Influence of Brand Elements on Brand Image of Grameenphone

The objective of this report is to find out what are the brand elements that influence brand image of Grameenphone. Here Brand image is the present status of the customers about a brand. It can be focused as a unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers. Report find out that four factors- brand image, slogan, theme color and jingle have positive impact to the brand image of Grameenphone.

Introduction

Grameenphone Ltd. (GP) is the market leader in the mobile telecommunication industry of Bangladesh.  The address of its Head Office is: Celebration Point, Plot No. 3 & 5, Road No. 113/A, Gulshan-2, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. GP is a joint venture between Bangladesh and Norway. Major shareholders are Telenor (68%) and Grameen Telecom (32%). Telenor is the state owned telecommunication company of Norway. It has operations in different countries of the world. On the other hand, Grameen Telecom is the sister concern of Grameen Bank, one of the biggest Non Government Organizations (NGO) of Bangladesh.

HISTORY:

Grameenphone (GP) is the largest cell-phone operator in Bangladesh. GP was given the cellular license in 28th November 1996 by the ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Later in March 26th 1997, they offered their service in Dhaka city and gradually covered the entire country. GP, in collaboration with Grameen Bank, is aiming to place one phone in each village to contribute significantly to the economic uplift of those villages. GP’s basic strategy is coverage of both urban and rural areas. In contrast to the “island” strategy followed by some companies, which involves connecting isolated islands of urban coverage through transmission links, GP builds continuous coverage, cell after cell. While the intensity of coverage may vary from area to area depending on market conditions, the basic strategy of cell-to-cell coverage is applied throughout GP’s network. GP employ’s a large number of employees who are young, dedicated and energetic. GP knows that the talents and energy of its employees are critical to its operation and treats them accordingly.

The technology used by GP can only be described as state of the art. GP’s Global System for Mobile or GSM technology is the most widely accepted digital system in the world, currently used by over 300 million people in 150 countries. GSM brings the most advanced developments in cellular technology at a reasonable cost by spurring severe competition among manufacturers and driving down the cost of equipment. Thus consumers get the best for the least.

GP is best known for its service rather than its low tariff and value added services. GP believes in service, a service that leads to good business and good development. Telephony helps people work together, raising their productivity. This gain in productivity is development, which in turn enables them to afford a telephone service, generating a good business. Thus development and business go together.

As a result GP is delivering the digital revolution to the doorsteps of the poor and unconnected. By being able to connect to urban areas or even to foreign countries, a whole new world of opportunity is opening up for the villagers in Bangladesh. Grameen Bank borrowers who provide the services are uplifting themselves economically through a new means of income generation while at the same time providing valuable phone service to their fellow villagers. The telephone is a weapon against poverty.

Grameenphone Limited, the number one and leading mobile phone company in the area of telecommunications in Bangladesh. Of four mobile operators, GP managed to grab 61% of the market share only by providing cost-effective & best service available in the market of mobile telecommunication. GP has made its expansion not only in the urban areas, but also it stretched its network in the rural areas for the economic empowerment of the rural people. Grameenphone has made a special arrangement with Grameen Telecom, an affiliate of Grameen Bank in providing the cellular services in the rural country.

GP believes Excellency in its service towards its subscribers. It is growing and at the same time being competitive. To keep up this upward trend and leading position absolute dedication to understanding and fulfilling their customer needs with the appropriate mix of standard service, reliability, improved technology and skilled as well as dedicated manpower is necessary.

 

GP Milestones and critical events:

November 28, 1996: Grameenphone was offered a cellular license in Bangladesh by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications;

March 26, 1997: Grameenphone launched its service on the Independence Day of Bangladesh;

June 1998: GP started its services in the port city of Chittagong, the second largest city in the country. Cell to cell coverage in the Dhaka-Chittagong corridor also enabled GP to introduce its service in a number of other districts along the way;

September 1999: GP started its service in the industrial city of Khulna. Once again, a number of other districts came under coverage of GP because of the cell to cell coverage between Dhaka and Khulna. Earlier in September 1999, it introduced the EASY pre-paid service in the local market. It also introduced the Voice Mail Service (VMS) and the Short Message Service (SMS) and other Value Added Services (VAS);

