In Banks and Financial Institutions, Credit Risk is considered as an essential factor that needs to be managed. Credit Risk is the possibility that a borrower or counter party will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with the agreed terms. Credit Risk, therefore, arises from the Bank’s dealings with or lending to corporate, individuals and other Banks or Financial Institutions. Credit Risk Management needs to be a strong process that enables Banks to proactively manage loan portfolios in order to minimize losses and earn an acceptable level of return for shareholders.
Mercantile Bank prepared Credit Policy in May 2000 and circulated the same to the Branches /concerned Executives for compliance. In order to cope with the fast changing scenario of dynamic global economy, liberalization and globalization and in the light of the directives / suggestions of the Focus group of Bangladesh Bank, the Credit Policy has been revised in continuously. All Executives / Officers of the Branch as well as head Office especially those are entrusted with the responsibility of Credit marketing, approval processing, credit monitoring, recovery and compliance, must keep themselves thoroughly familiar with the contents of the Credit Policy for careful compliance.
Mercantile Bank Limited does everything within the context of its policy and Bangladesh Bank guidelines. Every private commercial bank formulates its policy for their operations to keep banks viable and profitable and also for the safeguard of depositors’ interest.
Practices of Credit are however, subject to additions, alternations and modifications as may be warranted by the change of circumstances due to passage of time, to suit the requirement of the Bank. Whatever the policy of Bangladesh Bank is most of the private commercial banks are inclined to invest in the highly profitable sector simultaneously where risks are lower.
Only the credit department has been covered in the internship program, it is not possible to go to the depth of each activities of branch because of time limitation. In this report those credit schemes are high lighted only which are most familiar to common people as well as frequently practiced by MBL. And only the parts relevant to my focusing fields have been taken, thus the actual credit Policy has been shortened to facilitate the study.
MBL discourages the persons who are liable to get loan for their urgent purpose. Mode of disbursement, charge documents etc. creates bottleneck in loan approval process. Head office takes so longer time in processing and approval of corporate loan. The total sanctioning process event takes month after month to give the final decision. MBL does not sanction loan to all sectors equally as they require, rather it concentrates its loan and advances within some limited fields and category. It has Credit Card facilities, but ATM booths are located only in some commercial hubs in the city. Again the terms and conditions of the credit card are not changes with the changing environment. That’s why ATM card holders most often don’t take credit card facilities even in some cases employee of MBL use other banks’ credit card. Consumer credit schemes (CCS) are more popular and required things among the people of various classes, but the effective rate of interest is very high. And the terms and conditions of CCS loan are also very inconvenient and discourage people. Loan sanctioning and disbursement procedure are not so easy and flexible being considered the requirements of different classes of people. Sector wise loans in agro based industries and firms, leather technology can be convenient and flexible for the receiver. Loan facility parameter should be expanded so that all the people can get loan according to their needs. Average cost of fund is very high. On the contrary Business Power for sanctioning loans and advances at branch level is negligible.
Lots of new commercial bank has been established in last few years and these banks have made this banking sector very competitive. So, now banks have to organize their operation and do their operations according to the need of the market. Banking sectors no more depends on a traditional method of banking. In this competitive world this sector has trenched its wings wide enough to cover any kind of financial services anywhere in this world. The major task for banks, to survive in this competitive environment is by managing its assets and liabilities in an efficient way.
Every organization has its positive as well as negatives and in case of Mercantile Bank Limited existence of the later one is less then the earlier one and as the management is determined to reach the pick of success it seems that in near future the negatives will be eliminated. Eleven years is a very short span of time and the organization, which can establish itself as one of the most reputed private commercial Bank in the country within this short period deserves special credit and with their able leaders Mercantile Bank will reach the highest level of success very shortly. I wish the bank all success prosperity in their field.
This report has been done as per the requirement for successful completion of the Internship program. Exposure to the business world and acquiring practical work experience was the primary objective of this report. I was attached with Mercantile Bank Ltd at its Satmasjid Road Branch for my internship. The report focuses on credit division as I was attached with that division during the period of my internship program. The topic for this report was decided upon after approval by my Honorable Program Supervisor.
Banks Credit Policy & Practice, and how it runs and what function it does in providing loans to clients are technical job and have a great prospect in our country. Credit Policy of all the private commercial banks is almost same, as they follow and are to follow the common instructions and guidelines of Bangladesh Bank. But they differ in actual practice of loans and advances. Again each bank has some special schemes of loans and advances that are fully or partly exclusive.
Objectives of the report:
The present study has been designed to achieve the following objectives:
- The first objective is to know about the MBL Credit Policy as a private commercial bank.
- Secondly how MBL operates its credit division being controlled with rules & regulations of Bangladesh Bank.
- The another basic objective of the report are to see whether the process of Credit Practice Operation in Mercantile Bank Ltd. is complying with the guideline issued by Bangladesh Bank and how Mercantile Bank Ltd. is handling the loans & advances.
- To find out barriers or bottlenecks in sanctioning the overall loans and advances process.
- To recommend on those problems.
Methodology of the Study:
The study was based on secondary data. In order to prepare practical training report various source & method of data collection was used.
Sources of data:
In this report only Secondary data have been used. For both the Organization part and Project part, quantitative information from the Annual reports of MBL and qualitative information from other literature regarding the various divisions and their functions, operations were used. So, only secondary data were utilized. For the project part, primary data were collected by holding informal interviews with the employees to learn about their response/reaction to the change that is occurring in the organization.
While I was conducted the study I collected various types secondary data. Data has been collected through different sources, by interviewing the responsible officers, bank’s annual report, and from different circular published by the Bank.
Methods of Data Collection:
There are so many methods of data collection which was relevant & important for the study. The methods used in this report were as follows:-
Interview Method: To collect information direct interview was taken of the manager of operation, loan in charge, executives, officials etc.
Observation Method: To collect some information relating to the practice of loans and advances in terms of approval, sanctioning and mode of disbursement an observation was conducted.
Limitations of the Study:
The following limitations are apparent in this report:-
- There was little or no scope of work at credit division of the branch for the internee students. So I could not realize well all the procedures of credit.
- Only those loans & Schemes which are highest practiced by the branch have been focused in this report.
- No amount of sector wise allocation of loans and Advances of entire MBL was given. Rather than the figures relating to Satmasjid Road Branch only has been used. Collecting all data of allocated loans of entire MBL was impossible being attached with a branch.
- For the Organizational part, almost no financial information for the year 2009 were available, in some cases only un-audited information could be collected.
- Credit Policy is the Internal & Confidential matter to every bank. So only the most important Parts and Provisions of policy related to selected schemes, loans and advances were focused.
Rationale of the Study:
In this 21st century Banks are the life-blood of modern economy irrespective of its size & pattern. Banks are established to earn profit and help economic and financial activities so as to help economic development of a county. In such a context, the main business of banking is to take deposits from customers and sanction credit to the borrowers. In performing multidimensional activities like borrowing and lending of money, the world of banking is under going a transformation. Beside banks are direct agents to create opportunities for the development of a country and also provide large scale of employment opportunities. Banks are the most important functionary of financial system of a country and Mercantile Bank Limited is one of them. It plays a dynamic role in the economic development of a nation through of saving and allocation of credit to privates and industrial sectors. It diverts and employs the funds in such avenues which are aimed to develop a country’s economy.
Scope of the Study:
Banking Sector is a robust and sensitive area. A Bank has different products, different services and different customers. Different departments of a bank perform different activities. However, scope of the study is limited within a specific area of an organization that is Mercantile Bank Limited.
Again it was prepared on the basis of data and information gathered from Satmasjid Road Branch. So this study says only about the activities of the Mercantile Bank Limited Satmasjid Road Branch in the light of MBL as a whole. This study covers only various parts and provisions of MBL Credit Policy and Practice as a sample of private commercial banks in Bangladesh.
