Assignment on Production Department of Garments - Assignment Point
Assignment on Production Department of Garments
Subject: Management | Topics:

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

The production department is responsible for converting inputs into outputs through the stages of production processes. The Production Manager is responsible for making sure that raw materials are provided and made into finished goods effectively. He or she must make sure that work is carried out smoothly, and must supervise procedures for making work more efficient and more enjoyable.

Preparation Of Total Seasonal Production Plan. 

Garment manufacturing is the mass production of clothing. Manufacturing garments entails a lot of planning and consciousness of schedule. The coordination of contractors and their timeliness plays a large role in meeting deadlines for your production. In most cases the production of garments is very time sensitive in order to ship goods to stores and boutiques for the upcoming season. Having a late order can reflect poorly on your business–keep this in mind and add plenty of time in your schedule.

To create a production schedule, start from your end date and work backwards in order to determine a schedule that suits your needs. Give yourself a week or two of extra time to allow for any delays in the process.

Patterns and Markers

Pattern making, grading and markers are a crucial part in planning for production. Once markers of each style are based, you can easily calculate the yield of fabric needed for your production and in turn order your fabric.

Ordering Fabric

Order fabric based on the yields needed in order to meet your production needs. When planning your production schedule speak with your fabric supplier about the turn around for your fabric and any additional time needed for dying or washing your fabric.

Other Materials

Order other materials such as buttons, grommets and zippers prior to your production. These elements are often overlooked but crucial in the production of a garment.

Scheduling Contractors

Meet with your sewing contractor prior to the beginning of the time period you need your production completed. Create a contract with your sewing contractor stating sewing prices, turnaround time, and list what your contractor is responsible for providing and what you are responsible for. Make sure to have deadlines for all these elements.

Overseeing Production

Once production has begun, you should check on your items regularly to make sure everything is being produced up to your standards. The first item off the line should be given to you for approval, make sure this is stated in your contract. Be sure to immediately check your production thoroughly for any mistakes.

Finishing

Many sewing contractors also offer finishing services such as pressing, folding, tagging, and bagging items. If this is not the case, allot plenty of time for your finishing needs.

Considerations

It is commonly known that the garment industry is late with orders, while stores and boutiques expect their orders to be on time. Give yourself a cushion of a few days whenever possible in order to make sure your production is on schedule. Make sure to have a contract with your sewing contractors defining the finish dates and any penalties that apply for a late production.

 Preparation Of Monthly Production Plan.

Significant Points:

  Employment is expected to decline because of technological advances and imports of apparel and textiles from lower-wage countries.

  Extensive on-the-job training is required to operate new high-technology machinery.

  Production workers account for almost 2 out of 3 jobs.

  About 1 out of 3 jobs are in three States—North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

Nature of the Industry

This statement covers closely related industries: Textiles and apparel. The textile mills and products industry comprises establishments that produce yarn, thread, and fabric and a wide variety of other textile products for use by individuals and businesses, but not including apparel. Some of the items made in this industry include household items, such as carpets and rugs; towels, curtains, and sheets; cord and twine; furniture and automotive upholstery; and industrial belts and fire hoses. Because the process of converting raw fibers into finished nonapparel textile products is complex, most textile mills specialize.

Textile mills take natural and synthetic fibers, such as cotton and polyester and transform them into yarn, thread, or webbing. Yarns are strands of fibers in a form ready for weaving, knitting, or otherwise intertwining to form a textile fabric. They form the basis for most textile production and commonly are made of cotton, wool, or a synthetic fiber such as polyester. Yarns also can be made of thin strips of plastic, paper, or metal. To produce spun yarn, natural fibers such as cotton and wool must first be processed to remove impurities and give products the desired texture and durability, as well as other characteristics. After this initial cleaning stage, the fibers are spun into yarn.

Fabric and textile products are mostly produced by means of weaving, knitting, or tufting. Workers in weaving mills use complex, automated looms to transform yarns into cloth, a process that has been known for centuries. Looms weave or interlace two yarns, so they cross each other at right angles to form fabric. Knitting uses automated sewing machines to interlock a series of loops of one or more yarns to form goods, such as sweaters, socks, and underwear. Tufting, used by carpeting and rug mills, is a process by which a cluster of soft yarns is drawn through a backing fabric.

At any time during the production process, a number of processes, called finishing, may be performed on the fabric. These processes, which include dyeing, bleaching, and stonewashing, among others, may be performed by the textile mill or at a separate finishing mill. Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fiber, yarn, or fabric to improve appearance, texture, or performance.

The apparel manufacturing industry transforms fabrics produced by textile manufacturers into clothing and accessories that fill the Nation?s retail stores. By cutting and sewing fabrics or other materials, such as leather, rubberized fabrics, plastics, and furs, workers in this industry help to keep consumers warm, dry, and in style.