June 2000: Grameenphone started its services in Sylhet, Barisal and Rajshahi, bringing all six divisional headquarters under the coverage of its network. The service in Barisal region was started after the microwave link between Khulna and Chittagong was completed;

August 2003: After six years of operation, Grameenphone has more than one million subscribers;

November 2005: Grameenphone continues to being the largest mobile phone operator of Bangladesh with more than 5 million subscribers;

November 16, 2006: After almost 10 years of operation, Grameenphone has over 10 million subscribers. Grameenphone has built one of the most extensive infrastructures of Bangladesh and is a major contributor to the development of the national economy. Grameenphone is one of the largest private sector investments in the country with an accumulated investment of BDT 14000 crore up to December 2008. Grameenphone is also one of the largest taxpayers in the country, have contributed nearly BDT 3172 crore in direct and indirect taxes to the Government Exchequer in 2008 alone.

GP was also the first operator to introduce the pre-paid service in September 1999. In addition to core voice services, Grameenphone offers a number of value-added services, in each case on both a contract and prepaid basis. It established the first 24-hour Call Center, introduced value-added services such as VMS, SMS, Fax & Data Transmission Services, International Roaming Service, WAP, SMS – based Push-Pull Services, EDGE, personal ring back tone and many other products and services.

Grameenphone nearly doubled its subscriber base during the initial years while the growth was much faster during the later years. It ended the inaugural year with 18,000 customers, 30,000 by the end of 1998, 60,000 in 1999, 193,000 in 2000, 471,000 in 2001, 775,000 in 2002, 1.16 million in 2003, 2.4 million in 2004 and it ended 2005 with 5.5 million customers. The total number of subscribers of GP has reached 54.17 million at the end of February, 2010.

ParticularsMonthGPAKTELGrameenphoneWaridCityCellTeleTalkTotal
Subscribers (mn) *January23.4810.3114.073.011.941.0253.83
February23.7510.3114.133%1.941.0454.17
Market share *January44%19%26%6%4%2%100%
February44%19%26%6%4%2%100%
Growth RateJanuary1%11%2%1%-1%-5%9%
February1%0%0.42%-0.33%0%2%2%

Source: BTRC, as of February, 2010

Grameenphone offers the widest coverage in Bangladesh. The population coverage has increased from approximately 85% in 2005 to above 90% in 2006. In addition, Grameenphone also offers GPRS in most of the country and EDGE in urban areas.

From the very beginning, Grameenphone placed emphasis on providing good after-sales services. In recent years, the focus has been to provide after-sales within a short distance from where the customers live. There are now more than 600 GP Service Desks a CM (Customer Manager)s the country covering nearly all sub-districts of 61 districts. In addition, there are nine GP Customer Centers in all the divisional headquarters and major districts and they remain open from 8am-8pm every day including all holidays.

Grameenphone has generated direct and indirect employment for a large number of people over the years. The company presently has more than 5500 full-time, part-time and contractual employees. Another 70,000 people are directly dependent on Grameenphone for their livelihood, working for the GP dealers, retailers, scratch card outlets, suppliers, vendors, contractors and others.

In addition, the Village Phone Program, also started in 1997, provides a good income-earning opportunity to more than 200,000 mostly women Village Phone operators living in rural areas. The Village Phone Program is a unique initiative to provide universal access to telecommunications service in remote, rural areas. Administered by Grameen Telecom Corporation, it enables rural people who normally cannot afford to own a telephone to avail the service while providing the Village Phone operators an opportunity to earn a living.

The Village Phone initiative was given the “GSM in the Community” award at the Global GSM Congress held in Cannes, France in February 2000. Grameenphone was also adjudged the Best Joint Venture Enterprise of the Year at the Bangladesh Business Awards in 2002.

Grameenphone considers its employees to be one of its most important assets. GP has an extensive employee benefit scheme in place including Gratuity, Provident Fund, Group Insurance, Family Health Insurance, Transportation Facility, Day Care Centre, Children’s Education Support, Higher Education Support for employees, In-House Medical Support and other initiatives.

