Financing SME and its Impact on Economic Development

Major objective of this report is to analysis Financing SME and its Impact on Economic Development, here focus on BRAC Bank SME Lending Activities. Other objectives are analyze the SME loan processing activities and describe operational procedure of Asset Operations Department for SME loan processing. Finally analyze strength and weakness of the Asset Operations Department and the disbursement and recovery procedures of SME loans. Also focus on to know the terms and conditions of SME loans and analyze micro and macro environment of the economy.

Introduction

BRAC Bank Limited is a scheduled commercial bank in Bangladesh. It established in Bangladesh under the Banking Companies Act, 1991 and incorporated as private limited company on May 20, 1999 under the Companies Act, 1994. Its operation started on July 4, 2001 with a vision to be the market leader through to providing all sorts’ support to people in term of promoting corporate and small entrepreneurs and individuals all over the Bangladesh.

BRAC Bank will be a unique organization in Bangladesh. The Bank consists of major divisions named 1) Corporate banking, 2) Retail banking, 3) Treasury, 4) Small & Medium Enterprise (SME). At present the Bank operating its business by 29 Branches. BRAC Bank is the first local commercial banks that proving online banking service to its customers from the very beginning of its starts.

BRAC Bank, for the first time among local commercial banks, starts providing loan facilities to small and medium trading, manufacturing and service oriented enterprises all over the country.

 

Objective of the Report

Broad Objective

To know SME documentation process and disbursement activity.

Specific Objectives

  • To analyze the SME loan processing activities
  • To know the operational procedure of Asset Operations Department for SME loan processing
  • To analyze strength & weakness of the Asset Operations Department
  • To access the key performance indicator of the department
  • To know the disbursement and recovery procedures of SME loans
  • To know the enterprise selection criteria to provide SME loan
  • To know the terms and conditions of SME loans
  • To know the success factor of SME banking at BRAC Bank Limited.
  • To Analyze micro and macro environment of the economy

 

Economic development and the evolving of BRAC Bank.

The context of the financial and economic condition of Bangladesh, 2008-2009 was a remarkable year. September 11 tragedy when deteriorating the world economy, also affected our economy. But effort for implementation of the on going reforms in the financial and others of the economy were strengthened and a pragmatic approach to macroeconomic management was adopted during the year under report. To bring about desired pace in overall economic activities a moderately accommodative monetary policy was pursued during 2003-2004 in close consonance with the rehabilitation and development programmed. Of course there was a policy for keeping inflection at a tolerable rate. The face of overall economic activities in the country gathered momentum during 2003-2004 for extending agricultural loans at easy terms and for arrangement and supply of agricultural input including fertilizers in a fair price. As a result an agriculture friendly environment was created in the country. Growth rate of GDP has been strengthened during the year mainly due to strong expansion of agriculture sector and significant pickup of export demand right and effective policy at the right time in successful implementation of agriculture rehabilitation program and hard labor of the country’s toiling production contributed to humped production of food crops during the year.  As a result, total food grain production increased by 14.2% bolstering overall output growth of the agricultural sector up from 3.3% in 2002-2003 to 5.5% in 2003-2004. Improved global economic environment led to perceptible buoyancy of demand for Bangladesh export commodities, which also helped increased industrial productions. Growth rate of the industrial sector increased from 3.2% in 2002-2003 to 4.3% 2003-2004.

As a result, over all growth rate of GDP accelerated from 5.3% in the previous year to 5.52% in 2003-2004. The gross domestic savings in the current market prices during the year under report increased by Tk. 3999.80 crore or 10.3% to Tk. 42901.40 crore and gross investments increased by Tk. 5393.00 crore or 11.1% to Tk. 54150.5 crore. In this context a new dynamic bank emerged named BRAC Bank, a fully online scheduled commercial bank opened in 2001, is dedicated to offer its clientele truly international standard banking services. BRAC Banks customer friendly product with convenient features is all designed to meet the grouting and changing needs. Most important, The BRAC Bank has a team of expert sales persons who will take banking at the doorsteps of customers.

 

Background of the Organization

BRAC Bank Limited is a scheduled commercial bank in Bangladesh. It established in Bangladesh under the Banking Companies Act, 1991 and incorporated as private limited company on 20 May 1999 under the Companies Act, 1994. BRAC Bank will be a unique organization in Bangladesh. The primary objective of the Bank is to provide all kinds of banking business. At the very beginning the Bank faced some legal obligation because the High Court of Bangladesh suspended activity of the Bank and it could fail to start its operations till 03 June 2001. Eventually, the judgment of the High Court was set aside and dismissed by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court on 04 June 2001 and the Bank has started its operations from July 04, 2001.

The importance of financial intermediaries in the development of the overall economy of country cannot be described in short. From the inception of the civilization the banking sector dominate the economic development of a country by mobilizing the saving from the general people and channeling those saving for investment and thus economic development and growth. In ancient time, the importance of commercial banks after the ravage of the liberation war to develop a better economy was severally needed and it is needed now and will be required in future also. In time-to-time Government of Bangladesh agreed to permit the private commercial banking in the country. BRAC bank will be knowledge-based organization where the BRAC Bank professionals will learn continuously from their customers and colleague’s world wide to add value. It will work as a team, stretch, they will innovate and break barriers to serve customers and create customers loyalty through a value chain of responsive and professional delivery. The bank promotes broad-based participation in the Bangladesh economy through the provision of high quality banking services. BRAC Bank will do this by increasing access to economic opportunities for all individuals and business in Bangladesh with a special focus on currently under-served enterprises and households across the rural – urban spectrum. BRAC Bank believes that the pursuit of profit and developmental goals is mutually reinforcing.

Increasing the ability of under – served individuals and enterprises to build their asset base and access market opportunities will increase the economic well being for all Bangladeshis at the same time, this will contribute significantly to the profitability of the Bank. BRAC Bank intends to set standards as the Market leader in Bangladesh. It will produce earnings and pay out dividends that can support the activities of BRAC, the Bank’s major shareholder. Development and poverty alleviation on a countrywide basis needs mass production, mass consumption and mass financing.

BRAC Bank goal is to provide mass financing to enable mass production and mass consumption, and thereby contribute to the development of Bangladesh. BRAC Bank intends to set standard as the market leader in Bangladesh by providing efficient, friendly and modern fully automated online service on a profitable basis aiming at offering commercial banking service to the customers’ door around the country, BRAC Bank limited established 45 branches up-to this year.

This organization achieved customers’ confidence immediately after its establishment. Within this short time the bank has been successful in positioning itself as progressive and dynamic financial institution in the country. It is now widely acclaimed by the business community, from small entrepreneur to big merchant and conglomerates, including top rated corporate and foreign investors, for modern and innovative ideas and financial solution. Thus within this short time it has been able to create an unique image for itself and earned significant solution in the banking sector of the country as a bank with a difference.  The emergence of BRAC Bank Limited is an important event in the country’s financial sector at the inception of financial sector reform. The authorized capital of BBL is Tk. 1000 million and paid up capital of the same bank is Tk. 500 million.

ShareholdersPercent
BRAC  31.74%
IFC  9.50%
Shore Cap International  8.76%
General Public through IPO  40%
Non-Residents Bangladeshi’s  5%

Vision

BRAC Bank will be a unique organization in Bangladesh. It will be a knowledge-based organization where the BRAC Bank professionals will learn continuously from their customers and colleagues worldwide to add value. They will work as a team, stretch themselves, innovate and break barriers to serve customers and create customer loyalty through a value chain of responsive and professional service delivery.

Continuous improvement, problem solution, excellence in service, business prudence, efficiency and adding value will be the operative words of the organization. BRAC Bank will serve its customers with respect and will work very hard to instill a strong customer service culture throughout the bank. It will treat its employees with dignity and will build a company of highly qualified professionals who have integrity and believe in the Bank’s vision and who are committed to its success.  BRAC Bank will be a socially responsible institution that will not lend to businesses that have a detrimental impact on the environment and people.

Mission

BRAC Bank will adhere to highly professional and ethical business principles and internationally acceptable banking and accounting standards. Every BRAC Bank professional will need first of all a commitment to excellence in all that he/she does, a keen desire for success, a determination to excel and a drive to be the best.

