One of the primary functions of a specialized bank is to extend credit to the deficit economic unit that comprises borrowers of all types. Bank credit is essential of economic development. Without adequate finance, important for the economy in the sense that it can simultaneously finance all the sub sectors at financial area, which comprises agricultural, commercial and industrial activities of a nation.
Objective of the study:
The main objective of the study is to examine the lending program of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank, for the period 2001 to 2004. To achieve this objective, the study seeks to realize the following:
- To assess the condition of credit management system of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank.
- To assess the loan disbursement position of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank during 2001 to 2004.
- To assess the loan recovery position of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank during 2001 to 2004.
Methodology of my study:
The present study is concerned with the analysis of Credit Management system of the Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank. The approach adopted is basically analytical and interpretation in nature considering the objectives of the study. This study uses primary and secondary sources of data.
- 1. Direct interview;
- 2. Personal communication;
To prepare this report 1 used the following methods of data collection.
Direct interview methods:
I have collected information and data by direct interviewing of the executives and officers of the Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank. For the purpose of interview I had prepared a set of questionnaire as the direction of my supervisor.
I have gathered data through personal discussion with the officers of different level employees of the Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank. They provide information about banking operations. Other information has been collected by personal discussion the coordinating officer, accounts officer.
- Time lags: There was very short time to complete this study program properly. So, I had to conduct with all functions within short time.
- So, I could not able to interview with more respondent and covering survey area.
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank At A Glance
The Name of the institution is Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank: As the largest development partner in the northwest region Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank aims at overall development of the farmers and all the sectors and sub-sectors of agriculture in this region. Besides catering to agricultural credit, financing agri-business and agro-based industries and poverty alleviation programs the bank performs commercial banking functions.
Background of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
Bangladesh is agriculture based country from the very beginning. Most of the people depend on agriculture. From British period to date farmers of this country were dominated in various ways. To save the farmers from village money lenders British Govt. took step in special program in order to disburse the agri-loan to the farmers in 1905.
Therefore, in 1932 India-British Govt. took a step for the socio-economic development of the small and marginal farmers of Bengal to disburse agri-loan.
The Government of Pakistan period (1952) established a financial institution named “Agricultural development finance corporation” (ADFC) on account of disbursement of loan in agricultural sector. Feeling the importance of agri-production and agri-loan the Pakistani Govt. established another bank namely “Pakistan Krishi Bank” in 1957. After liberation Bangladesh Govt. denoted the Pakistan Krishi Bank as Bangladesh Krishi Bank (BKB) in 1973 according to the Presidential order 27. As Bangladesh is an agro-based country, the demand for the agri-loan of Krishi Bank bas been increased highly. To manage agri-loan it become very difficult for Dhaka based head office of Krishi Bank in the remote areas of the country. For this reason the government wanted to decentralize the Krishi Bank in the divisional areas. The people of the northern areas of Bangladesh are lagging behind in all respects than the other parts of the country. That is why in 1986 according to the president’s ordinance no 58 Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank was established. From March 15, 1987 Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank started its functioning.
Objectives of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
The main goals of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank are as follows:
a) To provide credit facilities for all kinds of agricultural and agro- based economic activities keeping in view the needs of small and marginal farmers.
b) To earn a normal profit for meeting the operational expenses, building of reserve and expansion of activities to cover wider geographical area.
c) To extend counseling and advisory services to the borrowers/ entrepreneurs etc. in utilizing credit facilities of the Bank.
Functions of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
As the largest development partner in the Northwest region, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank aims at overall development of farmers and all the sectors and sub-sectors of agriculture in this region. Besides, catering to agricultural credit financing, agro-business and agro-based industries and poverty alleviation programs the bank performs ancillary banking functions.
A seven-member Board of Directors is entrusted with the responsibility of policy formulation for promotion of growth in agriculture leading to economic development of the country through agricultural credit support. The government appoints all the directors of the board. Also an executive committee constituted by the Chairman and two other directors including the Managing Director is there for taking emergency decisions. The Managing Director is the chief executive of the Bank.
The Head Office of the bank is stationed at Rajshahi. The branch-network comprises 349 branches including one in Dhaka. Five zonal and thirteen offices. The bank has a training institute located at Rajshahi. Total workforce of 4117 as on 30-04-2004 was composed of 2008 officers and 2109 other staffs. Regional offices stationed in district headquarters control branches under them. There are independent regional audit offices for conducting regular audit in branches as well as in regional and zonal.
The affairs of business of the bank are managed through three functional tiers:
° The Head office
° The zonal/Regional offices
° The Branches.
A) Head Office:
The head office of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is located at 280 km far from capital city Dhaka, North-west divisional city Rajshahi. All operation is control by head office. The managing Director is assisted by the three following functional divisions. Each headed by a General Manager:
° Administration and Accounts Division.