Background of Mercantile Bank Limited:
Mercantile Bank Limited was established in June 2, 1999 as a private commercial bank and started its operation. The then Prime minister Sheikh Hasina inaugurated the bank. The renowned 30 industrialists establish this bank with everybody’s consent Mr. Abdul Jalil elected as the chairman. Mercantile Bank Limited is a private commercial bank with Head Office at 61, Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka, Bangladesh started operation on 2nd June 1999. The Bank has 65 branches spread all over the country and introducing some new branches. With assets of TK. 66166.52 million, the bank has diversified activities in retail banking, corporate banking and international trade.
Credit-Mercantile Bank is playing an important role while giving loan for the small and medium enterprises. In the terms of credit mercantile bank has introduced new schemes mostly for the business people in Bangladesh. Different categories of loan been provided to the businessman. The total amount of loan been provided 48295.55 million BDT till its main investing projects are business, garments, micro credit, construction and others. Mercantile Bank has been providing loan to medium and low-income peoples. This policy has gained a great popularity among consumers.
“Would make finest corporate citizen.”
MBL dreams to become the bank of choice of the general public that includes both the consumer and the corporate clients. They want to build such an image that whenever people will think of a bank, they will think of Mercantile Bank Limited. MBL has created a cadre of young professionals (YP) in banking profession. This has helped boosting productivity in the bank.
“Will become most caring, focused for equitable growth based on diversified deployment of resources and nevertheless would remain healthy and gainfully profitable bank.”
Mercantile Bank Limited aims to become one of the leading banks in Bangladesh by prudence, flair and quality of operations in their banking sector. The bank has some mission to achieve the organizational goals.
Objectives of MBL:
- a. Strategic Objectives:
- To achieve positive Economic Value Added (EVA) each year.
- To be market leader in product innovation.
- To be one of the top three Financial Institutions in Bangladesh in terms of cost efficiency.
- To be one of the top five Financial Institutions in Bangladesh in terms of market share in all significant market segments it serves.
- To achieve a return on shareholders equity of 20% or more, on average.
Features of Mercantile Bank Ltd:
- There are so many reasons behind the better performance of Mercantile Bank Limited than any other newly established banks:
- Highly qualified and efficient professionals manage the bank.
- MBL has established a core Research & Planning Division with efficient persons.
- The bank has established correspondent relationship with 240 of foreign banks.
- The computerized operation system in all branches of MBL has provided the frequent and prompt customer service.
- The strict leadership along with the supervision of efficient management directs all the branches.
- The inner environment and teamwork, of all branches in MBL motivated all experienced employees to achieve the ultimate object of MBL.
- MBL has become a member of the SWIFT system expedite foreign trade transaction.
- MBL has become introduced some scheme for the purpose of saving of low income people which are not available in other banks like “Family Maintenance Deposit (FMD)”, “Personal Loan Scheme”, “Car Loan Scheme” etc.
- The bank offers attractive saving rate than other financial institutes.
- MBL provides loan to the customers at lower interest with easy and flexible condition than the others do.
- Along with the profit generation Mercantile Bank Limited also maintain social responsibilities.
- Mercantile Bank Limited charges lower commission from their customer in comparison with other banks.
- The Bank is always guided their potential customers by giving valuable advises.
The Structure of MBL
The organization structure and corporate of Mercantile Bank Limited (MBL) strongly reflect its determination to establish, uphold and gain a stronger footing as an organization which is customer-oriented and transparent in its management.
Board of Directors
The Board of Directors consists of 22 members, elected from the sponsors of the Bank. The Board of Directors is the apex body of the bank.
The Board of Directors who also decides on the composition of each committee determines the responsibilities of each committee.
All routine matter beyond delegated powers of management are decided upon by or routed through the Executive Committee, subject to ratification by the Board of Directors.
All mater relating to the principles, policies, rules, and regulation, ethics etc. for operation and management of the bank are recommended by the Committee to the Board of Directors.
The management of the bank is vastly on a Board of Directors, for overall supervision and directions on policy matters by the board. The power of general supervision and control of the affairs of the bank is exercise by the president and managing director of the bank who is the chief executive officer. Above all, the bank will be manned and managed by a galaxy of talented professionals proficient in their individual fields and dedicated to the cause of the bank.
Divisions of MBL:
All policy formulations and subsequent executions are done in the Head Office. It comprises of nine major divisions namely Credit Division, International Division, Central Accounts Division, Human Resources Division, Information Technology Division, Marketing Division, Training Division, Research and Development Division, Audit and Compliance Division. Besides these main divisions, there are 65 branches all over the country to look after the Bank’s day-to-day operations. The structures and sanctions of each of the divisions of MBL are described below:
The primary objective of this division is to evaluate the credit worthiness and debt payment capability of present loan customers and loan applicants. It is also responsible for keeping track of the credit portfolio by obtaining regular information from the branches. It sets prices for credits and ensures affecting it at the branches. This department also monitors the various loan accounts of the branches and prepares various statements for Bangladesh Bank.
Human Resources Division:
The employees are Mercantile Bank’s most valuable resource. Having competent and professional employees is becoming increasingly important in today’s competitive world, and MBL has a significant competitive advantage in this respect therefore have vast experience in their respective fields. Also the new employees are recruited with sound academic background and given proper training after recruitment to groom up for their responsibilities. They plan to inculcate a high performance culture where the employees will work with fun and pride.
Audit and Compliance Division:
The main function of this division is to provide legal assistance to the branches and to ensure strict adherence of rules and policies by all concerned officials of the bank through routine and surprise inspection and audit.
Central Accounts Division:
Finance and Accounts division task is to maintain daily liquidity positions, treasury bills, call money, debentures, placement of funds etc. Monthly-accrued interest calculation of all interests bearing accounts, inter-branch calculation for Head Office, amortization of all fixed and other assets. It prepares statement of accounts and profit and loss account for the bank. Weekly deposit and advance analysis and Cost of fund analysis are the two major functions done by this department.
Information Technology Division:
Previously, Mercantile Bank had a very low level of automation. There was hardly any PC in the whole Bank before 2001. But when the new management took over in 2001, they gave huge emphasis on computerizing the bank’s operations. After 2 years, almost all the operations in the bank are now automated. The Bank is also shifting to a new IT platform, which aims at maintaining, operating and strengthening the technology base of the bank to enable error free production of information that ensures ongoing efficiency and profitability of operation, A world class banking software called Flex Cube has been installed which will centralize operations and provide Online Banking, Internet Banking, Automated Teller Machine, Telephone Banking, Point of sale dispenser, Credit Card facility etc. In November 2005, Mercantile Bank Limited introduced new software called PC Bank 2000.
International Division is responsible for assisting the authorized branches to deal in foreign trades, that is, import and export businesses on account of the customers of the bank by giving approval for transactions and controlling them at various stages. It deals with all correspondents of foreign banks having arrangement with the bank. Every year new agents are added. The larger the number of correspondents and the wider the coverage area, the richer will be the international connections of the bank.
The main function of this division is to build relationship with the potential customers and strengthen the relationship with the existing customer. To inform and explain the potential customer about the facilities provided by the bank and searching for new area of business and collect information about the potential sector as well as to prepare strategy for getting competitive advantage.
Training and Development Division:
The main function of this division is to prepare the employee of the bank as competent and quality workforce. The function of this division is s follows:
- Arrange training and orientation program for the fresh bankers.
- Provide specific training program for the employee to make them more professional.
Research and Development Division:
Excellence in banking operation depends largely on a well-equipped and efficient Research and Development Division. Such activities require the investment of substantial money and a set of highly qualified personnel with multidisciplinary background. Although it is not possible at this stage to undertake R&D activities similar to those of the banks in the developed countries, Mercantile Bank has established a core Research and Planning Division comprising skilled persons from the very inception of the Bank.
INTRODUCTION OF CREDIT POLICY OF MBL
Mercantile Bank Ltd. is committed to provide high quality services to its constituents through different financial products and profitable utilization of fund and contribute to the growth of GDP of the country by financing trade and commerce, helping industrialization, boosting export, creating employment opportunities for the educated youth and encouraging micro-credit leading to poverty alleviation and improving the quality of life of the people and thereby contributing to the overall socio-economic development of the country.