Goals

BRAC Bank will be the absolute market leader in the number of loans given to small and medium sized enterprises through out Bangladesh. It will be a world-class organization in terms of service quality and establishing relationships that help its customers to develop and grow successfully. It will be the Bank of choice both for its employees and its customers, the model bank in this part of the world.

Objectives

The objective of BRAC Bank Limited is specific and targeted to its vision and to position itself in the mindset of the people as a bank with difference. The objective of BRAC Bank Limited is as follows:

  • Building a strong customer focus and relationship based on integrity, superior service.
  • To creating an honest, open and enabling environment
  • To value and respect people and make decisions based on merit
  • To strive for profit & sound growth
  • To value the fact that they are the members of the BRAC family – committed to the creation of employment opportunities across Bangladesh.
  • To work as a team to serve the best interest of our owners
  • To relentless in pursuit of business innovation and improvement
  • To base recognition and reward on performance
  • To responsible, trustworthy and law-abiding in all that we do
  • To mobilize the savings and channeling it out as loan or advance as the company approve.
  • To establish, maintain, carry on, transact and undertake all kinds of investment and financial business including underwriting, managing and distributing the issue of stocks, debentures, and other securities.
  • To finance the international trade both in import and export.
  • To develop the standard of living of the limited income group by providing Consumer Credit.
  • To finance the industry, trade and commerce in both the conventional way and by offering customer friendly credit service.
  • To encourage the new entrepreneurs for investment and thus to develop the country’s industry sector and contribute to the economic development.

Bank’s Culture

Bank has adopted trust as a corporate value which is acronym for team work, respect for all people, unquestionable integrity, excellence in everything BRAC Bank of SME do, Sense of urgency in getting things done and total commitment.

All employees are expected to conduct themselves in accordance with the rules and regulations of the bank.

 

Business Units

There are five different business units generating business BRAC Bank Limited:

  • Small & Medium Enterprise (SME)
  • Corporate Banking
  • Retail Banking
  • Treasury
  • Remittance Services

All the units are being operated in a centralized manner to minimize costs and risks.

 

 Products and Services

i) Small & Medium Enterprise (SME)

The most valuable natural resource of Bangladesh is its people. Micro lenders are working here in the financial field, providing very small amount and on the other hand regular commercial banks have been providing bigger amount of loans to larger industries and trading organizations. But the small medium entrepreneurs were over looked. This missing middle group is the small but striving entrepreneurs, who because of lack of fund cannot pursue their financial uplift, as they have no property to provide as equity to the commercial banks. With this end in view-BRAC Bank was opened to serve these small but hard working entrepreneurs with double bottom line vision. As a socially responsible bank, BRAC Bank wants to see the emancipation of grass-root level to their economic height and also to make profit by serving the interest of missing middle groups. 50% of our total portfolio usually collected from urban areas, channeled to support these entrepreneurs who in future will become the potential strength of our economy. We are the market lenders in giving loans to Small and Medium Entrepreneurs. We have been doing it for the last five years.

BRAC Bank Ltd has in total 900 unit offices, 80 zonal office, 12 territory and 1800 Customer Relationship Officers. These CRO’s work for the Bank to converge clients for getting the loan. Once CRO’s get the loan application and if it is less than 500,000 TK then zonal officer has the authority to approve the loan. But if it is above 500,000 then the CRO’s send it to Head Office for all necessary approval. After approving the loan then Asset Operation Department starts its work. As the growing, the amount of files and disbursement is getting bigger. In September 2006 AOD has processed 3249 files amounting Tk. 1,235,200,000. So SME Division’s success greatly relies on the performance. Up to April 2007, BBL provides loans for 70000 clients and in total 2265 crore TK. But the most important thing is only 17 crore TK is bad loan, this is a great achievement for SME unit of BBL. Currently they have 44147 outstanding clients and in total 1070 crore TK SME loan.

SME Products-

  1. Prothoma Rin.
  2. Supplier Finance.
  3. Anonno Rin.
  4. Digoon Rin.
  5. Pathshala Rin.
  6. Opurbo Rin.

 

Product and services

The bank has its concentration for new product and services development for satisfying its customer and increasing its customer base. The bank firmly believes that technology based

product and services will play significant role in the performance of the bank as people are getting more conscious about their service quality. They prefer now faster service with least cost. For delivering faster service the bank has introduced online banking service from the very beginning. There are some new products and services that BBL has lately introduced. These are:

  • Now Loan
  • Salary Loan
  • Credit card Services (Proposed)
  • Islamic Banking Services (Proposed)
  • ATM services

BRAC Bank Limited is always emphasizing the improvement of banking service and betterment of living standard of the general people of Bangladesh. The product and services are targeted to the lower level to the upper level income group in deposit collection. For lending, the services are made if certain requirements are fulfilled.

 

Treasury

Money Market Desk

BRAC Bank has a strong presence in the Treasury Market in Bangladesh. The Money Market Desk of the Treasury Division mainly deals in Bangladeshi Taka transactions. The basic activities undertaken by the Money Market Desk are:

  • Management of Statutory Reserves viz. Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) & Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
  • Daily Funds & Liquidity Management
  • Investment Management

Treasury Services

  • Call/Overnight Lending & Borrowing
  • Term Money Borrowing & Lending
  • Repurchase Agreement
  • Treasury Bills (T-Bills)

Secured Remittance Services (SRS)

BRAC bank has introduced an innovative remittance services for Bangladeshis living abroad with some unique features compared to any of the existing remittance program. Bangladeshi expatriates can now send their money to their relatives any where in Bangladesh even to the remotest part within 24 hours at a reasonable cost and competitive exchange rate.

Information Technology

BRAC Bank Ltd. is currently running countrywide true online banking system. The system allows their customers to do transactions all around the country. The bank cheques are all marked with Barcodes that makes each cheque unique and disallows it to be duplicated. All the signature and customer information with their pictures can be verified from any console at any branch on the bank. We also ensure Offsite backup and Disaster Recovery. Their Goal is to provide a true online baking system, which will not only fulfill the demand of time but also set new benchmarks in twenty-first centuries banking world.

Special Feature

  • All Branches are computerized
  • 99% banks work is automated using latest technology
  • BRAC Bank is a member of SWIFT community
  • Intercity Branches are connected via optical fiber backbone network

Capital Fund

The authorized and paid up capital of BBL is TK.1000 million and TK.500 million respectively.  The paid up capital is one of the strongest in the banking industry. The bank is going to raise its paid up capital in the month July, 2009 by TK.500 million with issuing public share of 5,00,000 of TK.100 each.

Internal and External source of cash

Date31/12/0631/12/0731/12/0831/03/09
Ordinary share405,020,000500,000,000500,000,000500,000,000
Preference share   150,000,000
Statutory reserve 19,860,55058,396,570135,564,816
Surplus in profit(9,095,940)70,346,259224,490,340226,006,069
Total395,924,060590,206,809782,886,9101,011,507,885

(Amount in Taka)

 

Basic Appraisal of Small &Medium Enterprise

Business or project appraisal is a technique of evaluating and analyzing Business from various aspects, primarily the risks associated with that business enterprise. At the time of appraisal of any manufacturing, trading or service related organization, factory or industry; one has to perform a feasibility study on the different aspects. These are:

  • Management and Personal Aspects
  • Technical Aspects
  • Marketing Aspects
  • Financial Aspects
  • Social Economic Aspects
  • Security Aspect

Management and personal aspects

During the appraisal prosecute the Customer Relation Officer (CRO) should endeavor to obtain details about the prospective borrowers, some of which are:

  • Business related information
  • Credit History
  • Liquidity Information
  • Management Background

In considering the above, one should look at the business is managed. CRO should also consider clients previous credit history like facilitates sought and availed, loan repayment an overdue record, if anyone checks the client’s bank account and amount of balance maintained. Management’s qualification, experience, successor and maintenance of records should provide insight in to the business.

