Objectives of the Term Paper:
Main object of this term paper is to know about the ‘Credit Card Industry in Bangladfesh’.
Continuous Improvement of customer satisfactions and resource management
All information of this term paper is collected from two sources.
These are given on the below.
First one is Primary Data (directly collected from Card Division of different bank & different types of card holder).
And another is Secondary Data (from the Journals & Internet).
This report is not out of some limitations. Throughout the report we have faced a lot of problems. Some of this are-
- Limitations regarding appropriate locations
- Lack of information on recent wind speed.
- No definite government rules regarding about company Act etc.
In recent years banking industry in Bangladesh has been experiencing a dramatic growth. Use of credit card, a product of banks, is a relatively new phenomenon in Bangladesh, and its market has been growing rapidly with the increasing acceptability of plastic money in numerous outlets. According to the Financial Sector Review by Bangladesh Bank, between June and December 2010, the monthly volume of credit card transactions grew by 124%, debit cards increased by 112% and transaction through ATMs increased by 114%.However, since credit card is a relatively new phenomenon in Bangladesh, a large number of people are not familiar with the advantages and different features of using a credit card. Use of credit card reduces the complexity of human life. Therefore, credit card can play an important role in Bangladesh in improving people’s living standard or lifestyle. Several banks like Mercantile Bank Ltd, Mercantile Bank Ltd, Standard Chartered Bank, Prime Bank Ltd, Eastern Bank Ltd, Trust Bank Ltd., Dhaka Bank Ltd, United Commercial Bank Ltd, City Bank Ltd, and National Bank Ltd and so on exist in the credit card market of Bangladesh.
Credit cards provide benefits to consumers and merchants not provided by other payment instruments. Since the credit card use and ownership have been expanding around the globe, credit cards have become as a major source in the financing of consumer purchases and a method of money transmission. Credit cards serve two distinct functions for consumers: (1) a means of payment and (2) a source of credit. The popularity of credit cards as a payment medium has been attributed to convenience of not carrying cash. Credit cards provide consumers a secure, reliable and convenient means of payment. Consumers often receive incentives to use their credit cards such as dispute resolution services, frequent-use awards, and interest-free short-term loans if no balances are carried between billing periods. Credit cards also provide various security features and limit consumer liability in the event of fraudulent use.
Unlike other payment instruments, credit cards allow consumers access to long-term credit, mostly uncollateralized, at the point of sale. Consumers that use this option are known as revolvers. Those cardholders who do not avail the credit feature are commonly referred to as convenience users.
Because of many convenient features of credit card usage, credit card has become a profitable product for many banks in Bangladesh. Therefore, while those banks that are offering credit card services at present are aggressively devising strategies to increase their customers and thereby capture increased market share, others are preparing to enter the market with the target to earn profit and establish a mark in the market. At present there are approximately 402,000 credit card users in Bangladesh. However, Banks has taken an aggressive initiative to expand their credit card operations rapidly and thereby increase its cardholders and market share.
Background of the Study:
In today’s modern world of technology credit card is a very extensively used mode of financial transaction and is widely known as plastic money. Credit cards serve two distinct functions for consumers: a means of payment and a source of credit. Consumer sensitivity to various aspects of credit card pricing reflects these two types of use. It has created an immense importance in the life of the people in the well off countries. Bangladesh is also following this trend and has come up with a number of credit cards. Most of these credit cards are marketed in the Bangladeshi business arena with the help of Master Card and VISA Card. There are about 402,000 credit cardholders in Bangladesh from different banks offering credit cards services. Almost one third of the market share is captured by Standard Chartered Bank and the others are trying to capture more and more market share with different types of marketing strategies.
About a decade ago the private commercial banks of our country launched new products in the form of plastic money called Debit Card and Credit Card. The pioneers of these cards, plastic money in Bangladesh are foreign commercial banks Standard Chartered Bank and American Express Bank. This plastic money allows the customer to shop in a hassle free way without having cash in hand, and withdraw cash from designated Automated Taller Machines (ATMs) without standing long hours in a long queue in the banks.
With technological help from the Information Technology Consultant Limited (ITCL) the private banks have introduced credit cards, which enable the customers to manage their day-to-day cash related activities more conveniently. This product is an alternative to cash and cheque. It provides the cardholders with lots of benefits like acceptance at numerous merchant locations and ATMs in Bangladesh.