With a view to achieving the aforesaid objectives of the bank, credit operation is of paramount importance as the greatest share of the total revenue of the bank is generated from it. The success of a bank, therefore, depends on how efficiently and judiciously it makes use of its available resources. In other words, careful and efficient management of its credit portfolio is very essential for the success of a bank. The credit Policy of any banking institution is a combination of certain accepted, time tested standards and other dynamic factors dictated by the realities of changing situations in different market places.
In formulating a credit judgment and making quality credit decision, the lending officer must be equipped with all information needed to evaluate a borrower’s character, management competence, capacity, ability to provide collaterals and external conditions which may affect his ability in meeting financial obligations.
The Credit Policy has been divided into the following categories:
a) Policy Guidelines.
b) Organizational Structure and Responsibilities.
c) Procedural Guidelines.
The Credit Policy guidelines of the Bank describes details fundamental credit risk management policies, outlines general principles that are designed to govern the implementation of more detailed lending procedures and credit risk analysis/risk grading system.
For sound lending the following points should be kept in view:
Judicious selection of Customers
- Source of repayment
- Security & Liquidity
- Supervision & Diversity
- National/Social interest
Viii Bangladesh Bank guidelines
It should be remembered that selection of the appropriate borrowers, proper follow-up and end-use supervision through constant follow-up and monitoring are the cornerstone for timely recovery. These guidelines will be updated annually. Before selecting a customer / client and subsequent recommendation for financing, the credit officer or relationship manager must observe the following basics of lending:
Industry and Business Segment Focus:
As a general practice Mercantile Bank Limited definitely concentrates its business in Trade Finance or export – import business and all types of commercial loan, industrial / project finance / syndication and structured Finance / SME Financing and other specialized programs except otherwise restricted by the government or indicated as unethical and banned items.
The bank gives emphasis to diversify its business portfolio commensurate with economic and business trend, life cycle of the products, demand supply gap, social and national obligation etc. The bank’s policies for financing in different major sectors are summarized as follows:
|1||Textile / Spinning/ Sweater/ Knitting/ Denims & Garments||To expand|
|3||Construction / Real estate / House building||To expand|
|6||Information Technology (IT) Project||To expand|
|7||Agro-based Industry||To expand|
|8||Hospital / Clinic / School / College / University||Selective basis|
|9||Healthcare / Pharmaceuticals / Medicine||Selective basis|
|10||Electrical / Electronic appliance||To expand|
|11||Finance to NBFI||Selective basis|
|12||Special Program: Consumer Credit Scheme, SME Financing Scheme, Doctor’s Credit Scheme, Woman Entrepreneurs Development Project, Personal Loan Scheme, Small Loan Scheme, Lease Finance Scheme, Earnest Money Financing Scheme, Car Loan, HBL (General) / Mortgage Loan, Employees House Building Scheme, ATM, VISA Credit Card, EEF, etc.||To expand|
|13||Plastic / Packaging||Selective basis|
|15||Steel and Engineering||To expand|
|16||Edible oil||To expand|
|17||Scrap Vessel||Restricted way|
|Others||Based on merit|
The Bank’s policy is to handle the specialized business sectors / segments by setting up separate units in Credit Division. In view of this, Bank has already set up the following units in credit division:
- Syndication and Structured Finance
- Project Finance
- Garments Sector
- Specialized Schemes such as Consumer Credit Scheme, Doctor’s Credit Scheme, Woman Entrepreneurs Development Project, Personal Loan Scheme, Small Loan Scheme, Lease Finance Scheme, Earnest Money Financing Scheme, Employees House Building Scheme, Car Loan, HBL (General) / Mortgage Loan, ATM, VISA Credit Card, EEF, etc.
- Special Overdraft Scheme.
The Policies for the above specialized segments / sectors have been / to be circulated to all concerns from time to time.
Discouraged Business Types:
The Bank will discourage lending to following areas of business:
- Military Equipment/Weapons Finance & Tobacco sector
- Companies listed on CIB black list or known defaulters
- Highly Leveraged Transactions & Finance of Speculative Investments
- Logging, Mineral Extraction/Mining or other activity that is Ethically or Environmentally Sensitive
- Counterparties in countries subject to UN sanctions.
- Taking an Equity Stake in Borrowers (except under Islamic Banking Operation)
- Bridge Loans relying on equity/debt issuance as a source of repayment.
- Lending to Holding Companies.
Loan Facility Parameters:
The Loan facility parameters for the Bank have been set as under:
- The Bank in general will approve / renew trade finance facility for the period of 01 (one) year from the date of approval / last expiry date.
- The Bank will extend medium term loan for 3(three) years period.
- The Bank will extend long term loan for maximum period of 7 (seven) year including grace period of 6(six) months to 18(eighteen) months.
- House Building Loan to Bank’s employee shall be governed as per policy guidelines of “Employees House Building Loan” scheme.
- The rate of Interest / Commission / Charges / Fees etc. would be as per the approved schedule of charges with variation permissible as per Bangladesh Bank guidelines and with the approval of competent authority.
- The interest rate to be charged and to be paid out on quarterly basis except the especial schemes and unless otherwise specified in the approved terms.
- Repayment of term loan would be fixed preferably on monthly/quarterly basis.
- In general, the cash margin for L/C would be 10% of the L/C amount or on the basis of Banker – Customer relationship subject to the minimum requirement of Bangladesh Bank whichever is higher.
- For the import of Capital machinery, the cash margin for L/C would be 25% – 30% or on the basis of Banker – Customer relationship subject to the minimum requirement of Bangladesh Bank whichever is higher.
- Any exception, as mentioned above, would be specifically approved by the competent authority of the Bank.
- Valuation of the landed property / Building / Machinery / Stock of Raw materials / finished products shall be done by the Bank’s enlisted professional surveyors duly checked by the Bank officials.
- The value of the mortgage property shall be preferably double of the facility to be extended depending upon other security coverage.
The security condition may be relaxed depending upon the Credit worthiness of the customer / Banker-Customer relationship / potentiality of the business of the client.
Any exemptions of the parameters mentioned above are subject to be approved by the competent authority as per delegated power approved by the Board of Directors
Credit Assessment And Risk Grading:
All financial activities involve a certain degree of risk and particularly, the financial institutions of the modern era are engaged in various complex financial activities requiring them to put proper attention to every detail.
A thorough Credit and Risk assessment shall be conducted for all types of credit proposals. The results of this assessment to be presented in the approved Credit Appraisal Form that originates from the Credit Officer / Relationship Manager (RM) and is to be approved by the Credit Committee / Executive Committee of the Board of Directors / Board of Directors. The Credit Officers / RM are the owner of the customer relationship and must be held responsible to ensure the accuracy of the entire credit application / proposal submitted for approval. The Credit Officer / RMs must be familiar with Bank’s Lending Guidelines and should conduct due carefulness on new borrowers, principals and guarantors in line with policy guidelines.
Credit Appraisal should summarize the results of Credit Officers / RMs risks assessment and includes, as a minimum, the following details:
- Amount and type of loan(s) proposed
- Purpose of Loan(s)
- Results of Financial analysis
- Loan structure (Tenor, Covenants, Repayment schedule, Interest)
- Security Arrangements
- KYC concept
Risk Management / Credit Risk Evaluation / Assessment – Lending Decision:
A comprehensive and accurate appraisal of the risk in every credit proposal of the bank is mandatory. No proposal can be put on place before approving authority unless there has been a complete analysis. In order to safeguard bank’s interest over the entire period of the advance, a comprehensive view of the capital, capacity, integrity of the borrower, adequacy, nature of security, compliance with all regulatory /legal formalities, condition of all documentation and finally a continuous and constant supervision on the account are called for. While making lending decisions, particular attention shall be given to the analysis of credit proposals received from heavily leveraged companies and those dealing in non-essential consumer goods, taking special care about their debt servicing abilities.
Emphasis shall be given on the following several credit principles:
- Present and future business potentiality for optimum deployment of Bank’s fund to increase return on assets
- Preference for self liquidating quality business
- Avoiding marginal performers.