Technical Aspects

From a business perspective, this aspects deals with design of the system in place, the operation of the business, the different type of physical resources used, the technology used, the capacity to handle business and all other inputs.  Labor, raw materials, utilities etc.) Among the technical factors to be investigated during an appraisal are:

  • The size of project
  • The process, materials, equipment, and reliability of technical systems to be used
  • Location of projects
  • Sustainability of the plans, layout and design used
  • Total quantity of the goods /Service produced/Traded monthly
  • Environment of the business and its surrounding areas
  • Availability to various factors of production, both physical and human
  • Raw materials availability, price level and its variation to be considered

Marketing Aspects

A CRO should consider the following factors of a business before making any loan commitment with a customer:

Total demand and supply of the products in the market that the business operates in growth of sales and major marketing threats that the business may face.

Financial Aspects

This aspect allows us to check the financial health of a business, through an analysis of the profit and loss account, balance sheet, cash flows, ratios, and requirement of working capital. If the collection of the financial data can be done properly, then it may be able to make a somewhat realistic picture of the business financial position. How ever, all the data collected must be crosschecked as much as possible with the physical features of business.

The following things are to be considered and determined at the time of verifying the financial feasibility of the business:

  1. Current year’s profit/loss of the business & probable profitability of business after taking loan
  2. Determination of assets, liabilities and net worth of the manufacturing/ trading / service institution before and after taking loan
  3. Present net cash flow of the business after disbursement of loan should be determined,
  4. To know the cash position of the institution
  5. To know the source of income, production and other expenditure of the business probable financial risks of the business.

Socio Economic Aspects

Here the analyst like to observe the contribution of the business to the country’s GDP, the employment generated, the sort of adverse impact of the business on the environment, if an other benefit to the country.

Security Aspects

Along with observation of different aspects and views of the projects, the CRO should also see closely the aspects of the projects and ensure about the reliability to the mortgaged property/assets. Ensure proper survey or verification of the security offered, Ensure attachment of survey report.

Organizational Layout Of BRAC Bank SME Loan

  • Credit Division
  • Business Development Division
  • MIS Division

 

SME Activities

The main focus of BRAC Bank is to develop human and economic position of a country. Its function is not limited only to providing and recovering of loan. But also try to develop economy of a country. So reasons for this program from the viewpoint of BBL:

Support Small Enterprise

The small enterprise, which requires 2 to 30, lacks Tk. loan, but these has no easy access to the banks/financial institutions. For example: In the of 3 to 8 lacs amount of loans is provided without any kind of mortgage.

Economic Development

Economic development of a country largely depends on the small and medium seal enterprises. Such as, if we analyze the development history of Japan, the development of small & medium scale enterprises expedite the development of that country.

Employment Generation

The bank gearing employment opportunities by two ways: Firstly, by providing loan to the small enterprises expanding, these businesses require more workers. Secondly, Small & Medium Enterprise (SME) program requires educated and energetic people to provide support to entrepreneurs.

Profit Marking

SME program is a new dimensional banking system in the banking world. Most of the CRO’s are providing door-to-door services to the entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are satisfied by the service of the bank and make profit.

Encourage Manufacturing

The focus of BRAC Bank is to encourage manufacturing by the entrepreneurs who produce by purchasing various types of materials. CRO try to educate them to produce material if possible because if they can produce in line of purchase profits will be high.

Spread the experience

Another reason of BRAC Bank is to spread the knowledge on the importance of SME banking regarding various businesses. The customer services officer share their knowledge from various businesses and tries to help the entrepreneurs who have shortage of the gathered knowledge. CRO’s who are the driving force of SME division of BRAC Bank also gather knowledge about various businesses and make stronger knowledge base.

 

Security Documentation Against Loan

A document is a written statement of facts and a proof or evidence of particular transaction between parties involved. While allowing any disbursements against credit facilities to borrowers, it should be ensured that prior to any disbursements; security documentation is fully and properly completed.

 a) Purpose of Decorate Documentation and its Importance

Documentation is necessary for the acknowledgement of a debt and its terms and conditions by the borrower and the creation of charge on the securities in favor of the bank by the borrower. Correct and proper documentation allows a bank to take legal measures against the default borrowers.

If filing a suit with the courts against a default borrower becomes necessary, the court will first review all documents. If any of the documents is found to be defect or incomplete, the purpose of security documentation will be defeated and a court ruling in favor the bank cannot be expected. Proper care should, therefore, be taken while completing security documentation.

b) Type of Securities

The following listed securities may be obtained from borrower against loan to enterprises, either individually or in a combination.

It is really up to the bank what they would like to accept as security from the borrower as not all the securities stated below are suitable:

  • Mortgage of loan and other immovable property with power of attorney to sell
  • Lien of Fixed Deposits receipts with banks and other non-banking financial institutions, lined, these have to confirm by the issuer.
  • Lien of Pratirakshay sanchay patra, Bangladesh sanchay patra, ICB unit certificates and wage earner development bond, all considered Quasi or Near cash items
  • Lien of shares quoted in the stock exchange (This is rarely accepted)
  • Pledge of goods (Banks are akin to stay away from such securities now a days)
  • Hypothecation of Goods, Book Debt & Receivables, Plant & Machineries
  • Charge on fixed assets of a manufacturing enterprise
  • Lien of cheque, Drafts and order
  • Lien of work orders, payment to be routed through the bank and confirmed by the issuer.
  • Shipping documents of imported goods

c) Land Related Securities Documentation Process

Each SME unit offices are lilies with at least two local lawyers who will work on behalf of the bank. These always will be employed whenever a borrower and where the security will be landed and immovable property accept a loan sanction. Any one of the lawyers will be provided with photocopies of all the relevant land related documents and while handing over show the original documents to them, The lawyers will carry out checks of the originals and if satisfied returned to the borrower. The documents generally provided are:

  • Title Deeds or Deed of conveyance otherwise known as ‘Jomeer Dalil’ which signifies ownership of a particular land.
  • Baya Dalil or Chain of Documents, which signifies that the conveyance of titles has been proper and legal.
  • Mutation Certificate if Khatian which signifies that the title if the land has been duly registered in the Government/Sub-registrar’s records.
  • Duplicate Carbon Receipt or DCR
  • Latest Khajna or land rent receipt
  • Purchase such as CS Khatian, SA Khatian and BS Khatian
  • Mouja Map
  • Municipal rent receipts if the land falls within a municipal area

The lawyer will then carry out a search at the Sub-registrar of land’s office to check if the proffered land is actually registered in the name of the proposed mortgagor and whether the said land is free from any encumbrances. The Sub-register’s office, which means that the land or immovable property can be mortgaged to the bank, then the lower will provide his own opinion on the acceptability of the property, whether it is legally held and explain the chain of ownership. If all is acceptable, the lawyer will draw up the Mortgage Deed that will be registered, the irrevocable power if attorney to sell the land and the Memorandum of Deposit of Title Deed. The lawyer will have the borrower or the Mortgagor, if different or 3rd party, sign the documents in front of the Sub-registrar of land to register the mortgage, The CRO must ensure that the receipt for the original Mortgage deed must be signed off (Discharged) at the back of the receipt so that the bank may obtain the originals in the future. The borrower will bear all the charges and will pay directly at the Sub-Registrar’s office including the cost of the stamp paper required. The cost of the lawyer will also be realized from the borrower be an account payee cheque in favor of the lawyer and handed over to the lawyer straight away.

The charges related to the creation of mortgages and other associated costs are incorporated in a separated sheet and are attached herewith. The CRO will have all other security documents, as sent by SME HO, signed by the borrower and hand carry all the security documents including all the original land documents and deliver those to the credit administration officer who will check the list of documents and receive those through a check list in writing. The credit administration officer once satisfied will prepare the disbursement memo to disburse the loan.

 d) Mortgage

i) Equitable Mortgage or Memorandum of Deposit of Title Deeds

It is created by a simple deposit of title deeds supported by a Memorandum of Deposit of Title Deeds along with all the relevant land documents. All the searches and verification of documents as stated above must be carried out to validate the correct ownership of the property. This deed also provides the bank power to register the property in favor of the bank for further security, if needed.

ii) Registered Mortgage

It is created by an execution of a Mortgage Deed registered irrevocably in favor of the bank at the Sub-Registrar of land’s office. This virtually gives the bank the right to posses and self if accompanied with a registered irrevocable power of attorney to sell the property executed by the owner of the property, in case of default.

 e) Basic Charge Documents

i) Sanction Letter

Once a loan is approved, the borrower is advised by a ‘Sanction or offer letter’ which states the terms and condition s under which all credit facilities are offered and which forms an integral part of there security documentation. If the borrower accepts, then a contract between the bank and the borrower is formed and which both party are obligated to perform. Accordingly, all other charge documents and securities are drawn up and obtained. A standard sanction letter is attached herewith. All documents shall be stamped correctly and adequately before or at the time of execution. An un-stamped or insufficiently stamped document will not form basis of suit. Stamps are of 4 (Four) kinds. These are Judicial, Non-judicial, Adhesive and embossed impressed. Documents to be executed (Signed) by the borrowers concerned must be competent to do so in official capacity.

