Thesis Paper on Restaurant

INTRODUCTION :

Eating is one of life’s pleasure and pride – so is cooking and serving good food to others. A restaurant is a commercial outfit which specializes in the preparation of quality food and to serve them to satisfy the customer’s demands. Their motto is “Customers are our assets and satisfied customers are our source of wealth”. Restaurants do have state of the art kitchens in their premises, where food items are prepared, following a fixed menu to serve the customers. Most restaurants are also equipped with infrastructure facilities, table settings, and dining halls of various sizes to cater to needs of small gatherings to grandiose banquets to suit customer demands and above all, trained personnel to provide a satisfactory service.

A restaurant is an eating place where people are served food, drinks and desserts for their money. The food is served normally within a building even though presently, one can be given packed food to be eaten away. Food in a restaurant is prepared by chefs. Sometimes, restaurants specialize in the kind of food they offer.

The term restaurant (from the French word trestaurer, to restore) first appeared in the 16th century, meaning “a food which restores”, and referred specifically to a rich, highly flavored soup. The modern sense of the word was born around 1765 when a Parisian soup-seller named Boulanger opened his establishment.  Whilst inns and taverns were known from antiquity, these were establishments aimed at travelers, and in general locals would rarely eat there. The modern formal style of dining, where customers are given a plate with the food already arranged on it, is known as service à la russe, as it is said to have been introduced to France by the Russian Prince Kurakin in the 1810s, from where it spread rapidly to England and beyond.

Descrive of  Restaurant:

A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Service is generally for eating on premises, though the term has been used to include take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service.

Restaurants are sometimes a feature of a larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are provided for the convenience of the residents and, of course, for the hotel with a singular objective to maximize their potential revenue. Such restaurants are often also open to non-residents.Restaurants range from unpretentious lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with simple food and fixed menu served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving expensive special food and wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal, or even in rare cases formal wear. Typically, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready, and the customers pay the bill before leaving. In class or porche restaurants there will be a host or hostess or even a maître d’hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them. Other staff’s waiting on customers include busboys and slimmers.

 CLASSIFICATION OF RESTAURANTS:

Restaurants can be classified by whether they provide places to sit, whether they are served by wait-staff and the quality of the service, the formal atmosphere, and the price range. Restaurants are generally classified into three groups

  • Quick Service – Also known as fast food restaurants. They offer limited menus that are prepared quickly. They usually have drive-thru windows and take-out. They may also be self- service outfits.
  •  Mid scale – They offer full meals at a medium price that customers perceive as “good value.” They can be of full service, buffets or limited service with customers ordering at the counter and having their food brought to them or self service.
  • Upscale – Offer high quality cuisine at a high end price. They offer full service and have a high quality of ambience.

TYPES OF RESTAURANTS:

Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling “local” food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant.

Depending on local customs and the policy of the establishment, restaurants may or may not serve alcoholic beverages. Restaurants are often prohibited from selling alcohol without a meal by alcohol sale laws; such sale is considered to be activity for bars, which are meant to have more severe restrictions. Some restaurants are licensed to serve alcohol (‘fully licensed’), and / or permit customers to ‘bring your own’ alcohol.

 Cafeterias:

A cafeteria is a restaurant serving mostly cooked ready to food arranged behind a food -serving counter. There is little or no table service. Typically, a patron takes a tray and pushes it along a track in front of the counter. Depending on the establishment, servings may be ordered from attendants, selected as ready-made portions already on plates, or self-serve of food of their own choice. In some establishments, a few items such as steaks may be ordered specially prepared rare, medium and well done from the attendants. The patron waits for those items to be prepared or is given a number and they are brought to the table. Beverages may be filled from self- service dispensers or ordered from the attendants. At the end of the line a cashier rings up the purchases. At some self-service cafeterias, purchases are priced by weight, rather than by individual item.

