Motivational Strategies for Teaching English Language Skills:
A Study of Tertiary Level Teachers
In the era of L2 teaching and learning, applying motivational strategies has become an important issue for the L2 teachers of all levels and identifying these motivational strategies is more important for teachers of L2 in tertiary level, specifically. This study attempts to identify the motivational strategies used by the L2 teachers in tertiary level. For this purpose, a qualitative survey has been conducted using the research instruments like interview with L2 teachers of tertiary level, FGD with L2 learners of tertiary level and classroom observations with a checklist.
The result of the study shows that rationalizing the importance of learning, giving explanatory and positive feedback during and after performance, setting the proper classroom atmosphere for learning, giving extra care to the weaker and demotivated learners, using real life examples, using up-to-date issues as teaching content, using audio-visual aids, ignoring mistakes until learners become competent to a certain level, using teaching techniques like pair work, group work and project work, arousing interest among the learners to share both in oral and written version, creating competitive environment in the class, building a learning-oriented teacher student relationship, using humor and fun appropriately, creating an anxiety free learning atmosphere, raising high expectation of the learners and doing interaction in and out of the class with the learners are the motivational strategies used by the L2 teachers of tertiary level. The study asserts that appropriate use of the identified motivational strategies in L2 classes will enhance learners’ motivation level in tertiary level.
This study aims at finding out the motivational strategies used by the language teachers in tertiary level English language classes. In this chapter of the study, the background, context of study and the purposes of the study are elaborated. In background, the need for the study is explained in relation to the previous studies on the same field. In the next section, the contextual need for the study is elaborated. Then, the purpose of the study is mentioned. The significance of the study is explained here next. The scope and definition of conceptual terms are explained here also.
Background of the study
Motivating young people is a fundamental part of what is to be a teacher (Smith, 2000). A teacher needs to use the motivational strategies in the second language classroom to trigger up the achievement of the learners. Motivation prepares successful second language (L2) learners and communicators who becomes self confident (Ebata, 2008).
Studies in this field help teachers know more about the up-to-date ways to motivate learners in a second language classroom. Johnstone (1999, p.146) defines motivation as a stimulant for obtaining specific goal. Likewise, Ryan and Deci (2000) mentioned that to be motivated is to progress or to be on the right way to do something. Another researcher named Crump (1995) believes that interest, keenness, excitement and eagerness towards learning any item are the prime constituents of motivation. Cook (2000) affirmed that all language learners of different ages do not learn language in the same way. He has proposed three main factors which influence Second Language Acquisition. These three factors are age, personality and motivation. Cook (2000) further claims that among the three factors, motivation is the most influential in Second Language Acquisition.
There are a number of studies done in the field of motivation by many researchers during last three decades. All the researchers have tried to show how motivation influences the holistic achievement in a language classroom. Most of the works are done on students‟ motivation and how students learn in a language class. There are few studies conducted on the language teachers‟ use of motivational strategies in second language classroom.
Therefore, it is important to do further research on teacher‟s use of motivational strategies in second language classroom. This study will try to find out the motivational strategies used by second language teachers in second language classroom.
Purpose and Research Questions of the Study
The aim and objective of the study is to investigate the motivational strategies used by the second language teachers in second language classroom. Moreover, this study shows what motivational strategies students consider important in language learning. It also shows how motivational strategies make language learning effective. The aim of the study will be fulfilled throughout the ensuing research questions,
- What motivational strategies are used in language teaching classroom by the teachers?
- What motivational activities students consider important in language learning?
- To what extent some motivational strategies are successful and some are not successful?
Definition of Motivation
Motivation is basic essential part of learning (Brewer & Burgess, 2005). Dörnyei and Ushioda (2011) mentioned that second language motivation is an important factor for learning any additional language. They also mentioned that in any field of knowledge, motivation is an important factor. They emphasized on practical aspects of learning language than the theories. During last two decades researchers are found to be more interested to show that L2 learners are able to learn more if they are motivated and if their learning goal is known to them (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011).
Scholars of this field define motivation in terms of goal and working for achieving that goal. Harmer (2001), and Williams and Burden (1997) define motivation as a cognitive force that internally drive the learner to do something to reach the goal. The latter researchers define motivation as a “decision act” which provokes the intellectual effort for achieving the goal. In line with them, Reeve (2005) considers motivation as a process, not merely an end product.
Brophy (1983) and Gottfried (1985) term motivation from general and specific point of view. As a general feature, it is a students‟ propensity to signify learning (knowledge and skill) and move toward its process with endeavor and thought. In particular, it is students‟ inclination to employ decisively in an activity and trying to learn the notions or master the skills.
However, as Dörnyei, (1994) noted that motivation is the center of debate in learning L2. He has mentioned different affective factors affecting the learning of L2 and Dörnyei (1994) names those as affective factors or affective components. Following the components, Gardner (1985:10) defined motivation as: “The combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attitude toward learning the language.” Here desire can happen in a learner for two reasons; firstly for learning the language from the inner-self and secondly for gaining any benefit by using the language.
Motivation in the Research of L2 Learning and Teaching
A massive number of research look into the L2 motivation to investigate its complex and compound nature and the manner in which it leaves an effect on the L2 learning process. L2 motivation research, during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, was highly influenced by the social psychological approach which was influenced by the work of Gardner and Lambert (1959, 1972, 1985). This approach incorporated societal and individual psychology to illustrate L2 motivation which leaves a vital function in mastering a target language. They showed that L2 motivation is key factor to improve or deter L2 learning.
In the 1990s, there was a move from a social psychological view of motivation to a more educational and cognitive motivation. This shift can be attributed to the need to expand L2 motivation research to incorporate classroom-oriented variables and motivational factors that are more relevant to language teachers (Crookes and Schmidt 1991; Dörnyei 1994; Oxford and Shearin 1994). These studies stress the importance of learning environment as an L2 motivational factor. As a result of the new research approach of L2 motivation, studies were more relevant to teaching practice and the L2 classroom, and incorporated more classroom-oriented variables and factors relevant to language teachers.
Dörnyei and Otto (1998) has presented “the process model of L2 motivation” and Dörnyei (2000, 2001) has elaborated this more. Language teachers found dynamism and fluctuation in their classroom and motivating learners became easier task for teachers (Dörnyei 2000, and 2001). Later, it is found that this process model is not working very well in motivating learners because the context and purpose of language teaching was rapidly changing. Dörnyei (2005), then, presented a new theory- “L2 Motivational Self System”. This theory has revealed the gate to understand individual varieties in L2 learning.