° Operation Division.
The three divisions further divided into 12 departments are as follows:
Administration and Accounts Department:
° Personnel Department
° Common Services Department
° Central Accounts Department-I
° Central Accounts Department-II
° Branches control Department.
° Loans and Advances Department-I
° Loans and Advances Department-II
° Research and Development Department.
° Budget and Expenditure Control Department.
Audit and Recovery Division:
° Loan Recovery Department-I
° Loan Recovery Department-II
° Audit and Inspection Department
For each division there is a general. Who is the head of that division?
B) Branch Network:
Table-1Region wise total branches (Up to June 2004)
C) Supervision and control:
The zonal offices are headed by Deputy General Managers while Regional offices by Assistant General Managers.
The functions of the Audit offices are to keep the branches regular. The Audit offices accomplish auditing of the branches on half-yearly basis Regional Audit offices are directly controlled by the audit and Inspection Department of the head office and by no way influenced by the local Regional on zonal offices.
E) Training Institute:
The only training Institute at Rajshahi Imparts training to the junior and mid-level officers and other staff according to the annual training program designed on such subjects of professional interest as management of credit and accounts. Commercial banking, audit and inspection etc.
Capital and it sources:
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is a governmental banking institute. So the main sources of capital are government fund, Details are as follows-
1) Authorized capita : Tk.150 core.
2) Paid up capital : Tk.150 core (up to 30 June-2004)
3) Reserve capital : Tk.208.80 (In million, As at June-04)
4) Deposit from customers : Tk.1088.50 core (up to 30 June-2004)
5) Loan disbursement : Tk.676.73 core.
6) Recovered loan : Tk.626.02 Core.
Source: Personnel Department of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank
Organizational structure of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
The main objectives of maintaining the accounting procedure of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank are to achieve the following goals.
1. To record day-to-day transaction
2. To reflect the financial position periodically
3. To supply necessary information for monitoring the bank activities in this cash transaction, other transaction are recorded in the books of accounts under the double entry system. In this bank, generally two types of books are used.
A. Control Books:
It represents the immediate accounting picture of the bank at any time and it includes-
1. Cash Scroll Book
2. Clean Cash Book
3. General Ledger Abstract
4. Supplementary ledger Book
B. Subsidiary Books:
Subsidiary Books are used to affiance the total particulars in General ledger and it includes-
1. Saving account ledger
2. Fixed deposit ledger
3. Income ledger
4. Expenses ledger
Activities of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is the largest source of agricultural credit in Rajshahi division. Besides supplying agricultural credit, the bank extends its credit facilities to employment and income-generating agro based industrial and commercial activities, diversified of farm rural economic activities and poverty alleviating programs, a part from these, the bank. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank has been playing an active role in the rural economy for serving the purpose of achieving cherished goal of national economic development through agriculture development.
The main activities of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
a) Disbursement of Loans:
² Major item of loan disbursement:
- Crops loan
- Live stock
- Agro based industrial loan
- Poverty alleviation
- Irrigation equipment & Firm machinery
- Cottage Industry
b) Recovery of Loan:
When a bank or other financial institutions distribute a loan to other organization or people, then after regaining from loan it is called loan recovery, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank distributed loan to loan and recovers this money. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank recover loan under two basis-
- Unclassified loan, and
- Classified loan
c) Deposit mobilization:
Deposit is the most important source of ready to invest fund. The Bank initiated a special drive for collecting low cost deposit. A significant number of people in northwestern Region are under employed with near to zero marginal income. Out of total 349 branches 208 are located at union level. As such, the bank continued small savings schemes suitable for this section of people and tried hard for hunting institutional deposits.
The general banking activities of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank are given below:
Opening an account:
To its customers Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank gives opportunity to open an account like other banks.
The following things are considered to open an account:
- Observing whether the application form is properly filled in.
- Getting an preserving specimen signature of a customer.
- Taking initial deposit in cash.
Special types of account: Basically a person whose age is 18 years or more can be competent to open an account with the bank. But there are some special types of account holder like joint account, minor account illiterate person account, blind person account, Deaf and dumb account etc.
Who cannot open an account: The following parties can never open an account with the bank-
- The person who is still bankrupt.
- The person whose mind is unsound.
- The person who is totally mad.
Different Types of Accounts:
The other accounts that Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank allows opening for its customer are given below:
1. Current account: From this account any amount is deposited and drawn in any time of office hours. There is no interest on current account. Loan is sanctioned based on it. This account is opened with a recommendation Tk.1000. Total amount of current A/C in of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is Tk 7050000 on 27th February, 2004.