 The trays filled with selected items of food are taken to a table to eat. Institutional cafeterias may have common tables, but upscale cafeterias provide individual tables as in sit-down restaurants. Upscale cafeterias have traditional cutlery and crockery, and some have servers to carry the trays from the line to the patrons’ tables, and/ or bus the empty trays and used dishes

Cafeterias have a wider variety of prepared foods. For example, it may have a variety of roasts (beef, ham, turkey) ready for carving by a server, as well as other cooked entrées, rather than simply an offering of hamburgers or fried chicken.

 Casual Restaurants:

A casual dining restaurant is a restaurant that serves moderately-priced food in a casual atmosphere. Except for buffet- style restaurants, casual dining restaurants typically provide table service. Casual dining comprises of a market segment between fast food establishments and fine dining restaurants.

 Fast Casual-Dining Restaurants:

A fast casual restaurant is similar to a fast- food restaurant in that it does not offer full table service, but promises a somewhat higher quality of food and atmosphere. Average prices charged are higher than fast- food prices and non-disposable plates and cutlery are usually offered. This category is a growing concept that fills the space between fast food and casual dining. Counter service accompanied by handmade food (often visible via an open kitchen) is typical. Alcohol may be served. Dishes like steak, which require experience on the part of the cook to get it right, may be offered. The menu is usually limited to an extended over-counter display, and options in the way the food is prepared are emphasized. Many fast casual-dining restaurants are marketed as health- conscious: healthful items may have a larger number of items than normal portion of the menu and high-quality ingredients such as free- range chicken and freshly made salsas may be advertised. Overall, the quality of the food is presented as a much higher class than conventional factory-made fast food. An obvious ethnic theme may or may not be present in the menu.

 Other Restaurants

 Most of these establishments can be considered subtypes of fast casual-dining restaurants or casual-dining restaurants

i) Café

Cafés and coffee shops are informal restaurants offering a range of hot meals and made-to-order sandwiches. Cafés offer table service. Many cafés are open for breakfast and serve full hot breakfasts. In some areas, cafés offer outdoor seating.

ii) Coffeehouse

Coffeehouses are casual restaurants without table service that emphasize coffee and other beverages; typically a limited selection of cold foods such as pastries and perhaps sandwiches are offered as well. Their distinguishing feature is that they allow patrons to relax and socialize on their premises for long periods of time without pressure to leave promptly after eating.

iii) Pub

A pub (short for public house) is a bar that serves simple.food fare. Traditionally, pubs were primarily drinking establishments with .food in a decidedly secondary position, whereas the modern pub business relies on .food as well, to the point where gastropubs are known for their high-quality pub .food. A typical pub has a large selection of beers and ales on tap.

iv) Bistros and Brasserie

A brasserie is a café doubling as a restaurant and serving single dishes and other meals in a relaxed setting. A bistro is a familiar name for a café serving moderately priced simple meals in an unpretentious setting. Especially in Paris, bistros have become increasingly popular

with tourists. When used in English, the term bistro usually indicates either a fast casual-dining restaurant with a European-influenced menu or a café with a larger menu of food.

v) Family Style

“Family style restaurants” are restaurants that have a fixed menu and fixed price, usually with diners seated at a communal table such as on bench seats. More common in the 19th and early 20th century, they can still be found in rural communities, or as theme restaurants, or in vacation lodges. There is no menu to choose from; rather food is brought out in courses, usually with communal serving dishes, like at a family meal. Typical examples can include crabhouses, German-style beer halls, BBQ restaurants, hunting lodges, etc. Some normal restaurants will mix elements of family style, such as a table salad or bread bowl that is included as part of the meal.

vi) Delicatessens Restaurant

Restaurants offering foods intended for immediate consumption. The main product line is normally luncheon meats and cheeses. They may offer sandwiches, soups, and salads as well. Most foods are precooked prior to delivery. Preparation of food products is generally simple and only involves one or two steps.

vii) Ethnic Restaurants

They range from quick-service to upscale. Their menus usually include ethnic dishes and / or authentic ethnic foods. Specialize in a particular multicultural cuisine not specifically accommodated by any other listed categories. Example: Asian Cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Indian Cuisine, American Cuisine etc.

viii) Destination Restaurants

A destination restaurant is one that has a strong enough appeal to draw customers from beyond its community. Example: Michelin Guide 3-star restaurant in Europe, which according to the restaurant guides is “worthy of a journey”.