Technical support is the key for providing solid Debit and Credit Card facilities for the customers. It requires a set of online banking system to provide a facility through which a customer can use the power of his/ her bank account. For example if a person has a credit card with credit limit of Tk.100,000, s/he has the facility of purchasing anything, from anywhere that accepts credit cards, of that amount without having to carry cash in his pocket. So, credit cards actually offer economical security without exposing to risk. The Point of Sale (POS) machine and the ATMs all are linked with a network so that credit or debit cards can be easily used on them and the customers get the service of plastic money.
Research Question’s are as follows:
Objective of the Study
This research investigates two areas. It has been designed to find out the correlation between the satisfaction level of Banks Cardholder with the performance of Bank’s credit card based on their different features such as service quality, technological factors and economical factors. Therefore the specific objectives of this report, which are as follows:
Significance of the study
Customer satisfaction is recognized as the dominant factor in the business organization success. The author believes that there is a positive relation between customer satisfaction and profitability. This construct has received a great deal of interest by marketing, service industry management researches in recent years. The study will make the following significant contribution to banks in Bangladesh.
First, this study will help the researcher to extend the understanding of the relationship between service qualities, technology related factors and economical factors of credit card services and general customer satisfaction of cardholders. The results of this study will expose the importance and impact of their relationship in Credit Card Division.
Second, the present study will help the bank executives better understand how to retain their valuable customers, increase customers’ satisfaction and enhance the quality of service, other factors and customer satisfaction of credit card services.
Third, no such study was conducted to address this concern in Bangladesh. The study result will produce a set of recommendations, which may be useful for order to improve its services and competitiveness.
Finally, as the researchers are only considering credit card services of a bank, there is scope for further study in other service organizations like: airline, hospitals, hotels and telecommunication companies in Bangladesh.
Limitations of the Study
This present study is limited by a number of factors.
In order to identify the research questions and to test its hypotheses, a correlation research design has been selected as appropriate for this study. The preceding graphical representation of the proposed model portrays the pattern and structure of the relationships among the set of the measured variables. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation among the measured variables: Service quality, technology related factors and economical factors for credit card services and satisfaction level of cardholders. Here service quality, technology related factors, economical variables are being considered as independent variables, and customer satisfaction works as dependent variable. Therefore, the present study will be characterized as a correlation study.
To analyze this research problem, the researchers will gather information from the customers who are enjoying credit card services from Different Banks. The interview has taken place over the phone with the respondents selected from the customer list at a random basis. If the respondents did not want to participate in the interview, they were free to do so without providing any reason.
The sample of this research is formed by the credit cardholders who are receiving credit card services from different Banks. The researcher has used a simple random sampling method to collect data from the sample of this research. Malhotra (2003) categorize the simple random sampling (SRS) method as a probability sampling technique.
The sampling frame for this research has been made from cardholder database of Credit Card Division, Mercantile Bank. From this database the researcher has selected 20 credit cardholders randomly. This list has been considered as the appropriate source to use in this study. It covers all the names and profiles of the credit cardholders.
The Surveyed areas of Banking Card Industry are basis on CARDS (Credit & Debit), Customer SERVICE & Geographical Areas.
ATM Cards: Debit & Credit
Customer Service: Standard Chartered Bank (BD) Ltd & Brac Bank Ltd. provided better Customer service for the customer.
Geographical Areas: Geographical Areas of surveyed are Gulshan, Motijheel & Dilkusha.
To gather data for this study the researcher has used questionnaire method because this method is appropriate for this study because of some reason. The reasons are as follows:
A structured questionnaire has been used in this research to collect data from the respondents. The questionnaire is divided into four sections. First section consists of questions of satisfaction on service quality, second section consists of questions satisfaction on technology factors on credit card services, third section consists of questions of satisfaction on economical factors of credit card related services, and last section consists of questions on customer general satisfaction of all factors. In most cases, questions are adapted from previous empirical studies and modified to reflect the local situation.
All questionnaires have developed to know the customer perception with a specific focus of credit card services of Mercantile Bank. These questionnaires have four sections dealing with service quality, technology related factors, economical factors and customer satisfaction.