Since L2 motivation is the main factor in fixing the amount of learning of L2 by learners, so the motivational strategies are the pillars of motivation in L2 classroom. These strategies are considered as “those motivational influences that are consciously exerted to achieve some systematic and enduring positive effect” (Dörnyei 2001, p.28). Many prominent researchers have put emphasis on motivational activities in L2 teaching and learning and the researchers of this field are Dörnyei (1994), Oxford and Shearin (1994) and William and Burden (1997). All ESL teachers need to study motivational strategies will motivate their learners (Dörnyei 2001, p.52). So it is found that all ESL teachers need to study motivational strategies and should apply the strategies in L2 classroom.
There are researchers who have worked on teachers‟ use of motivational strategies in L2 classroom and these researchers have also tried to draw link between the use of motivational strategies in L2 classroom and learners‟ achievement in this learning process. The prominent researchers who worked on this field are Bernaus and Gardner (2008), Bernaus, Wilson and Gardner (2009), Guilloteaux and Dörnyei (2008) and Papi and Abdullazadeh (2011). The previous studies proposed a huge number of motivational strategies that teachers need to use in their classroom and thus increasing the motivational level of learners consequently triggering up the achievement in L2 learning.
It is significant to mention that though previous studies have revealed the strategies to motivate learners in L2 classroom, however, there is a gap in applying those research findings in all teaching context since those studies were done in Hungary, and Taiwan. Indeed, their findings may not be valid in Bangladeshi context of L2 teaching. “We cannot say with certainty that the Ten Commandments (motivational strategies) are valid in every culture, ethnolinguistic and institutional setting. There is clearly much room for further research in this respect (Dörnyei and Csizer, 1998, p.224)”. In fact we have scope to do research on motivational strategies in Bangladeshi context of L2 teaching, especially in tertiary level. The Bangladeshi learners‟ motivational strategies need to be sought out from examining their real happenings during L2 learning and teaching. This study will, finally, try to unleash the motivational strategies for Bangladeshi L2 learners in their own context.
Types of Motivation
Motivation is divided in different names depending on the role each type of motivation plays in learning L2. The different types of motivations are mentioned with explanation below.
Integrative and Instrumental Motivation
Ellis (1994, p.715) mentioned that motivation is the factor for what learners feel the need to learn language. Moreover, motivation can be defined in terms of two factors: learners‟ need for communication and their attitude towards the language community (Lightbrown and Spada, 2001, p.33). They clarified that learners‟ intend to speak second language whether for being close to the community or to achieve their goal by using the language.
Lambert (1972) defined the above mentioned situation as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. If a learner is motivated instrumentally, he/she will learn the language for achieving a goal.
On the on the other hand, in integrative motivation, a learner feels love or interest to learn the language. Study has affirmed that success or failure in second language learning depends largely on these two types of motivation (Lightbrown & Spada, 2001).
However, there is a link between these two types of motivations. Both of these motivations are responsible for learning L2. Soh (1987) viewed that integrative and instrumental and integrative goals are the opposite ends of a continuum. Others, such as Clement and Smythe (1977) found that both goals are positively related.
Direct and Indirect Motivation
Many researchers have mentioned many motivational strategies for language learning. Oxford‟s classification of motivational strategies (cited in Ehrman and Oxford, 1990) are classified into direct and indirect. Memory, cognitive and compensation strategies are direct strategies for motivating students in learning second language. The indirect strategies are metacognitive, affective and social strategies.
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are two types of motivation offered by Ryan Deci (2000). Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual for a desire to learn: by a desire to make him/her self-feel better (Harmer 2001). It comes to a learner when the learner finds the learning interesting and enjoyable.
On the contrary, extrinsic motivation comes from outside factors. A learner learns language because language learning might avail him/her a good job or certificates, not for the feeling that he/she loves to learn language.
Teachers Care and Motivation
Students‟ perception whether their teacher cares for them leaves a meaningful influence on their language learning. As affirmed by Vasquez (1988), “Student perceptions of whether the teacher cares for them have meaningful effects on their performance and behavior” (p. 248). If the teacher cares for their student and students feel that caring by their teachers, then they will be motivated to learn the language. The importance of caring is also voiced by some other linguists in their writing and researches.
Motivation for Adult Learners
The distinction between adult and child learning was first done by Lindeman (1926). Later, this idea was extended by Knowles (1990) in his theory of andragogy, a theory where he showed how adults learn. He has mentioned the need for motivating learners intrinsically, not instrumentally. Knowles (1990) showed that adult learning is based on six factors.
- Justification for learning, which is possession of reasons for learning, prior to engaging in it.
- The transformation of the adult concept of the self into that of an independent, selfdirected human being
- Possession of life experience which affects adult knowledge and needs and is a constituent part of their identity
- Readiness to learn which relates the timing of learning experiences to stages of human development
- A problem-centered approach to learning with the immediate application of knowledge to real-life situations
- Motivation to learn by internal factors (originated in the self), rather than external ones.
In all six factors it is clear that adult learners of tertiary level learn if the content is justified by the teacher. Moreover, if the topics are from their own experience, they learn better. Motivation, mentioned as the sixth factors, is also important and the adults learn more through internal motivation than external factors.
Motivation through Interaction
Interaction is another important factor in teaching in any level. Many linguists and educators have emphasized on interaction in the classroom. Brown (1988), in his book High Impact Teaching, emphasized the statement repeatedly: “Teaching is interaction that facilitates learning. If you can’t interact with them, you can’t teach them” (p. 10).
Here Browm showed that the more interaction a teacher allows in the classroom, the better the learners learn. He has also emphasized that if a teacher cannot interact the learners, it would be a far cry for the teacher to teach those learners. So, interaction is an important factor in the classroom, especially in second language learning and teaching classroom.
Motivation from Mutual Respect
Brown (1988) presented five postulates for establishing and maintaining an atmosphere of mutual respect between teachers and students:
- Teaching is interaction that facilitates learning.
- Differences must not only be tolerated, they must be affirmed.
- Values are neither right nor wrong; they simply exist in all of us.
- Freedom to choose is one of the most precious rights we have.
- Those who dare to teach must never cease to learn.
The above mentioned points help a teacher to rethink the way of teaching English language in tertiary level. A teacher needs to create an environment where mutual respect would motivate learners to participate in the activities and learn better.
Classroom Environment for Motivation
Studies have also mentioned the need for creating a congenial environment in the classroom. Without an effective environment, learners may not feel interested to communicate in the learned language. If the effective learning environment can be achieved, learners might be motivated to learn the second language. Kristmanson (2000) offers that an effective learning environment can be achieved by:
- Encouraging and supporting students at all times but especially when they are struggling or lacking confidence in certain areas.