The apparel industry traditionally has consisted mostly of production workers who performed the cutting and sewing functions in an assembly line. This industry remains labor-intensive, despite advances in technology and workplace practices. Although many workers still perform this work in the United States, the industry increasingly contracts out its production work to foreign suppliers to take advantage of lower labor costs in other countries. In its place, a growing number of apparel manufacturers are performing only the entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacturing such as buying raw materials, designing clothes and accessories and preparing samples, arranging for the production and distribution of the apparel, and marketing the finished product.

Many of the remaining production workers work in teams. For example, sewing machine operators are organized into production ?modules.? Each operator in a module is trained to perform nearly all of the functions required to assemble a garment. Each module is responsible for its own performance, and individuals usually receive compensation based on the team?s performance

Industry segment

Establishments

Employment

Total

100.0

100.0

 
Textile mills

18.3

34.1

  Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

2.2

7.7

  Fabric mills

7.0

16.5

  Textile and fabric finishing and fabric coating mills

9.1

9.9

 
Textile product mills

31.8

25.3

  Textile furnishings mills

12.3

14.5

  Other textile product mills

19.5

10.8

 
Apparel manufacturing

49.9

40.8

  Apparel knitting mills

2.7

6.0

  Cut and sew apparel manufacturing

43.7

31.6

  Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

3.5

3.2

Most apparel and textile production is concentrated in large mills. In fact, establishments employing 20 persons or more accounted for 87 percent of all apparel and textile workers .

 Machine Layout On The Basis Of Orders.

Line – 9, color –grey, buyer –JC Penny, product – jacket hood.

01.

Single Needle Lock Stitch

02.

Single Needle Chain Stitch

03.

Two Needle Lock Stitch

04.

Two Needle Chain Stitch

05.

Vertical Trimmer

06.

5 Thread Over Lock

07.

4 Thread Over Lock

08.

3 Thread Over Lock

09.

Bartake Machine

10.

Button Hole

11.

Button Stitch

12.

Kanchai Special

13.

Flat Lock Flat Bed

14.

Feed of the Arm

15.

Snap Button

16.

Cutting Machine

17.

Band Knife

18.

Fusing Machine

19.

Eyelet Hole

 Work Study Or Industrial Engineering Procedure.

Industrial engineering is also known as operations management, management, management science, systems engineering, or manufacturing engineering, usually depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user. Recruiters or educational establishments use the names to differentiate themselves from others. In healthcare, for example, industrial engineers are more commonly known as management engineers or health systems engineers. The term “industrial” in industrial engineering can be misleading. While the term originally applied to manufacturing, it has grown to encompass virtually all other industries and services as well. The various topics of concern to industrial engineers include management science, financial engineering, engineering management, supply chain management, process engineering, operations research, systems engineering, ergonomics, value engineering and quality engineering.

 Objectives of IE:

  To sells or business target of the company.

  To spread production planning information.

  To set target and submit balance report within schedule time.

Major Parts of IE in Garments Industry:

  Analysis Procedure

  Operation Procedure

  Workers Assessment

Analysis Procedure:

  Basic

  Semi Critical

  Critical

Basic Analysis:

  Operator Training Analysis

Pre-Production Meeting Analysis

Semi Critical Analysis:

  SMV Analysis

  Pre-Define Motion Time Analysis

  Target Setting Analysis

  Operator Breaks Down Analysis

  Thread Consumption Analysis

Critical Analysis:

  Costing Analysis

  Feasibility Analysis

Operator Training Analysis:  Analysis teams will analysis Operator’s training.

Pre-Production Meeting Analysis: Analysis team will call pre-production meeting before bulk production and they will analysis pre-production meeting.

SMV Analysis: The sum of standard time of sewing process and helping process express in term of minute unit is called Standard Minute Value (SMV). Analysis team will analyze SMV of CM for costing.

Pre-Define Motion Time Analysis: Analysis team will do pre-define motion time analysis.

Target Setting Analysis: Analysis team will analyze target setting. Setting line target depends on following terms:

o       SMV

o       Manpower Operator and Helper

o       Targeted Efficiency

Let, for any garments given SMV = 12.25

Total Manpower = 28 Operators + 25 Helpers = 53 Persons

Let us consider the line Efficiency = 100%

Then total outcome = 53 x 60

                                    12.25

                                = 260 pieces per hour

But actual line Efficiency = 80%

Then outcome of this line = 53 x 80

                                              12.25

                                           = 208 pieces per hour.

