The main objective of this report is to analysis Human Resource Management of Dhaka Bank, the scope of this report is mostly limited, as the report is based on practical observations. Other observation are Employee Personnel practices and Developing Employees practices. Also Compensation of Employees practices and Performance Appraisal of Employees practices in Dhaka Bank, all these are function of Human Resource Management.
Objective of the study
The objective of this study is to fulfill the requirement of project theisis
- Human Resource Management practices.
- Employee Personnel practices.
- Developing Employees practices.
- Compensation of Employees practices.
- Performance Appraisal of Employees practices.
Methodology of the Report
Different data and information are required to meet the goal of this report. Those data and information were collected from various sources, such as primary and secondary which is showed below.
Primary sources of data:
Primary data are collected from questionnairesf.
Secondary sources of data:
- Annul report of Dhaka Bank Limited.
- Several types of Academic test books.
- Different publication regarding Banking functions.
- Information about the organization from their company profile.
- Web sites of Bangladesh Bank, Dhaka Bank Limited etc.
Meaning of HRM
Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms “human resource management” and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel management” as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, Human Resource Management (HRM) means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement.
The goal of human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The key word here perhaps is “fit”, i.e. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organization’s employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company (Miller, 1989).
The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines; therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. Fields such as psychology, industrial engineering, industrial, Legal/Paralegal Studies and organizational psychology, industrial relations, sociology, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management.
One widely used scheme to describe the role of HRM, developed by Dave Ulrich, defines 4 fields for the HRM function:
- Strategic business partner
- Change management
- Employee champion
However, many HR functions these days struggle to get beyond the roles of administration and employee champion, and are seen rather as reactive as strategically proactive partners for the top management. In addition, HR organizations also have the difficulty in proving how their activities and processes add value to the company. Only in the recent years HR scholars and HR professionals are focusing to develop models that can measure if HR adds value.
Challenges of Human Resource Management
The role of the Human Resource Manager is evolving with the change in competitive market environment and the realization that Human Resource Management must play a more strategic role in the success of an organization. Organizations that do not put their emphasis on attracting and retaining talents may find themselves in dire consequences, as their competitors may be outplaying them in the strategic employment of their human resources.
With the increase in competition, locally or globally, organizations must become more adaptable, resilient, agile, and customer-focused to succeed. And within this change in environment, the HR professional has to evolve to become a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor within the organization. In order to succeed, HR must be a business driven function with a thorough understanding of the organization’s big picture and be able to influence key decisions and policies. In general, the focus of today’s HR Manager is on strategic personnel retention and talents development. HR professionals will be coaches, counselors, mentors, and succession planners to help motivate organization’s members and their loyalty. The HR manager will also promote and fight for values, ethics, beliefs, and spirituality within their organizations, especially in the management of workplace diversity.
Employment of Personnel
Meaning of Human Resource Planning
An organization would not build a new plant, conduct the ribbon-cutting ceremony, and then begin to worry about how to staff the facility. A firm cannot hire several hundred engineers and get them on board overnight, nor can it develop management talent in just a few weeks. Foresight is necessary to ensure that appropriately qualified staff will be available to implement an organization’s future plans. The tighter the labor market, the more forward planning is required to avoid future problems due to understaffing. On the other hand, planning ahead in a declining economy is also critical in minimizing expensive overstaffing and possible layoffs. Human resource planning is concerned with the flow of people into, through, and out of an organization. HR planning involves anticipating the need for labor and the supply of labor and then planning the programs necessary to ensure that the organization will have the right mix of employees and skills when and where they are needed. The forecasting methods described below provide key input for these processes.
Human resource experts can also take on a strategic role in collaboration with the top management team to plan a strategy for the firm that capitalizes on or builds the organization’s unique human, resource competencies. For instance, Marriott Corporation’s goal of being the provider of choice for food and lodging services was supplemented by the goal of becoming the “employer of choice”- as well. Executives decided that unless Marriott was a very’ attractive employer, it would not be able to obtain the number and quality of people it needed, for a growth and high-quality service strategy. The company adopted initiatives to broaden its recruiting base, but ‘it also worked hard at retaining and motivating current employees, To that end, changes were made in career paths, job responsibilities, work teams, and reward systems.
At Colgate-Palmolive, a global HR team was formed to help the organization meet its goal of “becoming the best truly global consumer products company.” Top HR managers and key senior line managers worked together on the team to translate business plans into human resource plans that would support organizational excellence. As a result, strategic initiatives were adopted in recruitment, selection, development, individual performance management, team performance management, career planning, diversity, employee attitude surveys, and employee communication.
Objectives of Human Resource Planning
Managers and HR departments achieve their purpose by meeting objectives.
Objectives are benchmarks against which actions are evaluated. Sometimes they are carefully thought out and expressed in writing. More often objectives are not formally stated. Either way, they guide the HR function in practice. Consider the objectives of Hewlett-Packard’s founders:
Human resource objectives not only need to reflect the intention of senior management, they also must balance challenges from the organization, the HR function, society, and the people who are affected. Failure to do so can harm the firm’s performance, profits, and even survival. These challenges spotlight four objectives that are common to HR management and form a framework around which this book is written.
Organizational objective. To recognize that HR management exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. Even when a formal HR department is created to help managers, the managers remain responsible for employee performance. The HR department exists to help managers achieve the objectives of the organization. HR management is not an end in itself; it is only a means of assisting managers with their human resource issues
Functional objective. To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Resources are wasted when HR management is more or less sophisticated than the organization demands.
Societal objective. To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands on the organization. The failure of organizations to use their resources for society’s benefit in ethical ways may result in restrictions.
Personal objective. To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as those goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. The personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained, and motivated. Otherwise, employee performance and satisfaction may decline and employees may leave the organization.
Not every HR decision can meet these organizational, functional, societal, and personal objectives every time. Trade-offs does occur. But these objectives serve as a check on decisions. The more these objectives are met by the department’s actions, the larger its contribution will be to the organization’s bottom line and the employees’ needs. Moreover, by keeping these objectives in mind, HR specialists can see the reasons behind many of the department’s activities.