2. Savings Account: Savings accounts opened for the customers except companies or firm and co-operative society. Money is withdrawn 2 times a week and deposited any time of office hours from this accounts Tk.50 is required to open this account. There is 4% interest on saving account. Total amount of saving A/C in of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is Tk.9388000 on 27th February, 2004.
3. Short Term Deposit Account: Short- term deposit account is opened for company/firm/government administrative body. This account is operated like current account. If 7 days written notice is placed to the bank in every withdraw, then the bank gives 2.5% interest on S.T.D. In the present time the total amount of STD A/C in of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is Tk.3680000 on 27th February, 2004.
4. Deposit Pension Scheme (DPS): In this Savings Scheme a person is given an opportunity for getting an attractive amount at the end of the specified term. The size of monthly installments is Tk.100, Tk.200, Tk.300, Tk.400 and Tk.500 which is to be deposited within 1st week of a month. This scheme is not operating in Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank rather the old account is continuing. There is 15% interest of D.P.S.
5. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank pension saving Scheme (RPS): RPS is a special produce of this bank. This Scheme is same as D.P.S but its interest rate is lower than D.P.S. In present time the total amount under this Scheme is Tk.3866000
6. Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR): This is a deposit Scheme where an instrument is issued for the full amount payable after a specified period against deposit of a certain amount.
Duration of various FDR& rates of interest against them are as follows:
Total amount of FDR in of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is Tk.3372000 on 27th June, 2004.
The of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank transfers money from one branch to another in following ways-
Demand Draft (DD):
DD is the most popular instrument of remitting fund. It is an order to pay money drawn by one branch Payable to another branch on demand. DD is issued in against at Tk.15 commission up to Tk.1000. When the limit exceed commission amount increased in a certain rate.
Mail Transfer (MT):
This branch transfer’s money another branch of this bank in another place in against of commission money of this security paper has to be transferred to an account of another branch. Here the bank commission is Tk.1.5 per Tk.1000 and the postal charge is Tk.10.
Telegraphic Transfer (TT):
It is the quickest method of remitting fund from one place to another. In this procedure no instrument is sent to the paying branch. Only message is sent over telephone or telex and the paying branch makes payment after getting message. Due to lack of technology this branch cannot operate TT.
Payment order (PO):
It is a written document. This PO can be encased on that branch from where it is issued. Several supplier organizations use this PO and here no account is needed to open with bank. It is issued locally. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank becomes popular by following ways above.
Pure or Clean Cash Book.
When the vouchers are closed the accounts are written in the pure cashbooks. It may be either deposit or expense. The transactions of each bead, which have been occurred, are written in the specific age of the cashbook under a specific head and debit and credit total are determine. Thereafter, total of the each head is written in the right page of the clean pass book. But in the cash book the closing balance of the previous day is shown as initial balance for the next day. Then the closing balance is determined for that day.
The transaction is carried out to the general ledger to find out the mistake of the clean cashbook. General ledger is not carried out in different name but come in main head. Ledger credit and debit balance must be equal.
General Ledger Abstract:
The debit and credit balance of various accounts makes general ledger abstract. The debit and credit balance of the accounts are maintained in the abstract in the debit and credit side respectively. Since the double entry system is maintained therefore its debit and credit balance are equal.
Voucher is a kind of document, which as a proof of accuracy of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank treats it as a journal. The following vouches are used in Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank-
F Debit Voucher: It’s used for expenditure. Its color is white.
F Credit Voucher: It’s used for received. Its color is green.
F Transfer Voucher: This voucher is used to transfer taka. From one
Account to another in case of inter banking, its color is yellow.
F Debit and credit voucher is used to file or in books.
F Transfer voucher is used in the bank.
At first those transactions are maintained in this cash scroll by the authorized officer, which occurred every day. Thereafter the cashier maintained those transactions in daily transaction register. For this official member are followed.
Loan and advance:
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank was established mainly on the objective of the development of agriculture. But Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank not only delivers agricultural loan but also disburses different loan, such as:
A) Agriculture credit:
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is a specialized bank and its main objective is to improve the agricultural production. For this reason it provides basically agricultural credit.
B) Cash Credit:
It is a commons lending with this arrangement the drawn is allowed to borrow money up to a certain limit. But the borrower is not required to withdraw the sanctioned amount at once.
He can draw money when he requires and also can put back money onetime. Interest is charged only the amount withdrawn not on the total amount sanctioned.
C) Advance against deposit:
This bank provides credit to the depositors under the following program-
- Advance against fixed deposit
- Deposit pension scheme
- Short term over draft
The bank imposes some conditions in giving those loans. The required conditions are:
- Land ownership
- Fixed margin
- Necessary deposit etc.
Some special programs introduced in the previous years continued in 2002-2004. Those programs and some area based special programs undertaken by the bank cited below.