- Being energetic and enthusiastic about what you are teaching and on those days when you do not have that energy, provide activities that require the learners to put forth the majority of the energy.
- Creating an atmosphere in which students are not afraid to make mistakes and are encouraged to take risks.
- Avoiding tension-causing strategies such as surprise quizzes, overly competitive activities, putting students in front of their peers with no warning or chance for preparation, and correcting errors in a negative, accusatory fashion.
- Allowing students opportunities to talk about themselves, their interests, and their culture.
- Providing opportunities for interaction in the target language in and outside the language learning environment through preplanned and spontaneous activities,
- Encouraging goal setting and a sense of dedication and continuous commitment to the language learning task through meaningful, relevant and authentic language learning activities.
- Encouraging learners to seek out opportunities in their lives that will help in the learning of the target language.
- Creating, through the presentation of attainable goals and reasonable challenges, a learning environment with a definite potential for success.
- Recognizing the “little successes”, improvements and progress of all students both individually and with the entire group.
Motivational Strategies for Mix Ability Classroom
In response to the question, the teachers replied that they identify the weaker and stronger students of the class, firstly. Then they form pair and group for the activities with weaker and stronger students in the same group. Thus, the weaker students learn from the stronger ones and become motivated to learn more. The teacher also needs to scaffold the weaker students of a mix ability classroom, a teacher added. One of the teachers mentioned that,
“Throughout my works and expressions, I make all learners understand that I value them equally.”
Three out of 10 teachers have told that if the teacher takes ideas from the weaker students and strong students in the classroom for the delivery of any skill, then all the students will be motivated. They also mentioned that in a mix ability classroom, teacher has to be very careful about holding the motivation of the learners, specially the weaker ones. This can be done continuous positive feedback and showing the learners where is their strengths.
Motivational Strategies for Speaking, Listening, Reading and
In answering the question what motivational strategies teachers apply to teach particular language skills, the teachers told that they tell their students the need for good speaking, listening, reading and writing competence of English language in their personal and professional life. One of the teachers added that she relates the future implication to whatever she teaches in the class to hold the motivation of learners. More than 30% teacher gave the same consent that teachers can tell or show the benefit of earning competence in particular skill to hold motivation of the learners. One of the teachers with seven years of teaching experience said that,
“Greatest motivation is to tell the benefits of achieving competence in particular skill to the learners with real life implications. Moreover, teacher can also show the example of successful persons who are established for linguistic competence besides other capabilities.”
For motivating to learn specific skills, announcement for grace marks can be declared at the beginning of the course that those who will learn faster to keep motivation among the learners, a teacher added. One of the teachers said that,
“We also tell them about grace marks if they can learn faster or submit any piece of writing earlier.”
For improving the listening and speaking skills of tertiary level learners, listening English news on BBC and watching English movies are suggested by many of the language teachers nowadays, a teacher added. At the end of the semester or course, it is found that students who have exposure to English news and movies and songs do better in acquiring speaking and listening competence, one of the teacher added.
Using Audio-Visual Aids for Motivation
In response to the question if the teachers use audio-visual aids for motivating learners, almost all the teachers agreed that proper incorporation of audio-visual aids motivate the tertiary level learners to acquire linguistic competence and perform well in real contexts.
Showing the authentic audio-visual contents, audio track on social issues, letting them do video analysis (watching a video and the analysis of the video through plenary discussions), using OHP (Over Head Projector) for Power Point Presentation and showing picture related to the topics etc. can be done for motivating the language learners of tertiary level, teachers emphatically added. One of the teachers said that,
“In my speaking and listening class, I often use audio-visual aids. I have found that my learners gets motivated to speak when I show any recent issue-relate video. These learners do become more competent in speaking and listening during the course.”
However, selection of audio-visual content is important. Teachers cannot select any type of audio-visual content and let learners show it randomly without considering the sociocultural aspects, one of the teachers added. In response to the question, this teacher responded that,
“I will not show Shakira‟s performance; rather I will show Sakib Al Hasan‟s performance to my learners.”
Motivation from Teacher-Student Relationship
In response to the question if the nature of relationship between teacher and students have any motivational impact, almost all the teachers replied that relationship is for achieving the goal. Goal oriented relationship makes teachers sometimes flexible, sometimes authoritarian, sometimes friendly, sometimes peer, sometimes like parent and children and always humanitarian, few teachers added. Teachers also need to shift their roles when necessary. One of the teachers mentioned that,
“I am open with them. However, when needed I become authoritative with them. I also try to learn from them and they become motivate to learn from as well.”
Teachers‟ formal attire and wording and body language also motivates learners. Teacher gets respect due to formal attire, wording inspires learners to respect the teacher, and learners become motivated to learn from the teacher. Teacher can also share the movies he/she watches and relate those to the lesson. Teacher can also give example of more brilliant persons they know. Thus, learners become motivated, some teachers added.
Motivational from Teaching Content
In response to the question what type of contents teachers use to motivate learners, they replied that teacher needs to make the content interesting, which will also be motivational to get students‟ response and engagement in the class, few teacher responded in reply to the question. Teachers also consider their learners as human beings, not machine, and fun and joy are the inseparable part for human being. Learners learn more through explanation in an interesting way, not in lecturing, one of the teachers added. One of the teachers said that,
“For making the content motivational I select latest contextual issues like labor unrest, eve-teasing, drug addiction, films, facebook, sports, success stories and social problems that have an effect on the learners in various ways.”
Motivation is not isolated from the content and it should be within the content itself.
Without embedding motivation in the content, it becomes difficult to hold the attention of the whole class. Therefore, for speaking and listening, teachers select the familiar topics from daily newspapers; and for reading and writing teachers select high thought but interesting topics, 50% of the teachers mentioned. One of the teachers replied that,
“When I make the content enjoyable, interesting and effective, my students enjoy the class and they do not feel monotonous. They own the class. ”
Effects of Motivational Strategies on Teacher’s Performance
In reply to the question what effect motivational strategies leave on teachers‟ performance, almost all the teachers replied that when the class is motivated, the objectives of the class are met easily. However, when the class is not motivated, it becomes difficult to meet the objectives of the class. One of the teachers said that,
“When the students are motivated, as a teacher I also become motivated and my performance level go high for the particular class.”
The students who are motivated in the class are found with good result and their linguistic competence and performance level go high, one teacher added. Another teacher has mentioned more specifically about learner‟s performance,
“The one who is intrinsically motivated, do better in language learning and performance. For this type of learners, learning becomes more permanent.”