Vision and Values:

Our Vision and Values define a common approach and are internal guidelines for all employees. They are our fundamental tools towards becoming truly customer focused.

Telenor’s vision is simple:”Telenor exists to help customers get the full benefit of communications services in their daily lives. We’re here to help”. This vision crystallizes our customer focus as the cornerstone of everything we do.

 

Our Vision and Values are explained in more detail:

The values spell out how we will serve our customers around the world:

  • Make it easy
  • Keep promise
  • Be inspiring
  • Be respectful

Together the vision and values set a standard for all our work. They make Telenor stand out, and will increasingly do so in the years to come. To ensure that customers, competitors and industry analysts experience this difference – the Telenor way of doing things – all employees must take part. We must continuously strive to make the vision and values the foundation for how we meet our customers, how we do business and how we cooperate internally.

By using the vision and values in everything we do, we build a gradually stronger Telenor Culture that will enable better experience sharing and cooperation across company borders. It means communicating more consistently to our customers, whilst at the same time maintaining our uncompromising focus on local edge and responsiveness in each market.

To make our vision a reality, each of us can draw on our values and build them into a number of guiding behaviors in our workplace.
The four simple statements, when embraced by Telenor people around the world, will help transform us into a global driving force in modern communications, supported by an unsurpassed level of customer satisfaction.

But how will these values make a difference?

What do our values mean for our customers, for ourselves as employees, and for other stakeholders? Let’s look at each of the four values, and see some examples on how they will affect our customers, Telenor employees – us – and the company’s shareholders.

A) Make it Easy:

We’re practical. We don’t over complicate things. Everything we produce should be easy to understand and use. No waste. No jargon. Because we must never forget we’re trying to make customers’ lives easier.

For our customers, making it easy will be addressing some very fundamental customer needs. They need simplicity. They want solutions and services that are easy to buy, easy to use and are built to meet their needs. They expect solutions and services that work well and as they should.

For Telenor employees everywhere, this means the following… No jargon, be direct and be simple. Show transparency. Push for simplicity in tools and in logistics. Share best practices. Adopt clearly defined roles and responsibilities.

For our shareholders, this will mean cost efficiency and return on investment, as well as a move away from tactical investments to an increased focus on long-term strategy.

B) Keep Promises:

Everything we set out to do should work and meet the needs of stakeholders, or if it doesn’t we need to be there to help. We’re about delivery – fulfilling expectations.  We don’t over commit – we’re about actions not words.

For our customers, this will mean they can build trust in us. The solution or service works – if not, we are there to make it work. They need us to deliver on time, to expected levels of quality, and at a fair price. They need us to be strong on action, not on fine words!

For employees everywhere, this means… We follow through. We never launch something new before it works as it should work. We arrive on time and we deliver on time. We commit to concrete, realistic promises to our customers – and deliver on our promises.

For our shareholders, this will mean that we lead the industry in customer satisfaction, and win industry recognition for follow-through and delivering on our promise.

C) Be Inspiring

We are creative. We strive to bring energy to the things we do. Everything we produce should look good, modern and fresh. We are passionate about our business and customers.

For our customers, this will mean they will want to engage with us, will appreciate our innovative and modern approach, will appreciate our future-proofed solutions and services, and will acknowledge our category leadership.

For Telenor employees everywhere, this means… that we live up to the challenge every day and inspire our colleagues and customers to walk the walk! We must call for creativity at every level, show care, energy and passion. We must be fresh and direct, and demonstrate a can-do attitude.

For our shareholders, this means leadership in our focused category, and a business model that is sustainable into the future.

D) Be Respectful

We acknowledge and respect local cultures. We do not impose a single formula worldwide. We want to be a part of local communities wherever we operate. We believe loyalty has to be earned.

For our customers… this will mean each of them can expect to be treated like an individual. Each of them will feel valued, understood and listened to, and their needs acted upon. 

For Telenor employees everywhere… this means we sign up to using customer feedback as a means to improve. We value the individual and diversity, and we act as a team. Our behaviors are infused with honesty and strong ethics.