- Risk depression is basic to sound credit principles and policies. Bank shall be careful about large and undue concentration of credit to industry, one obligor and common product line etc.
Basics of Credit Risk:
The following risk areas shall be considered for analyzing a credit proposal.
- Borrower Analysis (Management/Ownership/Corporate Structure Risk)
- Industry Analysis (Business and Industry Risk)
- Supplier/Buyer Analysis/Market Risk
- Interest Rate Risk
- Foreign Exchange Risk
- Cost overrun Risk & Mitigating Factors
- Loan Structure & Security
Risk grading is a key measurement of a Bank’s asset quality and as such, it is essential that grading is a robust process. All facilities should be assigned a risk grade.
Presently the Bank is following/conducting the Lending Risk Analysis to assess the risk grade. The concerned Credit Officer / RM must clearly indicate the risk grade (as per the finding) in the specific column of credit appraisal form so that the authority can take decision on the matter. A standard Risk Grading Matrix is depicted as under based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.
|1||Facilities are fully secured by cash deposits, government bonds or a counter guarantee from a top tier International Banks / Local Banks. All security documentation’s are in place and in order.|
|2||The repayment capacity of the borrower is strong. The borrower should have excellent liquidity and low leverage. The company must demonstrate consistently strong earning and cash flow and have an unblemished track record. All security documents are in place. Aggregate Score of 95 or greater based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Adequate financial condition though may not be able to sustain any major or continued setbacks. These borrowers are not as strong as Grade 2 borrowers, but should still demonstrate consistent earning, cash flow and have a good track record. A borrower should not be graded better than 3 if realistic audited financial statements are not received. These assets would normally be secured by acceptable collateral (1st charge over stocks/debtors/equipment/property). Borrowers should have adequate liquidity, cash flow and earnings. An Aggregate Score of 75-94 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Grade 4 assets warrant greater attention due to conditions affecting the borrower, the industry or the economic environment. These borrowers have an above average risk due to strained liquidity, higher than normal leverage, thin cash flow and/or inconsistent earnings. Facilities should be downgraded to 4 if the borrower incurs a loss, loan payments routinely fall past due, account conduct is poor, or other untoward factors are present. An Aggregate Score of 65-74 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Grade 5 assets potential weaknesses that deserves management’s close attention. If left uncorrected, these weaknesses may result in a deterioration of the repayment prospects of the borrower. Facilities should be downgraded to 5 if sustained deterioration in financial condition is noted (Consecutive losses, negative net worth, excessive leverage), if loan payments remain past due for 90 days or more, or if a significant petition or claim is lodged against the borrower. Full repayment of facilities is still expected and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 55-64 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Financial condition is weak and capacity or inclination to repay is in doubt. These weaknesses jeopardize the full settlement of loans. Loans should be downgraded to 6 if loan payments remain past due for 180 days or more but less than 270 days, if the customer intends to create a lender group for debt restructuring purposes, the operation has ceased trading or any indication suggesting the winding up or closure of the borrower is discovered. Not yet considered non-performing as the correction of the deficiencies may result in an improved condition and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 45-54 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Full repayment of principal and interest is unlikely and the possibility of loss is extremely high. However, due to specifically identifiable pending factors, such as litigation, liquidation procedures or capital injection, the assets are not yet classified as Loss. Assets should be downgraded to 7 if loan payments remain past due for 270 days or more but less than 360 days and interest income should be taken into suspense (non-accrual). Loan loss provisions must be raised against the estimated unrealizable amount of all facilities. The adequacy of provisions must be reviewed at least quarterly on all non-performing loans and the bank should pursue legal options to enforce security to obtain repayment or negotiate an appropriate loan rescheduling. In all cases, the requirements of Bangladesh Bank in CIB reporting, loan rescheduling and provisioning must be followed. An Aggregate Score of 35 – 44 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
Bad and Loss
|Assets graded 8 are long outstanding with no progress in obtaining repayment (in excess of 360 days past due) or in the late stages of wind up/liquidation. The prospect of recovery is poor and legal options have been pursued. The proceeds expected from the liquidation or realization of security may be awaited. The continuance of the loan as a bankable asset is not warranted and the anticipated loss should have been provided for. This classification reflects that it is not practical or desirable to defer writing off this basically worthless asset even though partial recovery may be affected in the future. Bangladesh Bank guidelines for timely write off of bad loans must be adhered to. An Aggregate Score of 35 or less based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
- Mercantile Bank Ltd. believes in decentralization of powers. With a view to ensuring prompt and efficient services to its multitude of clients spread far and wide, the Bank envisages delegation of optimum powers to its Executives and Officials at different levels of operations. .
- The Bank intends to make it crystal clear to all concerned that the powers are delegated to serve the greater interest of the institution.
- The credit approval function has been separated from the marketing/relationship management function.
- All credit risks must be authorized by executives within the authority limit delegated to them.
- Any credit proposal that does not comply with Lending Guidelines, regardless of amount, has to be referred to Head Office for Approval.
- Any breaches of lending authority to be reported to Managing Director & CEO, Head of Internal Control and Head of CRM.
- At Branch level : Branch Authority as per their business delegation must take decision within maximum of 3 – 7 days
- At Head Office level : The Head Office Credit Committee(HOCC)/ Executive Committee of the Board of Directors/Board of Directors shall take decision within maximum of :
- 5 – 7 days for simple type of facility
- 15 – 30 days for Project Loan
- 30 – 60 days for Loans under Syndication / Club Finance etc.
- Sanction letter to be issued within 1 – 2 days time from the date of approval.
- In case of Large Loan, it must be reported to Bangladesh Bank.
- In case of the specific loans like Director’s loan, prior approval from Bangladesh Bank to be obtained as per requirements / guidelines of Bangladesh Bank.
Time Requirement for Approval of Credit Proposals:
Organizational Structure and Responsibilities:
The appropriate organizational structure must be in place to support the adoption of policies described in Chapter-I of these guidelines. The key feature is the segregation of the Marketing / Relationship Management function from Approval / Risk Management / Administrative Functions.
The following chart represents the management structure:
There are various responsibilities that done by various concerned. The key responsibilities that have been vested upon them as follows:
A) Head of Credit Risk Management :
- Oversight of the Bank’s credit policies, procedures and controls relating to all credit risks arising from corporate/commercial/institutional banking and treasury operations.
- Oversight of the Bank’s asset quality & Ensure that the lending executives have adequate experience and / or training in order to carry out job duties effectively
B) Head of Credit :
- Promote strong asset quality.
- Updating the Bank’s lending guidelines/credit policies as and when required but at least annually.
- Ensure credit recommendations/approvals are taken in a timely manner & Ensure compliance with internal policies and external regulatory requirements.
- Provide input/advice to the MD & CEO/Board of Directors regarding the formulation of strategic operating plans.
C) Head of Credit Administration Division (CAD) :
- Ensure loan documentation and securities are duly completed and in place prior to disbursement of loans.
- Ensure compliance with all formalities regarding large loans and loans to Directors as per Directives of Bangladesh Bank Circulars & rules and regulations of Banking Companies Act.
- Ensure that adequate insurance is in place on all pledged assets, all approval conditions have been met and exceptions, if any, are approved prior to disbursement of loans.
This chapter outlines the main procedures that are needed to ensure compliance with the policies.
The concerned Executive at Zonal Office on receipt of the proposal will prepare a credit appraisal memo as per the prescribed format and within the purview of the set policy and then place it to Zonal Head who will make Judgment (qualitative and quantitative) and if found viable then he will approve the facility, if it is within his business delegated power otherwise he may reject it or forward it to the Head of Corporate / Commercial Banking at Head Office along with his recommendations.