Following precautions should be taken at the time of execution of the security documents:

  • The signature on the documents should be made in the presence of the CRO. The CRO should sign as witness on all charge documents.
  • The document are to be filled in with permanent ink or typed
  • If the document consist more than I page, the borrower should sign on each page
  • If the signature of any third party is required to be obtained whose specimen signature is not available, then the main applicant should verity the specimen signature of the third party
  • No document or column in any document should remain blank
  • As far as possible there should be no erasure, cancellation or alternation in the document. If, however, there is any correction, overwriting or alteration, then that must be authenticated by a full signature of the signatory.

After stamping and execution of documents, the question of registration comes up. However, not all documents are required to be registered.

For the extension of any type of credit/loan facility, the following loan documents, which are considered basic, should be obtained from all borrowers:

  • Demand Promissory Note
  • Letter of Continuity (This is not always taken if there is only loan disbursement)
  • Letter of Arrangement
  • General Loan Agreement
  • Letter of Disbursement
  • General Loan Agreement
  • Letter of Disbursement; Basically a letter requesting disbursement of the loan
  • Letter of Installment, in case the facility is to be repaid in installment

Other Basic Charge Documents

i) Demand Promissory Note (DP Note)

It is a written promise by a borrower to pay the whole amount of existing or future loans/credit facilities on demand. It also gives the banks power to ask the borrower to repay the loan amount with interest without any prior notice. Section 4 of the Negotiable Instrument Act 1881 defines a promissory note as an instrument in writing, signed by the maker, to pay a certain sum of money only to, or the order of, a certain person, or to the bearer of the instrument, following precautions are to be taken while preparing a promissory note. Type the amount of the credit facility/loan in words and in figures. Type the rate of interest for the loan, which the borrower will subject to verify the signature of the borrower.

ii) Letter of Continuity

This instrument is used in conjunction with the demand promissory note. This is to secure rights of recovery for existing and future credit facility, which are advanced in parts or on a recovery basis. Loan accounts may from time to time be reduced or even the balance in the said loan account may be in credit so this instrument, validates the said D.P Note, for making further drawings under the facility continuously possible.

 iii) Letter of Arrangement

This is a right given by the borrower to the bank to cancel the facility at any time without having to assign any reason. This is also an acknowledgement by the borrower that the credit facility has been approved in his favor and the borrower has to execute all necessary documents to avail credit facility.

iv) General Loan Agreement

A loan agreement is an agreement of contract stating the general terms for the extension of a loan or credit facilities. The General loan agreement sets out the general standard terms and conditions governing the existing or future extension of loan or erudite facilities to the borrower.

v) Letter of Disbursement

This is simple a letter requesting disbursement of the loan/credit facilities at the agreed rate of interest.

 Other Security Documents

 i) Letter of Undertaking

This is a Deed of agreement executed by the borrower agreeing to commit to carry out any or a particular obligation to avail of loan/credit facility.

 ii) Letter of Hypothecation of Goods & Stocks and Book Debt and Receivable:

These letters Hypothecation are actually two different sets of documents but because of their similarity, these are being explained together. These documents create an equitable or floating charge in favor of the bank over the goods and services and/ or book debts and receivables that are being financed where neither the ownership nor the possession is passed to the bank. Under this agreement, the borrower undertakes to keep the percent stock of goods and that, which may increase from time to time in good condition in future, in good condition. This hypothecation gives the bank the power to possesses and sell the mentioned goods and stocks or claims the book debts directly from the debars in order to settle the borrower’s dues to the bank.

iii) Letter of Hypothecation of Plant & Machinery

Under this agreement, the Borrower undertakes to keep the present plant and machinery at the present location in good condition and which gives the bank the power to posses and sell the mentioned plant and machinery to meet the borrower’s dues to the bank. In case of limited company, both private and public, these Letters of Hypothecation with schedules are usually registered with the Registrar of Joint Stock of Companies (RJSC) that provide more security to the banks.

iv) Letter of Lien

A lien the right of one person to retain property in his hands belonging to another until certain legal demands against the owner of the property by the person in possession are satisfied. Thus a bank or a creditor  who has in its possession a lien over the goods in respect of the money due by the borrower, as a general rule has the right to exercise certain powers to hold on to the security. In addition, if the bank has right to set off the value of the said goods or instrument in its possession, then the bank can sell the goods or encase the instrument to liquidate the dues by the borrower.

v) Right of Set Off

This deed of agreement gives the bank the right to offset the value of the goods or financial instrument in its possession and which has been discharged by the owner of that asset, against dues owned by the borrower.

vi) Letter of Disbursement

This agreement gives the bank the right to possess goods and other assets in rented or leased premises of the borrower despite the fact that owner or the premises may be unable to realize dues from the borrower himself.

vii) Personal Guarantees

This is a guarantee of a person or third who is not the direct beneficiary of the loan/credit facility but is equally liable for the loan. The involvement of a 3rd party creates additional pressure on the borrower to minimize the risk. The guarantor is the person who has to pay the entire outstanding loan and interest if the borrower fails to pay for any reason.

 

Selection of Potential Enterprise for SME

Enterprise Selection Criteria

The success of SME will largely depend on the selection of a business and man behind it. In terms of the business (Enterprise), the following attributes should be sought:

  1. The business must be in operation for at least one year
  2. The business should be environment friendly, no narcotics or tobacco business
  3. The business should be legally registered, i.e., valid trade license, income tax or VAT registration, wherever applicable.
  4. The business should be in legal trade, i.e.; smuggling will not be allowed or socially unacceptable business will not be entertained.
  5. The business must have a defined market with a clear potential growth
  6. The business must be located ideally close to the market and the source of its raw materials/suppliers. It should have access to all the utilities, skilled manpower’s that are required.
  7. Any risk assessed by the management in turn will become a credit risk for the bank. So effort should make to understand the risk faced by the business.

Entrepreneur Selection Criteria

In order to understand the capability of the management behind the business, the following should be assessed:

  1. The entrepreneur should be physically able and in good health, preferably between the age of 25-50. If he/she is an elderly person closer to 50, it should be seen what the succession process will be and whether it is clearly defined or not.
  2. The entrepreneur must have the necessary technical skill to run the business, i.e. academic background or vocational training, relevant work experience in another institution or years of experience in this line of business.
  3. The entrepreneur must have and acceptable social standing in the community (People should speak highly of him), he should possess a high level of integrity (Does not cheat anyone, generally helps people), and morally sound (Participates in community building)
  4. The entrepreneur must possess a high level of enthusiasm and should demonstrate that he is in control of his business (Confidently replies to all queries) and has the ability to take up new and fresh challenges to take the business forward.
  5. Suppliers or creditors should corroborate that he pays on time and is general in nature
  6. Clear-cut indication of source of income and reasonable ability to save.