Moreover, to motivate learners, a teacher himself/herself has to be motivated to teach and learn in the class. If the learners see me motivated throughout my performance, they will also be motivated. For motivating the learners and the teacher himself/herself, one of the teachers gave following suggested following strategies during the interview,
“Teacher has to be well prepared for what he/she is going to deliver within short time. Otherwise, the learners will be demotivated to learn. A teacher must also be updated about the topic keep motivation in the class. Indeed, motivation has a two-sided effect, for the learners and for the teachers.”
If the teacher writes thoughtful comments on the writing script and gives inspirational feedback after speaking performance, learners learn well and the execution of the content becomes smooth, one of the teachers added. One of the teachers added,
“If a teacher himself/herself is not motivated, he/she cannot transform it to the students.”
Summary of Results Deduced from Teacher Interview
From the interview with 10 language teachers of tertiary level, it is found that teachers have individual preferences for motivational strategies that they use in tertiary level language classes. Most of the teachers have asserted on some strategies like inspiring learners, engaging learners in pair works and group works, engaging learners in project works, arranging presentation sessions on different interesting topics, selecting interesting topics for all four skills, maintaining a good relationship with learners, helping them when they face difficulty, telling learners about the importance of learning English, using audio-visual aids, teacher‟s own motivation, valuing learners, giving them good remarks with rationale and showing learners about the future implication of learning English language are the strategies to motivate English language learners of tertiary level.
Teachers have mentioned for both intrinsic and instrumental motivation in tertiary level language classroom. However, teachers have emphasized about the strategies that demotivates learners. They have mentioned that negative feedbacks, mundane teaching content for any of the four language skills, humiliation in public, and lack in teacher‟s preparation etc. demotivates learners directly or indirectly. If the motivation level is high, learners‟ performance level also goes high. Similarly, if the motivation level is low, learners‟ performance level also goes down.
Source of Learners’ Motivation to Learn English
In response to the question, all learners replied that they enjoy learning English. Learners become motivated to learn English when they are inspired from their inner self and by the teacher in the class, most of the learners added. English helps learn other subjects in university level because all other subjects are taught in English, few learners added.
Learners also believe that if they learn English nicely, they will be able to get a good job in national and international organizations. Moreover, knowing English language makes someone socially prestigious and valuable to others. One of the learners added an example,
“My cousin knows English well and he practices English with others. He is working in a renowned international organization. Everyone in our family respects him for knowing English.”
Difficulties of Language Learning
Difficult and unknown topics, pressure of series of assignments within short time, lack of exposure in English speaking environment, shyness, and humiliation by friends and teachers publicly are the difficulties of learning English, most of the learners added during FGD. One of the participants added in FGD,
“It is very difficult for us to learn English within short time in a pressurized learning environment. However, we learn to speak and write, but our learning is lost due to lack of exposure in English speaking environment.”
Strategies to Overcome the Language Learning Difficulties
Teacher‟s inspiration, Pair works, group works, project works and concentration during practice are the useful strategies to overcome the difficulties of language learning, learners mentioned in FGD. In pair works and group works learning happens easily, few participants added during FGD. One of the participants in FGD mentioned that,
“Our learning in project works becomes permanent because we learn in a collaborative way and we can help each other to write, to speak and to read as well.”
Strategies for Making Learning Enjoyable
In response to the question, the learners in FGD replied that they interesting topics like facebooking, friendship and dinner in music café etc topics make learning enjoyable. Learners like audio-visual materials including songs and motivational videos in their class. All learners agreed that,
“Learning of language should be through funny activities.”
Almost all learners have mentioned that they like interactive classes to learn L2. If the teacher creates an interactive environment, then learners will get scope to speak and correct their answers from the reading texts.
Only the specific and necessary materials are good for us, almost all learners agreed upon. They also mentioned that topics for four language skills should be amusing and motivational. They also agreed that watching a video and doing analysis of it in writing or speaking will help her learn language faster. Most of the learners wanted recent issues as their topics to be taught in their classroom. Learners mentioned names of few topics that they like to use in their writing or speaking.
“We want topics related to sports, natural disaster, political issues, festivals and celebrity issues in our language class. We talk and write better when the topic is from our choice.”
Motivation and Demotivation from Teacher
In response to the question, learners responded that the get motivation to learn English from their teachers and friends in the class and outside the classroom. Learners get motivated when teacher tells them the importance of learning English, when the class becomes enjoyable, when learners give presentations, and when they meet the teacher in consultation hour for their further development in learning language, almost all the learners mentioned.
Learners get demotivated when the teachers scold them, they added. Humiliation in the class, getting poor marks, getting negative feedback, sickness and unknown topics are the prime reasons for demotivation in the class in learning any of the four language skills.
One of the learners has responded that,
“Sometimes we become motivated to learn English, but if the teacher scolds us again at that time, we lose our motivation to learn English.”
Motivational Strategies Preferred by Learners
In response to the question, learners responded that they like some motivational activities more than some other activities. Presentation on different topics, dialog practice, pair discussion, group work and checking mistakes in plenary are enjoyable and they learn better, learners added. They also added that during pair work and group work, they can learn from each other and they feel tension free. One of the learners added that,
“We like the activities that do not create any fear among us to express our opinion in English. On the contrary we dislike activities those are boring. We dislike negative feedback in the class. We lose our interest to learn English when teacher insults us.”
Learners do not like the stress they get in the class. They do the activities due to stress within given time, but they forget learning from stressful environment within short time.
They cannot speak or write accurately due to the stress they undergo during the class hours learners mentioned in FGD.
Most of the learners have mentioned that when they feel competition in the class, they get inspiration to do more activities and they learn L2. Learners also added that it is teacher‟s responsibility to create an interactive environment in the class. Interaction is very helpful for learning and correcting any of the four language skills.
Effects of Motivational Activities
In response to the question, almost all learners agreed that motivation has an effect in their language learning process in all levels. If motivation level is high, then the learning of any skill is also high. Likewise, if the motivation level is low, then the learning of any language skill is also low, learners added. Learners mentioned that they notice their friends who are motivated during the semester do better in the exam and their competence level in learning the language is also high. In contrast, they feel that motivation can remove their fear and help them come forward and perform with what they learn in the class. One of the learners mentioned that,
“We learn better when we are motivated by our teachers and friends through different activities. Similarly, we fail to learn and obtain good CGPA if we are not motivated to learn what we are taught and practiced in the class.”