- Expanded Maize Cultivation
- Nursery for Medicinal plant and orchid
- Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank Milk village
- Small scale poultry
Poverty Alleviation Program:
- Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank self help credit program (RSCP)
- Potato seeds production program
- Cotton Production program
- Fresh water Shrimp culture
- Fisheries &Live stock Department Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank joint program
- Poverty alleviation Through Goat rearing program
- Credit for small scale Tea plantation project
Foreign Aided Projects:
Two foreign aided credit programs namely SECP (Small Enterprises Development Credit Project) & NCDP (North- West Crop Diversification Project) were introduced during the year 2000-2004.
Some other activities are:
- ² Long-term fund management.
- ² Human Resource Development Program.
- Main objectives of HRD program were-
Enhancing self-motivation of the bank employees.
Creating congenial working atmosphere
Increasing professional skill through effective training programs
Introducing need-based and output oriented training.
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank perspective plan (2001 through 2010)
The bank has been earning profit after introduction of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank reform program in 1999. The bank under took a mid-term evaluation of the Reform program and on the basis of its recommendations launched a long-term perspective plan to mitigate the total outstanding loss of Tk 1750 million within nine years (2001 through 2010). The program envisions offsetting the aforesaid amount of loss and turning the bank to be a profit making enterprise in real terms by the year 2010. To start with (2001) Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank introduced PARL (Participation of All for Recovery of a Total Loan) and achieved desired success.
Goals of the perspective plan:
Develop socio-economic condition of the Northwest region of the country by providing financial assistance to the farmers and enterprises.
Achieve self-dependence within nine years by practicing profit oriented banking business.
Management information system (MIS):
Information is a powerful weapon by which management process can be accomplished. Management information is for development banks and so also Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank for effective monitoring, supervision and control. Branch is the hub of all activities and operations such as: loan disbursement, loan supervision. Loan recoveries and deposit mobilization. The activities and operations of the branches are most important indicators for management of the bank. Besides, data are required for reporting to Bangladesh bank, assister organizations, Government and international banks / Agencies.
Data are usually collected from the source data registers and books of accounts maintained in the branches. In General data are transmitted by the branches through the reporting formats for summation to regional office, Head Office and Bangladesh Bank. The sources of data in the brunches are:
(a) Loan ledgers, (b) General ledger, (c) Subsidiary ledger, (d) Statistical Registers, (e) Loan Sanction Register, (f) Loan Payment Resister, (g) Loan Recovery Register, etc.
Under the government approved five year computerization program the Bank installed a Local area network (LAN) comprising 20 workstations at head office in the year 2000-2001. The bank installed e-mail connection at head office and other regional offices in the year 20012002. During 2002-2003 the bank opened its web site www.Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank-bd.org and stepped into the cyber world.
The management of specialized banks assets must be conducted in a profitable and safe manner. Safety is essential to commercial banking since banks hold billions of Taka of deposits of individuals, business, and governments. Profit is also necessary for the successful operation of a bank. Lending is the most profitable as well as the most risky function preformed by specialized banks. Therefore, it must be done efficiently and with a minimum of loss so credit management is essential for the bank.
Definition of credit:
“A credit may be defined as money lent at interest or on profit. It is nothing but temporary parting with one’s [an individual or an institution] resources in order to augment the purchasing power of the receiver of such facility with a promise to return the same with interest profit or otherwise as mutually agreed upon.”
Importance of bank credit:
Banks lending is very important to the economy. It makes possible for the financing of the agricultural, commercial and industrial activities of the nation:
- To produce capital goods which are used later in the production of consumable goods
- Banks loan also make possible production for inventory
- Availability of bank loans the farmer is able to purchase seed, feed, fertilizer
Some additional causes: –
1) Crop credit
2) Cash crop credit
3) Horticulture credit
4) Warehouse credit
5) Rural housing credit
6) Poultry & Fisheries
7) Small & Cottage industries credit
8) Agri Mechaanisation credit
9) Improved seed Credit
10) Other Tools Machines credit.
Types of credit:
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank generally deals with credit business. Credit is the main source to earn income. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank provides three types of loan
a) Short term loan: A short-term loan is the loan, which is fully repaid within one year or below one year.
b) Medium term loan: Medium term loan is the loan, which is fully repaid within more than one year to five years.
c) Long term loan: Long-term loan is the loan, which is fully repaid more than five years.
In the case of advances sanctioned by way of overdrafts, the customer is sanctioned a limit up to which he can over draw his current account within a stipulated period In case where the customer can not offer any kind of security expect his personal security the facility is termed as a clean overdraft, on the other Hand, where the customer offers a security acceptable to the bank facility is treated as a secured overdraft.
Doubtful loan are those that are considered by bank examines to be doubtful of repayment, such loans are considered to contain some loss but the amount cannot be ascertained.
