Remittance Management System(RMS) of Sonali Bank Limited (Part-2)

2.8.11 UTILITY SERVICE

Sonali Bank offers multiple special services with its network of branches throughout the country in addition to its normal banking operations.

  • Collection
  • Gas bills
  • Electricity bills
  • Telephone bills
  • Water/Sewerage bills
  • Municipal holding Tax
  • Passport fees and Travel tax
  • Payment
  • Pension of employees of Government and other Corporate Bodies
  • Army pension
  • British pension
  • Students’ stipend/scholarship
  • Widows, divorcees and destitute women allowances
  • Freedom Fighters’ allowances
  • Govt. & Non-Govt. Teachers’ salary.
  • Sale & Encashment/Purchase
  • Savings Certificates
  • ICB Unit Certificates
  • Prize Bonds
  • Wage Earner’s Development Bonds
  • Lottery tickets of different Semi-Govt. and Autonomous Bodies.

3.1 DEFINATION OF BANK ACCOUNT

Bank account is a contractual agreement between a bank and its customer, allowing the customer to use bank services for a fee. Account may be established in the name of individuals or firms.

3.2 GENERAL BANKING

3.2.1 TYPES OF BANK ACCOUNT

There can be many types of accounts that can be maintained in a branch of Sonali Bank, they are: –

Current Account

Savings Account

Fixed Deposit Account

Short Term Deposit Account

Deposit Pension Scheme Account

Sonali Bank Special Deposit and Pension Scheme Account

Call Deposit Account

Sundry Deposit Account

3.2.2 Current Account

Current accounts mean any account from which the customer can withdraw money as many times as he wants in a working day. The customer also can deposit money to his account as many times as he wants in a working day.  Generally businessman or business firm, who need frequent withdrawal of money, opens current account. Two types of current account are usual. One is personal current account and the other is institutional current account.

Features:

The important features of current account are as following:

No interest is paid on this account.

No passbook is given for this account.

3.2.3 Savings Account

A savings account is meant for the people of the lower and middle classes who wish to save a part of their current income to meet their future needs and also intend to earn an income from their savings.

Features:

The important features of savings account are as following:

The account holder can deposit money to his account as many times as he wants in a working day, but he cannot withdraw money from his account more than two times a week and he has to withdraw minimum Tk. 50 in cash withdrawal.

Without notice, the account holder can withdraw 25% of his deposited amount minimum (but not more than Tk. 20,000). If the account holder withdraws more than 25% of his deposited amount or more than Tk. 20,000, he will have to give prior notice before 7 days of withdrawal. Otherwise no interest will be given to this account in that month.

On the basis of minimum balance of each month, interest will be given to savings account in June and December in each year.

If a savings account holder wants to close his account, then Tk. 25 will be deducted for his account as a cost of closing account.

3.2.4 Fixed deposit account

In this type of account, a certain amount of money is deposited for a fixed period of time. The bank repays the amount on the expiry of that specified period, or subject to a notice.

Features:

The important features of fixed deposit account are as following:

Principle amount and interest is given after maturity.

No interest is paid if one withdrawals his money before 3 months.

The duration of fixed deposit account is 3 months to 5 years.

According to Bangladesh Bank, 20% margin is required for taking loan against fixed deposit receipt (FDR).

FDR may be renewed after maturity. If anybody does not renew his FDR after maturity, the bank will not pay any interest on that deposited amount after the maturity date.

3.2.5 Short term deposit account

By giving a special notice, depositors can withdraw money from short-term deposit account. Its interest rate is 3% per annum. It has less restriction than savings account regarding withdrawal of money.

3.2.6 Deposit pension scheme (DPS) account

Deposit pension scheme was introduced in 1983. New account opening of deposit pension scheme has been stopped by Bangladesh Bank from February 28, 1999.

The important features of DPS are as follows:

The monthly installment of DPS may be in the denomination of Tk 100, Tk 200, Tk 300, Tk 400 or Tk 500. This should be deposited in by the first week of each month.