Data Collection Procedure
No similar published study has been conducted in the context of Bangladesh. There are various sources of information related to credit card services published in the bank website and newspaper. Various articles related to credit card services and other related study has been taken as references from online journals. Collecting the primary data according to the questionnaire was the most crucial part to investigate research problem. In order to collect primary data, the researcher has conducted a questionnaire survey with the strong support of Credit Card Division staff. This data collection approach is commonly used in this type of research.
Data Analysis Procedure
Data have been collected to find the relationship of Service, Technology & Economical Factor on the satisfaction level of the customers of credit card division of Mercantile Bank limited. Using descriptive statistics data have seen analyzed. The data were analyzed by percentage and using table.
Source: Internal Documents from Card Division of different banks.
The basic process: Credit and Debit Cards initiation to approval
The initiation of the debit and credit Cards starts from direct marketing to the potential customers. All the necessary information of the customers is collected and sent to the credit committee for reviewing and final approval.
The application for a card may also come through the branches. The recommended applications of the customers of various branches of the bank are also sent to the credit committee for their approval. Card Division may contact with the applicants through the branch which recommended them if any document is required and to query about the applicant. An approved applications information will updated into the data base and issuance order is sent to the production house. When the credit card is generated, it is then sent to the customer.
Documentation: (Credit Card)
Card Division exercise the following documentation according to types of cards applied for processing formalities related to credit card. This is also applicable for issuance of the same from Head Office as well.
Items with asterisk (*) are mandatory. Depending on customer profile and business relation bank may ask for other documents if necessary on case-to-case basis.
However, minimum charge documents (DP Note, Letter of Lien, Letter of Encashment, Letter of Guarantee etc.) to be obtained.
Papers/documents required for insurance of Debit Card/Pre-Paid Card
(i) Two copies of passport size photograph.
Papers/documents required for issuance of International Credit Card
(i) Two copies of passport size photograph.
SWOT Analysis of the credit Card
Source: Author’s Compilation
Industries dominant economic traits
(1) Market Size and Growth rate
402,000 credit card users in Bangladesh. However, Banks has taken an aggressive initiative to expand their credit card operations rapidly and thereby increase its cardholders and market share.
Market Size (No. of Customers)
Potential Market Size:
(Data : BBS Statistical Book 2010)
(Minimum size) Lac: Household: 20.3, Female: 20.3, Students: 20.3
Market Tapped & Untapped
Market Tapped & Untapped Demography of Current Card Users of PBL /49 We have pie (59%) of the population, earning 10K – 20K.
Market Size: (Advances)
Growth Rate of Card Advance
A A A A Market: 1000 Crore (2010) Market: 193 Crore (2004) Outstanding advance amount is expected to be around: Taka 1000 crore by Dec 2010 Market in 2010 (Advances)
Market Trends: Point to Point
Foreign banks have gradually lost market share to PCBs.
Market Trends: Continuous /49 Market Share of FCB is going down.
(2) Customer Characteristics
Customer Characteristics of Banking Card Industry are High & Medium income group people. Such as Service Holder, House Hold people, businessmen and they residing at urban area.
(3) Scope of Competitive rivalry
Scope in the Banking Card Industry for Nationalize commercial bank, foreign commercial bank, non-banking financial organizations.
(4) Entry/Exit Barriers
Entry barriers: Issuer licenses are not available, Not through easy, Technical support & Skilled employers.
Exit barriers: Good will may hamper.
Nature of Competitions and Strengths of competitive Forces
(1) Threats of New Entrants
Meeting Basel II requirements
(2) Threats of substitutes
Threats of substitutes for Banking Card Industry: Mobile Banking, e-banking (Real Time On Line Banking).
(3) Bargaining Power of Customer
There are lots of cards issuer company & variety types of customer. Customer can choose his/her own card or issuer company/organization. So that, customers power is unlimited.
(4) Competitive Rivalry between Existing Players
Previous market was monopolistic market. But, now it is perfectly competitive market. There are so many issuers in the market with new features and promotions.
Drivers of Industry Changes
Industries are changing with diversifying the products like Mobile Banking, Internet Banking tagged with the Cards and use of Technology diversified.