Summary of Results found from FGDs with Learners
Learners‟ source of motivation, difficulties learners face, overcoming the difficulties, strategies to make learning enjoyable, motivational content, motivation or demotivation from the teacher, motivational activities preferred by learners and effects of motivational strategies are found from the three FGD conducted with the learners. It is found that learners prefer some motivational activities and strategies and learners do not prefer some motivational activities or strategies used by the teacher in the class. Learners get motivation from activities like pair work, group work, project work, correction through plenary. They also get motivation from teacher‟s positive feedback, inspiring words, special care in consultation hour, encouraging voice, interesting contents, audio-visual aids, songs, videos, recent issues and everyday life issues. From their response to the asked questions, it is also found that learners learn better when they are motivated by the teacher through different techniques and strategies. Similarly, they get demotivated when they are scolded, insulted or when teaching contents are not recent issues or interesting.
Result Deduced from Class Observation
Four English language classes in tertiary level have been observed to deduce the kind of teaching done by teachers and the presence of motivation in language teaching. Among the classes, two are writing cum reading class and two are speaking cum listening class.
It is found that teachers make use of diverse techniques to motivate learners in tertiary level. There are seven criteria set in the observation checklist to trace data from the classes. Under each criterion, there are few subsections to detail and accumulate important data for the study. The result found from classroom observation is state d below.
Content and Execution
In this section, teaching and execution of the content by the teacher is sought for the study. It has been deduced that teacher language for instruction was completely appropriate for the learners in all classes. Learners are found responding to teachers‟ questions. Teachers are found following the lesson plan accordingly. Three out of four classes observed, teachers‟ presentation of materials was mostly meaningful, motivated and contextualized. For example, in one of the writing classes, it is found that teacher is giving examples from learners‟ likings and context. In speaking and listening classes, teacher has mostly assigned learners in pair work, group work, and questioning to engage learners actively. On the contrary, in writing and reading classes, teachers assigned learners in individual activities. Learners are found motivated in group and pair works in speaking and listening classes. For example, teacher asked questions to individual learners in writing and reading classes whereas the teacher has assigned learners to ask questions within themselves in the group. Learners were motivated in group and they questioned themselves from their own. Next, teachers‟ transition from one activity to another was mostly smooth. It is also found that the amount of teacher talk and student talk was appropriate in all classes. The overall outcome of the class was mostly successful in varied degrees. It needs to be mentioned that in speaking and listening classes, success was more than the writing classes.
Teacher used the white board and learners were curious to see what the teacher writes in the board. Teacher is found to elicit from the learners and then write those points in the board. Learners were motivated to express their points as they see their points are written by the teacher in the white board.
Teachers have mostly used diverse motivational strategies to motivate learners in the class. In all classes, interaction, positive feedback, use of humor, and use of audio-visual aids are used by the teachers to motivate their learners. Teachers have mostly used motivational; strategies properly in all four classes. But learners‟ motivation was high in speaking and listening classes. Then, teachers are found mostly using different motivational words, phrases and sentences to motivate learners. The motivational expressions used by teachers are: good, nice, excellent, nice performance, well done, carry on, excellent, please read, please quick, hurry up please, and thank you etc. moreover, teacher is found using humor and jokes to motivate learners. One of the teachers is found using the story of Shakespeare‟s play to motivate learners. Learners are found more motivated to take part in activities when teacher uses humorous activities to teach language. Audio-visual aids also helped teacher to motivate learners in many ways.
In all four classes, the use of audio-visual aids is found. Teachers showed songs, documentary videos to motivate learners. Learners were very enthusiastic to listen to the audios and to watch the videos. Teacher successfully related the audio-visual aids to the language teaching content in the class. For example, one of the teachers used a video named “Save the Earth” in her writing class, and then students did analysis of the video orally and wrote the analysis in their script. Thus teachers motivated learners in the English language class. In another class, one teacher is seen to use examples from the Indian film “Three Idiots” and learners liked the example most. In another class, teacher chosen the audio version of a topic named “Online Shopping” which was very interesting to the learners and they discussed about it and seen to practice speaking and writing. It is also noticed that nlearners di not only like the contextual topis in the class. they also liked the were motivated to talk, read, write and listen about the transnational issues related to their life. for example, learners were motivated to talk about the indian movie “Three Idiots” or write about a topic from international news paper named “A clear Way to Shopping”. Teachers have chosen thse typoe of topics to motivate learners as they already about their learner’s choices.
Moreover, two out of four teachers‟ tone was moderate to reach all the learners in the class. There was appropriate pitch and intonation in the voice. Learners listened to the two teachers properly and were controlled and convinced to do assigned activities. Two other teachers did not use pitch or intonation in their class and learners were found distracted a bit form the assigned task. So it seemed that intonation in teachers talk is a necessary element in the class to motivate learners.
Teachers are found to form group activities for different tasks. In all groups, teachers tried to make a combination of male and female learners. It is found that, the groups where there was equal number of male and female learners; they did the assigned task faster. On the other hand, it is also found that the groups where all members were males or all were females, they submitted the task a bit later. So, it is found that group activity consisting of both male and female members perform better that the groups with only male or female members.
In all four classes, teachers are found to make clear what learners are to do in the class and fix the time for the task to the learners. Learners are found to be engaged in the work and they finished the work within the given time by the teacher. Thus, the teachers motivated learners. Moreover, teacher is found to declare marks for the tasks he/she has assigned to the learners and consequently learners were motivated to do the task properly to get good grades in the test.
The class atmosphere was completely warm, open and accepting. Learners were sitting in
U-shape in speaking and listening classes and they were in sitting in rows in writing and reading classes. Learners seemed to be mostly clear what they should be doing in the class. Student participation was active and lively in the class. Teachers gave sufficient time to complete the assigned task in the class. Learners were mostly motivated during the interaction in the class. It was a non-threatening and friendly environment in the class.
In speaking class, learners were found sitting facing the teacher and interacting within themselves and with the teacher. They were motivated to interact and express through their writing or speaking about the topics.
Teaching Methods and Techniques
In all four classes, teachers chosen appropriate methods and techniques to execute theteaching content and fulfill the objective of the lesson as well. In all classes teacher used the CLT approach. Specifically, in speaking and listening classes, teachers used elicitation, interaction, questioning and funny activities. In writing and reading classes, teachers used elicitation, discussion, peer checking technique, think-pair-share technique and interaction. Teachers were active in scaffolding learners to overcome barriers and finish the assigned tasks in writing classes. Teacher used interactive pedagogy successfully.