Its interest rate is 5% (compounding).

The term of DPS is either 10 years or 20 years.

Amount payable at the time of maturity is given in the following table.

Monthly Installment

( Taka)

Maturity Period (years)

Amount Payable at the time of maturity (Taka)

100

10

26,344

200

10

52,688

300

10

79,032

400

10

1,05,376

500

10

1,31,720

3.2.7 Sonali Bank special deposit pension scheme (SDPS) account

Special deposit pension scheme was introduced in 1996. The important features of this account are as follows:

Its interest rate is 10% (compound interest) for 5 years term and 12% (compound interest) for 10 years term. From Octaber/2005 the interest rate is 10%( compound interest).

The monthly installment may be Tk 100, Tk 200, Tk 300, Tk 400 or Tk 500. This should be deposited from 11th to 20th day each month.

3.2.8 Call deposit account

As a security, earnest money for various tender is deposited in this type of account. Earnest money remains in this account until tender is opened. After opening of tender, the tender giving institution can withdraw the deposited fund from that account. No interest is paid on this account.

3.2.9 Sundry deposit account

The following types of deposits are maintained in sundry deposit accounts:

Margin on letters of credit

Margin on letters of guarantee

Hajj deposits

Employees contribution provident fund

Employees general provident fund

Sonali bank employees pension fund

Sonali bank employees pension and death cum retirement benefit fund

Miscellaneous

Interest rates of various types of deposits:

Interest rates of various types of deposits are shown in the following table:

Types of deposit

Interest Rate

Savings deposit

4.50 %

 

Short term deposit

3.00 %

 

Fixed deposit:i.  3 months or more but less than 6 monthsii. 6 months or more but less than 1 year

iii.1 year or more but less than 2 years

iv.2 years or more but less than 5 years

 

6.25 %

6.50 %

7.00 %

7.25%

Deposit pension scheme (DPS)

15.00%

 

Sonali bank special deposit and pension scheme:i.  5 years termii. 10 years term

 

 

10.00 %

12.00 %

3.3.1 ADVANCES

Sonali bank like most other commercial banks generally lends money on short or long-term basis, as advances of different types, are repayable on demand. The advances may be clean i.e., without any security or secured primarily or collaterally by authorized securities.

3.3.2 Types of advances or loans:

Sonali bank deals with different types of lending, such as –

3.3.3 Short-term loans:

Overdrafts

Cash credit (pledge, hypothecation)

Small loans

Agriculture loans (crop hypothecation)

Rural housing

Rural transportation etc.

3.3.4 Mid and long term loans

Agro based industries

Frozen food

Computer Software and information technology

Export oriented finished leather and jute goods

Export oriented spinning, textile and garments industries

CNG (compressed natural gas) filling stations

Pharmaceutical industries

Chemical industries

Commercial house building loans

Paper Industries etc.

Bankers ascertain the loan proposal of above sectors/sub sectors and screening/ scrutiny the proposals with the norms of its internal and government policies. If the manager of a branch finds the proposal in order then he processes for sanctioning and disbursement with the consent of the management. After disbursement of loan, the banker takes necessary steps to recover the loan in time.

3.4 SECTION THERR FOREIGN EXCHANGE BUSINESS

Sonali bank like other commercial banks also deals with the following foreign exchange activities through its branches having authorized dealer license:

3.4.1 Foreign Exchange activities

  •   Foreign trade and foreign currency
  •   Payment against documents
  •   Remittance
  •   Advance Against Merchandise
  •   Foreign Currency Accounts and Wage Earners Scheme
  •   Packing Credit
  •   Foreign exchange: Imports
  •   Foreign bill collection
  •   Bank guarantee
  •   Non residence accounts
  •   Travelers’ cheques etc.