Competitive Position of Rivals
Standard Charted Bank (BD) Ltd. also dominated the market among other local banks, such as Brac Bank Ltd. National bank ltd. National Credit & Commerce Bank Ltd. Bank Asia & Mercantile Bank Ltd.
Strategic Moves of Rivals
Banks are taken different types of strategies to upgrade their performance & position in market.
(1) Monitoring Competitors Strategies
By the sells volume, total market share, product features modification market research.
(2) Evaluating the Industry’s Major Players are going to be
Major Player going to be in the market is Standard Charted Bank (BD) Ltd., for the reason Brac Bank Ltd. & Standard Charted Bank (BD) Ltd. has a good market share in the industry, Product Diversification, Skilled Employee, Sound Technology (Card based), Good Market Focus, Good Sales Team, International Affiliation, Available Branches over the Country.
Key Factors for Competitive Success
Key factors for competitive success of industry are finds. Such as Skilled person, large sales team, better customer service, good recovery rate.
Attractiveness of industry’s are make life easy, easy payment system, multi-purpose use of the cards.
Questionnaire about service credit card
Question #1 This question was asked to a number of credit card users to which part of service of Credit Cards they enjoyed.
Answer: Here 70% users answered that they enjoy Online service of the bank, 20% users answered for interest rate of Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR) and 10% users answered with no comment.
Interpretation of the question: I have found from this question that maximum customers are enjoying the on line service because it is time saver, easier and convenient to use. Customer can easily deposit and withdraw their cash from any branch of the bank and the bank also offers the highest interest rate to some deposit scheme and some customers are enjoying this offer.
Question #2 This question was asked about Customers’ satisfaction level that they are enjoying currently with Credit Cards.
Answer: Here I found that 60% users replied that they are not fully satisfied, and 40% users are satisfied with the system the Bank is offering.
Interpretation of the question: The satisfaction level of customers is not so good. I have found from this question that maximum customers are not fully satisfied because till now bank is giving some service with traditional system, like Pay Order (PO), Demand Draft (DD) and Fixed Deposit Receipt (FDR). The Bank setup the online service by radio link and for this sometime it works slowly so customers feel bother.
Question 03# This question has been given to a couple of users whether the employees give service on time or not.
Answer: Here I have found each credit card users said that employees give service on time.
Interpretation of the question: The answer implies that the bank is providing its service to the market in full swing.
Question 04# This question was asked to a number of credit card users whether they enjoyed the services of Credit Cards or not.
Answer: Here 80% users answered positively and 20% users answered negatively.
Interpretation of the question: Maximum customers of the bank is enjoying the service of Mercantile Bank Ltd because the bank is providing services with modern technology on banking sector such as ATM banking, Credit Card, SWIFT and also it is offering maximum interest rate for the depositors.
Question 05# This question has been put to a number of credit card users understand of the bank specific needs of their customer.
Answer: Here I have found 80% credit card user’s said that positive 10% user said negative and 10% user said no response.
Question 06# This question has given a number of credit card users the employee always being willing to help customer.
Answer: Here I have found 90% user’s said positive and 10% user said negative the employee always being willing to help customer.
Question 07# This question has given to a number credit card users the employee behavior arouse confidence to customer.
Answer: Here I have found that each credit card user’s said positive the employee behavior arouses confidence to customer.
Question 08# This question has given to a number of Mercantile Bank credit card for rate over the bank’s physically visually attractive.
Answer: Here I found that 70% users are said moderately agree and 15% user said not agrees 15% user’s has no comments.
Question 09# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the employees service with modern technology.
Answer: Here I have found 95% user is moderately agreed and 55 user’s is not agreed.
Question 10# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the bank’s material associated with service.
Answer: Here I have found 90% user is moderately agreed and 10% user’s not agreed.
Question 11# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the bank’s keep promise to do something by a certain time.
Answer: Here I have found 95% user is moderately agreed and 5% user’s not agreed..
Question 12# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the bank show a interest in solving your problem.
Answer: Here I have found 60% user is moderately agreed and 30% users are not agree and 10% users are no comments.
Question 13# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the bank’s service performance first and with well secured.
Answer: Here I have found 85% user is moderately agreed and 20% are not agreed.
Question 14# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the bank’s promise to provide modern services at a time.