Practices in the Dhaka Bank Limited
The bank follows most of steps of HR planning i.e. integrate HR planning with corporate planning, assessment of internal HR capabilities and so on.
The bank has an integrated HR plan. Their manpower ratio is satisfactory for smooth and quality services to the potential customers.
Dhaka Bank Limited is forecasting future manpower requirements. This is done either in terms of mathematical projections or in terms of judgmental estimates. Mathematical projections are done extrapolating factors like, economic, environment, development trends in the bank. Judgmental estimates are done depending on the specific future plans of the bank by managerial discretion which is based on past experience.
Dhaka Bank Limited is preparing an inventory of present manpower. Such inventory contains data about each employee’s skills, abilities, work preferences and other items of information.
Dhaka Bank all times prepares anticipating problems of manpower. This is can be done by projecting present resources into the future and comparing the same with the forecast of manpower requirements. This helps in determining the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of manpower.
Concepts of Recruitment Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected. In large organizations specialists in the recruiting process, called recruiters, are often used to find and attract capable applicants. The HR plan can be especially helpful because it shows the recruiter both present openings and those expected in the future.Figure presents an overview of the’ recruitment process from the perspectives of the organization and the candidate. This flow chart displays the process as it unfolds over time. When a vacancy occurs and the recruiter receives authorization to fill it, the next step is a careful examination of the job’ and an enumeration of the skills, abilities, and experience needed to perform the job successfully. Existing job analysis documents can be very helpful in this regard. “In addition, the recruitment planner must consider other aspects of the job environment—for example, the supervisor’s management style, the opportunities for advancement, pay, and – geographic location—in deciding what type of candidate to search for and what search methods to use. After carefully planning the recruiting effort, the recruiter uses one
In the recruitment and selection process, the organization’s and individual’s objectives may conflict. The organization is trying to evaluate the candidate’s strengths and weaknesses, but the candidate is trying to present only strengths. Conversely, although the candidate is trying to ferret out both the good and the bad aspects of the prospective job and employer, the organization may prefer to reveal only positive aspects. In addition, each party’s own objectives may conflict The organization wants to treat the candidate well to increase the probability of job-offer acceptance, yet the need to evaluate the candidate may dictate the use of ‘methods that may alienate the prospect, such as background investigations or stress Interviews.” Analogously, the applicant wants to appear polite and enthusiastic about the organization to improve the probability of receiving an offer, but he or she may also want to ask penetrating questions about compensation, advancement, and the company’s financial health and future.
Internal Recruitment Process:
Current employees are a major source of recruits for all but entry-level positions. Whether for promotions or for “lateral” job transfers, internal Candida already know the informal organization and have detailed information alibis formal policies and procedures. Promotions and transfers are typically ceded by operating managers with little involvement by the HR department
HR departments become involved when internal job opening are publicized employees through job-posting programs, which inform employees at openings and required qualifications and invite qualified employees to apply.
Self-nominations may even apply to management trainees. Many organizations hire recent college graduates for management training programs, and this may be little more than an extended job rotation through several departments. After this rotation is completed, some companies allow trainees to nominate themselves to fill posted job openings.
An often overlooked source of recruits consists of departing employees. Many employees leave because they can no longer work the traditional forty-hour workweek. School, child-care needs, and other commitments are the common reasons. Some might gladly stay if they could rearrange their hours of work or their responsibilities. Instead, they quit when a transfer to a part-time job may retain their valuable skills and training.
External Recruitment Process:
When job openings cannot be filled internally, the HR department must look outside the organization for applicants. The remainder of the chapter discusses the external recruitment channels most commonly used by employers and applicants.
Walk-ins and Write-ins
Walk-ins are job seekers who arrive at the HR department in search of a job; write-ins are those who send a written inquiry. Both groups normally are asked to complete an application blank to determine their interests and abilities. Usable applications are kept in an active file until a suitable opening occurs or until an application is too old to be considered valid, usually six months.
Employees may refer job seekers to the HR department. Employee referrals have several advantages. First, employees with hard-to-find job skills may know others who do the same work. For example, a shortage of welders on the Alaskan pipeline was partially solved by having welders ask their friends in the “lower forty-eight states” to apply for the many unfilled openings. TRW and McDonald’s pay employees a referral bonus when qualified candidates arc recommended at some locations. Second, new recruits already know something about the organization from the employees who referred them. Thus, referred applicants may be more strongly attracted to the organization than arc referrals casual walk-ins. Third, employees tend to refer their friends, who are likely to have similar work habits and attitudes. Even if their work values are different, these candidates
What ads describe the job and the benefits, identify the employer, and tell those who are interested how to apply. They are the most familiar form of employment advertising. For highly specialized recruits, ads may be placed in professional journals or out-of-town newspapers in areas with high concentrations of the desired skills. For example, recruiters in the aerospace industry often advertise in Los Angeles, St. Louis, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Seattle newspapers because those cities are major aerospace centers.
Want ads have severe limitations. They may attract thousands of job seekers for one popular job opening, or few may apply for less attractive jobs. For example, few people apply for door-to-door sales jobs if they know the product is vacuum cleaners or encyclopedias. Likewise, the ideal recruits are probably already employed and not reading want ads. Finally, secret advertising for a recruit to replace an incumbent cannot be done with traditional want ads. These limitations are avoided through the use of blind ads. A blind ad is a want ad that does not identify the employer. Interested applicants are told to send their resumes to a mailbox number at the post office or to the newspaper. A resume, which is a brief summary of an applicant’s background, is then forwarded to the employer. These ads allow the opening to remain confidential, prevent countless telephone inquiries, and avoid the public relations problem of disappointed recruits.
State Employment Security Agencies
Every state government has a state employment security agency. Often called the unemployment office or the employment service, this agency matches job seekers with job openings. The agencies result from a federal and state partnership that was
Private Placement Agencies
Private placement agencies, which exist in every major metropolitan area, arose to help employers find capable applicants. They take an employer’s request for recruits and then solicit job seekers, usually through advertising or among walk-ins. Candidates are prescreened, matched with employer requests, and then told to report to the employer’s HR department for an interview. The matching process conducted by private agencies varies widely. Some placement services carefully prescreen applicants; others simply provide a stream of applicants and let the HR department do most of the screening.