3.4.2 Foreign Trade and Foreign Exchange

  •   Foreign trade and foreign exchange deals with the following:
  •   Foreign trade and foreign exchange
  •   Licensing authority
  •   Function of Bangladesh Bank
  •   Function of custom authority
  •   Authorized dealers
  •   Agency agreement
  •   Types of accounts

3.4.3 Sonali Bank’s authorized branches  39 branches in Bangladesh including Local Office

  •   2 outside (foreign) branches.

3.4.4 Foreign Currency Accounts and Wage Earners Scheme

Foreign currency accounts are those accounts, which are allowed to be maintained in foreign currency with authorized dealers in Bangladesh. Such accounts cannot, however, be maintained in any foreign currency but is to be opened and maintained either in Pound Sterling or U.S. Dollar at the option of the prospective account holder. Such accounts can be opened under normal program or under “Wage Earner’s Scheme”. When opened under Wage Earner’s Scheme such accounts enjoy some special facilities and benefits.

SECTION FOUR: PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF GENERAL BANKING

3.5.1 Deposit Collection : The amount of deposit position of Sonali bank for the last five years is given in the following:

Year

Amount (core taka)

2003

23,034

2004

25,223

2005

27,708

2006

30,230

2007

32,045

Table 1: Yearly deposit of Sonali Bank Limited

3.5.2 loan  Disbursement:

Year

Amount (core taka)

2003

23,034

2004

25,223

2005

27,708

2006

30,230

2007

32,045

Table 1: Yearly Loan Disbursement of Sonali Bank Limited

3.5.3 Analysis between deposit and loan:

Year

Amount (core taka)

Amount (core taka)

2003

15,520

23,034

2004

16,828

25,223

2005

22,701

27,708

2006

24,103

30,230

2007

20,490

32,045

Source:  Central account and fund management department.

3.5.4 FOREIGN REMITTANCE OF SONALI BANK LIMITED:

Year

Amount in US dollar

2003

944

2004

1,142

2005

1,190

2006

1,255

2007

1,260

Source:  Central account and fund management department.

3.5.5 Operating Profit of Sonali Bank Limited

YearAmount (creore taka)

2003

                         54

2004

                         95

2005

                        396

2006

                        301

2007

                        602

 

Source:  Central account and fund management department.

 

3.5.6 Loan & Advance mix as on 31.12.2007

YEAR

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

ADVANCE

23034

25223

27708

30230

32045

LOAN

15520

16828

22701

24103

20490

%

67

67

82

80

64

Source:  Central account and fund management department.

4.1 INTRODUCTION

Foreign remittance, in simple terms, means money remitted in foreign currency. More precisely, it is termed as remittances in foreign currency that are received in & made out abroad. Conceptual Issues International remittances are defined as the portion of migrant workers’ arnings sent back from the country of employment to the country of origin (ILO, 2000). Remittance can also be sent in kind. Transfers that take place in kind is quite difficult to measure. Remittances can be individual and it can also be collective. When individuals send remittance to his/her household or kith and kin that can be termed as individual remittance. When a group of migrants, their associations or professional bodies mobilize resource together and send for collective or community programmes, that can be termed as collective remittance. Individual remittances are mostly geared towards the family whereas collective remittances are generally used for community development.

Transfer of remittances takes place through different methods. 46% of the total volume of remittance has been channeled through official sources, around 40% through hundi, 4.61% through friends and relatives, and about 8 percent of the total was hand carried by migrant workers themselves when they visited

4.1.1 TYPES

Two types of Foreign remittance:-

  •   Foreign Inward Remittance.
  •   Foreign Outward Remittance.

4.1.2 FOREIGN INWARD REMITTANCE

4.1.3 DEFINITION

The remittance of freely convertible foreign currencies which we are receiving from abroad against which the Authorized Dealers making payment in local currency to the beneficiaries may be termed as Foreign Inward Remittance.