Answer: Here I have found 65% user is agree level, because the bank has provided modern service at the time that was promise to customer for example online service, ATM services, Credit Card < Debit Card etc.
Question 15# This question has given to a number of users of credit card for rate over the bank over the bank always insisting on error-record.
Answer: Here I have found 5% user is moderately agreed and 95% are moderately no agreed.
Questionnaire about technology factors of credit card.
Question 01# A number of credit card users were asked about Bank’s SMS service.
Answer: Here I found that 70% users replied that they were fully satisfied and 20% users replied negatively and 10% users replied revealing no comment.
Question 02# This question was asked to a number of credit card users about ATM (Automated Teller Machine) of the Bank
Answer: Here I found that 70% users replied that they were fully satisfied and 20% users replied negatively and 10% users have not put any comment
Question 03# This question was asked to a number of credit card users whether they preferred or not the on-line banking service.
Answer: I found that each user preferred the on-line service of the bank.
Question 04# This question was asked to a number of credit card users about satisfaction level by using the service.
Answer: I found that each credit card users of were satisfied with the on-line service of the bank.
Question 05# This question was asked to a number of credit card users about Credit Card service.
Answer: 80% users said well, 10% users said not well and the rest did not put any comment.
Question 06# This question was asked to customers about internet facilities
Answer: 80% users said Good, 20% users said not good.
Question 07# This question was asked to a few customers whether they were satisfied with the Internet Banking system or not.
Answer: 95% users said they were satisfied with the Internet Banking service of and 5% users were not satisfied with the service.
Question 08# This question was asked to a number of credit card users about Information Technology the Bank provided.
Answer: 85% users said the efficiency of Information Technology is good and 15% users said the efficiency of Information Technology of the Bank is not good.
Question 09# This question has been given to a number customers if the bank has modern technological equipment or not.
Answer: Each user said that the Bank has setup with up-to-date modern equipment till now.
Questionnaire about economical factor credit card industry.
Question #1: This question was asked to a number of credit cards user about the interest rate associated with credit card.
Answer: Here I found that 50% users answered the cost was very high and 30% answer moderately 20% answered to be low.
Question #2: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about the time cost to discharge money with credit card.
Answer: Here I found that 50% users answered the cost was very high and 30% answer moderately 20% answered to be low.
Question #3: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about the time cost to discharge money with credit card.
Answer: Here I found that 60% users answered the cost was very high and 30% answer moderately 10% answered to be low.
Question #4: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about the opening charge credit card.
Answer: Here I found that100% users answered that are no opening charge.
Question #5: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about annual fee for using credit card.
Answer: Here I found that100% users paid their annual fee.
Question #6: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about booth charge for using credit card.
Answer: Here I found that100% users paid booth charge.
Question #7: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about late payment fee imposed for using credit card of Mercantile Bank.
Answer: Here I found that 90% users paid and 10% users are not paid late payment fee.
Question #8: This question was asked to a number of credit cards users about over limit fee imposed for using credit card of Mercantile Bank.
Answer: Here I found that 90% users paid and 10% users are not paid over limit fee.
Questionnaire of Service Quality/Technology/Economical Service Satisfaction
Please (√) your correct answer:
Age level : 15-30, 30-45, 45-60
- Do you use computer? Yes No
- Do you use mobile? Yes No
- How is SMS Banking Service? Good Satisfactory
Bad No comment
4. How is ATM service? Good Satisfactory
Bad No comment
5. Are you prefer on-line Banking Service? Yes No
6. How much your satisfaction by using on-line
Banking. Good Satisfactory
Bad No comment
7. Do you use credit card? Yes No
8. How is credit card service? Good Satisfactory
Bad No comment
9. Do you use Internet? Yes No
10. Are you want Internet Banking Service? Yes No
The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the study especially based on the 48 items used in the questionnaire. However, it should be noted here that the study might not necessary represent the true picture of the credit card services, because it is limited only among a 200 respondents out of about 1000 cardholders and also the responses might not represent unbiased reflection of credit card services. Getting feedback from customers is necessary for Card Industry in order to improve its customer satisfaction. Feedback from customers enables firms to identify their specific needs and efficiently allocate resources to design products and services that maximize satisfaction. However, the recommendations are:
- The overall service quality of credit card related services is found to be not very much satisfactory. Customer satisfaction obviously plays a very important role in retaining the existing customers as well as tapping new ones. Therefore, it is important for Card Division to focus on improving its service quality. Banks can adopt benchmark strategy for improving its service quality meaning it can identify which bank provides the best quality service to its customers and how they do it. Then adopt their means of providing quality services for its cardholders. There are 14 items used in this study under service quality variable. For some of the items the respondents have expressed their satisfactory level of satisfaction while for other items they have either remained neutral or remained dissatisfied. Banks can use the results found by questionnaire mean values to decide which items needs immediate attention for improvement and which ones need further focus to excel the already satisfactory level items.