Teachers have used the materials in the booklet in writing and reading classes. However, in speaking classes, teachers used videos and audios from their own choice to make the ideas clear. Learners are found motivated after the use of supplementary materials in the class. The supplementary materials were in line with the objectives of the lesson and they were interesting as well. In one of the reading classes, teacher showed a video on environmental pollution and the reading text was also an environmental issue.
As it the classes were mix ability classes including both Bangla and English medium students, teacher chosen those topics which go with all learners. Teacher did not choose any topics that are familiar to any group learners. For example, in one speaking class, teacher chose a topic named “Cultural Diversity” and all learners could express their ideas about the issue since they all are concerned about the diversity of culture.
Learning Environment at the Institute
The learning environment at the institute is completely adequate and furnished with necessary equipments. There were 25 learners in each class. The average ratio of male and female learners was 13:12. The sitting arrangements in the class were in U-shape in speaking and listening classes. In writing and reading classes, learners were sitting in rows of chairs. The classroom was spacious and teacher could move easily before the class. Natural light and air-condition can easily enter into the class.
Summary of Results Deduced from Observation
The classroom environment and classroom management was enough to motivate learners to participate in different activities assigned by the teachers. The materials were embedded with motivation. Teachers have chosen topics from national and transnationalarena. learners are found motivated to take part in those topics since, possibly, those were related to their own lives, tough not always related to own cultire. Motivation was not used an isolated instrument in the class, rather motivation was used as an embedded energy in the materials and techniques to help learners participate in the activities. From the class observation, it can be deduced that teachers has mostly used CLT approach in all classes. Teachers have used few techniques like interaction, pair work, group work, elicitation and peer checking in their classes to motivate learners in the task. Teachers have also given positive feedback and learners were motivated after the feedback.
Teacher encouraged learners to talk and share their ideas orally and through writing.
Teachers have provided interesting audio-visual aids for lowering the affective filter of the learners. Teachers phrases like good, very good, excellent, nice, brilliant have also encouraged the learners to participate and work more. Teachers‟ feedback was positive and inspiring to the learners.
Motivational Strategies Used by Teachers in L2 Classroom
Teachers use different motivational strategies in L2 classes in tertiary level. Teachers find it difficult to continue successful English language class without holding the motivation of learners. Encouraging learners (Weaver and Cotrell, 1987) even if they make mistakes is a strategy to motivate L2 learners in tertiary level. It is also found in the L2 classroom that learners become interested to talk and write when they are motivated by the teacher, so encouraging learners is a motivational strategy used by teachers to motivate learners in L2 classroom.
As stated in the result section, explaining the rationale (Knowles, 1990) for learning any language skill is another way of motivating learners in tertiary level. Almost all teachers of tertiary level interviewed mentioned that most of the learners feel the need for learning if they are explained the reason for their learning any item of language. During classroom observation, it is noticed that some teachers are explaining the need for learning any aspect of language and learners are found motivated to participate and perform. Teachers explained the importance of English language for good job, higher education and obtaining respect from other people. So, the clear gain made by the experimental group are quiet consistent with the previous studies.
Moreover, taking care of L2 learner (Vasquez, 1988) through conducting consultation with weaker and demotivated students is another way of motivating L2 learners. Most of the teachers during interview and class hour are found giving much care to their learners.
Teachers‟ care for weaker learners motivates L2 learners of tertiary level.
Giving real life examples (Weaver and Cotrell, 1987) are also used by teachers as a motivational strategy. The same thing is seen during their class hour and learners also mentioned about their liking for real life examples. Learners of tertiary level like the real life and contextual examples and the teachers are found using the real life examples in L2 classes; e.g. few teachers are found giving examples of good speakers and readers of English in their classes.
Since, most of the learners learn L2 for grades and good jobs, teachers sometimes motivate learners instrumentally (Ellis, 1994). Teachers tell the immediate and longsighted benefit of learning L2 and learners become motivated to learn English. More that 80% learners in the L2 class are instrumentally motivated and the rest are indirectly or intrinsically motivated. So, motivating learners directly saying the immediate benefit is another motivational strategy used by tertiary level language teachers. In line with this, few teachers mentioned the need for both instrumental and intrinsic motivation (Clement & Smythe, 1977).
Use of up-to-date issues as texts or teaching material is another motivational strategy used by teachers of tertiary level to motivate learners intrinsically or indirectly (Harmer, 2001). Teachers mentioned the need to use texts related to current age; e.g. “selfies”, and “e-shopping” to motivate learners of tertiary level. Likewise, same texts are found to be used in most of the teachers‟ classes and, moreover, the booklets used in the respective institute are also seen to be filled with current issues. So, the use of recent issues as teaching materials is one of the strategies to motivate L2 learners of tertiary level.
Then, ignoring mistakes for a certain level is another strategy used by the teachers of tertiary level to motivate L2 learners. Most of the teachers mentioned the importance of ignoring mistakes and how it motivates learners to perform more than during interruption. Similarly, it is found that, in speaking classes, speakers speak continuously since their mistakes are not counted one by one. On the contrary, it writing classes, it is found that learners do hesitate to write fluently because they are afraid of making mistakes in their writing. Teacher does point out the mistakes and errors in writing through oral and written feedback. Learners of tertiary level likes speaking classes most since their mistakes are not counted seriously. So, ignoring mistakes to a certain level is another motivational strategy used by L2 teachers in tertiary level.
Moreover, assigning learners in pair work and group work also motivates the learners of tertiary level. Both teachers and learners have mentioned the need for pair work and group work (Brown, 1988) to accelerate the motivation level of learners in learning L2.
So, pair work and group work are used as a strategy to motivate the learners of tertiary level by their teachers.
Use of appropriate teaching material is also important in motivating learners as mentioned by the teachers. Topics which arouse much debate or curiosity can be used in language classes since learners feel motivated to engage themselves in such topics.
Learners can try to bring out solution of the issues underlying in the teaching content through discussion, writing and brainstorming (Brown, 1988). Thus, learners practice language and learn language in tertiary level. In all four classes observed, it is noticed that teacher‟s put their learners into a problematic situation where learners are required to speak or write and solve the issue. Thus language learning occurred in L2 classes in tertiary level. Learners are found more motivated to perform language skills in this way.
Therefore, choosing and designing appropriate teaching materials is one of the strategies to motivate learners of tertiary level.