Line Productivity Calculation:

Line productivity = target per hour x SMV x 100%

                               (Manpower x 60) – Non productivity time

                            = 208 x 12.25 x 100

                                (53 x 60) – 0

                            = 80%

If a line contains 53 manpower and target given per hour 200 then,

Line productivity = target per hour x SMV x 100%

                               (Manpower x 60) – Non productivity time

                            = 200 x 12.25 x 100

                                (53 x 60) – 0

                            = 77%

Again, manpower decrease 53 to 45 and line target remain same as 200 then,

Line productivity = target per hour x SMV x 100%

                               (Manpower x 60) – Non productivity time

                            = 208 x 12.25 x 100

                                (45 x 60) – 0

                            = 90%

Peak Target: IE department gives peak target at afternoon for the next day. Generally, 50% target for the first day 100% for the next day for Basic Items, 33 % target for 1st day, 66% target for 2nd day and 100% target for 3rd day for semi critical items, 25 % target for 1st day, 50% target for 2nd day 75% target for 3rd day and 100% target for 4th day for critical items.

Operator Breaks Down Analysis: IE department will analysis operator break down.

Sewing information: IE department advise sewing process to worker which is easy to keep in memory and the rate of production increase as well as efficient and precise. The information of sewing is known as generalized sewing data(GSD).

Definition of GSD: This is the special type of technique of sewing operation.

Braches of GSD:

                            a. Method analysis

                            b. Setting standard time

Method analysis:

 Accept the best process among various types of process which is suitable as well as consume least time.

The purpose of a method study:

  Analyze method of work

  Gain insight how work is performed.

  Documents methods of works or detect potential for improvement.

  Enable planning by providing data.

  Disable possible hazard and dangers to safety.

 Hourly Production Report.

Sewing machine operators assemble or finish clothes. Most sewing functions are specialized and require the operator to receive specific training. Although operators specialize in one function, the trend toward cross-training requires them to broaden their skills. Team assemblers perform all of the assembly tasks assigned to their team, rotating through the different tasks, rather than specializing in a single task. They also may decide how the work is to be assigned and how tasks are to be performed.

Pressers receive a garment after it has been assembled. Pressers eliminate wrinkles and give shape to finished products. Most pressers use specially formed, foot-controlled pressing machines to perform their duties. Some pressing machines now have the steam and pressure controlled by computers. Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers inspect the finished product to ensure consistency and quality.

Table 2. Employment of wage and salary workers in textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing by occupation, 2004 and projected change, 2004-14 (Employment in thousands)

Occupation

Employment, 2004

Percent change,
2004-14

 

Number

Percent

 
  
Total, all occupations

701

100

-45.8

 
  
Management, business, and financial occupations

34

4.8

-36.9

 
  Top executives

12

1.7

-36.8

 
  Industrial production managers

5

0.8

-36.5

 
  
Professional and related occupations

17

2.5

-38.0

 
  Designers

8

1.1

-43.8

 
  
Sales and related occupations

21

2.9

-38.7

 
  Retail salespersons

5

0.7

-39.1

 
  Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

12

1.7

-37.4

 
  
Office and administrative support occupations

76

10.8

-43.5

 
  First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support workers

4

0.6

-42.3

 
  Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

7

1.0

-43.4

 
  Customer service representatives

6

0.9

-34.9

 
  Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

15

2.2

-44.3

 
  Stock clerks and order fillers

6

0.9

-49.6

 
  Office clerks, general

11

1.6

-42.3

 
  
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

33

4.8

-36.1

 
  Industrial machinery mechanics

12

1.7

-37.4

 
  Maintenance and repair workers, general

11

1.5

-36.4

 
  
Production occupations

450

64.2

-49.5

 
  First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers

26

3.7

-36.0

 
  Team assemblers

17

2.4

-26.4

 
  Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

9

1.3

-53.9

 
  Sewing machine operators

159

22.7

-57.6

 
  Sewers, hand

6

0.9

-48.1

 
  Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers

4

0.6

-54.9

 
  Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

19

2.7

-51.9

 
  Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

15

2.2

-47.2

 
  Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

42

6.0

-59.4

 
  Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

46

6.6

-49.9

 
  Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

7

1.0

-45.5

 
  Fabric and apparel patternmakers

5

0.8

-52.6

 
  Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

9

1.3

-53.6

 
  Cutters and trimmers, hand

6

0.8

-32.7

 
  Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

26

3.7

-40.6

 
  Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

7

1.0

-36.4

 
  Helpers–Production workers

16

2.2

-33.9

 
  
Transportation and material moving occupations

60

8.6

-37.2

 
  Industrial truck and tractor operators

10

1.4

-28.8

 
  Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

19

2.7

-42.3

 
  Packers and packagers, hand

19

2.7

-34.1

 
  
Note: May not add to totals due to omission of occupations with small employment 

 As the textile industry becomes increasingly automated, production workers need to be prepared. A high school diploma or GED may be necessary for many entry-level positions, and extensive postsecondary training is required for more technical jobs. This training may be obtained at technical schools and community colleges. More often, job applicants are screened through the use of tests, to ensure that they have the necessary skills. Most apparel production workers are trained on the job. Although a high school diploma is not required, some employers prefer it. Basic math and computer skills are important for computer-controlled machine operators.