4.1.4 MODE OF INWARD REMITTANCES (Also Outward Remittance):

The following are the mode of Inward/Outward Remittances.

i)      TT     =      Telegraphic Transfer.

ii)      MT    =      Mail Transfer.

iii)     FD     =      Foreign Drafts.

iv)     PO    =      Payment Order.

v)     TC     =      Travellers Cheque.

vi)     EFT   =      Electronic Fund Transfer

4.1.5 Foreign Currency Notes (On line Remittances)

A remitter abroad simply has to approach a bank branch there with certain amount to be deposited beneficiary in Bangladesh either in foreign currency or in equivalent Taka currency. The Branch so approached abroad usually should have agency arrangement with the paying banks in Bangladesh. However, in the absence of any such agency arrangement, remittance may also be made by transferring cover value of the remittance to the paying bank’s account abroad by the remitting bank.

4.1.6 SOURCE OF INWARD REMITTANCE

  •   Expatriate Bangladeshis.
  •   Exporters.
  •   Visitors.

4.1.7 PURPOSE OF REMITTANCE

In short, remittances are being sent from abroad for the following purposes:-

  •   Family maintenance
  •   Indenting Commission
  •   Recruiting Agents Commission
  •   Realization of Export Proceeds
  •   Donation
  •   Gift
  •   Export broker’s Commission etc.

4.1.8 FOREIGN OUTWARD REMITTANCE

4.1.9 DEFINITION

The remittances in foreign currency which are being made from our country to abroad is known as foreign outward remittance.

4.1.10 PURPOSE OF OUTWORD REMITTANCE

  •   To settle Import Payment.
  •   To meet Travel Expenses/Medical Expenses/Educational Expenses etc.

4.1.11 APPROVAL OF BANGLADESH BANK

Bangladesh is always in a scarcity of foreign exchange and foreign exchange business is restricted and controlled by the Central Bank of the country. For this reason Bangladesh Bank’s prior permission is required for any remittance to be made to outside the country.

Bangladesh Bank provides permission/approval for outward remittances to the applicants who are to lodge an application for the purpose on the following prescribed forms with an Authorized Dealer who forwarded the same to Bangladesh Bank for approval.

4.1.12 MAIN FLOW OF FOREIGN REMITTANCE

  •   Saudi Arabia
  •   UAE
  •   Kuwait
  •   Qatar
  •   Oman
  •   Iraq
  •   Libya
  •   Bahrain,
  •   Iran
  •   Malaysia
  •   South Korea
  •   Singapore
  •   Hong Kong
  •   Brunei

These are some ofthe major countries of destination. Saudi Arabia alone accounts for nearly onehalf of the total number of workers who migrated from Bangladesh. Labour market of Bangladeshi workers is not static. During the 1970s Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Libya were some of the major destination countries. While theposition of Saudi Arabia remains at the top, Malaysia and UAE became important receivers. In mid-1990s, Malaysia became the second largestemployer of Bangladeshi workers. However, since the financial crisis of 1997,Bangladeshis migrating to Malaysia dropped drastically . Now UAE has taken over its place.

Over the past 25 years labour migration from Bangladesh has registered a steady increase. From 1990 onwards on an average 3,25,000 Bangladeshis are migrating on short-term employment, mostly to 13 countries. In the past the bulk of the migrants consisted of professional and skilled labour. However, the recent trend is more towards semi- and unskilled labour migration. Due to increase in the flow of unskilled and semi- skilled labour, remittance is increasing at a much lower rate than the labour flow. Remittance is crucial for Bangladesh’s economy. It constitutes almost one-third of the foreign exchange earning. About 25 percent of remittance senders were students when they went abroad and another 25 percent were living off their own land. A large segment of them were working as construction labourers overseas, another group worked as agricultural labourers. UAE, Saudi Arabia and Singapore constituted the most of important destinations of these migrants.