Professional Search Firms
Professional search firms are much more specialized than placement agencies. Search firms usually recruit only specific types of human resources for a fee paid by the employer. For example, some search firms specialize in executive talent, while others find technical and scientific personnel. Perhaps the most significant difference between search firms and placement agencies is the approach taken. Placement agencies hope to attract applicants through advertising, but search firms actively seek out recruits among the employees of other companies. Although they may advertise, search firms use the telephone as their primary tool to locate and attract prospective recruits.
Many educational institutions offer current students and alumni placement assistance. Although some applicants sought through educational institutions are experienced, many are not. And new entrants are more likely to be swayed by the recruiter’s manner and behavior during the interview than by the attributes of the job, which appears to be the deciding factor for experienced workers.
Educational institutions also are an excellent source for hiring foreign nationals. Foreign students in domestic schools have the advantage of being bilingual and bicultural. Some foreign students desire jobs with domestic firms to gain experience or secure citizenship.
Recruitment in foreign countries presents special challenges. In advanced industrial nations, recruiters find many of the same channels that exist in North America. Additional help can sometimes be obtained from embassy or consular offices. Recruitment help from consultants or other professionals may be necessary for higher-level positions. These positions may require social acceptance, school ties, and other appropriate hallmarks of success, which may be considered more important than past experience or the other, more traditional criteria used in the home country.
In developing nations, recruiters often find that they have to develop their own network of contacts, ranging from newspaper reporters to government officials in the host country. Of particular importance are cultural conflicts. Historical animosities may exist between different factions within the country, whether different native tribes, elements of a formal caste system, or enmity by virtue of long-standing traditions.
Recruitment of employees to move internationally has many similarities with domestic efforts; unfortunately, the problems encountered by recruiters are often more difficult to resolve. Members of two-career families may be reluctant to apply for overseas jobs. Immigration barriers, employment laws, and other roadblocks may prevent a promising recruit from a becoming a bona fide.
The Selection Process
Selection activities typically follow a standard pattern, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with the final employment decision. The selection process typically consists of eight steps:
- Initial screening interview
- Completing the application form
- Employment tests
- Comprehensive interview
- Background investigation
- a conditional job offer
- Medical or physical examination and
- The permanent job offer.
1) Initial Screening: As a culmination of our recruiting efforts, we should be prepared to initiate a preliminary review of potentially acceptable candidates. This initial screening is, in effect, a two-step procedure: (1) the screening of inquiries and (2) the provision of screening interviews.
2) Completion of the Application Form
Once the initial screening has been completed applicants are asked to complete the organization’s application form. The amount of information required may be only the applicant’s name address, and telephone number. Some organizations, on the other hand, may request the completion of a more comprehensive employment profile. In general terms, the application form gives a job-performance-related synopsis of what applicants have been doing during their adult life, their skills, and their accomplishment.
3) Employment Tests: Organizations historically relied to a considerable extent on intelligence, aptitude, ability, and interest tests to provide major input to the selection process. Even handwriting analysis (graphology) and honesty tests have been used in the attempt to learn more about the candidate—information that supposedly leads to more effective selection. It is estimated that more than 60 percent off all organizations use some type of employee test today. For these organizations there is recognition that scrapping employment test was equivalent to “throwing out the baby with the bath water”. They have come to recognize that some tests are quite helpful in predicting who will be successful on the job.
4) The comprehensive Interview:
The applicant may be interviewed by HRM Interviewers, senior managers within the organization, a potential supervisor, and potential colleagues of some or all of these.
The comprehensive interview is designed to prove areas that cannot be addressed easily by the application form or tests, such as assessing one’s motivation, ability to work under pressure, and ability to “fit in” with the organization. However, this information must be job related. The question asked and the topics covered should reflect the jobs description and job specification information obtain in job analysis.
5) Background Investigation:
The next step in the process is to undertake a background investigation of those applicants who appear to offer potential as employees. This can include contacting former employers to confirm the candidate’s work record and to obtain their appraisal of his or her performance, contacting other job-related and personal references, verifying the educational accomplishments shown on the application. Common sense dictates that HRM find out as much as possible about its applicants before the final hiring decision is made. Failure to do so can have a detrimental effort on the organization, both in terms of cost and morale. But getting the information may be difficult, especially when there may be a question about invading one’s privacy. In the past, many organizational policies stated that any request for information about a past employee be sent to HRM.
6) Conditional Job Offer:
If a job applicant has “passed” each step of the selection process so far, it is typically customary for a conditional job offer to be made. Conditional job offers usually are made by an HRM representative (we’ll revisit this momentarily). In essence, what the conditional job offer implies is that if everything checks out “Okay-passing a certain medical, physical, or substance abuse test-“ the conditional nature of the job offer will be removed and the offer will be permanent.
7) Physical / Medical Examination:
The next to last step in the selection process may consist of having the applicant take a medical / physical examination. Remember, however, that in doing so a company must show that the reasoning behind this requirement is job related. Physical exams can only be used as a selection device to screen out those individuals who are unable to physically comply with the requirements of a job. For example, firefighter are require to perform a verified to activities that require a certain physical condition.
8) Job offer:
Those individuals who perform successfully in the preceding steps are now considered to be eligible to receive the employment offer. Who makes the final employment offer? The answer is, it depends. For administrative purposes, the offer typically is made by an HRM representative. The actual hiring decision should be made by the manager in the department where the vacancy exists. While this might not be the situation in all organizations, the manager of the department should have the authority. First, the applicant will eventually work for this manager and therefore a good “fit” between boss and employee is necessary. Second, if the decision made is not correct, the hiring manager has no one else to blame. It also important to remember- as we previously mentioned in recruiting – that those finalist who don’t get hired deserve the courtesy of being notified that they didn’t get the
Practices in the Southeast Bank Limited
The set-vise rule of Southeast Bank Limited sates the recruitment, the recruitment policy of the bank. In general the board of directors determines the recruitment policy of bank from time to time. The bank advertisement of the daily newspapers to wants their requirements from verities positions. They select the qualified applicants among the candidates. The call for the written test, those candidates who are successfully completion of the written test, they are select for the viva. The minimum entry level qualification for any official position other than supportive management is a bachelor degree. The management prefers a minimum master’s degree for the appointment of probationary officers in the executive officer position. The recruitment for entry level positions begins with a formal written test which is conducted and supervised buy the Institute of Business Administration, University of Dhaka. After successful completion of the written test, a personal interview is conduct for the successful candidates by a panel of experts comprising of renowned and prominent bankers of the country.