For our shareholders… this will mean they can count on clear codes of conduct across our organization.

 

Company Objective:

Grameen Phone Ltd. has a dual objective to receive an economic return on its investments and to contribute to the economic development of Bangladesh through telecommunication. Thus Grameen Phone, in collaboration with Grameen Bank and Grameen Telecom, is aiming to place one phone in each village to contribute significantly to the economic benefit of the poor. By attaining the success factors, Grameen Phone would like to be recognized as a reliable, honest and committed company to its valued subscribers and stakeholders. In short, it pursues a dual strategy of good business & good development.

Company Strategy:

Grameen Phone’s basic strategy is to coverage of both urban and rural areas. In contrast to the “island” strategy followed by some companies, which involves connecting isolated islands of urban coverage through transmission links, Grameenphone builds continuous coverage, ‘cell after cell’. While the intensity of coverage may vary from area to area depending on market conditions, the basic strategy of cell-to-cell coverage is applied throughout Grameen Phone’s network.

Functional Level Strategy – Grameenphone’s focus is on efficiency, quality, innovation, and customer responsiveness. This enables the organization to earn competitive advantage over the competitors.

Business Level Strategy – Grameenphone mainly applies cost leadership strategy. In addition, they also apply differentiation strategy as their business level strategy.

Corporate Level Strategy – Grameenphone follows related diversification as their corporate level strategy. It enables them to keep the cost low and earn better expertise.

 

Share Holders of GP:

The shareholders of Grameenphone contribute their unique, in-depth experience in both telecommunications and development.

It is a joint venture enterprise between Telenor (55.8%), the largest telecommunications service provider in Norway with mobile phone operations in 12 other countries, and Grameen Telecom Corporation (34.2% ), a non-profit sister concern of the internationally acclaimed micro-credit pioneer Grameen Bank. The other 10% shares belong to general retail and institutional investors.

The technological know-how and managerial expertise of Telenor has been instrumental in setting up such an international standard mobile phone operation in Bangladesh. Being one of the pioneers in developing the GSM service in Europe, Telenor has also helped to transfer this knowledge to the local employees over the years

The international shareholder brings technological and business management expertise while the local shareholder provides a presence throughout Bangladesh and a deep understanding of its economy. Both are dedicated to Bangladesh and its struggle for economic progress and have a deep commitment to Grameenphone and its mission to provide affordable telephony to the entire population of Bangladesh.

 

About Telenor:

Telenor is emerging as one of the fastest growing providers of mobile communications services worldwide with ownership interests in 12 mobile operators across Europe and Asia. Telenor is organised into three business areas; Mobile operations covering 12 countries, and Fixed-line and Broadcast services covering the Nordic region.

Telenor holds 55.8 per cent of Grameenphone, with Grameen Telecom Corporation owning the remaining 34.2 per cent. The rest of the shares belong to general retail and institutional investors. Telenor has played a pioneering role in development of cellular communications in Bangladesh.

 

The Telenor Group

  • More than 150 million mobile subscribers worldwide
  • Strong subscription growth, particularly in our Asian operations
  • Listed as No.1 on Dow Jones Sustainability Index 2008
  • Ranked as the world’s seventh largest mobile operator
  • Revenues 2007: NOK 105 billion
  • Workforce 2007: 35 800 man-years
  • Listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange, with headquarters in Norway

 

About Grameen Telecom:

Grameen Telecom Corporation, which owns 34.2% of the shares of Grameenphone, is a not-for-profit company and works in close collaboration with Grameen Bank.The internationally reputed bank for the poor, has the most extensive rural banking network and expertise in microfinance. It understands the economic needs of the rural population, in particular the women from the poorest households.

Grameen Telecom, with the help of Grameen Bank, administers the Village Phone Program, through which Grameenphone provides its services to the fast growing rural customers. Grameen Telecom trains the operators, supplies them with handsets and handles all service-related issues.

Grameen Bank currently covers more than 67,000 villages which are serviced by 2121 bank branches all over the countryside. As of may 2006, the bank had 6.33 million borrowers, 97 percent of whom were women.