 Daily Production Report.

Earnings in selected occupations in textile and apparel manufacturing appear in table 3. Traditionally, sewing machine operators are paid on a piecework basis determined by the quantity of goods they produce. Many companies are changing to incentive systems based on group performance that consider both the quantity and the quality of the goods produced. A few companies pay production workers a salary.

Table 3. Median hourly earnings of the largest occupations in textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing, May 2004

Occupation

Textile mills

Textile
product mills

Apparel
Manufacturing

All industries

First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers

$19.35

$18.49

$15.23

$21.51

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

11.91

11.77

9.68

11.48

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

10.87

10.50

8.62

13.66

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

10.80

10.59

9.82

10.56

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

10.54

11.74

9.55

10.87

Team assemblers

10.40

11.45

9.07

11.42

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

10.09

9.22

8.60

9.67

Helpers–Production workers

9.83

9.30

8.00

9.70

Sewing machine operators

9.35

9.08

8.08

8.61

Packers and packagers, hand

9.30

8.55

8.46

8.25

Monthly Production Report.

  “We continue to see inflation, though at a reduced rate [compared] to earlier months.” (Chemical Products)

  “Slight slowdown in overall business in both domestic and international markets, although still above 2010 at the same time.” (Electrical Equipment, Appliances & Components)

  “The earthquake and related issues in Japan have caused shortages of some automotive equipment, negatively impacting global automotive production.” (Fabricated Metal Products)

  “Sales continue to be stronger than expected across both retail and industrial channels. Material costs are definitely rising and will force increases to end-use customers.” (Paper Products)

  “High commodity prices continue to be worrisome.” (Food, Beverage & Tobacco Products)

  “Business is still up and down, with no real upside potential for us until the housing market rebounds.” (Furniture & Related Products)

  “Customers are still being cautious with their buying. Certain plastics and metal prices continue to rise.” (Machinery)

MANUFACTURING AT A GLANCE
JUNE 2011

Index

Series
Index
Jun

Series
Index
May

Percentage
Point
Change

Direction

Rate
of
Change


Trend*
(Months)

PMI

55.3

53.5

+1.8

Growing

Faster

23

New Orders

51.6

51.0

+0.6

Growing

Faster

24

Production

54.5

54.0

+0.5

Growing

Faster

25

Employment

59.9

58.2

+1.7

Growing

Faster

21

Supplier Deliveries

56.3

55.7

+0.6

Slowing

Faster

25

Inventories

54.1

48.7

+5.4

Growing

From Contracting

1

Customers’ Inventories

47.0

39.5

+7.5

Too Low

Slower

27

Prices

68.0

76.5

-8.5

Increasing

Slower

24

Backlog of Orders

49.0

50.5

-1.5

Contracting

From Growing

1

Exports

53.5

55.0

-1.5

Growing

Slower

24

Imports

51.0

54.5

-3.5

Growing

Slower

22

 

OVERALL ECONOMY

Growing

Faster

25

Manufacturing Sector

Growing

Faster

23

*Number of months moving in current direction.

Average commitment lead time for Capital Expenditures decreased 1 day to 103 days. Average lead time for Production Materials decreased 7 days to 54 days. Average lead time for Maintenance, Repair and Operating (MRO) Supplies decreased 4 days to 24 days.

Percent Reporting


Capital
Expenditures

Hand-
to-
Mouth


30
Days


60
Days


90
Days


6
Months


1
Year+


Average
Days

Jun 2011

30

10

13

13

24

10

103

May 2011

30

9

11

16

24

10

104

Apr 2011

28

6

16

16

23

11

108

Mar 2011

27

12

11

16

23

11

107

 

Production
Materials

Hand-
to-
Mouth


30
Days


60
Days


90
Days


6
Months


1
Year+


Average
Days

Jun 2011

19

37

25

12

5

2

54

May 2011

15

36

28

12

6

3

61

Apr 2011

15

36

27

15

4

3

59

Mar 2011

17

38

27

13

3

2

53

 

MRO
Supplies

Hand-
to-
Mouth


30
Days


60
Days


90
Days


6
Months


1
Year+


Average
Days

Jun 2011

44

43

10

3

0

0

24

May 2011

46

37

13

2

1

1

28

Apr 2011

44

43

12

1

0

0

23

Mar 2011

48

39

11

2

0

0

23

 About this Report

The data presented herein is obtained from a survey of manufacturing supply managers based on information they have collected within their respective organizations. ISM makes no representation, other than that stated within this release, regarding the individual company data collection procedures. Use of the data is in the public domain and should be compared to all other economic data sources when used in decision-making.