Concepts of Training:
Training is defined as any attempt to improve employee performance or a currently held job or one related to it. This usually means changes it is specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behaviors. To be effective, training should involve a learning experience, be a planned organizational activity, and be designed in response to identified needs. Ideally, training also should be designed to meet the goals of the organization while simultaneously meeting the goals of individual employees.
Concepts of Development
Development refers to leering opportunities designed to help employees grow. Such opportunities do not have to be limited to improving employee’s performance on their current jobs. At ford, for example, a new systems analyst is required to take a course on ford standards for user manuals. The content of this training is needed to perform the systems analyst job at ford. The systems analyst, however also may enrolled in a course entitled “self Awareness” the content of which is not required on the current job.
This situation illustrates the difference between training and development.
The focus of “Development” is on the long term to help employees prepare for future work demands, while training often focuses on the immediate period to help fix any current deficits in employee’s skills. The most effective companies look at training and career development as an integral part of a “human resources development” (HRD) program carefully aligned with corporate business strategies.
Need for manpower training
Most of the organization prefers internal manning of positions than external hiring for obvious motivational benefits and cost effectiveness. Even ‘though training prime facie, emphasizes on increasing the performance level of an employee, a continuous training function enables the organization to develop employees for future responsible positions in the organization itself.
The needs for manpower training in an organization may be categories as follows:
1. Updating Knowledge: Technological advancement, business environmental changes and new management philosophies have now made it imperative for the organization to renew and update the knowledge and skills of the employees so that they do mil become redundant for obvious functional incompetence. The first and foremost need for manpower training therefore, is to renew and update knowledge and skills of employees to sustain their effective performance and so also to develop them for future managerial positions.
2.Avoiding Obsolescence: Recent economic liberalization programs of Government of India is necessitating Organizational restructurings, which inter alia, calls for training the employees, irrespective of their functional level, for their redeployment in restructured
3.Improving Performance; Continuous training being required to renew and update knowledge and skills of employees, it makes them functionally effective. The- third need is therefore, to make employees effective in their performance through continuous training.
4. Developing Human Skills: Apart from emphasizing on technical and Conceptual skills, new training programmed also emphasize on developing human skills of employees. Such human skill is necessary for effective interpersonal relations and sustaining healthy work environment. This need for training therefore also cannot be all together ignored.
5. Imparting Trade-specific Skills: In industrial employment, the convention is to recruit workers and an employee through compulsory apprenticeship training such apprenticeship training enables an organization to impart industry and trade specific skills to workers. This also, therefore, is an important need for manpower training.
6. Stabilizing the Workforce: Throughout the world the importance of training is now increasingly felt for stabilizing the workforce to withstand the technological change and for making the organization dynamic in this changed process. Management theorists now unanimously agree that it is the responsibility of the organization to train and develop their manpower as continuous process.
Methods of Training:
On-the –job Training (OJT) means having a person learn a job by actually doing it, every employee, from mailroom clerk to company president, gets on the job training when he or she joins a firm. In many firms, OJT is the only training available.
The most familiar type of on the job training is the coaching or understudy method. Here, an experienced worker or the trainee’s supervisor trains the employee. At lower levels, trains may acquire skills by observing the supervisor. But this technique is widely used at top-management level too. A potential future CEO might spend a year as assistant to the current CEO, for instance. Job rotation, in which an employee (usually a management trainee) moves from job to job at planned intervals, is another OJT technique.
There are some steps to help insured OJT Success
Step: 1 Prepare the Learner
- Put the learner at ease— relieve the tension.
- Explain why he or she is being taught,
- Create interest, encourage – encourage find out whit the learner already knows about this or other jobs.
- Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows.
- Plane the learner is dose is the normal working position as possible.
- Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools, and trade
Step 2: Present the Operation
- Explain quantity and quality requirement?
- Go through the job at the normal work pace.
- Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points.
- Have the learner explain the steps is you go through the job at a slow pace,
Step: 3 Do a Tryout.
- Have the learner go though the job several times explaining: slowly, explaining each step to you. Correct mistakes and mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated steps the first few times.
- 2. Run the job at the normal pace.
- Have, the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed.
- As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but don’t abandon him or her,
Step: 4. Follow Up
- Designate to whom the learner should go for help
- Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against quality and quantity standards.
- Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior,
- Compliment good work; encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet the quality and quantity standards
More employers are implementing apprenticeship programs, an approach that began in the middle Ages. Apprenticeship training is a structured process which people become killed workers through a combination of classroom Instruction and on-the job training. It is widely to train individuals for many occupations. It traditionally involves having the learner/apprentice study under the tutelage of a master craftsperson.
Employers should not underestimate the importance or value of informal training. Surveys form the American Society for Training and Development estimate that as much as 80% of what employees learn on the job they learn not through formal training programs but through informal means, including performing their jobs on a dally basis in collaboration with their colleagues.
Job Instruction Training
This is training through step-by-step learning. Usually steps necessary for a job are identified in order of sequence and an employee is exposed to the different steps of a job by an experienced trainer.
Managerial On-the-Job Training
On –the – job training is not just for non managers. Managerial on –the –job training methods include job rotation the coaching/understudy approach, and action learning.
Job rotation means moving management trainees from department to department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business and to test their abilities. The trainee – often a resent college graduate may spend several months in each department. The person may just be an observer in each department, but more commonly gets fully involved in its operations.
Here the trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace, the latter is responsibly for the trainee’s coaching. Normally, the understudy relieves the executive of certain responsibilities, giving the trainee a chance to learn the job.