Lending is the one function of specialized banking. The successful banker is a successful lender. The tools used to manage lending are credit analysis, budgeting and supervision. Lending also has to be enlightened by a competitive but reasonable policy for interest charges on loans.
Banks are major financial institutions, which coordinate between borrowers and lender. They mobilize funds from one group of people at low rate and lend the same to other groups of people at the highest rate of return to maximize profit. Unless the fund functions are efficiently planned and executed the bank can not achieve its maximum potential profit, the specific Objectives of credit management as well as the bank management in a specialized bank are:
- To provide service in special sector
- To maximize earnings
- To provide adequate liquidity and cash
- To manage the loan and investment portfolios in the best possible manner so as to ensure profitability
- To maintain reserve for contingencies
Credit management in banking is mainly liable to its concerned authority. At any cost they have to bind to keep its funds in safety and returnable with maximum profit from the investment.
Main credit portfolio of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
Rate of interest on credit:
Bank usually determines various rates of interest in different sectors. The rate of interest changes overtime and becomes effective from prescribed date. But rate of interest can not be changed when the
Disbursed loan is funded from the foreign aids. The variation of interest rate hinge upon credit program and tenure of the loan.
The rate of interest, which exists at present, is as follows:
It is known to all that the strong base of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is totally dependent on sound investment. As because interest on loan is the main source of income. That is why qualitative loan disbursement is so much important as well as quality to increase total income of the bank.
Loan Sanction Procedure:
Based on information available in the appraisal report, credit report, leg mate credit, Needs of the farmer client should be carefully analyzed by the sanctioning authority. Before according section analysis of status of application, credit worthiness liabilities, project viability from technical, financial, economic, Marketing and management point of view. As soon and the security is finalized and the sanctioning authority is satisfied he should proceed for sanction of loan advance.
Loan handling diagram:
Features of loan:
Some important are considered for loan disbursement by the bank. These are as follows:
- Loan must be Bangladeshi
- They must be matured
- They will not loan defaulter
- For ltd co. the join stock company register must be needed
- For co-operative society it must be registered.
- They have ability to proper use and payable capacity and goodwill
- They will not mad and mental disorder. For the process of selecting loan, bank considers “4 p’s”
d) Proper or Security
After the loan or advance become effective, the manager should ask the borrowers promptly to comply with the loan covenants stipulations and execute the documents. Correct documentation is essential securing safe repayment of loan and advances.
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank maintains the security listed below in recovering the loans without risk.
- Lien: It’s a right to retain the property / goods of the borrower as security until the debit are adjusted. In this case the banker can only hold the possession of the goods he cannot sell them. A banker’s lien is a general hen. He can sell the securities under lien after giving reasonable notice to the borrower.
2. Pledge: Pledge is created only for movable property like goods document etc. In case of pledge the ownership of the goods remains with pledge but the possession of the goods vests with pledge until the loan is recovered. Pledge does not occur until the goods are transferred. The pledged goods are returned to the owner after the loan is adjusted. If the borrower fails to repay the loan the banker can sell the pledged goods after giving reasonable notice to him.
3. Mortgage: Only the immovable properties are kept under mortgage. It is a method of creating charge on immovable properties.
4. Hypothecation: Hypothecation is nothing but the mortgage of movable property. It is an extended idea of pledge. In this case both possession and ownership remains with the borrower but by the hypothecation agreement he undertaken to transfer possession whenever required. Here the lender possesses the right of a pledge. Hypothecation is very much risky and Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank does not want utilize this method for creating charges.
Disbursement of loan:
Before release of sanctioned loan or advance, all terms and conditions as laid down in the sanction letter are to be fully complied with. To that effect, the following basic requirements:
a) Loan affectivity terms and conditions as to collateral security and equity of the borrower shall be fully met.
b) Specified documentations as specified in the sanction letter must be completed.
c) Verification of encumbrances of security properties.
- Non-encumbrances certificate.
- Execution of Halapnama.
d) Creation of charge on the collateral security: In case of limited company, the charges on the company assets should be limited
e) With in 21 days from the date of creation of charge, by registered post to the register, joint stock company.
f) Insurance for:
- Security properties, as applicable.
- Assets creates or to be created out of a loan fund or with two equity.
- Stock of goods pledged with the bank as collateral shall be taken with appropriate risk cover.
g) Any other stipulations as per sanction letter.
Loan Supervision and Monitory:
Under its charter, the bank is required, as for as possible, to ensure that a loan is spent on the purpose for which it is made, and if this requirement is not complied with by the borrower, the bank may require the repayment of the loan forthwith.
- Primary responsibility of the manager is to supervise and monitor the cash loan/WCL project and term loan stage by stage, ensure project constriction work, acquiring kind items and project goods as per approved arrangement specified in the sanction letter.