STAFF ORGANISATION :

Staff organization is basically concerned with matters such as the decision of tasks within the restaurant, position of responsibility and authority and the relationship between them. It helps in introducing the concept s of span of control, level of management and delegation of power and responsibilities.

French                                                     American                                      English 

MAÎTRE D’HÔTEL                            SENIOR CAPTAIN                           HEAD WAITER

RÉCEPTION                                          RECEPTION                                    RECEPTION

MAÎTRE D’HÔTEL DE                     SENIOR CAPTAIN                            HEAD WAITER

CARRÉ                                                         STATION                                      STATION

CHEF DE RANG                                         CAPTAIN                                     STATION HEAD

DEMI CHEF DE RANG                   ASSISTANT CAPTAIN WAITER

COMMIS                                            STATION ASSISTANT        ASSISTANT  WAITER

DEBARSSEUR                                 STEWARD/ BUS BOY

APPRENTI                                        APPRENTICE                                   TRAINEE

Duties and responsibilites of Reataurant Staff

All types of catering establishments require a variety of staff positions in order to operate effectively and efficiently. The food and beverage service department usually has the largest staff. Able leadership and supervision is required to effectively direct the department and guide the staff. The personnel in the food and service industry require practical knowledge of operations as even a small error can cause displeasure to the guest. Coordination of activities of all outlets is essential to provide the guest with quality service at all times. Teamwork is the watchword in any food and beverage service department. A dedicated and committed team, with able leadership, under ideal working conditions, helps in fulfilling the establishment’s ultimate goal of guest satisfaction The important duties and responsibilities of the restaurant staffs are discussed in this section.

Food and Beverage Manager

The food & Beverage manager is the head of the food & Beverage service department, and is responsible for its administrative and operational work. Food & Beverage Managers direct, plan and control all aspects of food & Beverage services.

 Food & Beverage Managers require excellent sales and customer service skills, proven human resource management skills, and good communication and leadership skills. Desired knowledge for this position includes knowledge of the products, services, sector, industry and local area, and knowledge of relevant legislation and regulations, as well. Hence it is said that food & Beverage manager is a Jack-of-all-trades, as the job covers a wide variety of duties.

Assistant Food and Beverage Manager:

The assistant food and beverage manager assists the food and beverage manager in running the department by being more involved in the actual day-to-day operations. This position exists only in large organizations. An assistant food and beverage manager’s job includes:

  • Assisting section heads during busy periods.
  •  Taking charge of an outlet, when an outlet manager is on leave.
  •  Setting duty schedules for all the outlet managers and monitoring their performance.
  •  Running the department independently in the absence of the food and beverage manager.

 Restaurant Manager:

Restaurant Manager is responsible for directing and supervising all activities pertaining to employee relation, food production, sanitation, guest service and operating profits. The restaurant manager is either the coffee shop manager, bar manager or the specialist restaurant manager. The restaurant manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and has overall responsibility for the organization and administration of a particular outlet or a section of the food and beverage service department.

Room Service Manager:

The room service manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and is responsible for the room service outlet. The room service manager checks that the service rendered to the guests conforms to the standards set by the hotel. He also monitors all operational aspects of the outlet such as service, billing, duty charts, leave and absenteeism, in addition to attending to guest complaints regarding food and beverage service.

The room service manager is also in charge of the sales and expenditure budget. The room service is most liable to have problems. The room service manager should ensure coordination among the room service order taker, the captain and the waiter.

Bar Manager:

Bar Manager organizes and controls a bar’s operations. A bar manager arranges the purchase and pricing of beverages according to budget; selects, trains and supervises bar staff; maintains records of stock levels and financial transactions; makes sure bar staff follow liquor laws and regulations; and checks on customer satisfaction and preferencesThe bar manager should have good interpersonal skills and good memory. He must be efficient and speedy, must enjoy working with people. He should have good cash-handling skills.