Grameen Telecom’s objectives are to provide easy access to GSM cellular services in rural Bangladesh, creating new opportunities for income generation through self- employment by providing villagers with access to modern information and communication based technologies.

 

Research Part

Problem Definition:

The objective of the research is to find out what are the brand elements that influence brand image of Grameenphone. To identify the possible factors at first we went through an Exploratory (Qualitative) marketing research to identify some necessary steps for having a clear concept about my main purpose or objective of the study. The problems are given below-

Core Problem:

“Which Brand Elements affect the Brand Image of Grameenphone?”

Marketing Research Problems:

  • What are the most important brand elements those may have significant influence on Brand Image of Grameenphone?
  • Based on which factors, should the Grameenphone be more concern while promoting the Brand Image?

 

Model Development:

For my project report, I followed and used some “Mathematical Models”. We used Multiple Regression Equation to identify the components known as dependent and independent variables and their relationship among one another and their impacts on the research. The Multiple Regression Equation is given below:

Y (Brand Image) = b1x1 (Brand Name) + b2x2 (Jingle) + b3 x3(Slogan) + b4 x4 (Theme Color) + b5x5 (Logo)

Research Question and Hypothesis Development

In the earlier part of our marketing research process, through Exploratory (Qualitative) research, we had identified some triggering factors like-  Brand Name, Logo, Slogan, Theme Color and Jingle those may create significant influence on the Brand Image of Grameenphone.  To measure the influence of these factors, we need to conduct some Research Questions (RQs) and Hypothesis (H). We need these Hypotheses to prepare our Research Questionnaire for generating the opinion of the consumers. So, we have developed Research Questions (RQs) and Hypothesis (H) in the following way:

Research questions:

The specific question we have decided are:

  1. Dose the brand name “Grameenphone” influence its brand image?
  2. Dose the Jingle of Grameenphone influence its brand image?
  3. Dose the Slogan of Grameenphone influence its brand image?
  4. Dose the Brand Color of Grameenphone influence its brand image?
  5. Do the Logo of Grameenphone influence on its brand image?

Hypothesis:

Based on the Research Question, we have developed following hypothesis:

H1: The brand name “Grameenphone” has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H2: The Jingle of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H3: The Slogan of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H4: The Theme Color of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H5: The logo of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Research Design:

  • To find out the triggering factors, I have conducted the research in the “Exploratory Research Design”
  • I have developed an Approach for further research and have done to find and fix its components like- “Objective/Theoretical Foundations, Analytical Model, Research Questions, Hypotheses and Specification of the Information needed.”
  • Now we will shift to a Quantitative approach known as “Conclusive Research Design”. Because it will be more efficient, structured and formal design process. Data analyzing are more reliable in this approach. So now we will conduct the “Descriptive and the Causal Research” to meet the proper accuracy on my project work.

Questionnaire Design:

Based on exploratory research we have developed 26 questioners. We have developed 3 questions for each type of independent variable so that we can have a clear idea. I have also developed 5 questions for depended variable. We have also included 4 questions on demographic (age, level of education, occupation and income) factors. This research included questions considering six factors- Brand Name, Jingle, Slogan, Theme Color and Logo. A Likert scale was used to question the respondents on the five point scale. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale between Strongly Agree and Strongly Disagree. Thus, a structured questionnaire has been used to collect desired information in a systematic manner.

This research aims to study consumer perception about how the brand elements influence on the brand image of Grameenphone. This project primarily uses quantitative tools with help from qualitative information. For quantitative results, the research design involves descriptive research using survey method. Thus a structured questionnaire has been used to elicit the specific information.

Sample Selection

To select the sample we have used non-probabilistic sampling method and under that we used “Convenience Sampling”. We surveyed from the students of the East West University. According to theory 30 respondents must need to involve any survey for the accuracy of the data and the respondents number will be increased based on the independent variables. As for our research we have found five independent variables so we have collected data from 70 respondents.

Data Collection

The data which collected for the purpose of study is divided into 2 bases:

Primary Sources: The primary data comprises information survey of “Influence of brand elements on the brand image of Grameenphone”.

Secondary Sources:  The secondary data was collected from internet and references from library. We collected some of our data from some research paper.