- Technology is definitely the utmost factor for providing satisfactory level of services of products like credit card. Therefore, technology related factors have been used as one of the variables in this study. Under technology related factors of credit card services there are 8 items. Over all the respondents are not satisfied with the technology factors of Banks credit card services. The authority should particularly focus on increasing its outreach of retail access, developing more different types of cards to meet the needs of different types of cardholders. Moreover, bill payment system should be made easier and not to mention increase its number of ATMs. Although increasing number of ATMs is in the pipeline but other items should also be improved in order to improve cardholders’ satisfaction.
- The third measured variable of the study is economical factors. There are 6 items under this variable. The respondents’ response suggests that they are not very much satisfied with the economical factors of credit card services of Banks. To survive in the competitive market of credit card it has to continue offering competitive economical factors such as reasonable annual fee, reasonable charges and interest rates, cash advance fee, excess limit fee, overdue fee, and interest free period.
- The respondents expressed that they are slightly satisfied with the staff and their manner of the Card Division. However, there is a lot of scope of improvements if we look at the items over which the respondents have remained neutral and did not express any satisfaction.
Credit cards and similar financial products developed through technological kinetics became key factors for the banks in getting competitive edge. It is a rapidly growing market because the growth of urbanization and the desire to have a modern lifestyle and better living standard. However, to capture the market share and compete and survive with so many other competitors in the credit card market of Bangladesh, the service quality, technological factors, economical factors and satisfaction level of cardholders are important factors to consider. Thus this study investigates the influence of service quality, technological factors, and economical factors of credit card services on the satisfaction level of cardholders. The study identified that there is a significant, although not very strong, positive correlation between:
- Service quality of credit card services and customers satisfaction of Card Industry.
- Technological factors of credit card services and customers satisfaction of Card Industry.
- Economical factors of credit card services and customers satisfaction of Card Industry.
Thus, it is believed that service quality, technological factors and economical factors of credit card services of MBL positively influence the satisfaction level of its credit cardholders.
It is clear that developing effective marketing strategies should be accompanied by an understanding of these factors and items used in this study. These conditions represent a wide range of influences on customer satisfaction and thereby business performance.
The study findings are only suggestive for they rely solely on the use of questionnaires that might not capture the full nature and all the facets of satisfaction. Moreover, it might be difficult to generalize the findings of the present study given the shortness of the sample which was restricted to a very small number out the total cardholders. Furthermore, there might be biased responses, and, therefore, might influence the findings and conclusions of the study. However, such an approach has been used in previous studies. Therefore, the present study should be of useful for Credit Card Industry to devise strategy to improve its customer satisfaction and expand its market share by retaining the existing customers and capturing new ones.
Future research with bigger sample size could present a better picture and idea about all the variables and their level of satisfaction. Detailed customers profile may also lead the research
Annex A: Demographic Information of the Respondents
No. of respondents
No. of respondents
No. of respondents
No. of respondents
No. of respondents
No. of respondents
Annex B: Definitions & Abbreviation
Card: Means as appropriate, a VISA or MasterCard (Silver or Gold Card) issued by the Bank to the Cardholder and include primary, supplementary/ Replacement Cards.
Cardholder: Means an individual whose name is in a card account and who is responsible for all transactions and liabilities on the card account. It includes primary and any supplementary cardholder.
Principal Cardholder: Means the persons to whom a Card is issued on his application alone.
Card Account: The credit Card account opened by the bank for the purpose of entering all credit and debits received or incurred by the primary cardholder and the supplementary cardholder, if any under these Terms and conditions.