Data and Method of Presentation:

The Manufacturing ISM Report On Business® is based on data compiled from purchasing and supply executives nationwide. Membership of the Manufacturing Business Survey Committee is diversified by NAICS, based on each industry’s contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). Manufacturing Business Survey Committee responses are divided into the following NAICS code categories: Food, Beverage & Tobacco Products; Textile Mills; Apparel, Leather & Allied Products; Wood Products; Paper Products; Printing & Related Support Activities; Petroleum & Coal Products; Chemical Products; Plastics & Rubber Products; Nonmetallic Mineral Products; Primary Metals; Fabricated Metal Products; Machinery; Computer & Electronic Products; Electrical Equipment, Appliances & Components; Transportation Equipment; Furniture & Related Products; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing (products such as medical equipment and supplies, jewelry, sporting goods, toys and office supplies).

 Quality Management Procedure.

Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects. Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects, and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny the release, whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production, and associated processes, to avoid, or at least minimize, issues that led to the defects in the first place.

   Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records

  Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications

  Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships.

The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way.

Apparel Quality Management

There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of Apparel industry is based such as – performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of the garment. Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular frame¬work of cost. The national regulatory quality certification and international quality programmes like ISO 9000 series lay down the broad quality parameters based on which companies maintain the export quality in the garment and apparel industry. Here some of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis:

  Overall look of the garment.

  Right formation of the garment.

  Feel and fall of the garment.

  Physical properties.

  Colour fastness of the garment.

  Finishing properties of apparels

  Presentation of the final produced garment.

Apparel Quality Management for Apparel Exporters

For a garment exporter or apparel exporter there are many strategies and rules that are required to be followed to achieve good business. The fabric quality, product quality, delivery, price, packaging and presentation are some of the many aspects that need to be taken care of in garment export business. Some rules that are advisable for garment exporters are listed below:

  Quality has to be taken care by the exporter, excuses are not entertained in international market for negligence for low quality garments, new or existing exporters for both it is mandatory to use design, technology and quality as major upgradation tools.

  Apart from superior quality of the garment, its pricing, packaging, delivery, etc has to be also taken care of.

  The garment shown in the catalogue should match with the final garment delivered.

  It is important to perform according to the promises given to the buyer, or else it creates very bad impression and results in loss of business and reputation.

  In international market, quality reassurance is required at every point.

  Proper documentation and high standard labels on the garment are also important aspects as these things also create good impression.

  Timely delivery of garments is as important as its quality.

  If your competitor has the better quality of garment in same pricing, it is better to also enhance your garment quality.

  Before entering into international market, garment exporters have to carefully frame out the quality standards, or else if anything goes wrong it could harm the organization. And after that strictly follow it.

  The garment quality should match the samples shown during taking the orders.

  The garment exporters should know to negotiate a premium price after quality assurance is done.

  Quality is a multi-dimensional aspect. There are many aspects of quality based on which the garment exporters are supposed to work.

  Quality of the production.

  Quality of the design of the garment.

  Purchasing functions’ quality should also be maintained.

  Quality of final inspection should be superior.

  Quality of the sales has to be also maintained.

  Quality of marketing of the final product is also important as the quality of the garment itself.

Management Of Outside QC From Buyers.

The method by which quality management of any garments is controlled called Quality Management System. Quality Management System is a set of inter related techniques, measures and management system designed to prevent defects from occurring or if they occur at all, counter measures are adopted immediately so that they do not reoccur. QMS takes preventive and remedial measures.

 Fabrics Layout Procedure.

Total procedure of cutting section:

Fabrics Cutting & Management Procedure.

Fabric Quality System

We follow 4.0 point system for fabric inspection. Simultaneously we also go rigorous 100% fabric checking for all kind of fabrics.

Inspections are done to identify following flaws

  Knitting/Weaving defects

  Printing/dyeing defects

  Needle Run/Dye Streaks

  Skewing/Bowing

  Holes/Needle Chew

  Color Variation/Center Selvage

Various other defects are also detailed in report. All fabric lots are inspected & Color continuity card is prepared for every lot.

All our fabric has to go through the tests listed below in our in-house laboratory
  Shrinkages

Fabric Weight

Color Fastness

Crocking (Dry/Wet)

v  Dimensional stability.

v  Torque

v  Ph Test.

