
- Regular review of grade 6 or worse accounts.
The management of problem loans are a dynamic process and the associated strategy together with the adequacy of provisions are regularly reviewed.
NPL Account Management:
All NPLs are/will be assigned to an Account Manager within the RU, who is responsible for coordinating and administering the action plan/recovery of the account, and serves as the primary customer contact after the account is downgraded to substandard. Whilst some assistance from Corporate Banking/Relationship Management may be sought, it is essential that the autonomy of the RU be maintained to ensure appropriate recovery strategies are implemented.
Non-Performing Loan (NPL) Monitoring:
On a quarterly basis, a Classified Loan Review (CLR) will be/is prepared by the RU Account Manager to update the status of the action/recovery plan, review and assess the adequacy of provisions, and modify the bank’s strategy as appropriate. The Head of Credit will approve the CLR for NPLs up to 15% of the bank’s capital, with MD/CEO approval needed for NPLs in excess of 15%. The CLR’s for NPLs above 25% of capital are or will be approved by the MD/CEO, with a copy received by the Board.
NPL Provisioning and Write Off:
The guidelines established by Bangladesh Bank for CIB reporting, provisioning and write off of bad and doubtful debts, and suspension of interest is followed in all cases. These requirements are the minimum, and the Bank is encouraged to adopt more stringent provisioning/write off policies. Regardless of the length of time a loan is past due, provisions should be raised against the actual and expected losses at the time they are estimated. The approval to take provisions, write offs, or release of provisions/upgrade of an account are restricted to the Head of Credit or MD/CEO based on recommendation from the Recovery Unit. The Request for Action (RFA) or CLR reporting format is used to recommend provisions, write-offs or release/ upgrades.
The RU Account Manager determines the Force Sale Value (FSV) for accounts grade 6 or worse. Force Sale Value is generally the amount that is expected to be realized through the liquidation of collateral held as security or through the available operating cash flows of the business, net of any realization costs. Any shortfall of the Force Sale Value compared to total loan outstanding is fully provided for once an account is downgraded to grade 7. Where the customer in not cooperative, no value will be assigned to the operating cash flow in determining Force Sale Value. Force Sale Value and provisioning levels should be updated as and when new information is obtained, but as a minimum, on a quarterly basis in the CLR.
Pricing is one of the important elements in credit management process, once the decision to make a loan has been made. This includes adjustments for the perceived credit risk or default risk of the borrower as well as any fees and collateral backing the loan.
Banks pay significant attention on pricing for credit. Several factors influence on this issue. The factors include the following:
- The interest rate on the loan
- Any fees relating to the loan
- The credit risk premium on the loan
- The collateral backing of the loan.
- Other non-price terms (especially compensating balances or reserve requirements).
There are many ways that credit risk can be managed or mitigated.
The first line of defense is the use of credit scoring or credit analysis to avoid extending credit to parties that cause excessive credit risk.
Credit risk limits are widely used. These generally specify the maximum exposure a firm is willing to take to a counter party. Industry limits or country limits may also be established to limit the sum credit exposure a firm is willing to take to counter parties in a particular industry or country.
Effective loan structuring such as setting tenor in favor to bank or made repayment schedule complying with borrowers future cash flow etc help banks mitigate risks.
Credit risks can be hedged with credit derivatives.
Finally, banks can hold sufficient economic capital against outstanding credit exposures.
TOTAL Loans and advances
Total loans and advances performed by NBL Bank ltd. are quite satisfactory and are maintaining an increasing trend over the years. The below graph shows, in 2010, the amount increased significantly than the previous years.Taka in million
|Total Loans & Advances||103785|
INDUSTRY-Wise Loans And Advances.
Amount in Taka
|Term loan to small cottage industries||110940576||258137167|
|Term loan to large & medium industries||10317933619||13897120445|
|Working capital to industry||5870564899||9154107235|
(Source: Annual Report of NBL)
The graph shows the most loan providing industry by the bank is Trade finance sector. It was about 42 % of the total industry loan in 2010. The bank is maintaining an increasing trend almost every sector it provides loan previous years. The second best loan providing sector is Consumer credit.