Guarantor Selection Criteria

Equally important is the selection of a guarantor. The same attribute applicable for an entrepreneur is applicable to a guarantor. In addition he should posses the followings:

  1. The guarantor must have the ability to repay the entire loan and is economically solvent (Check his net worth)
  2. The guarantor should be aware about all the aspect of SEDF loan and his responsibility
  3. and semi-govt. officials can be selected as a Guarantor such as schoolteacher, college teacher, doctor etc.
  4. Police, BDR and Army persons, political leaders and workers, and Imam of mosque cannot be selected as a guarantor.
  5. The guarantor should know the entrepreneur reasonable well and should preferably live in the same community

 

Terms and Conditions of SME Loan

The SME department of BRAC Bank will provide small loans to potential borrower under the following terms and condition:

  • The potential borrowers and enterprises have to fulfill the selection criteria
  • The loan amount is between Tk. 2 lacs to 30 lacs.
  • SME will impose loan processing fees for evaluation / processing a loan proposal as following;
Loan Amount

Loan Processing Fee

2 lacs to 2.99 lacsTk. 5000
3 lacs to 5 lacsTk. 7500
5.01 lacs to 15 lacsTk. 10,000
15.01 lacs to 30 lacsTk. 15,000

Loan can be repaid in two ways:

  1. In equal monthly loan installment with monthly interest payment, or
  2. By one single payment at maturity, with interest repayable a quarter end residual on maturity
  3. Loan may have various validates, such as, 3 months, 4 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 15 months, 18 months, 24 months, 30 months and 36 months.
  4. The borrower must open a bank account with the same bank and branch where the SME has its account
  5. Loan that approved will be disbursed to the client through that account by account payee cheque in the following manner: Borrower name, Account name, Banks name and Branch’s name
  6. The loan will be realized by 1st every months, starting from the very next months whatever the date of disbursement, through account payee cheque in favor of BRAC Bank Limited A/C . With Bank’s named and branches name
  7. The borrower has to issue an account payable blank cheque in favor of BRAC Bank Limited before any loan disbursement along with all other security.
  8. The borrower will install a signboard in a visible place of business of manufacturing unit mentioned that financed by “BRAC Bank Limited”.
  9. The borrower has to give necessary and adequate collateral and other securities as per bank’s requirement and procedures.
  10. SME, BRAC Bank may provide 100% of the Net Required Working Capital but not exceeding 75% of the aggregate value of the Inventory and Account Receivables. Such loan may be given for periods not exceeding 18 months. Loan could also be considered for shorter periods including one time principal repayment facility, as stated in loan product sheet.
  11. In case of fixed asset Financing 50% of the acquisition cost of the fixed asset may be considered. While evaluating loans against fixed asset, adequate grace period may be considered depending on the cash generation after the installation of the fixed assets. Maximum period to be considered including grace period may be for 36 months.

 

Monitoring

Monitoring is a system by which a bank can keep track of its clients and their operations. So monitoring is an essential task for a CRO to know the borrowers activities after the loan disbursement. This also facilitates the build up of an information base for future reference.

Important of Monitoring

Through monitoring a CRO can see whether the enterprise invested the sanctioned amount in the pre-specified area of his business, how well the business is running, the attitude of the entrepreneur, cash credit sales and purchase, inventory position, work in process and finished goods etc, This information will help the CRO/BRAC Bank to recover the loan accruing to the schedule and to take the necessary decisions for repeat loans. Moreover, monitoring will also help to reduce delinquency. Constant visit over the client /borrower ensures fidelity between the bank and the borrower and tends to foster a report between them.

Area of Monitoring

The purpose is to know the entire business condition and all aspects of the borrowers so that mishap can be avoided.

Business Condition

The most important task of the CRO to monitor the business frequently, it will help him to understand whether the business is running well or not, and accordingly advice the borrower, whenever necessary. The frequency of monitoring should be at least once month if all things are in order.

Production

The CRO will monitor the production activities of the business and if there is any problem in the production process, the CRO will try to help the entrepreneur to solve the problem. On the other hand the CRO can also stop the misuse of the loan other than for the purpose for which the loan was disbursed.

Sales

Monitoring sales proceed is another important task of the CRO it will help him to forecast the monthly sales revenue, credit sales etc. which will ensure the recovery of the monthly loan repayments from the enterprise as well as to take necessary steps for future loans.

Investment

It is very important to ensure that the entire loan has been invested in the manner invented. If the money is utilized in other areas, than it may not be possible to recover the loan.

Management of raw materials

In case of a manufacturing enterprise, management of raw materials is another important area for monitoring. If more money is blocked in raw materials then necessary, then the enterprise may face a fund crisis. On the other hand the production will suffer if there is not enough raw materials.

 

 

Banking System

  • Every SME unit office will have a current account with a designate bank in the area of a unit office. This bank account will be opened and operated by SME head office.
  • To meet petty expense such as stationary, entertainment and other incidental expense, all unit office will be allowed patty cash of Tk. 2000/=
  • The cheque of this patty cash will be issued from SME head office in the beginning of the month. All vouchers relating to such expenses should be send to the accounts from SME head office
  • All the clients must open their account with the same bank account on the same day after receiving those from the borrowers, who should given a received as prescribed.
  • Cheques should be deposited to the SME unit office bank account on the same day after receiving those from the borrowers, who should given a receipt as prescribed.
  • Any loan installment credit should be transferred to the SME head office account in Gulshan, Dhaka on the same day as per agreement with bank.
  • Every CRO should have an individual account in the same bank branch for their personal use and to receive their salaries and other benefits.
  • Payment of lease rentals, utility bills and cheque drawn on the SME unit office bank account and issued by SME head office should pay other expenses (Large amount). If these bills are small amount, they should be paid from the patty cash and replenished later.
  • All the financial accounting entries will be passed at the SME head office and will maintained separately on the basis of the unit office.

Economic Mapping Survey

After starting a SME, unit office in a new area the CRO will conduct a survey of the business. The objective of the survey is to collect relevant information about the business, which will help to select potential business for SME loans.

Mapping and Survey Method

To conduct the economic mapping and survey properly, the following process should be followed:

  • The CRO will prepare a physical map of his working area showing main roads, businesses, markets, and industrial locations. In this map, the CRO will show different kinds of business in different colors. This map will show the approximate location of all kinds of business within the area and it will be kept on the display board at the SME unit office.
  • The CRO will drive his total working area into several clusters, if possible, after that he will conduct the survey cluster wise. After completing one cluster, the CRO will start surveying another cluster.
  • At the beginning of the survey, the CRO will screen out business that does not need loans over 2 lacs.
  • After the survey, CRO will preserve the survey form cluster wise in a separate file. Based on the survey, the CRO will identify the potential businesses to pursue those for SME loans.
  • Therefore, CRO will approach the potential borrowers immediately to process loan application

For initial assistance, CRO may approach

  • BRAC office
  • Trade Associations and Chambers
  • Local govt. office like UNO and Municipal office

Once potential borrower is formally approached, then all details should be incorporated in the client register as per the prescribed format.

 

Future of SME Loan

Customer Handling

In our country there are about 52 banks working with the people with varieties of their attractive products and services and there is a high level amongst competition each other. For sustaining, they offering various types of innovation for better service for the clients, so, to reach the closer best to the clients direct marketing gaining momentum in the country. In terms of SME, its targeted entrepreneurs are the subjects of dealings to achieve the objectives of BRAC Bank and its policy is to contact with clients directly with a confident manner. Some key activities of a CRO:

  • Conducting Survey Properly
  • Individual contact with entrepreneur for selecting potential borrower
  • Deliver BRAC Bank’s products and other services
  • Keeping in close touch with clients to develop mutually beneficial long term relationship

There are two types of dealings which customer services officer do as follows:

Regular

The main duty of a CRO is to search new potential customer by providing door-to-door services. They talk with clients and monitor their manners, activities of their business and then provide the loan of the potential customers.  Most customers take hypothecation loan, which are unsecured loan. Normally it carries 2-5 lacs.

Unique

They also handle some unique customers who come to their unit offices to get the loan. Especially this client demands 10-20 lacs for their business. In this case, clients have to provide collateral securities in favor of bank. The securities may be land or fixed deposits. It takes little bit of time to disburse the loan for a CRO.

 

Macro Environmental Analysis

It is very important to carry out a macro environment scanning for the banking industry in order to identify and analyze the external factor that affected the growth and development of the banking sector in Bangladesh. A through analysis of the macro environment in which the banks operate will allow the banks to develop pro-active strategies and navigate the organization in the turbulent ocean of competition.