Banquet Manager:

The banquet manager supervises the banquet operations, sets up break-down service according to the standards established by the hotel. He co-ordinates the banquet service in conjunction with other departments involved and prepares weekly schedules for the banquet personnel.From the time the bookings are done till the guest settles the bill, the banquet manager is in charge of all aspects of banquet and conference operations. He supervises the work of the banquet sales assistants, who do the banquet bookings and the captains and waiters who perform the food and beverage service activities under his guidance. He is responsible for organizing everything right down to the finest detail.

The banquet manager projects the budget of the banquets, and works in close coordination with the chef in preparing menus. He is responsible for making an inventory of all the banquet equipment and maintaining a balance between revenue and expenditure.

Other Staff Designations at Various Levels

The following are the various designations with their job specifications in the food and beverage department.

i) Senior Captain or Maitre d’ Hotel

The senior captain has overall responsibility for operations. He prepares the duty charts in consultation with the outlet manager. He oversees the Mise-en-place, cleaning, setting up of the outlet and staffing to ensure that the outlet is always ready for service. The senior captain receives the guests and hands them over to the captain or station holder. He takes orders from guests if the captain is unable to do so. The senior captain should be an able organiser and also be prepared to take over the duties of any member of the staff as and when required.

ii) Reception Head Waiter

This staff member is responsible for accepting any booking and for keeping the booking diary up-to-date. He / she will reserve tables and allocate these reservations to particular stations. The reception head waiter greets guests on arrival and takes them to the table and seats them.

iii) Captain / Chef de Rang

This position exists in large restaurants, as well as in the food and beverage service department of all major hotels. The captain is basically a supervisor and is in charge of a particular section. A restaurant may be divided into sections called Sations, each consisting of 4 to 5 tables or 20 to 24 covers. A captain is responsible for the efficient performance of the staff in his station. A captain should possess a sound knowledge of food and beverage beverage ‘s order and be an efficient salesperson. Specialized service such as gueridon work involves a certain degree of skill, and it is the captain who usually takes the responsibility to do this work.

iv) Waiters / Commis de Rang / Server

The waiters serve the food and beverage ordered by a guest and is part of a team under a station captain. They should be able to perform the duties of a captain to a certain extent and

Be a substitute for the captain if he is busy or not on duty. They should; also be knowledgeable about all types of food beverages, so that they can effectively take an order from a guest, execute the order and serve the correct dish with its appropriate garnish and accompaniment. They should be able to efficiently coordinate with the other staff in the outlet.

v) Trainee / Commis De Barraseur

The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders from the kitchen and the bar, and clearing the side station in a restaurant. They serve water and assist the waiter. They are mainly responsible for the mise-en-place, and stacking the side board with the necessary equipment for service. The debarrasseur is the ‘learner’, having just joined the food service staff, and possibly wishing to take up food service as a carreer.

vi) Wine Waiter / Sommelier

Wine waiters have an important role to play in reputed establishments. Their job is to take orders for the service of wine and alcoholic beverages and serve them during the meal. Hence they should be knowledgeable about wines that accompany a particular dish and the manner in which they should be served. They should also be aware of the licensing laws prevalent in the city and should be efficient sales persons.

vii) Room Service Waiters / Chef D’etage

Room service waiters work in the room service outlet, serving food and beverage to guests in their rooms. The order is placed by the guest on telephone, and is recorded on a Kitchen Order Ticket (K.O.T). It is then passed on to the duty captain. The duty captain in turn places the order in the kitchen or the bar, as the case may be. The room service waiter who has been assigned that order, sets the tray according to the food or beverage ordered, picks up and delivers the order when it is ready.

viii) Carver / Trancheur

The carver is responsible for the carving trolley and the carving of joints at the table as required. The carver will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment.

ix) Floor Service Staff / Floor Waiter

The floor service staffs are often responsible for an entire floor in an establishment or, depending on the size of the establishment, a number of rooms or suites. Floor service of all meals and breakfast is offered either throughout the day or in a limited time depending.