Financial Analysis of National Bank (Ratio Analysis)
Table : Measure Profitability of National Bank Ltd
|1.Income Expenditure Ratio :|
|2. Profit Expenditure Ratio :|
|3. Profit Loan able fund Ratio :|
= 4 %
= 7.89 %
|4. Net Income to Total Asset:|
5.Return on Equity (ROE):
Net Income/Total equity
= 2.2 %
= 5.1 %
(Source: NBL Annual Report)
As per the Income Expenditure Ratio, Total income is more than three times greater than its Expenditure Again Profit is also one & half times higher than expenditure that show a sound Profitable position of National Bank Ltd. The Bank’s profit is also four time than its Total Liabilities. Their net income is also satisfactory in response to total Asset.
Table: Measure Liquidity of National Bank Ltd
|1.Loan to Total Deposit ratio:|
= 0.63 :1
= 1.17 :1
|2.Loan to Liabilities ratio :|
= 78 %
= 79 %
|3. Asset to Liabilities ratio:|
(Source: NBL Annual Report)
A higher Liquidity ratio indicates a less Risk & Less Profitability of a Bank. The Bank has the Loan: Deposit ratio in 2009 is .63:1, But in 2010 the proportion of loan amount gradually increase in respect to Deposit collection. In year 2010, National Bank grand taka 1.17 of loan in respect of deposit taka 1, which show a grater utilization of Deposit money. Furthermore Bank’s Loan to Liabilities ratio is also increases from 2009 to 2010, which show higher utilization of Bank fund, it also indicate higher default risk. Finally National Bank’s Asset level also increase in respect with total Asset in last year.
Measure Financial Leverage:
Table : Financial Leverage of NBL
Total Assets/ Total Equity
|2)Total Debt ratio:|
Total assets- Total Equity/ Total Assets
|3) Debt Equity Ratio:|
Total debt/ Total Equity
|4)Time interest earned Ratio:|
The debt equity ratio of NBL is lower then the 2010. The financial position of NBL is not satisfactory. The equity multiplier of NBL in 2010 is 6.94 times which is smaller then the previous year. Time interest earned ratio increases then the previous year which is 1.96 times.
Du Pont Analysis:
Du Pont identity is the popular expression that breaks ROE into three parts:
a) Operating efficiency measured by profit margin
b) Asset use efficiency measured by total asset turnover
c) Financial leverage measured by equity multiplier
ROE= [Profit margin]*[Asset turnover]*[Equity multiplier]
= ROA* [Equity multiplier]
Du Pont system analyzes ways of improving Banks performance. This analysis shows the ROE of 2010 is 36% which is greater than the ROE of previous year. So NBL is using the shareholders money more profitably than last year.
SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.
Examination of the internal strengths and weaknesses, external opportunities and threats affecting an organization called SWOT Analysis, a situational analysis is a basic element of the corporate plan and is used to make projections for the proposed the corporation activities. Typically the analysis seeks to answer two general questions:
- Where is the organization now And,
- In what direction is the organization headed?
Factors studied in order to answer these questions are the social and political developments impacting on the corporate strategy, competitors, technological advances, and other industry developments that may affect the corporate plan.