The financial institutions are always heavily influenced by the macro economic conditions both globally, regionally or locally. The key macro economic indicators like GDP growth rate, inflation, industrial growth rate, expansion of trade and commerce and other factors affects the operations and the pricing strategy of the bank. BRAC Bank Limited (BBL), since its inception has achieved a steady growth rate. However, the present economic downturn or recession is affecting BBL’s operations. The country is now under a deep recession having a major decline in industrial growth rate, galloping inflationary pressure, and decline in international trade with export targets for the fiscal year yet to be achieved and other factors will eventually affect BBL and other banks pricing strategies. Many banks will have to revise the interest rate structure for its various services in order to cope with economic slowdown. However, SME results for BBL is quite satisfactory, as they have surprised their stipulated targets despite the economic sluggishness going on in the country. Some practical example is as follows:

If the savings rate in our country decreases the purchasing power of our people will decreases. The demand for taking loan from bank will decline and client cannot repay the loan properly. On the other hand, if it is increase extremely then purchasing power will increase but people will have enough cash on hand which will reflect by not taking loans from financial organizations. So everything should be balanced.

Another example like- if the interest rate increases then people will not be interested for taking loans and as well as client will be unable to make profit by taking loans. On the other hand, if it decreases then bank will not be able to make profits quickly. So it would be considered for balancing both sides. Unemployment is another whether too much unemployment can affect the industry to understand the business properly. So this sort of impact might occur in the environment, which could have handle properly.

Demographic Environment

Demography is the study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation and other statistics. The demographic environment is of major interest to marketers because it involves people and people make up markets. In terms of SME requirements customer is the main part of bank. If there is, no client there is any business. According to the location BRAC Bank SME unit offices already has reached in every cities around the country for providing door-to-door facilities. Some key factors of demographic environment are- urbanization, education, living standard etc. For example-In terms of urbanization, lots of new business and enterprises are growing rapidly in the city or town. So more banks can be aggressive for providing loans in newly developing areas. For having new banks in the city, the standard of living will increase for the people. Education is another major factor for developing a nation. Without literacy standard of living could not come for individuals. Therefore, each and every factor is interrelated to each other.

Economic Environment

Factors that affect consumer buying power and spending patterns. SME is very careful regarding economic issues in the country. Customer relation office is always keen to check purchasing materials and leading lifestyle of the client. Because if the economic condition of a client become bad then he/she might not repay the loan. On the other hand if war occurs between the two countries then price of the products will increase and people will loss purchasing power. In this way, organization might affect economically. On the other hand, A steady growth rate with continues market oriented reforms will contribute positively by expanding the volume of business and profitability of the bank. In an economy, a steady growth means there will be more investment, savings, and consumption in the economy. As a result, bank also gets more deposit and more projects for credit disbursement.

After disbursing the loan, if the economic condition of the business is being poor then BRAC Bank regenerate the repayment schedule of the client to repay the loan. On the other hand if the economic condition rise up then client repay the whole amount in favor of BRAC Bank Limited.

 

Social Environment

As banks are service-oriented organizations, they always have to consider the attitude of the customer. Customer now wants a speedy service accompanied by attractive and well decorated impressive branches with customer friendly officers providing tailor made services to the customers. SME of BRAC Bank impressive office has already earned a reputation for the bank and has attracted lots of potential customers around the country. In order to match with the customer needs, banks are also increasing varieties of products such as single short products, different short and medium term products and other services.

One of the key factors of a social environment is social class growth. It carry out attitudes of various classes of people, such as upper class, middle class, lower class upper lower class, upper lower class, etc. The customer relation officer of BRAC Bank deals with them regarding their social classes. The clients are accepting the SME loans with knowing the interest rate of 24%( 2% per month). Client wants fast service rather than paying 24% interest. Some clients are argued about the interest rates that BRAC Bank is now think of to reduce it. BRAC Bank already have 4000 clients and disbursed 150 crore. Next year its projected target is 9000-11000 clients and captures the market in our country. So, SME has a rapid growth in the market.

Political Environment

The political environment consists of law, government agencies and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society. SME of BRAC bank have to abide national laws like festivals, holidays. On the other hand, hartals, strikes, barriers can affect the economic condition of SME of BRAC Bank Limited. Under the latest World Bank, recommendation the banking division of the ministry of finance is being abolished a step further in providing autonomy to Bangladesh Bank. The emergence of BBL SME and other contemporary banks and the arrival of the foreign banks are all due to the on going reforms in the financial sector of Bangladesh. BBL is restricted to provide loans for the political leaders. Customer services officers of BRAC bank always avoid political leaders who carry out business. But if any pressure occurs from the political sides to have the loan the top management handles the situation but never give the loan to them.

Technological Environment

BRAC bank of SME division has a strong network in the whole country. The main head office is in the capital city from which it operates with all the unit offices by means of mobile telephone. In the near future, SME might hand over the palmtop computer to all customer services offices to provide accurate and quick service to the clients.

Ecological Environment

Sometimes ecological environment can turnout the business of the clients. Foods, disasters can affect the business after having the BRAC bank loans or fire can burn out the whole business. To protect from these disasters BRAC bank do the insurance policy with the joint names of the client. So that client can get feedback from the insurance policy to run again his business. If client do not get support from the insurance company then BRAC bank give time or generate the client repayment schedule

 

Micro Environmental Analysis

Marketing management job is to attract and build relationship with customers by creating customer value and satisfaction. It depends on other factors in the organization microenvironment- suppliers, customers, competitors; various publics that make up the organizations value delivery system. The company needs to study its customer marketer closely in terms of Small and Medium Enterprise of BRAC Bank Limited and their customers group is specified. Their target group is only Small and Medium Enterprise client. The CRO closely monitor and try to build good report with clients. On the other hand corporate clients are different to have the loan. Each market type has special characteristics that call for careful study by the marketer.

In terms of SME, most clients are carrying out trading business rather than manufacturing business. Few clients are attached with service business like pharmaceutical, hospital, homeopath etc. In the trading business clients want loans to meet their working capital requirement. On the other hand, client want 10-15 for purchasing fixed assets.

In our country mostly 35-40 years old clients are carrying out loans regarding the type of their business. The clients who interested to take the loan of SME then they have maintained at least one year running business. It is a policy of this bank because in the mean while client can understand his business and can set a future plan.  The educational qualification of our clients is very poor. Clients are undergraduate but carry out good business. SME support their clients who are carrying out good business and also give suggestions and guidelines to develop their business. If any client has maintain loans with other banks then SME is restricted to provide loans for that clients. The client needs clearance certificate to get the loan from the BRAC bank.

It has been found out that in our country most clients need small loans to develop their own business. The world is being globalizes and modernized. Therefore, client takes risks to enhance and develop their business and BRAC bank is a good helping hand to help them. In our country, clients want more time to repay the loan. BRAC bank gives adequate time for the client to repay the loan whether they can get benefit from it. Clients are very happy to repay the loan by equal monthly installment. Clients know the right time to repay the loan at the right place. But in the pick season, most client wants short fund requirement to carry out good business. Regarding interest rates, clients are not talk about more because clients get the loan at the right time from the BRAC bank. Clients are also happy by the issuance of security preferences because they do not have to provide any collateral security for hypothecation or unsecured loans. SME of BRAC bank networks has everywhere in Bangladesh. So clients can have the SME loans wherever his business exists in the country. In addition, clients get the fast service from the BRAC bank.

The purpose of this loan is the economic development in our country, which might divert the clients mind after having the loans for expansion. Many clients have ambition to expand from trading to manufacturing business to generate more profit.  When a CRO would visit a business, the client must provide the proper and right information and show the right documents for justifying a good client. If any CRO feel bad smell in the business then the CRO reject that client without concerning the management. So clients should be feel comfortable to provide proper information to have the loan. Regarding the service by the CRO, getting these quick facilities from them satisfies almost all clients. Though it is pioneer division of the bank, client should be fully satisfied by having this facility.

 

Industry Analysis: SME facility of BRAC Bank

Threat of New Entrant

In every industry, there is a threat of new entry, which varies according to industry. Similarly, the banking sector of Bangladesh also faces the threat of new entrants. However, the threat comes from two directions. The first threat comes from the arrival of the multinational banks and their branch expansion particularly due to the booming energy sector. For example, Standard Chartered Bank already inaugurates the SME loan. Another threats comes from the emergence of new private commercial banks. For example, Southeast Bank, Dhaka Bank & others, the countries traditional banks are facing the treat of further competition and better quality service. Similarly, the potential banks that may emerge in the next few years will further enhance the intensity of competition and may pose further threat to the existing banks. At the same time, arrival of the foreign banks is posing threat and pressure on the existing banks. At the same time, arrival of the foreign banks is posing threat and pressure on the existing banks. Already Standard Chartered Bank and Hong Kong Sanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) has started to provide small loans to clients and they are also going to start door to door services to clients.