 Trims

We at Sabs do 100% inspection of trim before issuing it to production. All trims such as labels, Twill tape, Ribbons, Laces, Patches, Buttons undergoes lab testing. Twill tapes, Woven trims & Elastic are all pre shrunk.

Cutting

Cutting is the heart of garment industry. We follow defined procedure in cutting from fabric issue to cutting storage. Our aim is to have class of cutting & with minimal defect, by following all said norms & agreed quality standards at each individual process. We have dedicated Cutting QA, who assures cutting quality at each & every process. QA monitors following guide lines for each process to ensure correct cutting. Fabric is relaxed prior to cutting

  Cad markers are checked for ratio & grain direction.

  Hard Patterns are checked for grading and specs.

  Layering & spreading is monitored to avoid stretched or relaxed lay.

  Every lot is separated by inserting fabric strip & every roll is separated by reversing last lay of the roll.

  Every individual component is numbered to ensure no mixing up of sizes or shades is being done.

  Plaids, stripes are matched as per the requirement of buyer.

  All small components are cut on band knife machines to ensure proper shapes are maintained.

  Every bundle has barcode so that it can be tracked.

  Sewing

Sewing is the multiple operation based process, here the different components are assembled to form complete product. The main objective of sewing is to give scrupulous look to the garment. Every individual style undergoes through R & D, to ensure correct attachments & folders are provided to achieve best productivity with desired quality standards. R & D makes time study of each & every style & based on time study assembly line plan is made. Each line is monitored by roving quality checker, who supports the line with technical assistance. Every single operation is monitored by roving checker & report is generated for the same. All end line checkers do a 100% check of garments and prepare it’s report. All roving and end line checkers are monitored by sewing QA supervisor.

 Needle Policy

We have strong needle policy to control broken needle fragments. Needles are only issued to operator who returns all broken parts. If any part is missing than he has to get the semi stitched garment to get checked with hand metal detector for missing needle fragment. Needles are replaced on regular basis to avoid needle holes. Needle logs are maintained.

 Finishing Section

Objective of finishing is to give aesthetic look to the garments, hence finishing is called the brain of garment industry. Finishing is the most momentous division where in the raw products move rapidly from various stages to redefine it. Each & every stage in finishing has its role to play in to give the product its desired look. Presentation of the finished products itself tell about the product quality. To ensure garments are defect free, 100% garments are checked by passing through initial checking & final checking.

Garments are checked for
  • Oil Stains / Stains.
  • Sewing defects such as open seam or skip/jump stitch.
  • Button/Button Hole placement.
  • Pressing & balancing
  • 100% spec evaluation.
  • Main label, Care label, Embroidery, Print, Hangtag & Price tickets.
  • Packing is done as lot wise.

Production Meeting In Factory.

Pre production meeting is the meeting before starting the bulk production of garments. In pre-production meeting we can see Factory Manager, Quality Assurance Manager, Planning Manager, I.E Manager, Production Manager, Sample Department, Finishing Manager, Cutting Manager, Maintenance Manager, Printing Manager, Embroidery Manager, Store Manager, Q.C Executive all the concern person of the department present who are involved for bulk production.

Q.C check

  Measurement

  Print.

  Thread matching.

  Fabric fault.

  Embroidery.

 Fabrics Inspection Procedure.

Fabric Quality System

We follow 4.0 point system for fabric inspection. Simultaneously we also go rigorous 100% fabric checking for all kind of fabrics.

Inspections are done to identify following flaws

  Knitting/Weaving defects

  Printing/dyeing defects

  Needle Run/Dye Streaks

  Skewing/Bowing

  Holes/Needle Chew

  Color Variation/Center Selvage

Lab Dip Preparation Procedure.

Submission of lab dip:

 For fixing color standard lab dip plays a vital role in this case. So for lab dip test submission is much necessary. When a buyer give the order then the merchandiser make a lab dip report by the dyeing department. When the lab dip report is complete then the merchandiser sending this report to the buyer. Finally buyer accept this lab dip then merchandiser sending this lab dip to the dyeing department then dyeing is started.

 Knitting Planning & Machine Wise Daily Production.

Flow Chart of Knitting Procedure

Collect approved Sample and sample parameter

Analyze the work order, M/C and Yarn Selection

Source the Yarn as per requirement

M/C Cam design as per requirement

Collect Yarn from Store

Cone setting the creel

Yarn feeding the tensioned guide and positive feeder

Check the stitch length and GSM

Inspection the fabric after making approximately ½

If fabric is OK then continuously run but not OK then find out the problem and solved it.