 

Data Analysis and Result Findings:

Demographic Factors:

Gender

GenderNo. of respondents
Male58
Female12

While interviewing respondents, who were students of a private university (EAST WEST UNIVERSITY), most of them turned to be mail participants. Around 83% of them were male and the rest 17% were female. The reason for this was the unavailability of female respondents as it was a Thursday.


Age

AgeNo. of respondents
16-2014
21-2549
26-307

As the students were of the same university, so their age differences were not much. All of the respondents were of the same age limit, i.e. of age 21-25. So we can say that research has been able to show the influence of brand elements on the brand image of Grameenphone, by the survey on the majority of people of aged 21-25. Other portion of the sample is aged 26-30(10%) and 16-30(20%).


Income Level

Income LevelNo of respondent
Below 200006
20000-3000010
30000-4000013
40000-500009
50000 Above32

Here we see that the respondents of the survey are from various groups depending on the total family income. Here 33% respondent from 50000 above income family, 13% is from 20000-30000tk income, 20%is from 30000-40000tk income and 27% from 40000-50000tk income. So here majority of the respondents are from 50000 above group.

Occupation

OccupationNo. of Respondent
Student68
Executive2

 As we have did the survey in the campus of East West University, so most of the respondent was student. In the pie chart we can see that 97% of the respondent was student and only 3% was from executive group.


 Reliability Test:

Reliability test for measuring dependent variables: (Brand Image)

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.8095

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Like Grameenphone because of Brand Name11.7714.150.452.811
Like Grameenphone because of Jingle11.9712.985.582.775
Like Grameenphone because of Slogan11.7011.836.692.740
Like Grameenphone because of Color11.7713.483.537.789
Like Grameenphone because of Logo11.8711.418.716.731

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of Brand Image, five dimensions have been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .809, which means that all the dimensions had an internal consistency of 80.9% among each other. Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, if question number 1 which is about the Brand Name is deleted, the value of alpha becomes 0.811. But the result is making slight change. As the removal of one dimension do not increase the internal consistency significantly so we didn’t deleted the dimension.

So, we will keep these five dimensions with the internal consistency of 80.9%.

 

Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Brand Name)

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.3853

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Memorability of Brand Name7.072.879.271.292
Meaningfulness of Brand Name8.241.839.144.544
Likability of Brand Name7.941.910.338.059

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of Brand Name, three dimensions have been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .385, which means that all the dimensions had an internal consistency of 38.5% among each other. It is not dependable for the internal consistency. Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, if question number 2 which is about meaningfulness of Brand name is deleted, the value of alpha becomes .544. It means after deleting that, the internal consistency between the other dimensions becomes 54.4%.

So again we check the internal consistency between the two items by deleting question number 2 to increase the internal consistency.

 

Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Brand Name)

“After deleting the question number 2”

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.5442

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Memorability of Brand Name3.69.972.419.a
Likability of Brand Name4.56.366.419.a
a. The value is negative due to a negative average covariance among items. This violates reliability model assumptions. You may want to check item coding.

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of the Brand Name, now one dimension has been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .544, which means that all the dimensions had an internal consistency of 54.4% among each other which is dependable for internal consistency.

Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, there won’t be any significant change if any of the independent variables are.


Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Jingle)

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.3493

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Memorability of Jingle6.533.180.170.320
Likability of Jingle6.992.420.365-.096a
Meaningfulness of Jingle7.543.092.093.487
a. The value is negative due to a negative average covariance among items. This violates reliability model assumptions.

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of Jingle, three dimensions have been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .349, which means that all the dimensions had an internal consistency of 34.9% among each other. It is not dependable for the internal consistency. Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, if question number 3 which is about meaningfulness of jingle is deleted, the value of alpha becomes .487. It means after deleting that, the internal consistency between the dimensions becomes 48.7%.

So again we check the internal consistency between the two items by deleting question number 3 to increase the internal consistency.

 

Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Jingle)

“After deleting the question number 3”

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.4872

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Memorability of Jingle3.541.237.323.a
Likability of Jingle4.001.101.323.a
a. The value is negative due to a negative average covariance among items. This violates reliability model assumptions. You may want to check item coding.