Growth in the Industry

The rivalry among the competitors and the growth in the industry depends upon the intensity of competition. If the industry has a high intensity of competition then the industry will have a high growth rate, as all the firms will try to beat the others in order to grab the market share. Similarly, the banking sector of Bangladesh is growing considerably and at the same time competition is increasing. Currently BRAC bank SME division is a pioneer one and carrying out Digital Technology Management Systems.

Evaluation of SME

October 07, 2001– its operation started as the name of SESDF (Small Enterprise Support Development and Finance)

October 30, 2001– its first loan disbursed to Mita Oil Mills as an overdraft loan.

October 10, 2002– it got the name SME (Small and Medium Enterprise)

March 2003 – Month of greatest challenge and achievement (Achievement-104%)

A sample MIS report has shown below:

Disbursement: Target Achieved (In lacs)
MonthTargetAchieved(%)
January 200378363075
February 200379668181
March 2003855925104
March 200410001056106
March 200515001620108
March 200618001960109
March 200718502000110
March 200819002100112

 

 Competitors

Identifying the banks competitors

In terms of World Bank advice, most of the private banks are ready to provide small or micro credit loans to the clients because small loans are less risky than the corporate loan. At the recent trend, many banks like Standard Chartered, Islami Bank of Bangladesh, Southeast Bank, Dutch Bangla Bank Limited etc are going to take many aggressive steps in terms of small loan to clients.

Determining the competitors objectives

In our country, High amount loans or long term loans are risky because Bangladesh Bank is carrying out lots of defaulter’s list. So most of the banks are now interested to provide small or micro credit lending in terms of small and medium enterprise business. The objectives of the competitors are to capture in the market by providing small loans regarding and manufacturing business. But everyone’s common objective is economic development of this country.

Identify the competitors’ strategy

Standard chartered bank already sent marketing troops surrounding the cities for providing loans and deposits. CITI Bank is going to start retail service business for capturing the market. So competitor’s analysis is important factor to carry out in the long run business for any organizations. Among these banks, many of them have lower interest rates but lots of hidden costs and services.

In terms of SME, a sample comparison between BRAC Bank Limited and Islami Bank of Bangladesh has shown below:

BRAC Bank Ltd.Islami Bank
Provide online banking & servicesProvide manual banking services
Officers provide door to door servicesClients have to go to branch & then talk with officer
BRAC Bank has 265 unit offices to bring clientsIt has almost 50 brunches around the country
BRAC Bank depends on other banks for disbursementsDisburse the loan from its own brunch
Collateral free 2-5 lacsCollateral free 2-5 lacs
It has only term loan systemIt has overdraft & term loan facilities
Networking with BRAC, IFC & Shore CapitalNo network
It has goodwill & flexible interest rateIt has goodwill but higher interest rate
It has vast field employees to reach each and every client in terms of small & medium enterpriseIt has also vast employees but not in the field level

 

SME Relates With The Modern Marketing Concept

First it provides customer satisfaction.

Second customer satisfaction through integrated effort. In terms of SME the goal is to economic development of our country through meeting and exceeding customer needs better than competition. In terms of customer orientation, SME provides the best facilities to customers regarding their needs. SME provides unsecured loans up to 5 lacs which none of other banks provide. In spite of integrated effort, SME is a team-based organization. CRO go to the door-to-door business and by depending on them, SME gives loan to clients.

Though it is team base management bank, the corporate goals can be achieved and gaining trust of management satisfies customers.

 

Strategic Planning in a Nutshell of Small and Medium Enterprise

In terms of our country most financial institution start out with extensive business and marketing plans to attract potential customers. But organization has some internal steps to carry out organization in the long run which it related to Small and Medium Enterprise of BRAC Bank Limited are as follows:

  • Identify the major elements of business environment in which the organization has operated over the previous few years. In terms of BBL SME, it provides loans to small and medium enterprise. CRO or marketing officers deals with the clients directly and CRO’s are all in all to provide the loans in terms of their beliefs. SME is very friendly to provide various facilities by the existing clients.
  • Describe the mission of the organization in terms of its nature and function for the next two years. By thinking of client’s benefits and satisfaction, SME will withdraw up to 10 lacs without collateral security for providing loans. Disbursement system will carry out by means of courier services. CRO will send necessary documents to head office to disburse the loan that is nonparallel decision by comparing other banks.
  • Explain the internal and external forces that will impact the mission of the organization. In terms of SME, it has various unit offices surrounded throughout the country and has vast number of employees to handle different clients. However, it is a SME bank, which has strong feedback and reputation in terms of social and environmental sights. By considering external forces, IFC or World Bank is financially collaborating with BRAC Bank. So it is big driving force for the SME of BRAC Bank Limited.
  • Identifying the basic driving force that will direct the organization in the future. In terms of SME of BRAC Bank, it believes integrity, honesty, and conciseness bilaterally of clients and us. Though it is credit division, so marketing officers can relate with bravery. Management is very strict in terms of that issue. It is a strong reputed organization so clients have faith on us and this relationship will carry out long-term relationship with SME.
  • Develop a set of long-term objectives that will identify what the organization will become in the future. In terms of SME, it has a long-term vision to run into the organization. Already it applies in Millennium Banking System software by means of online facilitates in terms of keeping all record and to way the process easier in the long run. SME thinks key business process with IT Management together in which IT can be enable can give best possible outcomes.

 

Marketing process of Related to SME

Developing Marketing Mix

The set of controllable tactical marketing tools- product, price, place and promotion that the organization blends to produce it wants in the target market. The many possibilities can be controlled into four groups of variables known as the four P’s: Product, Price, Promotion and Place.

  1. Product means the goods and services combination the company offers to the target market. In view of SME, they have short term and medium term loans whether CRO provide quick and quality services to clients. Customer service is another element of product strategy. A company designs its products and support services to profitability meet the needs of target customers. Short terms products means 3/6/9/12 months loan and mid term product means 15/18/24/30/36 months loan. For example- in Eid occasion most cloth merchants want short-term loan to carryout a profitable business.

 Short Term Products:

Easy repay- these categories of products are easy repaid for the clients. When the pick season comes like Christmas of EID then these short-term products could be required for the clients. If the clients have that loan at the pick season then clients business carry out hot cakes and easily can repay the loan to BRAC bank.

Short-term fund requirement– without pick season, many clients could have required short funds to hold the tender or dealership. BRAC bank would be a good hand for the clients to have that dealership.

Mid Term Products

Proper Utilization– on average, clients get these categories of loan for 18 to 24 months. So clients can easily utilize the money regarding the prospect of the business.

Easy repay– though it is a long time repayment schedule, so clients make the profits to get the required amount of loan and repay the loan in a monthly basis.

 

2. Price is the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the products. In terms of SME of BRAC bank, clients have to pay a certain amount of processing fees and stamp costs to get the loan. One of the factors that affect the companies own pricing moves. For example- many banks have processing fees with 1% or 2% additional charge and other miscellaneous costs. But BRAC bank has withdraws other costs and charges to carry out in the competitive market.

  • Costly- BRAC bank SME interest rate is 24%. So it is little bit of costly by the competitive edge but the client gets this loan within very short period of time. In this situation client cannot think about the interest rate because at the right time they get the loan, which they can exercise in their business, can yields profits.
  • Easy sanction– If the CIB (Credit Information Bureau) is being cleared from Bangladesh Bank and all information is being transparent from client then the loan is become sanctioned in favor of client.
  • All time consultancy– without taking any money, the officer of this bank give moral advices to clients to develop the business.

 

3. Place (Distribution) It includes companies activities that make the product available to target consumers. SME already spread out its unit offices around the country. SME tries to reach each and every small business enterprise to meet client’s demands. Marketing channel decisions are among the most important decision that management faces. Management must make channel decision carefully, incorporating today’s needs with tomorrow like selling environment. SME of BRAC bank already has 265 unit offices, which is spread throughout the country and 173 staffs working under these unit offices. These officers have respective selected supervisors who directly report to the SME main head office. So SME division has everywhere in Bangladesh to serve all respective clients.