Card Account Statement: Means a statement or statements of the amount charged debited and/or paid to Card account(s) stated therein. Card Account Statement shall detail all transactions processed to the Card Account during the statement period.
Cash Advance: Means an advance or payment made in any currency or by Travelers Cheque or other forms representing an amount of any currency but shall not include any withdrawals from any account with Banks.
Company: Means when used in relation to a Cardholder shall include (I) Company of which such Cardholder is Director or Employee, (ii) Business Enterprise of which such Cardholder is the sole proprietor and (iii) Firm of which such Cardholder is a Partner.
LTD.: Limited used after the names of the Private organizations with limited numbers of partners, directors or shareholders in this report.
Merchant: Means any person or entity with whom any member of Visa Card has a subsisting agreement relating to the use and or acceptance of the Card in payment to such person of entity whether for goods, services or changes incurred and or to obtain Cash Advances for such person or entity.
CRM: Credit Risk Management
Outstanding Balance: In relation to any Card Account Statement means the outstanding balance in favors of ABBL as stated therein or where more than one outstanding balance is stated therein the total of all the outstanding balance stated herein.
Payment Due Date: Means the last date of payment and is usually 20 days from the date of statement, if not otherwise mentioned, and specified on the Card Account Statement. At least, the Minimum Payment Due (excluding the overdue amount) must be paid by the Cardholder within the due date at Card Division of ABBL’s Head Office. Any overdue/over limit amount must be paid immediately.
PIN: In relation to any Card means the Personal Identification Number assigned by ABBL to that Card which will be used for accessing Cardholder’s nominated Card Account through an ATM.
The PIN is not on the card, it is encrypted (hidden in code) in a database. For example, before you get cash in ATM, the ATM encrypts the PIN and sends it to the database to see if there is a match. The PIN can be either in the bank’s computers in an encrypted form or encrypted on the card itself. The transformation used in this type of cryptography is called one-way. This means that it’s easy to compute a cipher given the bank’s key and the customer’s PIN, but not computationally feasible to obtain the plain text PIN from the cipher, even if the key is known.
Supplementary Cardholder: Means the persons (other then the Principal Cardholder) to whom a Card is issued on the application or request of the Principal Cardholder whether alone or joining with such person.
Annex C: The participants
Participants in credit card networks are primarily comprised of consumers, issuers, merchants, acquirers, and network operators. These participants are involved in a series of interrelated bilateral transactions. In this section, we will explore the costs and benefits of each participant in the credit card network.
Credit cards provide consumers a secure, reliable and convenient means of payment. Consumers often receive incentives to use their credit cards such as dispute resolution services, frequent-use awards, and interest-free short-term loans if no balances are carried between billing periods. Credit cards also provide various security features and limit consumer liability in the event of fraudulent use.
Credit cards also offer several benefits to merchants. Merchants are usually paid in good funds. Credit cards allow merchants to sell to illiquid consumers or to those paying with future income. Some observers have noted that credit card acceptance can be used strategically by merchants to steal customers from other merchants. In order to reap benefit from credit card transactions they have to incur costs. Merchants pay their financial institutions a percentage of the sales price for credit card purchases known as a merchant discount fee.
Acquirers earn revenue from merchants by bilaterally setting merchant discount rates and pay interchange fees to issuers. Alternatively, merchants could have significant bargaining power individually or as a group to negotiate lower rates.
Credit card issuers earn revenue from consumers and acquirers. As mentioned earlier, consumers may pay annual fees, finance charges if they revolve, and other fees, such as cash-advance and over-the-limit fees. Issuers compete for cardholders on various dimensions such as various fees, frequent usage awards, finance charges, and other characteristics. Acquirers pay interchange fees to issuers to compensate them for costs of attracting and maintaining a cardholder base. These fees are set at the network level.
Credit card networks can be classified as two types – proprietary and open networks. Proprietary networks operate as issuer, acquirer, and network operator. Open networks are comprised of member banks that can be issuers, acquirers or both. The network sets the interchange fees, which are paid by acquirers to issuers. The main purpose of these organizations is to meet the needs of their members by providing a set of rules, underlying infrastructure, and some level of research and development to improve their networks. Some of these rules govern the setting of interchange fees, no-surcharge rules, and the acceptance of branded products.
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