- Bank finance project should be inspected by the regional manager and manager periodically, to assess physical conditions of the projects facilities and the level of the project’s capacity utilization.
- Cash loans are liable to misuse for non-productive process. Special attention must, Therefore, by given on borrowers past antecedents. When releasing cash loans. When substantial cash amount is required to be drawing by a borrower for civil works of a project, WCL for requiring goods the managers must be particularly. Vigilant on the usage of loan. Total responsibility for credit super vision of cash credit/WCL lies with the manager.
- The manager should deploy a project supervision officer after documentation is release of first loan installment with the assignment of over all project supervision the duty of the PSO has been laid down in Ch: 25.07. The PSO should be stationed in the project site or nearby and see for himself the project developmental work and inform the progress to the manager through progress report predictably.
- After inspection, the manager/authorized officer should countersign the Borrower’s acknowledgement receipt under his signature and seal. Only after such counter-signature in the Borrower’s acknowledgment receipt, supplier’s bill con is processed for payment the branch should complete the verification of goods supplied by a supplier with a week and process payment of supplier’s bill promptly when the same is in order.
(WCL= Working capital loan)
Loan disbursement situation of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
a) Position of Loan disbursement last four year. (Amount in Lac- TK)
* Achievement rate = ´ 100
Comment: It is evident, from the Above table that 2000-2001 to 2002-2003 Loan disbursement target are increased gradually on the other hand Loan achievement is also increase gradually. But in the financial year 2003-2004 Loan disbursement target decreased from the previous year but in this year Loan disbursement is not Satisfactory. Here highest achievement rate in the year (2000-2001) is112.43% and lowest achievement rate in the year (2002-2003) is 22%
- Bar Diagram Presentation Last four years disbursement (amount in lac Tk.)
b) Loan disbursement for 2000-2001.
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank projected lending target of TK 103.50 Lac. Disbursement of loan during the year amounted to TK 116.37 Lac (112.43% percent of the target). For a reform expansion of the loan portfolio the following seven sectors were given priority in investment planning.
The highest amount of TK 38.52Lac was disbursed for Poverty alleviation. The next highest amount at TK 36.19 Lac was disbursed for Crops such as rich, potato, sugarcane etc. Loan disbursement at livestock, Irrigation equipment and farm machinery and Continuous more than the target, there was no Loan disbursement at Agro-based industries sector.
Position of Loan disbursement for the financial year 2000-2001 (Amount in Lac TK)
* Achievement rate = ´ 100
Comment: It is evident. From the Above table that irrigation equipment and firm machinery is the highest achievement percentage that is 293% and poverty alleviation is the lowest achievement percentage, which is 103.38%. Others disbursement item is not considered here.
c) Loan disbursement of 2001-2002
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank projected a lending target of TK 141 Lac for the financial year 2001-2002. Disbursement of loan during the year amounted to TK 141.19 Lac (100.13 percent of the target). For a reform expansion of the loan portfolio the following seven sectors were given priority in investment planning.
- · Crops · Continuous · Poverty alleviation. · Fishery · Livestock · Irrigation equipment and farm machinery · Agro-based industries
The highest amount of TK 45 Lac was disbursed for crops as rice, potato Sugarcane etc. The next highest amount of TK 44 Lac was poverty alleviation. Total disbursement was TK 37.50 Lac higher than that of the previous year.
Position of Loan disbursement for the financial year 2002-2003. (Amount in Lac TK).
|Irrigation equipment and farm machinery|
Source: Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank,
* Achievement rate ´ 100
Comment: It is evident, from the above table that Poverty alleviation is the highest achievement percentage which is 117.45% and Agro based industry is the lowest achievement percentage which is 0.08% Others disbursement items is not considered here and fishery achievement is nil.
When a bank or other financial institutions distribute a loan to other organization or people, then after regaining from loan it is called loan recovery, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank distributed loan to loan and recovers this money. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank recover loan under two basis-
- Unclassified loan, and
- b. Classified loan.
- a. Unclassified loan: When half or more than half of the total loan is repaid within the due dates by the borrowers then that is called unclassified loan. The duration of time in which the loan will be treated as unclassified is less than 12 months from sanctioning loan.
- b. Classified loan: When more than half of the total loan or total is unpaid / due over the due date then that loan is called classified loan. Classified loans can be sub standard, Doubtful and bad. The criteria of these classification of classified loans are as follows:
1. For short term loan: Short term loan are classified by Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank in three categories-
i) Crop loan and micro credit:
Age of over due, 12 months Irregular.
Age of over due 13-36 months Substandard
Age of over due 36-60 months Doubtful.
Age of over due: Above 60 months Bad.
ii) Cash credit-and working capital
From 6 months but less than 9 months- Substandard.