 

4. Promotion– means activities that communicate the merits of the product and persuade target customers to buy it. For example- up to 8 lacs taka SME don’t take collateral security to provide loan. Also for the repeat borrowers SME discounts up to 6% interest rate and Tk. 1000 for the respective client. Advertisement is one of the major elements in promotion. SME is focusing customers by printing various leaflets, magazines and showing banners in front of their respective unit offices.

 Door to door service– it is a door-to-door customer services to clients. CRO knock the door of the business enterprise whether the client have required any loan or not.

 Market to non-Bank people: Some clients do not maintain any account in the bank. They are dealing by cash. By providing BRAC bank loans, these sorts of clients can be attached with the banks. In addition, they can understand more about banking and can have a good relationship with them.

 Neglected People– there are some people who are very afraid of dealing with the bank. They were very simple dresses too afraid to the bank. But they are carrying out good business and potential clients. They could be target for the BRAC Bank Limited.

 

SWOT analysis

SWOT analysis is an important tool for evaluating the company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It helps the organization to identify how to evaluate its performance and scan the macro environment, which in turn would help organization to navigate in the turbulent ocean of competition.

 Strengths

Company reputation: BRAC bank has already established a favorable reputation in the banking industry of the country particularly among the new comers. Within a period of 6 years, BBL has already established a firm footing in the banking sector having tremendous growth in the profits and deposits. All these have lead them to earn a reputation in the banking field

Sponsors: BBL has been founded by a group of eminent entrepreneurs of the country having adequate financial strength. The sponsor directors belong to prominent resources persons of the country. The Board of Directors headed by its Chairman Mr. F H Abed. Therefore, BBL has a strong financial strength and it built upon a strong foundation.

Top Management: The top management of the bank is also major strength for the BBL has contributed heavily towards the growth and development of the bank. The top management officials have all worked in reputed banks and their years of banking experience, skills, expertise will continue to contribute towards further expansion of the bank. At BBL, the top management is the driving force and the think tank of the organization where policies are crafted and often cascaded down.

Facilities and equipment: BBL has adequate physical facilities and equipments to provide better services to the customers. The bank has computerized and online banking operations under the software called MBS banking operations. Counting machines in the teller counters have been installed for speedy service ant the cash counters. Computerized statements for the customers as well as for the internal use of the banks are also available.

 Impressive branches: This creates a positive image in the minds of the potential customers and many people get attracted to the bank. This is also an indirect marketing campaign for the bank for attracting customers. 26 Branches of the bank are impressive and are compatible to foreign banks.

Interactive corporate culture: BBL has an interactive corporate culture. Unlike other local organization, BBL’s work environment is very friendly, interactive and informal. There are no hidden barriers or boundaries while interacting between he superior or the subordinate.

The environment is also lively and since the nature of the banking job itself is monotonous and routine, BBL’s likely work environment boosts up the spirit and motivation of the employees.

Teamwork at mid level and lower level: At BBL’s mid level and lower level management, there are often team works. Many jobs are performed in groups of two or three in order to reduce the burden of the workload and enhance the process of completion of the job. People are eager to help each other and people in general are devoted to work.

 

Weaknesses

Advertising and promotion of SME loan: This is a major set back for BBL and one of its weakest areas. BBL’s adverting and promotional activities are satisfactory but it SME loan is not advertised well. It does not expose its SME product to general public and are not in lime light. BBL does not have neon sign or any advertisement for SME loan in the city. As a result people are not aware of the existence of this bank.

NGO name (BRAC): BRAC is one of the largest NGO of the world and it is operating its activities in Bangladesh. BRAC bank is not a NGO bank but many people of them country consider it as a NGO bank like Grameen Bank which is not correct.

Low remuneration package: The remuneration package for the entry and the mid level management is considerably low. The compensation package for BBL entry-level positions is even lower than the contemporary banks. Under the existing low payment structure, it will be very difficult to attract and retain higher educated employees in BBL. Specially CRO’s are not satisfied with compensation package provided to them.

 

Opportunities

Diversification: BBL can pursue a diversification strategy in expanding its current line of business. The management can consider options of starting merchant banking or diversify in to leasing and insurance. By expanding their business portfolio, BBL can reduce their business risk.

Product line proliferation: In this competitive environment BBL must expand its product line to enhance its sustainable competitive advantage. As a part of its product line proliferation., BBL can introduce the following products.

ATM: This is the fastest growing modern banking concept. BBL should grab this opportunity and take preparation for launching ATM. Since BBL is a local bank, they can form an alliance with other contemporary banks in launching the ATM.

 

Threats

Multinational banks: The emergence of multinational banks and their rapid expansion poses a potential threat to the new growing private banks. Due to the booming energy sector, more foreign banks are expected to arrive in Bangladesh. Moreover, the already existing foreign banks such as Standard Chartered is now pursuing an aggressive branch expansion strategy. This bank is establishing more branches countrywide and already launched is SME operation. Since the foreign banks have tremendous financial strength, it will pose a threat to local banks.

Upcoming banks: The upcoming private local banks can also pose a threat to the existing private commercial banks like BBL. It is expected that in the next few years more local private banks may emerge. If that happens the intensity of competition will rise further and banks will have to develop strategies to compete against an on slaughter of foreign banks.

Contemporary banks: The contemporary banks of BBL such as Dhaka bank, prime bank, and Dutch Bangla are its major rivals. Prime bank and other banks are carrying out aggressive campaign to attract lucrative clients as well as big time depositors.

Default culture: This is a major problem in Bangladesh. As BBL is a new organization, the problem of non-performing loans or default loans is very minimum or insignificant. However, as the bank becomes older this problem arises and the whole community suffers from this chronic diseases. BBL has to remain vigilant about this problem so that proactive strategies are taken to minimize this problem if not elimination.

 

AN OVERALL CASE STUDY

Alternative sources of funds from the viewpoint of clients

BRAC Bank provides financial assistance to potential enterprises and committed entrepreneurs up to the amount of 2 to 30 lacs. There are also other sources of funds like nationalized commercial banks, private commercial banks that provide financial assistance to the enterprises. The alternative sources of funds from the viewpoint of clients are discussed below:

  • Nationalized commercial banks: Once nationalized commercial banks provided most of the finance to the enterprises. Gradually, various kind irregularities, red tropism etc creates pains for entrepreneurs. As a result, various types of private commercial banks have emerged.
  • Private commercial banks: Presently private commercial banks are providing better services than the nationalized commercial banks to the clients. But these banks are fouling mainly the large and medium scale business. As a result, these banks do not find small enterprise.
  • Other financial institutions: Other financial intuitions like various leasing corporations finance to the enterprises. But the small enterprise has no better access to these types of financial institutions.
  • Relatives and friends: The above sources of funds are providing finance to the enterprises. The interested clients have to find out these organizations and communicate for financial assistance. On the other hand the CRO of BRAC bank find out potential enterprises for financial assistance. Though BRAC bank and alternative sources of funds of BRAC Bank provide loan to the client, BRAC bank is more client’s service oriented.

Interest rates and other charges and comments of clients- BRAC Bank provides mainly medium term loans to small enterprises and the repayment system is monthly installments. Say for example: if 3 lacs loan is provided to an enterprise for a 18 months, this enterprise will repay Tk.. 19142 as monthly installment. Thus total amount repay by the enterprise is Tk. 344556/= where Tk. 300000 is principal and 44556 is interest. Some clients based on the nature of business feel the system unsuitable because the principle amount is not used for the whole period of the loan.

This is another system for providing loan to the enterprises which term loan. After a specific period of time the principal amount repaid, but the client quarterly tie should pay the interest, after each 3 month. In this case the rate of interest is 24%. The clients who have easy access to the various commercial banks, they are a little bit dissatisfied because most of the ease, they have pay bribe or they are not satisfied by the behaviors of the bankers of these banks, where CRO perform most of the function of the client.

When the client heard that CRO will perform most of the function for taking the loan, then considering his time, loan land cost reduction satisfied the client.