One survey comments that   if the migrant workers’ total income abroad and the present family income from other sources is combined and then compared with the pre- migration family income, it registers an increase in total income by 119 percent. On an average, the interviewee households annually received about Tk.72,800 as remittance. This means that a typical migrant remits 55.65 percent of his income. Remittance constitutes 51.12% of the total income of these families. Transfer of remittances takes place through different methods. 46% of the total volume of remittance has been channeled through official sources, around 40% through hundi, 4.61% through friends and relatives, and about 8 percent of the totalwas hand carried by migrant workers themselves when they visited

4.1.13 Contribution of Remittance to the National Economy

Labour migration plays a vital role in the economy of Bangladesh. Bangladesh has a very narrow export base. Readymade garments, frozen fish, jute, leather and tea are the five groups of items that account for four-fifths of its export earnings. Currently, garments manufacturing is treated as the highest foreign exchange earning sector of the country (US $ 4.583 billion in 2003). However, if the cost of import of raw material is adjusted, then the net earning from migrant workers’ remittances is higher than that of the garments sector. In 2003, net export earning from RMG should be between US$2.29-2.52 billion, whereas the earning from remittance is net US$3.063 billion. In fact, since the 1980s, contrary to the popular belief, remittances sent by the migrants played a much greater role in sustaining the economy of Bangladesh than the garments sector.8 For the last two decades, remittances have been at levels of around 35% of export earnings, making it the single largest source of foreign currency earner for the country. This has been used in financing the import of capital goods and raw materials for industrial development. In the year 1998-99, 22 percent of the official import bill was financed by remittances (Afsar, 2000; Murshed, 2000 and Khan, 2003). The steady flow of remittances has resolved the foreign exchange constraints, improved the balance of payments, and helped increase the supply of national savings (Quibria 1986). Remittances also constituted a very important source of the country’s development budget. In certain years in the 1990s remittances’ contribution rose to more than 50 percent of the country’s development budget. Government of Bangladesh treats Foreign aid (concessional loan and grants) as an important resource base of the country. However, remittances that Bangladesh received last year was twice that of foreign aid. Remittances have played a major role in reducing the extent of the country’s dependence on foreign aid. The contribution of remittance to GDP has also grown from a meagre 1 percent in 1977-1978 to 5.2 percent in 1982-83. During the 1990s the ratio hovered around 4 percent. However if one takes into account the unofficial flow of remittances, its contribution to GDP would certainly be much higher. Murshed (2000) finds that an increase in remittance by Taka 1 would result in an increase in national income by Tk 3.33. Following the expiry of multi-fiber agreement (MFA), Bangladesh will face steep competition in export of RMG. The country will cease to enjoy any special quota. It is apprehended that Bangladesh’s RMG export will decline sharply. This will result in loss of job of many workers and shortfall in foreign exchange earning. Potential of retaining employment and export earning through export of frozen fish, jute, leather and tea seems rather bleak. It is in this context labour migration has become key sector for earning foreign exchange and creating opportunities for employment. Therefore, the importance of migrant remittance to the economy of Bangladesh can hardly be over emphasized.

4.1.14 ROLE OF DIFFERENT INSTITUTES CONSIDERING FOREIGN REMITTNCE

4.1.15 Ministry of Finance

Ministry of Finance (MoF) is the prime policy making body regarding banking and remittance. Macro-economic policies that affect exchange rate, monetary and fiscal mechanisms, foreign exchange reserve etc. are regulated by this ministry.

4.1.16 Bangladesh Bank

Bangladesh Bank (BB) is the central bank of Bangladesh. Among other powers and functions, BB regulates scheduled bank activities, acts as a clearing-house, maintains foreign exchange reserves and monitors floating exchange rate mechanism in the current accounts. Bangladesh Bank encourages the nationalised and private banks to link up with foreign banks and exchange houses in the destination countries. It has a separate department for regulating and monitoring remittance entitled Foreign

4.1.17 Exchange Policy Department (FEPD).

It also generates, analyses, interpretsand distributes data on inflow of remittance.