Delegation of Power:
Delegation of approval of Credit facilities shall be as per policy guidelines that all proposals where credit facility/facilities are upto 15% of the Bank’s Capital shall be approved by CRM level, facilities upto 25% of the Capital shall be approved by the Managing Director and CEO subject to the limit approved by the Board of Directors. Credit facilities in excess of 25% of the Bank’s Capital shall be approved by the Executive Committee of the Board of Director or Board of Directors on recommendation of CRM, Corporate Banking and Managing Director & CEO. While exercising the business delegation powers, the following general guidelines shall be followed meticulously:
- The Managing Director can exercise all the powers vested in other Executives/Officers of the Bank.
- Other than the Managing Director, the Delegation of Powers shall be exercised by the Additional Managing Director / Deputy Managing Director / Executives/Officers only to whom such schedule of powers is issued by a separate letter by or under the order of the Managing Director as approved by the Board/Committee.
- The Managing Director may suspend exercise of delegated Powers of any Executive/Officer or any category of Executive/Officer through specific or general order with the prior approval of the Board/Committee.
- Delegated Powers may be reduced, suspended or withdrawn at the discretion of the Board of Directors /Committee.
The business powers can be exercised by the following when posted as under:
Additional Managing Director/Deputy Managing Director shall exercise business power delegated to them. Senior Executive Vice President / Executive Vice President / Senior Vice President whenever posted as In-charge of Credit Division shall exercise business power delegated to them. The Managing Director is however, authorized to allow composite credit facilities within the delegation as per delegation allowed for individual nature of loan.
Disbursements under loan facilities are made when all security documentation is in place. CIB report should reflect/include the name of all the lenders with facility, limit and outstanding. All formalities regarding large loans and loans to Directors are guided by Bangladesh Bank circulars and related section of Banking Companies Act. All Credit Approval terms must be met. The check list certificate is to be signed by Credit In-charge and Head of Branch. In order to cope with the revised policy, the disbursement authority will be vested to the Head of Credit Administration Division up to Tk. 5.00 Core above which will be vested to the Deputy Managing Director. In the absence of the Deputy Managing Director, the power may be exercised by the Senior Executive Vice President.
Legal proceeding are lengthy and time consuming as well as having an element of negative publicity and as such effort must made to settle a defaulter’s outstanding out of court. However, if situation compels the Bank to take legal action for recovery of stuck up loans and advances; the same shall be done with prior approval of Head Office.
Write Off Of Loans / Advances:
Loans / advances which are recommended for write-off must be accompanied by a memo summarizing the circumstances necessitating the current write-off as well as recovery efforts to date. Under no circumstances should the fact that all or any portion of a loan / advances that has been written-off be revealed to the borrower, nor should the borrower be informed that the loan / advances is on a non-accrual basis. Despite, the loans and advances being written-off, the recovery process will be continued for those loan and advances.
CREDIT PRACTICES OF MBL
Extent & Restrictions
It is applied to all the Branches of Mercantile Bank Limited in Bangladesh. Extension of credit facilities are subject to credit policy of the bank and credit restrictions, margin restrictions, stipulations regarding security, period of repayment and other instructions and restrictions imposed from time to time in this respect by Head Office, Bangladesh Bank rules and regulations and overall government policy of Bangladesh.
Credit Department & its Function
The Credit Risk Management Department is assisted by the Credit Administration Department, which is mainly concerned with the post-approval functions of the Credit Division. The aspects that are critically tracked and monitored by Credit Administration are
- Credit expiry
- Past dues
- Excess over limit
- Document deficiency
Credit Division is involved in basically two broad functions:
The important aspects of this part are:
- Follow approval terms
- Proper loan disbursement
- Monitor interest payments and principal repayment
- Balance with general ledger
The important functions of this part are:
- Look at sanction terms and Fill up loan documentation checklist,
- Ensure Proper loan documentation and Obtain client sign off
- Filing with the Registered Joint Stock Corporation ( RJSC)
- Registered mortgage deed execution
All powers of the Bank are vested in the Board. They are the source of all powers, and any person or body can exercise only the powers delegated by the Board in ways and manners specified by them. Mercantile Bank Ltd. believes in decentralization of powers. With a view to ensuring prompt and efficient services to its magnitude of clients spread far and wide, the Bank envisaged delegation of optimum powers to its Executives and officials at different level of operations.
- The Board can delegate the authority, not its responsibility.
- The evil of dual Subordination may creep in the chain of command if authority is not well defined and properly implemented.
- Exercise of the delegated authority must commensurate with the shouldering of the responsibility.
- Head Office is responsible for formulating Credit Policy for the Bank, for the proper conduct of the advances in the Branches and for the system of control over them. Head office delegate business powers of Branch-in-charges, devise method of forwarding credit proposals to Head Office for sanction and instructions regarding submission of periodical returns.
- Branch-in-Charges are primarily responsible for all advances at their Branches. They must exercise common sense, wisdom, prudence and judiciousness in the use of powers delegated to them and in recommending proposals to Head Office for sanction. In all cases, they must ensure that Bank’s interests are fully safeguarded..
- A secured credit facility may be allowed to a customer only after getting a limit sanctioned by the authorized officials.
- The customer seeking a credit facility against acceptable security must make an application in bank’s printed form “Request for Credit Limit” PF-146 (Annexure-l) enclosing necessary papers/documents to his nearest Branch of the Bank where he maintains his operative account.
- Arranging an interview with the intending borrower to know on the following points: Present and future prospect of the customer’s business
Processing of Credit Proposals:
- Before finally selecting the borrower, bank is satisfied that ;
- The customer possesses character, capacity and capital & the account is remunerative one & repayment arrangement is satisfactory.
- Dealing items and primary security of the customer possess the quality of easy marketability, durability and storability
- Collateral security offered possesses the quality of easy marketability and is not encumbered and its valuation is judiciously assessed so as to leave sufficient margin after covering the advance and belongs preferably to the borrower.
- Means, standing and respectability of the applicant and the guarantor (if any) are satisfactory.
- Credit worthiness of the applicant is reasonable
- Location of the business is good.
The following Papers/documents are to be submitted by the Branch Managers along with the proposals:
a) Request for Credit limit of customers
b) Project Profile / Profile of Business
c) Copy of Trade License duly attested
d) Copy of TIN Certificate
e) Certified copy of Memorandum and Articles of Association, Certificate of Incorporation, Certificate of commencement of business, Resolution of Board of Director, Partnership Deed, (where applicable)
f) Personal Net worth Statement of the Owner/Director/Partner/Proprietor in Bank’s Format.
g) Valuation Certificate in Bank’s Format along with photograph of collateral security with detail particulars on the back duly authenticated by the Branch Manager.
h) 3 years Balance sheet and profit and loss A/C
i) CIB Enquiry Form duly filled in (For proposal of Tk.1.00 lac and above)
j) Inspection/Visit Report of Factory/Establishment/Business premises of the customer-Annexure-5
k) Statement of NC (CD/SB/CC) for the last 12 months. In case the customer maintaining account with other Bank, Statement of Account for the last 12 months of the concerned Bank should be furnished.
l) In case of renewal/enhancement of credit facility, debit turnover, credit turnover, highest drawing, lowest drawing, and total income earned detailed position of existing liabilities of the customer i.e. date of sanction, date of expiry, present outstanding, remarks, if any.
m) Declaration of the customer of the name of sister/allied concerns and liabilities with other Banks, if any, and an undertaking to the effect that they have no liability beyond those declared-Annexure-6
n) In case of UC proposal, detailed performance of L/C during the last year i.e. No. and date of L/C opened, commodity, L/C value, Date of creation of PAD, date of retirement, mode of retirement etc.
- o) In case of BTB UC proposal-
p) Detailed list of machinery, production capacity, working capital (BTB UC) assessment, existing export UC in hand mentioning date of shipment, detailed position of outstanding BTB L/C/Accepted Bills, progress of production and expected date of shipment, statement of outstanding FDBP/IDBP, if any, Quota Position, Inspection Report, Copy of valid Bonded Ware House License, Customs Clearance or dispute, if any.
q) Whether the applicant is Shareholder/Director of Mercantile Bank Ltd. as per definition of Banking Companies Act.
r) Financial Analysis to be prepared by the Branch Manager based on the financial performance of the company & should show trends in sales/profitability, liquidity, leverage etc. It should also contain an assessment of the competence and quality of the business management, the general economic & competitive environment of the borrowers industry and any other pertinent factors which is relevant for our credit decision.
s) Justification/consideration for the facility.