Action learning programs give managers and others released time to work full-time on projects, analyzing and solving problems in departments other than their own. The basics of a typical action learning program include. Carefully selected teams of 5 to 25 members; assigning the teams real world business problems that extend beyond their usual areas of expertise and structured learning through coaching and feedback.
Off- the job Training Methods:
Lecturing has several advantages. It is a quick and simple way to provide knowledge to large groups of trainees as when the sales force needs to learn the special features of a new product. You could use written materials instead, be they may require considerable more production expense and won’t encourage the give-and-take questioning that lectures do.
Here are some useful guidelines for presenting lectures.
- Give your listeners signals to help them follow your ideas. For instance, if you have as lost of items start by saying something like? There are four reasons why the sales reports are necessary. The first …………..the second……………….
- Don’t start out on the wrong foot. For instance, don’t open with an irrelevant joke or story or by saying something like. “I really don’t know why I was asked to speak here to day.
- Keep your conclusions short. Just summarize your main point or points in one or two succinct sentences.
- Be alert to your audience. Watch body language for negative signals like fidgeting and crossed arms.
- Maintain eye contact with the trainees. At least look at each section of the audience during your presentation.
- Make sure everyone in the room can hear. Use a mike if necessary. Repeat questions that you get from trainees before you answer.
- Control your hands. Get in the habit of leaving them hanging naturally at your sides rather than letting them drift.
- Talk from notes rather than from a script. Write out clear, legible notes on large index cards or on PowerPoint slides, and use these as an outline, rater than memorizing your presentation.
- Programmed Learning:
Whether the medium is a textbook, computer, or the Internet, programmed Leering (Or programmed instruction) is a step-by-step, self-leaning method that consists of there parts.
- Presenting questions facts or problems to the learner
- Allowing the person to respond
- Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers.
Generally, programmed learning presents facts ad follow-up questions. The learner can then respond, and subsequent frames provide feedback on the accuracy of his or hear answers. What the next question is often is often depends on the accuracy of the learner’s answer to the previous question.
- Audiovisual-Based Training
Audiovisual-based training techniques like, PowerPoint’s, vide conferencing, audiotapes, and videotapes can be very effective and are widely used. The Ford Motor Company uses videos in its dealer training sessions to simulate problems and sample reactions to various customer complaints, for example.
Audiovisuals arc more expensive than conventional lectures but offer some advantages. Of course, they usually tend to be more interesting. In addition, consider using them in the following situations:
- When there is a need to illustrate how to follow a certain sequence over time, such as when teaching fax machine repair. The stop-action, instant replay, and fast- at slow-motion capabilities of audiovisuals can be useful here.
- When there is a need to expose trainees to events not easily demonstrable in live lectures, such as a visual tour of a factory or open-heart surgery.
- When you need organization wide training and it is too costly to move the trainers from place to place.
- Simulated training (occasionally called vestibule training) is a method in which trainees learn on the actual or simulated equipment they will use on the job, but are actually trained off the job.
Simulated training may take place in a separate room with the same equipment the trainees will use on the job. However, it often involves the use of equipment simulators. In pilot training, for instance, airlines use flight simulators for safety’, learning efficiency, and cost savings, including sayings on.
- Case Study: Case study method helps students to learn on their own by independent thinking. A set of data or some descriptive materials are given to the participants asking them to analyze, identify the problems and also tc 5 recommend solutions for the same.
- Role Playing: This training method particularly helps in learning human relations skills through practice and imbibing an insight into one’s own behaviors. Trainees of such a programmed are informed of a situation and asked to play their roles in the imaginary situation before the rest of the class. This therefore, helps in the enriching of interact ional skills of the employees.
- T-Group Training: T-group is sensitivity training, and takes place under laboratory conditions and is mostly instructed and informal kind of training. The trainer in such a training programmed is catalyst. He helps the individual participants to understand how others perceive his behavior, how here acts to the behavior of others and how and when a group acts either in a negative or in a positive way.
- E-learning: Training programmers delivered via intranet are now thought of as the most cost-effective route. It is not only cost effective but also caters to the real time information need of employees. However, it involves convergence of several technologies, like, hardware, software, web designing and authoring, instructional design, multimedia design, telecommunications and finally internet-intranet network management. Organization can outsource e-learning training modules at relatively cheaper rate. Even though training through e-learning is globally increasing, we do not have adequate empirical evidence to justify this.
Methods of Development:
Some development of an individual’s abilities can take place on the job. We will review several methods, three popular on-the-job techniques
- job rotation
- Assistant to position
- Committee assignments
And three off-the jobs methods
- Lecturer courses and seminars
- Simulation exercise
- Outdoor training.
1) Job rotation:
Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization in an effort to expand their skills, knowledge, and abilities. Job rotation can be either horizontal or vertical. Vertical rotation is nothing more than promoting a worker into a new position. We will emphasize the horizontal dimension of job rotation, or what may be better understood as a short-term lateral transfer.
Job rotation represents an excellent method for broadening an individual’s exposure to company operations and for turning a specialist into a generalist. In addition to increasing the individual’s experience allowing him or her to exposure new information. It can reduce boredom and stimulate the development if new ideas. It can also provide opportunities for a more comprehensive and reliable evaluation of the employee by his or her supervisors.
2) Assistant-to positions:
Employees with demonstrated potential are sometimes given the opportunity to work under a seasoned and successful manager often in different areas of the organization. Working as staff assistants or, in some cases, serving on “special board,” these individuals perform many duties under watchful eye of a supportive coach. In doing so, these employee get exposure to a wide variety of management activities and are groomed for assuming the duties of the next higher level.
3) Committee Assignment:
Committee assignments can provide an opportunity for the employee to share decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems. When committees are of a temporary nature, they often take on task-force activities designed to develop into a particular problem, ascertain alternative solutions, and make a recommendation for implementing a solution. These temporary assignments can be both interesting and rewarding to the employee’s growth.
4) Lecture course and seminars:
Traditional forms of instruction revolved around formal lecture courses and seminars. These offered an opportunity for individuals to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities. For many organizations, they were offered in house by the organization itself, through outside vendors, or both.
Technology is allowing for significant improvements in the training field. The use of digitized computer technology, a facilitator can be in one location giving a lecture, while simultaneously being transmitted over fiber-optic cable, in real time, to several other locations.
Simulations are probably ever more popular for employee development. The more widely used simulation exercises include case studies, decision games, and role plays.
The case-study analysis approach to employee development was popularized at the Harvard Graduate School of business. Taken from the experiences of organization, these causes represent attempts to describe, as accurately as possible, real problem that managers have faced. Trainees study the case to determine problem, analyze causes, develop alternative solutions, select what they believe to be the best solution, and implement it. Role playing allows the participants to act out problems and to deal with real people.
6) Outdoor Training:
Outdoor training typically involves some major emotional and physical challenge. This could be white-water rafting, mountain climbing, paint-ball games, or surviving a week in the ‘jungle.’ The purpose of such training is to see how employees react to the difficulties that nature presents to them. Do the face these dangers alone? Do they “freak”? Or are they controlled and successful in achieve their goals? The reality is that today’s business environment does not permit employees “stand alone”. This has reinforced the importance of working closely with one another, building trusting relationship, and succeeding as a member of a group.
There are many ways to identify the need for an organizational change ,and to implement the change itself.One of the most widely used is organizational development (OD).Organizational development is aspecial approach to organizational change in which the employees themselves formulate the change that’s required and implement it, often with assistance of a trained consultant.particularly in large companies ,the OD process(including hiring of facilitator)is almost always handled through HR.As an approach to changing organizatons, OD has several distinguishing characteristics:
1. It usually involves action research ,which means collecting data about a group department or organization and then feeding the informatiom back to employees so they can analyze it and hypotheses about what the problem in unit might be.
2. It applies behavioural science knowledge to improve the organigations effectiveness.
3. It change the attitudes, values, and beliefs of employees so that the employees themselves can identify and implement the techment the technical,procedural, cultural, structural, or other changes needed to improve the company’s functioning.
4. It changes the ognigation in a particular direction – toward improved problem solving, responsiveness, quality of work, and effectiveness.
The number and variety of OD applications (also called OD interventions or techniques) have increased substantially over the year. Todsys , see in Table many applications are available. OD practioners have become increasingly involved not just in changing behaviors_their original area of expertise- but also in directly altering the firms structure, practices, strategies, and culture.
Definition of compensation:
Compensation is the human resource management function that deals with every type of reward individuals receives in exchange fro performing organizational tasks. It is the major cost of doing business for many organizations at the start of 21st century. It is the chief reason why most individuals seek employment. It is an exchange relationship. Employees state labor and loyalty for financial and non financial compensation (pay, benefits, services, recognition, etc)
Financial compensation is either direct or indirect. Direct Financial Compensation consists of the pay an employee receives in the form of wages, salaries, bonuses, or commissions. Indirect Financial compensation, or benefit, consists of all financial rewards that are not included in direct Financial Compensation. Typical benefits include vacation, various kinds of insurance, Services like child care or elder care, and so forth.
Objective of Compensation
The objective of the compensation function is to create a system of rewards that is equitable to the employer and employee alike. The desired outcome is an employee who is attracted to the work and motivated to do a good job for the employer. Patton suggests that in compensation policy there are seven criteria for effectiveness. Compensation should be:
- Adequate Minimal Governmental, Union and managerial levels should be met.
- Equitable each person should be paid fairly in lie with has or her effort, abilities, and training.
- Balanced pay, benefits, and other reward should provide a reasonable total reward package.
- Cost – effective pay should not be excessive considering what the organization can afford to pay.
- Secure pay should be enough to help an employee feel secure and aid him or her in satisfying basic needs.
- Incentive – providing pay should motivate effective and productive work.
Types of compensation and Rewards
The most obvious reward employees get from work is pay, and we will spend-the major part of this chapter addressing pay as a reward as well as how compensation programs are established. However, rewards also include promotions, desirable work assignments, and a host of other less obvious payoffs—a smile, peer acceptance, or a kind word of recognition.
Types of Employee Rewards
There are several ways to classify rewards. We have selected three of the most typical dichotomies: intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards, financial versus non-financial rewards, and performance-based versus membership-based rewards. As you will see, these categories are far from being mutually exclusive, yet all share one common thread — they assist in maintaining employee commitment.
- Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Rewards
Intrinsic rewards are the personal satisfactions one gets from the job itself. These are self-initiated rewards, such as having pride in one’s work, having a feeling of accomplishment, or being part of a work team. Extrinsic rewards, on the other hand, include money, promotions, and benefits. Their common thread is that they are external to the job and come from an outside source, mainly management. For example, Apple Computer gives a PC to each of its employees. After one year on the job, the PC becomes the employee’s personal property. Consequently, if an employee experiences feelings of achievement or personal growth from a job, we would label such rewards as intrinsic. If the employee receives a salary increase or a write-up in the company magazine, we would label these rewards as extrinsic.
- Financial versus Non financial Rewards
Rewards may or may not enhance the employee’s financial well-being. If they do, they can do this directly—through for instance, wages, bonuses, or profit sharing—or indirectly—through employer-subsidized benefits such as pension plans, paid vacations, paid sick leaves, and purchase discounts.
Non financial rewards cover a smorgasbord of desirable “extras” that are potentially at the disposal of the organization. Their common link is that they do not increase the employee financial position. Instead of enhancing the employee’s finances, non financial rewards emphasize making life on the job more attractive. The non financial rewards that we will identify represent a few of the more obvious; however, the creation of these rewards is limited only by HRM’s ingenuity and ability to “use them to motivate” desirable behavior.
The saying, “One person’s food is another person’s poison,” applies to the entire subject of rewards, but specifically to the area of non financial rewards. What one employee views as “something I’ve always wanted,” another might find relatively useless. Therefore, HRM must take great care in providing the “right” non financial reward for each person. Yet where selection has been done properly, the benefits by way of increased performance to the organization should be significant.