Moreover, providing opportunities like audio-visual aids in L2 classes motivate learners of tertiary level (Kristmanson, 2000). In all four classes it is found that most of the teachers use songs, video documentaries related to the teaching objective to motivate learners. In FGD, learners have also mentioned the need for using audio-visual contents in their classes. In speaking and listening and listening classes, learners are more motivated due to the incorporation of audio-visual contents. However, in writing and reading classes, teachers did not use enough audio-visual content and learners are found less motivated in the class. So, appropriate incorporation of audio-visual aids is another motivational strategy used by the teachers of tertiary level.
Teachers‟ use of positive and explanatory feedback and inspiring words also motivate learners of tertiary level. It is found that teachers used words and expressions like “wonderful”, “excellent” and “thank you” etc to motivate learners of tertiary level.
Moreover, content-wise explanatory feedback also motivate learners to learn L2 in tertiary level. Both teachers and learners have mentioned that recognizing successes also motivates learners to perform better in L2 classes of any skills. During observation of the classes, it is found that all teachers recognize the little successes accomplished by the learners in the classes and learners were motivated. So recognizing the good performance and success of learners is another strategy used by the teachers to motivate learners of tertiary level.
Moreover arousing interest and creating a competitive environment (Maller, 1929) in the class is another strategy for motivating L2 learners of tertiary level. Teachers are found to create a competitive environment in the class and learners learned more in the competitive environment. Teachers are also found to rationalize the marks learners obtained in particular language skills and fewer marks obtainers revived as motivated learners in the class. So creating competitive environment and rationalizing the marks are other ways of motivating learners of tertiary level.
Teacher-student relationship also plays a vital role in motivating learners. As teachers mentioned that they maintain a good relationship with their learners, same thing is found in the language classes when observed. Even in FGD, learners mentioned that they feel better when they in a good relationship with their teachers and they can learn better when they are in good relationship with their teachers. So, maintaining a good relationship is another motivational strategies used by the L2 teachers of tertiary level.
Motivational Strategies Considered Important by the Learners
Learners of tertiary level consider some motivational strategies important for them in L2 classroom. Learners think those motivational strategies important for them which help the learn language in and out of the classroom. Since three FGDs have been conducted with 30 learners of tertiary level, so the results found from FGD is triangulated with the results found from classroom observation and results found from teacher interviews to reach a more reliable conclusion of the research question posed in the beginning of the study.
Learners get motivated from the inner self and when the teacher inspires them to learn English. They also learn English as it is a mandatory subject at their university. Most of the learners also added that they believe that if the know better English, they will get good job after their student life. Thus they are both intrinsically and instrumentally motivated (Clement and Smythe, 1977).
Pair works, group works and project works liked most of the learners as they enjoy working in collaboration with other peers in the class. They feel less fear during these type of activities in the class and they have more chances to write speak, write and listen in the class from their peers. So pair work, group work and project work are important motivational strategies considered by the L2 learners.
Humor and fun are also important in a language class to motivate learners (Hunsaker, 1988) of tertiary level. For tertiary level learners, humor is important to hold their motivation (Lindeman, 1926) and increase their competence level in l2. Almost all learners mentioned that they want their classes humorous and in a humorous environment they can learn more and perform more. In the class observation, it has been noticed that learners learn more in a class where teacher makes the class humorous. So, humor and fun are the important motivational strategies considered by the learners of tertiary level.
The teaching materials need to be motivational and motivation should be embedded within the content itself (Brown, 1988) and learners need to feel the topics as their own issues. as learners have mentioned that they like the interesting and everyday life related topics, they are noticed enjoying the topics which are related to their everyday life, e.g. learners of writing and reading class are found motivated and perform well since the teaching contents were about “selfies” and “e-shopping”. moreover learners wants topics related to sports, natural disaster, political issues, festivals and celebrity news in their langauge classes. so, learners of tertiary level likes appropriate teaching content which are related to their everyday lives.
Learners like the classes when their teacher does lower the anxiety level, added by most of the learners in FGD. They also like activities that do not create any scary situation among themnselves. the also like to work in a competitive environment in the class (Maller, 1929) and learning takes place far better in competitive environment. During classroom observation, it is found that learners were competitive in answering questions to the teachwer in reading class. so, creating a cometitive environment is another motivational strategy considered important by the L2 learners of tertiary level. Interaction between teacher and learners is also preferred by the learners as this strategy motivates them to communicate and learn language. if the teacher cannot interact with learbers, that teacher cannot teach his/her learners (Brown, 1988). In the class observation, it is found that learners are very much interested to interact with the teacher in reading and speaking classes. Similarly, almost all thelearners answered about the importance of interaction when they were asked in FGD. They become motivated when they are asked anything in the class whether by their peers or teachers. So, interaction is another motivational strategy considered important by the learners.
Raising high expectation by the teacher is another important motivational strategy considered important by the learners. During class observation it has been also found that learners want to learn in goal oriented setting of any lesson. When they are given a target to be fulfilled, they became motivated to learn more to reach the goal. Moreover, almost all the teachers have mentioned that their learners want to learn for achieving any goal which Lambert (1972) named as instrumental motivation.
Impact of Motivational Strategies in L2 Classroom
All motivational strategies used by L2 teachers in their classes do not work carrying same degree of success in L2 teaching and learning in tertiary level. Some motivational strategies like rationalizing the need for learning, interaction between teacher and learners, proper application of humor and fun, teacher-student relationship, proper classroom environment, reformative feedback, creating mutual respect and appropriate selection of content are found to be more successful motivational strategies in L2 classes.
On the contrary, scolding learners for studying more, creating fear among the learners, same classroom setting for all classes and providing more marks are less effective motivational strategies used by L2 teachers in tertiary level.
Rationalizing or justifying (Knowles, 1990) the need for learning any skill of L2 is an important motivational strategy in motivating L2 learners. In the classes observed it is found that learners become enthusiastic when they are told the reason for learning the language skill. Similarly, in the FGDs and teacher interviews, both teachers and learners have agreed that if teacher explains the reason for learning any skill of English, learners become more motivated and learning holds better in and out of the classes. So, rationalizing or justifying the need for learning is an important motivational strategy in motivating learners of tertiary level.
Interaction between teacher and learners is another important motivational strategy in motivating learners of tertiary level. In the classes observed, it has been noticed that almost all learners like to interact with the teacher and within themselves. Throughout interaction, learners have a chance to practice speaking or solving the answers of reading texts. If the teacher can interact properly, the learning will happen automatically (Brown, 1988). Even almost all learners agreed that they get inspired when their teacher asks them any question about the raised issues in the class. Teachers need to apply exact interaction pattern (Palardy and Palardy, 1987). So, exact interaction is one of the important motivational strategies to motivate learners of tertiary level.