- The sanctioning authority on receipt of the proposal shall scrutinize the same and ensure that:
- All necessary papers and documents have been enclosed.
- The proposal has been duly signed by the members of the Branch Credit Committee including the Manager.
- The proposal has been duly recommended.
- The proposal does not fall within the existing credit restriction
- Minimum margin requirement against the credit facility has been proposed.
- The primary security has got easy marketability, durability and storability
- The property offered as collateral security is judiciously assessed
- The proposal is viable and stands all credit tests
- The proposed borrower is not defaulter (classified) of any Bank/Financial Institution
- There is no request from other Bank/Financial institution for not allowing/stoppage of facility to the proposed borrower.
- Where the proposed accommodation in the form of working capital may be considered on the project financed by any other Bank including DFI, favorable status report and No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the financing Institution is obtained.
- Where 2nd charge on the fixed and floating assets (in case of a limited company) or 2nd mortgage on real estate is offered, clearance in respect of creation of 2nd charge on the property together with confirmation that documents will be held by them on behalf of the Bank and that they shall not part with the same without consent of the Bank, is obtained from the 1 is mortgagee.
- Check list of action to be taken by the Branch Manager/Second Officer/Credit Officer before disbursement of Credit facilities
- Acceptance of customers to be obtained of the terms & conditions on the duplicate copy of sanction advice.
- They will thoroughly examine and ensure that the subject credit facility does not contradict to any law, rules and regulation of the country, Bangladesh Bank and our Bank.
- They will obtain NOC from Bank where the customer has existing liability.
- CIB Report on the borrower through Head Office.
- Lending Risk Analysis as per FSRP Formula in case of credit of Tk.50 lac and above.
- No objection certificate of Bangladesh Bank in case the credit facility exceeds 15% of Capital Funds of the Bank.
- Regularization/Adjustment of classified/overdue credit of the customer/their sister/allied concerns with our Bank/other Banks, if any.
- Sanction advice will be communicated by Head Office to the Branches and by the Branches to the customers under Double signatures authorized by the Bank.
- No Executives/Officers shall exceed prescribed limit of delegated business powers under any circumstances.
- Valuation of goods/produces/hypothecated to the Bank to secure any advance shall in no case exceed. The landed cost at the port of entry is assessed by the custom authority in case of imported goods.
- Goods and produces against which advances are made should be readily marketable.
- Loans & Advances allowed against FDRs, PSPs, MBDRs, and DBDRs etc. shall be adjusted immediately before the face value of the instruments and outstanding advance amount becomes equal or upon maturity, whichever is earlier.
- In case of advance against mortgage of property, original Title Deed and chain of documents i. e. C. S Parcha, R. S. Khatian, Mutation Certificate, Non-encumbrance Certificate, Municipal Tax Receipt, Approved plan, Rent Receipt (Upto date) etc. should be checked by a paneled lawyer or by the Bank’s Law Officer..
- Money suit/court cases against any defaulting borrower are to be filed by the branches after obtaining prior approval from Head Office.
Rules of sanctioning loans:
As initiated by Bangladesh Bank different kinds of lending were subdivided into 11 categories, and again to 7 prime sectors for fixation of rates of interest by the individual banks on competitive basis depending on the cost of funds, prevailing market condition and monetary policy of the country.
Loans and advances have primarily been divided into two major groups:
a) Fixed term loan: These are the advances made by the Bank with fixed repayment
schedules. The terms of loan are defined as follows:
Short term : Up to 12 months
Medium term : More than 12 and up to 36 months
Long term : More than 36 months
b) Continuous credits: These are the advances having no fixed repayment schedule, but have an expiry date at which it is renewable on satisfactory performance.
Further all categories of loans have been accommodated under the 7 prime sectors as under as:
Credit facilities to the agricultural sector falls under this category .It is subdivided into two major heads:
a) Loans to primary producers: This sector of agricultural financing refers to the credit facilities allowed to production units engaged in farming, fishing, forestry or livestock. Loans to processors or traders of agricultural products are not to be categorized as agricultural loans.
Loans to tea gardens for production are treated as agricultural loan, but loans to tea gardens for export should be treated under the category “Export Credit”. Similarly medium and long term loans to tea gardens are categorized as industrial term lending.
b) Loans to input dealers/distributors: It refers to the financing allowed to input dealers and (or) distributors in the agricultural sector. Agricultural loans may include short, medium and long term loans as well as continuing credits. As such, it may fall under the head. (a) Loans (General), (b) Hire Purchase or (c) Lease Financing.
c) Rural & Micro credit: The bank will provide rural credit through rural branches and other rural institutions engaged in rural up liftment through credit delivery. Small loan particularly micro credits will be extended without collateral security through proper supervision and monitoring. Individual supervising agency may be appointed for supervising such micro credits.
Term Loan for Large & Medium Scale Industry:
This category of advances accommodate the medium and long term financing for capital structure formation of new Industries or for BMRE of the existing units who are engaged in manufacturing goods and services. Term financing to tea gardens may also be included in this category depending on the nature and size.
As the financing under this category has fixed repayment schedule it falls under the head
Loan (General), Hire purchase or Lease Finance.
Term Loans to Small & Cottage Industries:
These are the medium. and long term loans allowed to small & cottage industries Small Industries are presently defined as those establishments whose total investment in fixed capital such as land, building, machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed 30 million taka and investment in machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed 10 million taka. Cottage industries also fall within this definition.
Bangladesh Bank gives interest subsidy @3% to the Banks on loans extended under this category. No short term or continuing credits are to be included in this category. Medium & Long term weaver credits are also included under this category .Like the Large & Medium Scale Industry it is also allowed in the form of “Loan (Gen), Hire-Purchase or Lease Financing”.
Loans allowed to the manufacturing units to meet their working capital requirements, irrespective of their size -big, medium or small, fall under the category. These are usually continuing credits and as such fall under the head “Cash Credit (Hypothecation)
Credit facilities allowed to facilitate export of all items against Letter of Credit /and/or confirmed export orders fall under this category. It is accommodated under the heads “Export Cash Credit (ECC)”, Packing Credit (PC), Foreign Documentary Bills Purchased (FDBP), Local Export Bills Purchased etc.
Short term loans and continuing credits allowed for commercial purposes other than exports fall under this category .It includes import financing, financing for internal trade, service establishment, etc. No medium and long term loans are accommodated here. This category of advances are allowed in the form of (i) Loan against Trust Receipt (LTR), (ii) Payment against Import Documents (PAD), (iii) Secured Overdrafts (SOD), (iv) Cash Credit (Hyp), (v) Loan (Gen), etc. for commercial purposes.
Any loan that does not fall in any of the above categories is considered under the category of other lending. It includes loan to (1) Transport Equipment, (ii) Construction Works including Housing (commercial/residential), (iii) Work Order Finance, (IV) Personal Loans, etc.
Loan Syndication & Structured Finance:
Syndication means joint financing by more than one bank to the same clients against a common security. This is done basically to spread the risk. It also provides a scope for an independent evaluation of risk and focused monitoring by the agent / lead bank. In Syndication financing banks also enter into an agreement that one of the lenders may act as Lead Bank. In such case, lead bank has to co-ordinate the activities at various stages of handling the proposal i.e. appraisal, sanction, documentation, sharing of security, disbursement, inspection, follow-up, recovery, distribution of installments. / interest etc. It may also call meeting on syndication members, whenever necessary to finalize any decision.
The syndicate may generally be worked in two ways:
1. Best effort Method. 2. Underwriting Method. At present the Best effort method is in practice in our country
Types of Syndicated facilities:
- Credit enhanced syndicated loan.
- Working Capital Syndication.
- Loan for New Projects.
- Project Finance Loan
- Local Currency Loan under Structured Finance etc.