SWOT ANALYSIS OF national bank limited
Here I am trying to show the Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats of National Bank Limited by focusing the both internal as well as the external factors in following-
|Strong deposit base|
|Expertise in credit operation|
|Long term customer relationship|
|Strong advertising & promotion|
|Smart credit recovery scheme|
|Updating on-line network service|
|Strong presence in capital market|
|Customer satisfaction is positive|
|Honest, reliable, knowledgeable and helpful workforce|
|Customer retention is increasing day by day, and|
|Wide branch network among the third generation banks|
|The bank should try to arrange more training programs for their officials; quality training will provide the officials to enrich them with more recent knowledge of international trade financing|
|Not providing one stop banking|
|The bank lacks a division for customer service, because there are customers who have no banking knowledge. So they need to be properly guided. Sometimes the officers are so busy they don’t have enough time to spare|
|The bank lacks a division for customer service, because there are customers who have no banking knowledge. So they need to be properly guided. Sometimes the officers are so busy they don’t have enough time to spare|
|High price product deposit, loan, L/C|
|Limitation of offering diversified credit facilities|
|Lengthy loan Approval process|
|More inactive and closed accounts|
|Bank reduces service support of the unprofitable customer|
|Bank has installed returns screen for smooth operation of foreign currency dealing.|
|Remittance and fund transfer purpose customer could take the advantage to online facility|
|Deposit down turn in international trade, it has produced steady steam of revenues|
|Banker expresses deep apperception to the clients for their support and patronages|
|The earth quake disaster by Tsunami and Seedor is expected to cost is adverse impact in the coming year|
|Economic recession in the world|
|Government policy change, some government banks are turn into public bank|
|Islamic Shariah based banking system|
|Lack of planning, organizing and supervising to establishes culture|
After analyzing all the parts of the study finally, I review the following points as on summary and findings:
1) As a private bank, NBL always wants to earn satisfactory profit with little emphasis on all the variables of the economic welfare of the people.
2) NBL used to focus its attention on commercial sector for large and medium scale industrialization but the recent concentration on Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) got the new momentum as lending spheres. Though the SME is the focusing attention, National Bank’s contribution on agricultural sector is insignificant.
3) The NBL loans & advances are dominated by financing on short-term credit programs mainly to the trade commerce & processing units rather in any manufacturing unit.
4) NBL has also increased its lending in export finance and working capital support.
5) Classified loan and advances has down ward trend, which represents excellent performance of credit administration and monitoring review.
6) The human resources (HR) of NBL are better set for the achievement of the organizational goal. The position of per employee loans and advances is very satisfactory and the ratio increased gradually from previous years.
7) Branch management performance as well as the contribution of the branches in funds utilization and overall profitability contributions there on.
8) NBL properly follow the credit guideline provided by Bangladesh Bank.
9) For smooth functioning of credit management NBL always adopt modern automation system. Especially for controlling the branch activities NBL delegates disbursement to the credit administration division.
On the basis of my practical working at National Bank Limited (NBL) the following recommendations may be put forwarded:
- Loan should be given to borrower depending on his credit worthiness, past performance etc.
- The management should impart more imphasis on the advertisement of the bank in differentelectronic and printing media about their credit facilities.
- Since decision making is the fundamental of all business operations, the management should be bold and quick in making decision considering the internal efficiency and external market competitiveness.
- More credit facilities of varied interests should be introduced for the diversified client group.
- It seemed to me that the bank having a large amount of deposit is not encouraging the large scale producers that much of long term industrial loans to accelerate the economy as well as to help the economy to solve unemployment problem.
- All the lending and savings packages should offered to the Premium customers are same as offered to the general customers, excepting the waiver of service charges for Premium Ones.
- The interest rates on several loan and credit schemes should be differentiated for the Premium customers.
- Top management must ensure the proper implication of IT in all branches.
- Finally NBL should introduce Islamic Banking System in different locations in the country.
Now-a-days banking sector is more competitive. To achieve a proper reward about performance, it is essential to satisfy its customer by providing them different valuable and dynamic services. Because a satisfied customer will talk to others about the services those he/she is very justifiable enjoying and a satisfied customers statement is more effective than a thousand of commercial advertisement. People depend on the people – is the mode of human civilization. Therefore, the importance to satisfy customer is increasing day by day in the private commercial sector especially in the private banks.
As all the activities those are required to provide valuable services to its customers to make them satisfy, are related with the fund management system, NBL is so much careful about its fund management system. NBL always gives its highest attention in monitoring and managing the bank fund, which is consists of fund, capital, reserve, deposit, loan and advance. At present NBL is successful in effectively and efficiently managing these vital issues. In spite of that, in order to keep its success continue and reach at the pinnacle of success it, its managers, board of directors and employee must have the comprehensive and clear idea about the reserve, fund, loan, capital, deposit and liquidity regarding the smooth control of bank and continue its vital operation toward country’s economic development.