From 9 mouths but less than 12 months-Doubtful.
From 12 mouths above Bad.
iii) Demand Loan
From 6 months but less than 9 months- Substandard.
From 9 months but less than 12 months- Doubtful.
From 12 months above- Bad.
2. Medium loan (Up to 5 years):
From 0 months but less than 6 months- Substandard.
From 6 months but less than 12 months- Doubtful.
From 12 months but less than 18 months – Bad.
3. Long term loan (Above 5 years)
From 0 months but less than 12 months-Substandard.
From 12 months but less than 18 mounts – Doubtful.
From 18 months but less than 24 months-Bad.
6.2 Procedure of loan recovery:
The main responsibility of bank manager and loan officer is to recovery the outstanding loan in Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank. Two-recovery procedures are-
a) Usual procedure.
b) Legal procedure.
a) Usual procedure: The usual loan recovery procedure is divided into several steps. They are as follows:
1. Issue of demand notice: Demand notice is issue before on month being due of out standing loan or installment. It is sent to the borrower.
2. Legal notice: It the borrower does not repay their respective loans and interest after maturity being received the demeaned notice under registered with acknowledgement by post to the borrowers the bank should send lower notice to him.
3. Special notice: Beside the above to notice a special notice signature by DC, TNO is sent to the respective borrower to keep mental pressure on him for repaying the loan.
4. Field recovery: Loan officer recover the recovered loan through I.O. receipt by visiting the spot and source of the borrower.
5. Personal Communication: If the borrower fails to repay his loan installment, the loan officer communicates with the respected persons of that area to give mental pressure to the borrower so that he repays his respective loan.
6. Loan Recovery Camp: Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank made camp in various areas for the recovery of his loan, in this issue; the manager and other officer were present in the camp and communicated with borrowers. They gave them moral persuasion and tried to encourage them, so that they could repay their loan.
7. Loan recovery with the help of interest exemption the loan amount which becomes more than double in principle and interest and which is not possible to recover with the help of legal action then those loan can be recovered by exempting interest. By this way bad loan can be recovered.
b) Legal procedure: When legal action for recovering loan becomes failed a case in filed against the borrowers. The case is generally filed in the following ways:
- i. Unwilling to repay loan although he is financially solvent.
- Every effort of loan recovery becomes failure.
Rules of Recovery:
Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank loan recoveries from loan in installment system are as follows:
Causes of defaulter:
- The loan can not loan payment in due time in various causes:
- Natural calamity destroy the crops, for this reason the loan unable to pay loan in due time.
- Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank cannot take proper step against the loan for influential man.
- The loan cannot use the loan in proper.
- The loan do not pay loan in more time.
- Lack of loan supervision.
Causes of low recovery:
i) Negative attitudes of the local elites to repay loan- In most of the cases, the influential persons due to their political and social power are not interested to repay the loan. Because to their political influence, credit officers cannot take any effective measure for loan recovery from them. Sometimes, loan received by them for a specific purpose is also diverted to other purposes.
ii) Damage of crops due to flood- Sometimes, the farmers have some valid reasons for non-repayment of loan in spites of their willingness of repayment of loan. In the case of crop failure due to natural disaster like flood, drought, etc., it becomes really difficult for the farmers to repay loan in time.
iii) Unproductive use of loan- The time involved in processing loan is such that the farmers usually receive credit at the end of the specific crop season even after harvesting of the crop. For that matter, credit does not help in increasing production rather it is actually spent for non-farm expenses.
iv) Shortage of credit personnel- The branch has shortage of manpower to evaluate credit worthiness of the borrowers, identification of real borrowers, and supervision and recovery of loan.
v) Lack of legal action by the banks against defaulters- Neither the Bank Manager nor the supervisor has any authority and power to take effective measures or administrative action against defaulters. For that reason, the defaulters do not bother for requests of loan repayment by them. Moreover, legal action against defaulters has rarely been taken.
vi) Corruption of the bank employees- In some cases, the bank officers take bribe from the defaulters and avoid responsibilities of realization of loan from the borrowers.
vii) Inability of the farmers to repay loan- Farmers need credit not only for agricultural production but also for consumption for their survival, particularly by marginal farmers. This sometimes compels them to divert agricultural credit to consumption and other unproductive purposes which ultimately lead to their low repayment capacity.
viii) ‘Benami’ loan received particularly by U.P. chairman/Member- Sometimes the rural influential, particularly Union Parishad Chairman and Members receive ‘Benami’ loan. It happens particularly due to shortage of credit personnel who have to disburse credit in a short notice and do not have enough time to identify genuine borrowers.
ix) Accessibility to alternative credit institutions- There are a number of credit institutions which are working independently. So non-repayment of loan to one institution does not affect in receiving loan from another institution.
x) Evaluation of banker’s efficiency- Performance of bank personnel is judged on the basis of amount deposited by him, not on the amount of loan recovered. Further, there is practically no incentive for him to increase recovery amount.
xi) Inadequate training facilities for credit officers and their qualifications- The persons involved in agricultural credit operations in rural bank branches have poor educational background with inadequate training. Banking training programmer has hardly anything regarding an agricultural credit operation which affects loan recovery performances of the Banks.