For the reliability test of the Jingle, now one dimension has been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .487, which means that all the dimensions had an internal consistency of 48.7% among each other. Though the internal consistency of two dimensions (.487) is lower than the standard 0.5, we have to take this because we don’t have to keep those two dimensions and the consistency .487 is very close to the standard 0.5.

So, we will keep these two dimensions and accept this consistency.

Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, there won’t be any significant change if any of the independent variables are deleted.

 

Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Slogan)

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.8003

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Memorability of Slogan7.074.299.667.704
Meaningfulness of Slogan7.104.613.641.732
Likability of Slogan7.234.324.629.745

 

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of slogan, 3 dimensions have been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .800, which means that all the dimensions have an internal consistency of 80% among each other.

Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, there won’t be any significant change if any of the independent variables are deleted. So we will not delete any item.


Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Theme Color)

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.6883

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Likability of Color7.342.576.527.566
Memorability of Color6.933.082.461.646
Meaningfulness of Color7.503.123.530.569

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of theme color, three dimensions have been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .688, which means that all the dimensions have an internal consistency of 68.8% among each other.

Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, there won’t be any significant change if any of the independent variables are deleted. So we will not delete any item.

 

Reliability test for measuring independent variables: (Logo)

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items
.7963

 

Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Memorability of Logo6.894.972.544.816
Likability of Logo7.143.516.740.607
Meaningfulness of Logo7.344.142.652.708

 

Interpretation:

For the reliability test of Logo, three dimensions have been pulled out from the reliability analysis. We can see that alpha stands to be .796, which means that all the dimensions had an internal consistency of 79.6% among each other. Again individually from the column alpha if item deleted we can see that, if question number 1 is deleted which is about memorability, the value of alpha becomes .816. It means after deleting that, the internal consistency between the dimensions becomes 81.6%. But the result is making slight change. We do not want to delete one dimension for this change which does not increase the consistency significantly.

So, we will keep these three dimensions with the internal consistency of 79.6%.

 

Data Analysais Result & Findings

Analysais Techniques

Once the reliability analysis was done, we calculated the mean value of dependent variables and independent variables. Finally, we completed the analysis part through regression analysis.

 

Hypothesis Testing:

In this section our hypothesis based on the five factors that influence the brand image of Grameenphone.

Hypothesis testing for factor 1:

Ho: The brand name “Grameenphone” has no significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H1: The brand name “Grameenphone” has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

Independent VariablesStandardized Regression Coefficient (b)t valueP
Brand Name.2132.097.040


Interpretation:

The observed table shows that Brand Name has a Positive influence (b=.213) in creating high brand image of Grameenphone. And we can see that P value (.040) which is smaller than alpha value (.05).

P value (.04) < α value (.05)

So, H1 is accepted and Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected.

And that is, the Brand Name “Grameenphone” has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

Hypothesis testing for factor 2:

H0: The Jingle of Grameenphone has no significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H1: The Jingle of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

Independent VariablesStandardized Regression Coefficient (b)t valueP
Jingle-.130-1.245.218


Interpretation:

The observed table shows that Logo has a Negative influence (b= -.130) in creating high brand image of Grameenphone. And we can see that P value (.218) which is greater than alpha value (.05).

P value (.218) > α value (.05)

So, H1 is rejected and Ho (null hypothesis) is accepted.

And that is, Jingles of Grameenphone has no significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Hypothesis testing for factor 3:

H0: The Slogan of Grameenphone has no significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H1: The Slogan of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

Independent VariablesStandardized Regression Coefficient (b)t valueP
Slogan.2292.153.035


Interpretation:

The observed table shows that Slogan has a Positive influence (b=.229) in creating high brand image of Grameenphone. And we can see that P value (.035) which is smaller than alpha value (.05).

P value (.035) < α value (.05)

So, H1 is accepted and Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected.

And that is, Slogan of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Hypothesis testing for factor 4:

H0: The Theme Color of Grameenphone has no significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H1: The Theme Color of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

Independent VariablesStandardized Regression Coefficient (b)t valueP
Theme Color.2602.678.009

 

Interpretation:

The observed table shows that theme color has a Positive influence (b=.260) in creating high brand image of Grameenphone .And we can see that P value (.009) which is larger than alpha value (.05).