Cut the fabric roll and marking stitch length, GSM, Count etc. (20-25 kg)

Send the inspection section and inspected the fabric and grading according to the point

Then send to the grey store

Fabric delivery according to the dyeing batch card from grey store

 Dia Selection On The Basis Of Count & Construction.

More Uses Yarn Count in NASSA GROUP:

  Carded- 18, 20, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, 36 Ne.

  Combed- 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40 Ne.

  Rotor- 7, 10, 12, 14, 16 Ne.

  Polyester- 75, 100, 150 Denier.

  Lycra- 20, 30, 40, 50, 70 Denier.

 Dying Procedure Step By Step.

Inustriction :

step 1: fold and tie your garment

Fold and/or tie the fabric into the desired patterns. For more defined patterns wet the shirt and squeeze or spin out excess water before folding. We have several books and DVDs with great pattern ideas!

step 2: soak garments in soda ash solution

Wear your dust mask & gloves! Use – 1 cup (8 oz.) of Soda Ash Fixer per gallon of warm water. A gallon will soak 10-12 adult XL tees – so way more kids tees, fewer dresses, etc.

Soak the tied garments about 5-15 minutes. Squeeze out the garment so it is damp but not dripping. You can reuse solution until gone.

step 3: mix your dyes

Wear your dust mask & gloves! Measure urea and warm water into a container, an old pitcher works well. Use the chart below for amounts. Paste up your dye with the urea water (see below), then add rest of water and stir ‘till thoroughly dissolved. Pour into squeeze bottles with a funnel. An already wet, tied up adult tee will absorb about 4 oz of liquid dye, depending on how much you apply. Use this as a guide to help you decide how much to mix up. Check the name of each color on the label of the jar, some colors need more dye, they are marked with an * or ** by the name.

step 4: squirt on your dye

Apply dye with squeeze bottles, paint brushes, sponges, etc., as many colors as you want. (see below for tips).

step 5: let it rest

Put tied fabric in a plastic bag (you want to keep it damp). Let it cure for at least 4 hours but preferably 24 hours for the brightest colors. In temperatures below 70º F, it takes longer.

step 6: wash it out

Pre-fill your washing machine with hot water and 1/4 cup Synthrapol or Professional Textile Detergent. Rinse the tie-dyes thoroughly before putting in the machine. Leaving ties on, rinse under cold running water (faucet, hose or shower), to stop the dye reaction. Next rinse in warm water while you untie the folds, keep rinsing until water runs fairly clear. Throw in machine as soon as it is rinsed, running it through a full cycle.Don’t wash more than the equivilant of about 8 adult size t-shirts at a time or the water gets too muddy. You can use Milsoft professional fabric softener in the final rinse to make your tie-dyes super soft!.

Helfule Hints:

  Any natural fiber is great for tie-dye: cotton, rayon, hemp, linen, ramie etc. If you can’t find 100% natural shirts a 90% cotton and 10% polyester or lycra is ok, but avoid 50/50 blends (come out very pale).

  When tie-dyeing silk or wool or other protein fibers, keep in mind that Fiber Reactive colors shift on these fibers, and you cannot get a true black. Soda Ash is also very hard on these fabrics, so use half as much, and don’t cure for more than 4-6 hours, or use the vinegar / microwave method instead of using Soda Ash.

  It is always good to pre-wash your fabric and garments; fabric softeners and other finishes can prevent the dye from absorbing into the fiber.

  Cover your work surfaces with old newspapers or folded paper towels to absorb extra dye. Elevating the garment of the table is great to, we like old cookie cooling racks for this. Be sure to wear old clothes, dye will stain!

  Make sure you get everything covered with dye. After applying dye to one side, flip garment over and repeat the process. Inject the tip of the squeeze bottle into the folds for best dye penetration and less white on the final product.

the dye spreads and to create sharper edges.

  Got a leaky Squirt bottle? A couple wraps of white Teflon plumber’s tape around the threads solves this problem perfectly. It is cheap and available at any hardware store. No tie-dyer should be without it!

  In step 4 any method keeping the fabric wet is OK, needn’t be a plastic bag — cover many with plastic drop cloth, wrap in plastic wrap, etc. The warmer the temperature where you lay out your tie-dyes to cure, the quicker the chemical reaction.

  Use Water Softener if you suspect you have “hard” water

  DON’T USE HOT WATER.

The dyes work best in lukewarm water (105 degrees). #250- Jet Black does like hot water (140 degrees)and does NOT do well for tie-dye (unless you cure your tie-dyes under an electric blanket!).