Loan Recovery scenario Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank:
a) Last four years Loan Recovery. (Amount in Lac Taka)
Comment: It is evident from the above table that 2000-2001 to 2003-2004 Loan Recovery Target and achievement are increased by amount gradually. But its Achievement performance is fluctuated. Highest Achievement in 2000-2001 financial years which is 175% and lowest in 2003-2004 Loan financial year which is 112%
b) Loan Recovery for 2000-2001
Loan Recovery target was TK 59.57Lac and Loan recovery achievement was TK 104.37 Lac (175 percent of target)
Major items wise loan recovery position 01-07-2000 to 30-06-2001
Comment: From the above table it is shown that Poverty alleviation loans is the highest achievement amount of TK 45.68 Lac which is 43.76% of the total achievement and fishery is the lowest achievement which is 0.26% of the total achievement. Others recovery items is not considered here.
Comment: From the above table it is shown that Crops loans recovery is the highest achievement amount of TK 45.94 Lac which 34% of total achievement and Fishery is the lowest achievement which is 0.36% of the total achievement and there is no target and achievement in the irrigation equipment and firm machinery sector. Others recovery items are not consider here.
Comment: From the above table it is shown that Crop loans recovery is the highest achievement amount of TK 38.42 Lac which 35.52% of total achievement and Fishery is the lowest achievement, which is 1.25% of the total achievement. Others recovery items are not consider here.
Pie diagram Presentation of loan recover 2003-2004 financial year (Sector wise)
Major Finding and Recommendation
From the analysis of qualitative and quantitative data I can conclude that Credit Management of Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is satisfactory .How ever the bank is facing several problems that are mention in below very briefly
- Fund diversion
- Shortage of efficient credit personnel
- Lack of transportation facilities of the credit personnel
- Inadequate training facilities for credit officers and their qualifications
- Lack of proper mortgage against loan.
- Lack of real loan.
- Insufficient fund of the bank.
- Loans are not disbursed properly as a result of the dishonesty of the officers.
- Lack of sound guarantor.
- Sector wise loan disbursement performance scenarios are much fluctuated.
- The loan recovery is hindered due to Flood, thunderstorm etc.
- Some time the loan-less recover show their unwillingness to pay the loan in order to have various advantages form the government.
- If loan disbursement is not in accurate time, borrowers will not be able to use that loan in particular sector, As a result loan recovery will be impossible.
- The notice are not issued just time, for this reason some time the recovery of loan is disturbed.
- Lack of proper planning and inefficient -fund management.
- Lack of proper supervision.
- Loan is not paid through proper assessment.
- Sector wise loan disbursement performance scenarios are much fluctuated.
Since Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank is the nationalized bank of Bangladesh. It must have to remove its limitation in banking service. In my study, I have recognized several weaknesses in Banking services and my recommendation are given below:
i) Process and procedures of lending should be liberalized keeping in view the problems and constraints faced by the borrower.
ii) Better publicity, Seminar and workshop on loan and advance may brighten the situation highlighting the needs, and problems of the borrowers.
iii) Virtually for the interest of the borrower and intending borrower, more funds should be shifted to this branch considering the needs and requirement of that branch.
iv) Steps should be taken to solve the problems of the borrower.
v) Efficient and motivated man power for sanctioning loan
vi) Selection of genuine borrower through fair investigation
vii) Spot investigation for loan allotment.
viii) Prompt services are given to the borrower.
ix) Strong monitoring should be ensured for proper utilization of loan.
x) To remove the limitation of managerial activities.
xi) To take proper legal action against defaulter loan.
xii) To reduce political pressure.
xiii) To increase awareness of loan about refunds the loan.
Credit Management is the principal function of a bank and large portion of bank income generated from loan disbursement and recovery. Bank should always remember that his dealing loan by money collected from others bank and depositors should always not only be attractive to higher yielding loan proposal but also bank should seriously think about whether the granted loan will be recovered timely or not. If bank once fail to recover loan will fail to meet depositors demand.
This branch has not yet produced better performance in recovering those loans given to small borrowers. The major causes behind this low recovery are poor implementation of loan procedures and policy by the bank. The branch should take care of this very important aspect to baking for its smooth survival in the coming days.
So, we can say, that the overall efficiency of credit management system is not highly satisfactory position. But another hopeful news is to us that the Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank has begun to earn profit.
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