P value (.009) < α value (.05)

So, H1 is accepted and Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected.

And that is, Theme Color of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Hypothesis testing for factor 5:

H0: The Logo of Grameenphone have no significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

H1: The Logo of Grameenphone have significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Independent VariablesStandardized Regression Coefficient (b)t valueP
Jingle.3853.675.000

Interpretation:

The observed table shows that Jingle has a Positive influence (b=.385) in creating high brand image of bangle link. And we can see that P value (.000) which is smaller than alpha value (.05).

P value (.000) < α value (.05)

So, H1 is accepted and Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected.

And that is, Logo of Grameenphone has significant influence on brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Regression Analysis

Model Summary

ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the Estimate
1.749a.561.527.60048

From the regression analysis, we have found that the Value of R Square is (.561) .That means, independent variable (Brand name, Jingle, Theme Color, Slogan and Logo) has 56.1% influence over the dependent variable (Brand image of Grameenphone). In other words, the dependent variable (Brand image of Grameenphone) can be described 56.1% by the independent variable (Brand name, Jingle, Theme Color, Slogan and Logo).

Discussion:

In this study of “Influence of Brand Elements on the Brand Image of Grameenphone”, we tried to find out the factors (Brand Elements) which help to create high brand image of Grameenphone. The 5 factors (Brand name, Jingle, Theme Color, Slogan and Logo) are tested by conducting a Regression Analysis.

The result indicates that 4 out of 5 factors (Brand name, Logo, Theme Color and Slogan) have significant influence on creating high brand image of bangle link. Jingles did not show any significant influence in case of high brand image of Grameenphone.

 

Limitation

  • As I have selected the convenience sample for conducting our research and I have collected the data from only the students of East West University so I think I may have overlooked some potential respondent who may give us the more accurate answer.
  • The R2 (.561), is comparatively low which suggest that there are other such factors which can also influence the Brand Image of Grameenphone. Further study should include other factors except those we consider here.
  • Jingle has no influence on Brand Image of Grameenphone. P value (.218) > α value (.05). Further study should include more factors for the Jingles except those we consider here.

 

Recommendation:

From the regression analysis, some recommendations can be inferred on the following areas to understand the influencing factors to increase the brand image of Grameenphone to create positions in customers mind.

  • Brand Name is an important factor that influences Brand Image. From our finding we get that Brand Name has significantly low influence on Brand Image of Grameenphone. Especially people are not clear about the meaning of Brand Name. So, they can do some promotional job to make it clear to the people.
  • Logo of Grameenphone has significant influence on Brand Image of Grameenphone. Especially people are not aware about the meaning of the logo. They need to think about some new way to promote the logo. So, they change their logo or do some promotional activities for the logo of Grameenphone.
  • Slogan has a positive influence on the Brand Image of Grameenphone. So, they can use slogan in their promotional works to increase the Brand Image of Grameenphone.
  • Theme Color of Grameenphone also influences the Brand Image significantly. People like the theme color of Grameenphone very much. So they can use theme color to promote the Brand Image of Grameenphone.
  • Jingles are the most important factor to do not influence the Brand image of Grameenphone. So, they have to give importance on it and use it in different promotional activities to increase the Brand Image of Grameenphone.
  • Every element except jingles creates influence on brand image of Grameenphone. So, they need to give more importance on those elements have influence on the Brand Image of Grameenphone.

 

Conclusion:

We all know that, now-a-days Grameenphone is a well known brand in the telecommunication industry of Bangladesh. Grameenphone grab the attention of the customers most.

In our total research, we try to find out impact of the brand elements on the brand image of Grameenphone. Throughout the study the factors which have been tested with a statistical technique, have proved some as significant and some as insignificant. The brand image, slogan, theme color, logo have been proved significant whereas Jingles of the Grameenphone has been proved as insignificant. So, these four factors- brand image, slogan, theme color and jingle have positive impact to the brand image of Grameenphone.