Some workers, for example, are very status conscious. A plush office, a carpeted floor, a large cherry desk, or signed artwork may be just the office furnishing that stimulates an employee toward top performance. Similarly, status-oriented employees may value an impressive job title, their own business cards, their own administrative assistant, or a well-located parking space with their name clearly painted underneath the “Reserved” sign. In another case, the employee may value the opportunity to dress casually while at work, or even do a portion of one’s job at home. Irrespective of the “incentive,” these are within the organization’s discretion. And when carefully used, they may provide a stimulus for enhanced performance.
- Performance-based versus Membership-Based Rewards
The rewards that the organization allocates can be said to be based on either performance or membership criteria. While HR representatives in many organizations will vigorously argue that their reward system pays off for performance, you should recognize that this isn’t always the case. Few organizations actually reward employees based on performance—a point we will discuss later in this chapter. Without question, the dominant basis for reward allocations in organizations is membership.
Performance-based rewards are exemplified by the use of commissions, piecework pay plans, incentive systems, group bonuses, merit pay, or other forms of pay-for-performance plans. On the other hand, membership-based rewards include cost-of-living increases, benefits, and salary increases attributable to labor-market conditions, seniority or time in rank, credentials (such as a college degree or a graduate diploma), or future potential (e.g., the recent MBA out of a prestigious university). The key point here is that membership-based rewards are generally extended regardless of an individual’s, groups, or organization’s performance. The difference between the two is not always obvious. In practice, performance may be only a minor determinant of rewards, despite academic theories holding that high motivation depends on performance-based rewards.
Methods of Job Evaluation
There are four basic methods of job evaluation currently in use-, ordering, classification, factor comparison, and point method. Let’s review each of these.
Ordering Method The ordering method requires a committee—typically composed of both management and employee representatives—to arrange jobs in a simple rank order, from highest to lowest. No attempt is made to break down the jobs by specific weighted criteria. The committee members merely compare two jobs and judge which one Is more important, or more difficult to perform. Then they compare another job with the first two, and so on until all the jobs have been evaluated and ranked.
The most obvious limitation to the ordering method is its sheer inability to be managed when there are a large number of jobs. Imagine the difficulty of trying to rank hundreds or thousands of jobs in the organization! It could be impossible to do the rankings correctly. Other drawbacks to be considered are the subjectivity of the method—there are no definite or consistent standards by which to justify the rankings—and because jobs are only ranked in terms of order, we have no knowledge of the distance between the ranks.
Classification Method The classification method was made popular by the U.S. Civil Service Commission, now the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). The OPM requires that classification grades be established. These classifications are created by identifying some common denominator—skills, knowledge, responsibilities—with the desired goal being the creation of a number of distinct classes or grades of jobs, Examples might include shop jobs, clerical jobs, sales jobs, etc., depending, of course, on the type of jobs the organization requires.
Once the classifications are established, they are ranked in an overall order of importance according to the criteria chosen, and each job is placed in its appropriate classification. This latter action is generally done by comparing each position’s job description against the classification description.
The classification method shares most of the disadvantages of the ordering approach, plus the difficulty of writing classification descriptions, judging which jobs go where, and dealing with jobs that appear to fall into more than one classification. On the plus side, the classification method has proven itself successful and viable in classifying millions of kinds and levels of jobs in the civil service.
Factor Comparison Method The factor comparison method is a sophisticated and quantitative ordering method. The evaluators select key jobs in the organization as standards. Those jobs chosen should be well known, with established pay rates in the community, and they should consist of a representative cross section of all jobs that are being evaluated. Jobs fitting these requirements are called benchmark jobs. Typically, fifteen to fifty key jobs are selected by the committee.
The final step in factor comparison requires the committee to compare its overall judgments and resolve any discrepancies. The system is in place when the allocations to the key jobs are clear and understood, and high agreement has been achieved in committee members’ judgments about how much of each criteria every job has. Then, the committee must slot the remaining jobs not user’ in the initial analysis.
Drawbacks to factor comparison include its complexity; its use of the same five criteria to assess all jobs, when, in fact, jobs differ across and within organizations; and its dependence on key jobs as anchor points. “To the extent that one or more key jobs change over time either without detection or without correction of the scale, users of the job comparison scale are basing decisions on what might be described figuratively as a badly warped ruler.” On the positive side, factor comparison requires a unique set of standard jobs for each organization, so it is a tailor-made approach. As such, it is automatically designed to meet the specific needs of each organization. Another advantage is that jobs are compared with other jobs to determine a relative value, and since relative job values are what job evaluation seeks, the method is logical.
Incentive Compensation Plans
In addition to the basic wage structure, organizations that are sincerely committed to developing a compensation system that is designed around performance will want to consider the use of incentive pay. Typically given in addition to—rather than in place of—the basic wage, incentive plans should be viewed as an additional dimension to the wage structure we have previously described. Incentives can be paid based on individual, group, or organization-wide performance—a pay-for-performance concept.
Individual Incentives Individual incentive plans pay off for individual performances. During the 1990s, these plans had been the biggest trend in compensation administration in the United States. Popular approaches included merit pay, piecework plans, time-savings bonuses, and commissions.
While the merit pay plan is the most widely used, the best-known incentive is undoubtedly piecework. Under a straight piecework plan, the employee is typically guaranteed a minimal hourly rate. For meeting some reestablished standard output. For output over this standard, the employee earns so much for each piece produced. Differential piece-rate plans establish two rates—one up ‘to standard, and another when the employee exceeds the standard. The latter rate, of course, is higher to encourage the employee to beat the standard. Individual incentives can be based on time saved as well as output generated. At Jacobs Engineering Group in Pasadena, California, engineers are not given annual pay raises. Rather, based on their performance, these individuals are given an incentive bonus. For the past few years, this bonus has averaged more than 5 percent of their annual salary—greater than the cost-of-living adjustments if tied to inflation. As with piecework, the employee can expect a minimal guaranteed hourly rate, but in this case, the bonus is achieved for doing a standard hour’s work in less than sixty minutes. Employees who an hour’s work in fifty minutes can do obtain a bonus that is some percentage (say 50 percent) of the labor saved.
Salespeople frequently work on a commission basis. Added to a lower base wage, they get an amount that represents a percentage of the sales price. On toys, for instance, it may be a hefty 25 or 30 percent: On sales of multimillion-dollar aircraft or city sewer systems, commissions are frequently percent or less.