Parties to the Syndication:
- Arranger (Single Arranger / Co-Arranger / Arranger Group). Arranger must obtain mandate from the customer / Borrower.
- Participants (Banks / Financial Institutions etc.).
- The Facility Manager / Agent (Banks / Financial Institutions).
Advantages of Lenders / Banks:
- Large Loan requirement within legal lending limit can be managed.
- For diversification of risk / sharing of risk.
- Scope of diversification across customers and industries.
Advantages of Customers:
- May get a large loan by contacting with one Bank / Arranger.
- Less time consuming and cost effective.
- Answerable to only one Bank.
Important factors for syndication:
- Mandate to be obtained from the Borrower.
- Market appetite – whether it is saleable to the market / participants.
- Whether the participants are confident enough of the capability of the Arranger.
- Whether the due diligence are properly conducted.
- Time Limit for the arrangement / Facility.
A separate unit for Project Finance has been established in the Head Office Credit Division. The functions of the unit are to appraise / analyze the Feasibility of the project, conduct due diligence, address the risk factors and to be placed before the Head Office Credit Committee / Executive Committee / Board of Directors based on the lending authority.
The Bank intends to encourage the small and medium entrepreneurs and hence structured its SME financing activities. The Bank has set the definition of small enterprise in line with Bangladesh Bank guidelines. A special credit scheme under the name and style “Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Scheme” has been introduced to extend credit facilities to the small and medium entrepreneurs of the country.
- Contribute to the socio-economic development of the country.
- Encourage small and medium industry especially agro-based industry of the country.
- Participate in reduction of poverty through employment generation and income generating projects.
- Provide financial assistance to small and medium enterprise, which have limited access to the formal financial markets.
Target Customer Segment:
- Micro Enterprise
- Small Enterprise/Business
Extent of Facilities:
Facilities will be determined depending upon the experience of the entrepreneur and the size of the project.
- Small Enterprise
- Medium Enterprise
- Working Capital Loan-Overdraft/Cash Credit (Hypothecation)
- Project Loan/Term Loan- Hire Purchase
Tenor of Loan:
- Up to 1 (one) for Working Capital Loan
- More than 1 (one) for Project Loan/Term Loan
- Rate of Interest: 14%p.a.
- Service Charge: 1% on the outstanding balance on monthly basis.
- Risk Fund: 1% one time to be realized at the time of sanction the loan.
- No charges will be realized for processing the loan proposal.
Equity of the Borrower:
- New entrepreneur: 10%
- Experienced entrepreneur: 15%.
Equity must be deposited to the bank before availing the facility.
It is done by making payment of specific number of installments.
- Hypothecation on the inventory, receivables, advance payments, plant & machineries.
- Equitable mortgage over immovable properties with registered Power of Attorney.
- Personal Guarantees of Spouse/Parents/other family members.
- One third party personal guarantee,
- Post dated cheques for each installment.
- Collateral Securities viz. Financial Instruments, Land and Building.
Borrowers can also get training from their selected institutions, which must be recognized by the Bank. BIM, BSCIC, MIDAS are preferred training institutions.
The Bank extended different types of credit facilities to the Export oriented Industries / Exporter from the very inception of the Bank. Recently the Bank has reviewed the position and revised its policy to increase the volume of export business by extending finance to well reputed export oriented industries having a track record. This will bring the bank a substantial profit as well as foreign currency to meet the obligation against import. The Bank extends facilities in both pre-shipment stage and port-shipment stage for working capital like procurement and procuring of raw materials, Packing and transporting of goods, insurance premiums, freight charges, inspection fees etc. Pre-shipment finance will be allowed either against irrevocable Letter of Credit of a reputed foreign Bank or against finance contract from reputed foreign buyers acceptable to the bank.
The bank does not grant any packing credit facility against (i) Restricted L/C and (ii) Revocable L/C. Before negotiation, the dealing officer must check and scrutinize the documents thoroughly to ensure that they have been drawn in exact conformity with the terms and conditions mentioned in the Letter of Credit.
Finance in Garments Sector:
The Bank’s policy is to increase the volume of export business substantially. In view of this the bank has established a separate unit under Head Office Credit Division for handling the Garments Business. In order to take necessary precautions during opening of Back to Back L/C for the import of fabrics and accessories, the Bank has strengthen its monitoring / supervisory functions for protecting the Bank’s interest.
In order to cope with the changes in the economy and society, the Bank’s policy is to develop and introduce new products for different customers group.
Small Loan Scheme:
With a view to provide financial assistance to the shopkeepers of different shopping center / market situated at various cities of the country, the bank has launched an especial program under Small Loan Scheme.
Earnest Money Financing Scheme:
With a view to encourage the contractor financing against works, an earnest money financing scheme has been introduced.
Doctors Credit Scheme:
In order to provide modern Medicare facility to the mass people of the country, a Scheme namely “Doctors Credit Scheme” has been introduced for newly passed MBBS Doctors, Specialist Doctors and Owner(s) of Clinic / Hospital / Diagnostic Centre.
Personal Loan Scheme:
With a view to cater the Credit needs of Government / Semi Government Officials / Employees of Autonomous Bodies / Banks and financial Institutions / Multinational Companies / reputed private organization and Teachers of Public / private School / Colleges / Universities, a personal loan Scheme has been introduced.
Consumer Credit Scheme:
In order to provide financial assistance for purchasing household consumable items, the Bank has launched an especial credit program under Consumer Credit Scheme to upgrade the living standard of the people who happens to be the main driving force of the economy.
Women Entrepreneurship Development Project:
With a view to encourage women to take active role in Socio-economic activities, an especial project in the name of “Women Entrepreneurship Development Project” has been introduced for extending credit facility for establishment / Expansion of Small Cottage Industry and also as working capital to the project.
Lease Finance Scheme:
Lease Financing is one of the most convenient sources of acquiring capital machinery and equipment whereby a client is given the opportunity to have an exclusive right to use an asset usually for an agreed period of time against payment of rent. It is a term financing repayable by installment. With a view to encourage the genuine and capable entrepreneurs for acquiring Capital machinery, medical equipment, Computers and various items, the bank has introduced Lease Finance Scheme. Interest rate fluctuates between 17-17.5%. Other terms and condition are applicable like term loan.
Types of Credit Activities:
Depending on the various nature of financing, all the lending activities have been brought under the following major heads:
Short term, Medium term & Long term loans allowed to individual/firm/industries for a specific purpose but for a definite period and generally repayable by installments fall under this head. These types of lending are mainly allowed to accommodate financing under the categories (I) Large & Medium Scale Industry and (ii) Small & Cottage Industry.
House Building Loan (General):
Loans allowed to individual/enterprises for construction of house (residential or commercial) fall under this type of advance. The amount is repayable by monthly installment within a specified period. Such advances are known as House Building Loan (General).
House Building Loan (Staff):
The Board of Directors of the Bank introduced a well- timed and pragmatic revised House Building Loan Scheme for the employees of the Bank in view of increase of price of land, cost of construction materials, purchasing price of ready-made flat/house in the major cities of the country as also to improve welfare of Executives/ Officers of the Bank. The scheme is called the “Employees House Building Loan Scheme of Mercantile Bank” The loan under the scheme is not claimed as a matter of right but is extended on first come first served basis subject to availability of Annual Budgetary allocation of fund for the Scheme approved by the Board.
The amount of the loan can not exceed the actual cost and other expenses relating to the land and/or construction of a house or purchase price of a readymade flat/apartment. The loan ceiling has been determined which are as follows:
|Sl. No.||Category of Employees||Amount of Loan|
|01.||Senior Vice President and Above||Tk.32.00 Lac|
|02.||Asstt. Vice President to Vice President||Tk.27.00 Lac|
|03.||Senior Officer to Senior Principal Officer||Tk.17.00 Lac|
|04.||Asstt. Officer to Officer||Tk.12.00 Lac|
|Employees other than Officer||Tk.5.00 Lac|
Car Loan Schemes
The Transport Policy of MBL for providing Cars to the Executives against loan was approved by the Board of Directors. In the light of increase of value of car, fuel, motor parts, maintenance cost and the cost of living index ,it has been observed that existing monthly Car allowance allowed to the Executives do not commensurate with the real operating cost of the vehicle. As such, the existing Car Loan Scheme may be re-designed in a way that the loan facility does not become a burden for the concerned executives.