4.1.18 Nationalised Commercial Banks

Nationalised Commercial Banks (NCBs) of Bangladesh make direct banking facilities available at the doorsteps of Bangladeshi emigrants specially in those countries where a large number of Bangladeshis are employed. Five NCBs are deeply involved in remittance transfer. These are Sonali Bank, Janata Bank, Agrani Bank, Rupali Bank Ltd. and Bangladesh Krishi Bank (BKB). Among the NCBs, BKB is solely targeted towards agricultural development in rural areas. Within Bangladesh these five NCBs have 2945 branches. Through them they can disburse remittances even in distant areas. Besides their own branches, NCBs have opened exchange houses in joint collaboration with different banks and financial institutions in different countries of the world.

4.1.19 Private Commercial Banks

Private Commercial Banks (PCBs) are also involved in remittance transfer. Of the PCBs, Islami Bank of Bangladesh Ltd. has been found to be most proactive in the area of migrants’ remittace. National Bank, International Finance and Investment Corporation (IFIC), Prime Bank and Uttara Bank are other private banks involved in remittance transfer. Most of their activities are in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is the major working area of Islami Bank along with Qatar, Bahrain and UAE. National Bank is operating in Oman, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. IFIC has curved out a major niche in Bangladeshi community in Oman and has its largest share with 41% of the market. It also has brances and exchange offices in Nepal and someother Middle Eastern countries. Uttara Bank runs exchange house in Qatar in collaboration with a local financial institution. Corresponding Relationships In almost all countries of the world, both NCBs and PCBs have corresponding relationships with banks through which Bangladeshi migrants may easily send their money to their beneficiaries’ accounts with any branch of any bank in Bangladesh.

4.1.20 Performance analysis of Foreign Exchange:

Performance of Foreign Exchange on the basis of L/C. Services:

The amount of letter of credit (L/C.) position of Sonali Bank for the last five years is given in the following table:

 

Year

L/C. Amount (in thousand taka)

2000

26439844

2001

29409705

2002

41214268

2003

41175733

2004

65007841

Table5.2.1: Yearly L/C. of Sonali Bank

Comment: The amount of L/C. of Sonali bank is Tk. 2643, 2940, 4121, 4117 and 6500 crores for the years 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively. Among the last five years, the L/C. increased quite drastically in five years specially 2004, it increased to a sharp 6500 crore which is pretty good.

 

Some More Parts-

Remittance Management System(RMS) of Sonali Bank Limited (Part-1)

Remittance Management System(RMS) of Sonali Bank Limited (Part-2)

Remittance Management System(RMS) of Sonali Bank Limited (Part-3)

Related Finance Paper:

Popular Finance Paper:

Introduction to Financial Leverage

This article focus to explain Introduction to Financial Leverage, here major focus on financial Leverage in investment. In the event leverage is something you want to understand, comparing and contrasting this specific important financial concept mainly because it exists in both stock options an.....

Overview the Process of Investing Money

Main objective of this article is to explain overview the Process of Investing Money. When investing money you need to assure that you can afford to lose the amount you’re planning on investing, taking a pray for top level but prepare for the worst type of mentality. If you are seeking to .....

Explain Basic Asset Protection

Broad objective of this article is to Explain Basic Asset Protection. Here explain Asset Protection in financial point of view. Asset Protection strategies are probable because law makers have recognized it’s in the public interest to help you keep what you include earned. The term Asset.....

Discuss on Basics of Investment Banking

Primary objective of this article is to Discuss on Basics of Investment Banking. Investment banking is a profitable business. They act on behalf of private and public corporations. Also the investment banking industry plays an essential role in the market transactions because they are carrying t.....

Discuss on Short Term Investments

This article focus to discuss on Short Term Investments. There are numerous ways of investing income, few of them can turn profits in a short time investments period. To a few investors, having their money come back benefits in ten or twenty years is simply not a feasible option. They may need yo.....