Humor and fun plays an important role in motivating L2 learners of tertiary level. The teacher needs to apply humor properly aiming at enhancing the competence level of the learners. Teacher has to be smiling, spontaneous and stories need to be used related to subject matter (Cotrell, 1987) and learners will respond in the class. In the classes observed, it has been found that almost all teachers have injected humor in all segments of the lesson to be taught and learners were much motivated to speak, write, listen and read. Even, learners have mentioned that they like classes where teacher makes the class entertaining. So, using humor and fun is another strategy to motivate L2 learners of tertiary level.
Learning-centered teacher-student relationship with mutual respect is also an important motivational strategy to motivate learners of tertiary level. Most of the teachers interviewed have asserted that teacher-student relationship plays a vital role in motivating learners of tertiary level. Even in the classes, it has been found that learners of tertiary level learn when there is an existence of mutual respect between teacher and learners. Teachers must feel comfort with themselves, their learners, their subject matter and teacher needs to consider his/her learners adult enough (Palardy and Palardy, 1987).
Thus, the teacher will create a good relationship embedded with mutual respect. Learners of tertiary levels mentioned in FGDs that they want to learn in a classroom environment where good relationship and mutual respect exists between teacher and learners. So, maintaining a learning-centered teacher-students relationship embedded with mutual respect is another important motivational strategies for motivating L2 learners of tertiary level.
This chapter includes a number of practical recommendations deduced from the theories blended with the findings from teacher interviews, FGDs with learners of tertiary level and classroom observations. The recommendations classed here will be helpful for teachers of L2 in tertiary level to execute more effective classes motivating the learners. Moreover, the recommendations mentioned here will also help researchers of L2 motivation to find out more reliable strategies for motivating L2 learners of tertiary level.
Firstly, the L2 teachers have to work as enthusiastic and motivational tool for the learners of tertiary level. If the teacher him/herself is motivated, learners will also be motivated to learn L2 in tertiary level.
Secondly, the teachers have to explain the rationale for learning any aspect or skill of language to the learners. Tertiary level learners learn L2 when teacher rationalize the need for learning the language.
Thirdly, teacher can conduct consultation and counseling out of the class hour with the weaker and demotivated learners and motivate them to learn L2. It has been found that that demotivated learners feel the need to learn when they understand the need for learning.
Moreover, teachers have to select new and culturally and contextually appropriate teaching materials which motivate learners to participate in learning hour. Audio-visual aids injected with learning input can be used in tertiary level L2 classes. Teachers have to use real life examples, anecdotes and stories related to learners‟ age to motivate learners in learning L2.
Teachers also need to motivate learners saying the need to get good grades and the long sighted need for English for learners‟ job or professional life. Thus, teachers have to motivate learners both intrinsically and extrinsically.
Teachers have to ignore mistakes made by learners in the beginning of the learning so that learners are not afraid of learning L2. If learners have no fear of making mistakes, then they will practice English more and more and learning will occur automatically.
Additionally, teachers have to employ teaching techniques like pair work, group work, project work and presentations to motivate learners to learn L2 spontaneously. Teachers also need to give explanatory and positive feedback so that learners do not get demotivated to learn L2.
Teachers can also create a competitive environment in L2 class so that learners compete and learn the language. In competitive environment of learning, learners learn being intrinsically motivated.
Humor and fun needs to be properly used by the teacher and the selection of humor level should be related to the age factor of the learners. Humor need not be used as an isolated item in the class; rather humor should be injected within the teaching materials.
Teacher needs to make the classes interactive as learners learn more in the interactive learning environment. Besides, teacher has to create an anxiety free classroom environment so that learners feel free to ask and answer any thing whether orally or in written form.
Finally, however, teachers need to avoid negative feedback, mundane teaching contents, humiliating learners in public least motivated learners turn into demotivated learners.
Besides, lack of teachers‟ self-motivation and preparation to execute the lesson demotivate learners of tertiary level in learning English language. So, teachers have to be prepared for the class, avoid negative feedback and mundane teaching contents. Thus, learners will be motivated to learn L2 in tertiary level.
Finally, it can be claimed that in this era of L2 teaching in tertiary level certain factors need to be brought under consideration and motivation is the important factor. Without motivating the learners, teaching L2 is a far cry for the L2 teachers in any context of teaching. So, if learners can be motivated, then the learning of L2 would become easier for the learners and teaching L2 would become easier for the L2 teachers.
The study aimed at identifying the motivational strategies used by the L2 teachers of tertiary level, the motivational strategies considered important by the learners and to what extent some motivational strategies are successful and some are not. In the study, from the beginning, research instruments like FGD with 30 learners, interviews with 10 teachers and observation of four language classes have been done. The deduced data has been put down separately according to the research instruments. Then, the results deduced are analyzed through qualitative method of data analysis for answering the three research questions. During the data analysis, the results are triangulated for reaching more reliable answers to the research questions.
Throughout the analysis, the study has found that both direct and indirect motivation is important in motivating the learners of tertiary level. The study has identified the motivational strategies used by the L2 teachers of tertiary level are rationalizing the importance of learning, giving explanatory and positive feedback after performance, setting the proper classroom atmosphere for learning, giving extra care to the weaker and demotivated learners, using real life examples, using up-to-date issues as teaching content, using audio-visual aids, ignoring mistakes until learners become competent to a certain level, and using teaching techniques like pair work, group work and project work.
Additionally, arousing interest among the learners to share both oral and in written version, creating competitive environment in the class, building a learning-oriented teacher-student relationship, using humor and fun properly, creating an anxiety free learning atmosphere, raising high expectation of the learners and doing interaction in and out of the class with the learners are also important motivational strategies used by the teachers and learners also like these motivational strategies in learning L2 in tertiary level. It is also found that interaction, rationalization of learning, explanatory positive feedback, use of humor and fun, use of appropriate teaching material, creating learning centered environment and techniques like pair work and group work are more successful motivational activities used by the L2 teachers of tertiary level. On the contrary, it is also found that negative feedback, mundane teaching contents, humiliating learners in public, lack of teachers‟ self-motivation and preparation to execute the lesson are less successful motivational activities used by the L2 teachers of tertiary level.
Since language teaching and learning is a continuous process in all levels of education.
The strategies identified by this study are based on the context of Bangladesh. To fit in the motivational strategies in other contexts, further research needs to be conducted by the researchers. This study may be perfect for the teachers of Bangladeshi context for certain years. However, since learners learning habit and psychology changes over the years in the change of the context and culture, so further research needs to be conducted to figure out the motivational strategies used by teachers in other contexts of L2 teaching and learning.