It is also observed from the Car Loan Schemes of some Banks that they are providing Car loan to their Executives without any interest. Moreover, their Car allowances are higher than MBL.
The ceiling of loan, monthly loan installment and monthly car allowance, have been fixed by making a comparison the same with new generation Banks (copy enclosed) are as follows
|Sl. No.||Designation of the Executives||Loan Limit ( New Car)||Monthly Allowance|
Cash Credits & Overdrafts (Against Hypothecation of Goods/Stocks)
Advance may are sanctioned to a client against primary security of hypothecation of raw materials and/or finished products. Under this arrangement, the borrower by signing a letter of hypothecation duly stamped, creates a charge against the goods for an amount of debt but neither the ownership nor the possession of the same is passed on to the Bank. Only a right or interest on the goods is created in favor of the Bank, but the borrower binds himself to give possession of the goods to the Bank when called upon to do so.
Hence, in order to secure the advance, Bank normally insists on the borrowers to provide suitable collateral security.
While allowing credit facility against hypothecation of goods/stocks the following points are considered subject to restrictions imposed from time to time:
- The facility is to be allowed only to the trustworthy having undoubted standing and credit worthiness.
- The goods are sellable and borrower has an absolute title in goods.
- Hypothecation advance is allowed by banks only for working capital and not for capital investment.
- The goods are not subject to rapid deterioration due to storage for short or long duration. The prices of the goods are steady
- The goods are not encumbered and/or hypothecated to any other Bank.
- In case agricultural crops, the crops should be of current season and the advance is adjustable before the crops of next season comes in the market.
Sale of Stocks:
In default of repayment of an advance called upon by the Bank, the Bank has the right to sell the stock pledged to it as security after giving reasonable notice to the borrower. Such notice must be sent by registered letter, with acknowledgement due, whenever it becomes necessary to realize the security. In the event of the registered letter being refused, it must be kept unopened so that it can be produced in the court, if necessary, as evidence of notice having given
Hire-Purchase is a type of installment credit under which the borrower agrees to take the goods on hire at a stated rental, which is inclusive of the repayment of Principal as well as interest for adjustment of the loan within a specified period.
These are advances allowed to individual/firms against financial obligation (i.e. lien on FDR/PSP/ BSP/ insurance Policy/Share etc). This may or may not be a continuous Credit.
Advance allowed for purchasing foreign currency for payment against LCs (Back to Back) where the exports do not materialize before the date of import payment. This is also an advance for temporary period which is known as export finance and falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
Advances allowed against assignment of work order for execution of contractual works falls under this head. This advance is generally allowed for a definite period and specific purpose. I.e. it is not a continuous credit. It falls under the category SOD “Others”.
PAD (Payment against Document):
Payment made by the Bank against lodgment of shipping documents of goods imported through LCs falls under this head. It is an interim advance connected with import and is generally liquidated against payments usually made by the party for retirement of the documents for release of imported goods from the customs authority. It falls under the category “Commercial Lending”.
LTR (Loan against Trustee Received):
Advance allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through L/C falls under this head. The goods are handed over to the importer under Trust Receipt with the arrangement that sale proceeds should be deposited with the Bank to liquidate the advances within a given period. This is also a temporary advance connected with import and known as post-import finance and falls under the category ‘Commercial Lending”.
Sector wise allocations of Loans and Advances:
MBL always prefers in well diversified portfolio investment. The portfolio continues to be free from undue concentrations in terms of exposure of any specific industry.
|SL||Sectors||Sector wise Allocation of loans for the Year 2009|
|3||Engineering(Iron and steel/ Electrical)||4958.56|
|5||Food, Beverage, Edible oil||2471.27|
|11||Hospital and Medical Services||477.95|
Source: Annual Report 2009
SWOT analysis is an important part for evaluating the company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. It helps the organization to identify how to evaluate its performance and scan the micro as well as macro environment.
As I was engaged to identify the current position of Mercantile Bank Limited in the competitive in the market, it is very necessary to have the SWOT analysis to identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats of MBL. This is one of the popular way by which one get take necessary action to improve their business because SWOT analysis is completely depend on the market. The SWOT analysis of MBL is given below:
Mercantile Bank Limited is having the following strengths:
- Transparent and quick decision making.
- Efficient team of performance.
- Satisfied customers.
- Customers do not need to give any collateral to get the money.
- Diversification to perform business operation.
Mercantile Bank Limited is having the following weaknesses:
- Installment period and installment time duration is relatively low.
- Long management hierarchy.
- MBL has no promotional tools for their clients.
- Service charge and risk fund is 1% that is too high.
- Low geographical coverage of service
- Lack of success plan.
Mercantile Bank Limited is having the following weaknesses:
- Huge demand from the customer.
- The bank can earn high profit from this sector.
- Further diversification of product.
- As the economic condition of the country is not so good, customers will have need of this loan.
- People in Bangladesh have less involvement with the bank.
- Competitors are arising day by day.
- Switching of the customers to the other banks.
- Globalization of banking business.
- Borrowers are having the tendency to be the defaulter.
- Political instability in the country.
FINDINGS & ANALYSIS
During internship period in Mercantile Bank Limited, Satmasjid Road Branch the following problems or shortage are observed.
- Lack of sufficient executives or officers especially in the credit division hampers the loan sanctioning process in time.
- MBL takes relatively more times in granting loans advances to different parties. It seriously discourages the persons who are inclined to get loan for their urgent purpose. Mode of disbursement, charge documents etc. Head office takes so longer time in processing and approval of corporate loan. The total sanctioning process event takes month after month to give the final decision.
- MBL does not sanction loan to all sectors equally as they require, rather it concentrates its loan and advances within some limited fields and category.
- MBL has Credit Card facilities but ATM booths are located in some commercial hub in the city. Again the terms and conditions of the credit card are not changes with the changing environment. That’s why ATM card holders most often don’t take credit card facilities even in some cases employee of MBL use other banks credit card.
- There is discrimination in sanctioning sector wise breakup of loans and advances. Consumer credit schemes (CCS) are more popular and require things among the people of various classes but MBL don’t have any customized schemes targeting various classes of people. Even the effective rate of interest is very high. And the terms and conditions of CCS loan are also very inconvenient and discourage people.
Lots of new commercial bank has been established in last few years and these banks have made this banking sector very competitive. So, now banks have to organize their operation and do their operations according to the need of the market. Banking sectors no more depends on a traditional method of banking. In this competitive world this sector has trenched its wings wide enough to cover any kind of financial services anywhere in this world. The major task for banks, to survive in this competitive environment is by managing its assets and liabilities in an efficient way.
So at last I would like to say that every organization has its positive as well as negatives and in case of Mercantile Bank Limited existence of the later one is less then the earlier one and as the management is determined to reach the pick of success it seems that in near future the negatives will be eliminated. Eleven years is a very short span of time and the organization, which can establish itself as one of the most reputed private commercial Bank in the country within this short period deserves special credit and with their able leaders, Mercantile Bank will reach the highest level of success very shortly. I wish the bank all success prosperity in their field.
- MBL should disburse their loans in various sector rather than specific scheme.
- Loan sanctioning and disbursement procedure should be easy and flexible being consider the requirements of different classes of people.
- Amount of loan can be raised in proportion with the existing demand of people in SME loan, CCS and Personal loan. SME loan can be popular among the small trader and lower income group people like MBL DPS.
- MBL credit Policies can be revised being considered with the increase demand of telecom, transportation, Knit and packaging and plastic industry.
- Sector wised loan in agro based industries and firms, lather technology can be convenient and flexible for the receiver.
1. Annual Report 2009
3. MBL database
4. Credit Manual of Mercantile Bank Limited
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