Individual incentives work best where clear performance objectives can be set and where tasks are independent. If these conditions are not met, individual incentives can create dysfunctional competition or encourage workers to “cut corners.” Co-workers can become the enemy, individuals can create inflated perceptions of their own work while deflating the work of others, and the work environment may become characterized by reduced interaction and communications between employees. And if corners are cut, quality and safety may also be compromised. For example, when Monsanto tied workers’ bonuses to plant safety, covering up accidents was encouraged.
Group Incentives Each individual incentive option we described also can be used on a group basis; that is, two or more employees can be paid for their combined performance. When are group incentives desirable? They make the most sense where employees’ tasks are interdependent and thus require cooperation.
Plant-wide Incentives the goal of plant-wide incentives is to direct the efforts of all employees toward achieving overall organizational effectiveness. This type of incentive, like that of DuPont, produces rewards for all employees based on organization-wide cost reduction or profit sharing. Kaiser Steel, for example, developed in one of its plants a cost-reduction plan that provides monthly bonuses to employees. The amount of the bonus is determined by computing one-third of all increases in productivity attributable to cost savings as a result of technological change or increased effort. Additionally, Lincoln Electric has had a year-end bonus system for decades, which in some year has provided an annual bonus “ranging from a low of 55 percent to a high of 115 percent of annual earnings.” The Lincoln Electric plan pays off handsomely when employees beat previous years’ performance standards. Since this bonus is added to the employee’s salary, it has made the Lincoln Electric workers some of the highest-paid electrical workers in the United States.
One of the best-known organization-wide incentive systems is the Scanlon Plan. It seeks to bring about cooperation between management and employees through the sharing of problems, goals, and “ideas. (It is interesting to note that many of the quality circle programs instituted in the 1980s were a direct outgrowth of the Scanlon Plan). Under Scanlon, each department in the organization has a committee composed of supervisor and employee representatives.
Another incntive plan that started in the early 1990s is called IMPROSHARE IMPROSHARE, which is an acronym for Improving Productivity through Sharing, uses a mathematical formula for determining employees’ bonuses.
We introduced job analysis as the process of describing the ‘duties of a job, authority relationships, skills required, conditions of work, and additional relevant information, We stated that the data generated from job analysis could be used to develop job descriptions and specifications, as well as to do job evaluations .By job evaluation, we mean using the Information In Job analysis to systematically determine the value of each job in relation to all fobs within the organization. In short, job evaluation seeks to rank all the jobs in the organization and place them in a hierarchy that will reflect the relative worth of each. It’s Important lo note mat this is a ranking of jobs, not people. Job evaluation assumes normal performance of the job by typical worker. So, in effect, the process ignores individual abilities or the performance of the jobholder.
The ranking that results from job evaluation is the means to an end, not an end in itself ft should be used to determine the organization’s pay structure Mote that we say “should”, in practice, well find that this not always the vase External labor market conditions, collective bargaining, and individual skill differences may require a compromise between the job evaluation ranking and the actual pay structure. Yet even when such compromises are necessary, job evaluation can provide an objective standard from which modifications can be made.
Isolating job Evaluation Criteria:
The heart of job evaluation is the determination of what criteria will be used to arrive at the ranking It is easy to say that jobs are valued and ranked by their relative job worth, but there is far more ambiguity when we attempt In state what it is that makes one job higher than neither in the job structure hierarchy. Most job-evaluation plans use responsibility, skill, effort, and working conditions as major criteria, but each of these, in turn can be broken down into more- specific terms. Skill, for example, is often measured “through the intelligence or mental requirements of the job, the knowledge required, motor-manual skills needed, and the teaming that occurs. But other criteria can have been used.
Since jobs differ, it is traditional to separate jobs into common groups. This usually means that, for example, productions clerical, sales, professional, and managerial jobs are evaluated separately, Treating like groups similarly allows for more valid rankings within categories, but sill leaves unsettled the impotence of criteria software developer in the Development group requires more mental effort than that of a shipping supervisor, and subsequently receives a higher ranking; but it does not readily resolve whether grater mental effort is necessary for software designers than for customer service managers.
Practices in the Dhaka Bank Limited
The Bank provides handsome direct compensation as well as indirect to its staffs. The bank has a job evaluated salary structure, which is most competitive than other banks in the country. It also provides merit pay and inactive pays i.e. Festival Bonus, yearly incentive Bonus, etc. Under indirect compensation policy the bank also facilitates medical benefits, gratuity such as Casual leave, Earned leaves, Sick leaves, Maternity leave, extra ordinary leave, Study leave and pilgrimage leave.
Although the bank provides different types of employee benefits, but they do not give group life insurance coverage which may bring extra job satisfaction.
The competent authority should extent their mercy up to four months and men are head of single parent households. So, if the bank introduces parental and Family leave benefits for its employee’s it will be really great example for other banks and organizations in the country.
Findings of the study
- The Bank can not practices proper Southeast Bank guideline. The Southeast Bank has some objectives but the bank can not follow all those objectives.
- Training and development sector, there are on-the-job and off-the-job training techniques the bank follow some technique, but the bank can not follow arranges off-the-job techniques video and films show.
- In the recruitment sector, Southeast Bank guideline Bank Ltd. Can not follow the proper guideline of Southeast Bank.
- To evaluate employee’s performance, Southeast Bank can not provide their employee’s performance properly.
- The orientation process, the bank can not follow of those processes.
- The Bank should practices proper Southeast Bank guideline. The purpose of Human Resource Management is to improve the productive contribution of people to he organization ways that are strategically, ethically, and socially responsible.
- To get effective and efficient employee’s the Bank should arrange proper training and development programs.
- To motivate the employee’s the bank should follow proper guideline of Southeast Bank.
- The entire HR department should be will informed regarding the employment personal.
- Employees’ development need for the bank.
- The Bank provides handsome direct compensation as well as indirect to its staffs. The bank has a job evaluated salary structure, which is most competitive than other banks in the country.
- To evaluate employee’s performance the bank should follow promotion policy properly.