  Urea helps dye to dissolve, so dissolve the Urea in the water first. Add this water to the dye powder gradually and paste it up to avoid lumps. Undissolved dye makes “explosions” of color or “freckles”, so if a color is difficult to dissolve, straining through some light fabric might be necessary. Coffee filters only work if the dye is really liquid. Otherwise, they filter out too much of the dye

  If you have trouble making a paste of the colors, a little Calsolene Oil can help because it breaks the surface tension.

  With this dye, there is always lots of “excess dye” to be washed out. Don’t crowd your washing machine with too much tie-dye or the water gets too muddy and so will your tie-dyes. A key to clear, brilliant tie-dyes is the rinse and washout procedure – don’t skimp!

  Delicate items like rayon are better hand washed or should go into a mesh bag on a gentle cycle so the agitation doesn’t shred them.

 List Of The Machines In GMTS, Knitting Dyeing Factory, Printing & Embroidery Factory.

Classification of Knitting:

Knit basically two types.

1.     Warp Knitting

2.     Weft Knitting

 Knitting Section of Radiance group Group

  Yarn Store

  Circular Knitting

  Flat/V-bed Knitting

  Inspection

Dyeing Machine List

Name of machineriesMachine BrandNumber of                       machineries
Dyeing machineFongs’s       11 pcs
Rope opening & Slitting machineSeville        1 pcs
De-watering & De- twisting machineCorino        1 pcs
Compactor machine1. open typeFERRARO         1 pcs
2. Tube typeFAB-CON         1 pcs
Stenter machineSeville         1 pcs
Tensionless DryerLK & LH         1 pcs
ETPSIMEM         1 unit

 Classification of knit machine:

  Flat/V-Bed Knitting M/C

  Circular Knitting M/C

Flat Knit Machines

Sl. No.M/C BrandGaugeSpace in inchNo. of M/CCapacity/ DayRemarks
1Kaou Heng14544 set1400 setAll M/C are computerized

 Circular Knitting Machines List

Sl.

No.

M/C DIA in inchGaugeFeederBrandOriginM/C typeNo. of M/CRemarks
1302490PailungTaiwan    Single Jersey2Full feeder lycra attachment
23224961
334241021
436241081
538241141
640241201
742241261
83018/2460Rib inter lock1
93218/24641
103418/24721
113818/24761

 Kinds of print:

  Pigment print

  Rubber print

  High density print

  Discharge print

  plasticol

 Metallic print

  Glitter print

  Puff print

  Foil print

 Some important note in print department:

  Print table-32

  Print machine-8 (made by America (M&R)

  Cover dryer-8 machine

  Heat press machine-8 made by America(M&R)

  Inspection/ Quality table-6(print check aria)

  Color room-2

  Color store room-2

  Expose machine-2

  Sample section-1

  Sample print table-4

Maintain process sequence:

  Risk analysis sheet check

  Print /embroidery stride check

  attern check(measurement/placement )

  Print grading check

  Print shade as per strike off

  Print position as per required

  Wash test result acceptable

  Print hand fill as per strike .

 Print fault:

Missing

  Wrong

  Wrongly placed

  Missing elasticity

  Color wrong

  Wrong size

Hand fill not correct

Migration problem

 Cover up defect

Not properly attached

Stain/dirty mark

Uneven

 Air bubble

 Air holes

 Supervision Procedure In Production Department.

Supervisor of cutting:

  Trial cut supervisor.

  Layer /cutting procedure

Bundling /snickering

 Print and embroidery supervisor

 Reporting System In Production Department.

Monthly production report.

Daily production report

 Weekly production report.

Yearly production report.

Receiving, Requisition & Inventory Management Procedure In Production Department.

There should be a preventive maintenance scheduled program.

Effective maintenance is also important to get maximum utilization of machinery.

In flat knitting department the quality inspection machine is not working. That should be repaired.

Keeping high quality is not only the responsibility of quality department, but it should be embedded in each employees mind. Every employee should take it as personal responsibility.

There is only one hydro machine in dyeing; it must be two .So the lot loaded on trolleys doesn’t have to wait for long time.

There should be clearly written standard about the demand of buyers’ requirements about the production.

Quality measures should be clearly defined, written and hang on the departmental walls.

Raw material should be properly stored, because they’re hazardous if stored in knitting department.

Common error of fluff, which is only due to the non-cleanliness of the production floor. And due to which a lot of quality problems are occurring which increase both the time and cost

Compliance Maintaining Procedure Among Workers In Floor.

The Nassa Group maintain procedure among workers in floor.

Working Training Procedure.

Worker training procedure:-

HIV

Labor low

 Compliance

 Comical safety

  Fire fitting

Machine Safety Procedure.

  Hand gloves.

  Eye guard.

Finger protects guar.

  Fire fighting

  Fire hazard.

Production Department

Related Management Paper: