Term paper on Economic Aspects of Mineral and Power Resources in Bangladesh

Introduction

Mineral resources are very valuable from all the natural resources. It is very important for any country’s economic development. The entire factor, which are important for a country’s economic development and human welfare definitely mineral resources are in that list.

Bangladesh is not rich in mineral resources. We have a very few type of mineral resources and some of them is not in sufficient amount.In past all the survey happened in our sub-continent Bangladesh was not in that list. In that all scientist thought that Bangladesh is not good enough for this type of survey. Actually in that time scientist have found huge amount of mineral resources on Choto Nagpur so it did not give time to be concern with the other portion of this sub continent after the division of the sub continent at 1947 scientist can give time to concern with the other portion of this sub continent. After the division of the sub continent at 1947 the hunts of mineral resources start with step by step.

Mineral resources are important for every country. All the country, which are economically developed those, are rich in mineral resources. Coal, iron, mineral oil is the main resource for the development of a country. Those countries are developed which are utilizing their mineral resources properly. As example we can tell about United States of America, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Russian Federation, Kuwait etc.

Bangladesh is a developing country. Nowadays we are looking that it is going for become industrialized. So, mineral resources are not only important for our country but also too much assential. For the developing of this country’s economy mineral recourses has unlimited importance but unfortunately Bangladesh is not rich in mineral resources. Only natural gas can be considered as the main mineral resources of our country. On the other hand petroleum is also another main mineral resource of us. Though Silica Sand, White clay, Hard rock are not actually mineral resources if we consider it as international level. But now these resources are heavily used in our industrial sector as raw material.

Classification of mineral resources of Bangladesh

We have different type of resources and we can classify our mineral resources into three broad categories. Those are listed bellow-

 Power resources.

  • Immaterial mineral resources.
  • Material mineral resources.

Power resources: All the mineral resources which are used to produce power for our uses are called power resources. Some of our mineral resources are in this category. Those are

  • Natural Gas.
  • Coal.
  • Carosine Oil.
  • Petroleum etc

Though we have some other power resources which are not coming from mineral those ares-

  • Wood fuel.
  • Electric power.
  • Tidal power etc

Immaterial mineral resources:  All mineral resources which are not material can

be categorized in this group. We can have some of this resource. Those ares-

  • Lime stone
  • Glass sand (silica sand)
  • China clay (White clay)
  • Hard Rock
  • Mineral Sand
  •  Salt
  • Atomic Sand
  • Sulfur

Material mineral resources:

  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Zinc etc

Though these types of resources are not found in our country but many scientist thinks that we might have these resources under the surface and we may discovered its future period and consume it.

Description of mineral and power resources of Bangladesh

Natural Gas:

Natural Gas is the most important resources for our country. By using these resources properly we can bring out our economy in a very higher position. From the very past time our scientist gases that our country have a huge amount of natural gas, but we can start to discover these gas field just after 1950.

The different gas field of Bangladesh and there position-

NoGas FeildPosition
01.RosidpurGreater Sylhet
02.SylhetGreater Sylhet
03.KoylastilaGreater Sylhet
04.BianibazarGreater Sylhet
05.FenchuganjGreater Sylhet
06.HobiganjGreater Sylhet
07.JalalabadGreater Sylhet
08.BibianaGreater Sylhet
09.TitasGreater Comilla
10.BakhrabadGreater Comilla
11.SaldandiGreater Comilla
12.BegomgonjGreater Noakhali
13.FeniGreater Noakhali
14.KutubdiaCox’es Bazar
15.SanguCox’es Bazar
16.ShamutangKhagrachori
17.KamtaGazipur
18.ShabajpurVola
19.Megna (Morichakandi)Naraongang
20.BelaboNorshigdi

Discover of gas field of Bangladesh and operating company-

 

NoName of The FieldDiscover YearOperating Company
01.Bakhrabad1969PSOC
02.Hobiganj1963PSOC
03.Jalalabad1981Simiter
04.Koylastila1962PSOC
05.Megna (Morichakandi)1990Petrobangla
06.Norshigdi1990Petrobangla
07.Rosidpur1960PSOC
08.Saldandi1996BAPEX
09.Sangu1996Caern
10.Syllet1955PPL
11.Titas1962PSOC
12.Bianibazar1981Petrobangla
13.Begomgonj1977Petrobangla
14.Bibiana1998Oxidental
15.Fenchuganj1998Petrobangla
16.Kutubdia1977Union
17.Shamutang1969OGDC
18.Shabajpur1996BAPEX
19.Kamta1981Petrobangla
20.Feni1981Petrobangla

Gas well in different gas field-

 

NoGas FieldNumber of Well
01.Titas11
02.Bakhrabad05
03.Hobiganj07
04.Rosidpur04
05.Koylastila04
06.Syllet01
07.Norshigdi01
08.Megna (Morichakandi)01
09.Saldandi01
10.Sangu03

 

Uses of Gas in different sector-

 

NoSectorDaily Demand

( Million Cubic Foot)

Percentage
01.Electricity Production405.0044.00 %
02.Fertilizer Production256.0028.00 %
03.Household, Industry, Others254.0028.00 %

Uses of gas in the fertilizer Production-

Name of The FactoryAreaMain raw matarialsProduction per Year (Metric Ton)Product
Polash fertilizer industryNorshingdiNatural gas1,00,000Urea
T.S.P fertilizer industryChitagongNatural gas1,45,000T.S.P
Fenchugong fertilizer industrySylletHoripurer  gas1,06,000 and 12,500Urea and Ammonia
Chitagong  fertilizer industryChitagongNatural gas5,61,000 and 3,00,000Urea and Ammonia
Ghorashal fertilizer industryNorshingdiTitas gas3,45,000Urea
Jomuna fertilizer industryJamalpurNatural gas6,00,000Urea
Zia fertilizer industryBrammonbariaTitas gas5,30,000Urea, Packing lining and Polithin
Kornofuli  fertilizer industryChitagongNatural gas55,000 and 45,000Urea and Ammonia

 Demand of natural gas in Bangladesh- (Billion Square Foot)

 

NoSector1999-20002000-20012001-20022002-20032003-2004
01.Electricity148.9185189.9190.5202.9
02.Fertilizer84.985.894.794.794.7
03.Household28.931.433.635.838.3
04.Commercial3.84.75.15.55.8
05.Industrial42.059.968.673.777.7
06.Tea garden1.03.33.73.74.0
07.Brick field     
08.System loss21.714.614.614.614.6
09.Total331.2364.7400.2418.5438.2

National Gas Reserve of Bangladesh-

 

 

 GIIPRecoverableCumulative ProductionNet Remaining Recoverable
 FieldProven + ProbablyProven + ProbablyVolume in BCFVolume in BCF
A.Producing    
01.Bakharaba14321002624.36377.64
02.Bianibazar24317022.95147.05
03.Hobiganj513938541089.072764.93
04.Jalalabad1256879157.99721.01
05.Kailashtila27201931316.871614.13
06.Megna15911132.21678.78
07.Norshingdi1117746.6130.39
08.Rosidpur20021401306.741094.32
09.Sangu1046734243.71490.29
10.Saldanadi20014032.04107.96
11.Sylhet684479171.82307.17
12.Titas730051102178.62931.4
 Sub total- A22295158885223.0010665.00
B.Not in Production    
13.Begomgonj463200032
14.Bibiyana314522020002202
15.Fenchugonj404283000283
16.Kutubdia861603000603
17.Semutang174122000122
18.Shabazpur665465000456
19.Moulavibazar500350000350
 Sub total-B579540570004057.00
 Sub total-(A+B)28090199454999.8914722.00
C.Production Suspended    
20.Chattak47433226.5305.5
21.Feni16511639.5176.49
22.Kamta382721.15.9
 Sub total-C67747587.11387.89
 Grand Total

( A+B+C )

28767204205310.1115409.89
 Grand Total

(A+B+C) TCF

28.7720.425.3115.11

Coal:

Coal is an important mineral resource for Bangladesh. We have some reserve of coal, but we do not have sufficient amount of coal reserve. In different place of Bangladesh these are different type of coal has been discovered but some of them are not economically profitable. So that places has no effect in our economy. We have in different type of coal those are-

  • Bituminous coal (best coal in Bangladesh)
  • Pit coal
  • Lignite coal (worst coal in Bangladesh)

Places in Bangladesh where coal are found-

No

District

Area

01.

Bogra

Jamalgang

02.

Dingpur

Boropukuria

03.

Khulna

Kolabil

04.

FaridpurChandnabil

05.

Faridpur

Fulbari

06.

Sylhet

Lalghat, Lakmara

07.

Nowabgonj

Dhigipara

08.

Sylhet

Takerhat

09.

Sunamgonj

Vangarhat

10

Bogra

Nandigar Kuchma

 

Main coal reserve in Bangladesh-

NoDistrictAreaQuantity

(Million Ton)

01.BograJamalgong1045
02.SylletLalghat,Lakmara3
03.DinagpurBoropukuria300
04.FaridpurChandnabil125
05.KhulnaKolabil8

Though Bangladesh have different places where coal are founded but all of them are not profitable. some of them are totally untouched, some of them have poor quality coal. Only few of them have good quality coal and economically profitable.

Mineral oil:

Scientist were trying to find mineral oil from very past period but it is easily be told that they are not so much successful. In 1987 our scientists have found an oil field in Sylhet’s Horipur and another one in Bormihal of Moulovibazar. In Haripur we have four core barrel oil reserves. If we will find widely than we have very possibility that we will find more oil reserve.

Our demand of fuel in every year-

NoType of Fuel Demand
01.Petrol2.35
02.Disel18
03.Karosine6.02

In future we might found mineral oil-

NoDistrictArea
01.ComillaMoinamoti
02.Chitagong 
03.Cox’esbazar 
04.Parbotto Chitagong 
05.BarishalHizla
06.BarishalMuladi
07.NatoreNimgaow

 Limestone:

 Limestone is popular for the raw materials of cement. Limestones have been discovered in Nineteen Century at Sylhet’s Jaflong and Joyontika.

Limestone are founded in follows place-

NoDistrictArera
01.SunamgongTakerhat
02.SunamgongVangarhat
03.SylletLalghat
04.BograJamalgong
05.Joypurhat 
06.Cox’es BazarSentmartin

 Reserve of limestone in deferent place of Bangladesh-

 

NoAreaReserve(million ton)
01.Joypurhat0.8
02.Cox’es Bazar, Sentmartin100

Production of limestone in each year-

NoYearProduction(Lakh Ton)
01.1993-199436.03
02.1994-199536.08
03.1995-199636.11
04.1996-199736.35
05.1997-199837.42
06.1998-199937.39
07.1999-200036.22
08.2000-200136.01
09.2001-200236.12

Silica Sand:

Silica sand is the main raw material of glass industry. For these reason it is also called as glass sand. Silica sand is available in many place of Bangladesh.

List of the places where silica sand is available-

NoDistrictArea
01.SherpurBalijhuri
02.MoulovibazarKhulaura
03.HabiganjSharibazar
04.HabiganjShtaiin
05.SylletChatail

Appropriate reserve of silica \ glass sand in Bangladesh-

 

NoZoneReserve(Lakh Ton)
01.Sylhet20.50
02.Comilla04.50
03.Jamalpur02.50

 

White clay:

In our country white clay are familiar to us as China clay. Mainly it used to produce Ceramic product and sanitary product. China clay is important for our ceramic and sanitary industry. Nowadays it is also used as row material of electric exieosoris produce industry and some chemical industry.

Some places where China \ White clay are available-

 

NoDistrictArea
01.SherpurBijoypur
02.NowgaPotnitola
03.ChittagongPotia

 

Hard rock:

Hard rock is founded in the north part of the country. It can be founded different places of there but all of them have not sufficient productivity. Some are totally useless. Hard rock can be used for making our infra structure developed.

Places where Hard rock can be founded-

NoDistrictArea
01.DinajpurModhopara
02.SylletVolagonj
03.SylletLuba
04.SylletZizainlang
05.RongpurPatham
06.Ponchogor 

Approximate reserve of Hard rock in Bangladesh-

 

NoDistrictAreaReserve

(Million CFT)

01.DinajpurModhopara 
02.SylletVolagonj 
03.SylletLuba157
04.SylletZizainlang157
05.RongpurPatham35
06.Ponchogor 25

Mineral Sand:

An Australian scientist had discovered the mineral sand in the sea shore of Cox’es Bazar for the first time. This discovers might be a great opportunity for Bangladesh. This mineral sand is also called as radio active sand. If it is really radio active sand than it is going to be a great resource for Bangladesh

Scientist found this type of sand in follows place-

  • Cox’esbazar
  • Takenaf
  • Moheskhali
  • Maturberi
  • Kutubdia

Atomic mineral:

In Bangladesh scientist have found a very few amount of atomic mineral.

Those ares-

  • Zinkon
  • Rutel
  • Ziolite
  • Menite
  • Liueoxen
  • Magnatite etc

Salt:

Though salt is one kind of mineral resource but for our country it could not be called mineral resource. Main source of salt in our country is sea water. For this reason it could not be called mineral resource in our country.

Sulfur:

Now we found little quantity of sulfur in our country. In Bangladesh we found it in Kutubdia which is in Cox’es Bazar District.

Wood fuel:

It is one kind of power resource in our country. Still today many people of our country use wood fuel for their daily purpose like cooking. Using wood fuel as the source energy is little bit harmful for our nature. It has negative effect in our ecology. Using wood fuel as the source energy is one of the important case which are destroying our forest resources.

Electric power:

Electric power is very important for our country. Most of out industries are operated by electricity. Electricity is not only important for country like Bangladesh but also it has great importance in the all countries economy all over the world. Bangladesh has total ten centers where electricity has been produce.

List of the Bangladesh’s electricity Production center and the main elements to produce electricity-

NoNameMain Used ElementsArea
01.VeramaraDisel and Steam PumpKustia
02.GoalparaNaftha, Farnesoil,HMDKhulna
03.ChittagongDisel and Steam pumpChitagong
04.ShidirgonjDisel and Titas gasDhaka
05.ShajibazarNatural gasSyllet
06.GhorashalTitas gasNorshingdi
07.AsuganjTitas gasBrahmonbaria
08.Soyodpur Soyodpur
09.Thakurgaow Thakurgaow
10KaptaiTidal poewerRangamati

 Uses of Electricity in deferent sector of Bangladesh-

 

NoUsing SectorUsing Portion
01.Residential sector43.10 %
02.Industry sector40.80 %
03.Commercial sector08.50 %
04.Agricultural sector04.90 %
05.Others sector02.70 %
06.Total100.00 %

The source of electricity produced and their proportion-

 

NoSourceProportion
01.Natural Gas84.60 %
02.Water06.70 %
03.Fuel Oil08.70%
04.France Oil04.20 %
05.Total100.00 %

Production of electricity in Bangladesh-

 

NoBudget YearProduction capacity

(Mega watt)

Reliable Production

(Mega watt)

Highest Production

(Mega watt)

01.1993-1994260815601875
02.1994-1995260821001970
03.1995-1996290821052087
04.1996-1997290821482114
05.1997-1998290822002106
06.1998-1999309125002449
07.1999-2000361128082665
08.2000-2001377030742850

Name of the new Production center whose development works is running-

 

  • Boropukuria
  • Horipur
  • Shidirgonj
  • Tongi Gas Turbine
  • Bagabari gas turbine
  • Varamara combind cycle
  • Megna ghat combind cycle (a e s)
  • Vola
  • Sylhet
  • Mongla
  • Gazipur
  • Shirajgonj
  • WRIP
  • Chandpur combind cycle
  • Poribo
  • Khulna
  • Tongi Gas Turbine

 

Tidal power:

Though tidal power has a great opportunity in Bangladesh but we can see that we are not using these resources properly we have one and only electricity production center where tidal power are use as main source. which is situated in Kaptai in Rangamati district. Our government should have to take proper care and give proper attention in this sector by using tidal power we can produce more electricity.

Importance of mineral resources in Bangladesh economy:

Mineral resources are important for every country. All the country, which are economically developed those, are rich in mineral resources. Coal, iron, mineral oil is the main resource for the development of a country. Those countries are developed which are utilizing their mineral resources properly. As example we can tell about United States of America, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Russian Federation, Kuwait etc.

Bangladesh is a developing country. Nowadays we are looking that it is going for become industrialized. So, mineral resources are not only important for our country but also too much essential. For the developing of this country’s economy mineral recourses has unlimited importance but unfortunately Bangladesh is not rich in mineral resources. Only natural gas can be considered as the main mineral resources of our country. On the other hand petroleum is also another main mineral resource of us. Though Silica Sand, White clay, Hard rock are not actually mineral resources if we consider it as international level. But now these resources are heavily used in our industrial sector as raw material.

Here some uses of our mineral resources for the development of our economy in industrial sector are given bellow-

 i.  Raw material and industrial development in Bangladesh:

We are using Natural Gas, Silica Sand, white clay as raw material. For these reason Fertilizer, Cement industry are developing in our country. So we can tell mineral resources helping us to make our country industrialized.

 ii. Power source     :

 Maximum small and large industries are using heat Electricity and natural gas is main element or key element to produced heat electricity.

 iii. Fuel:

Natural gas founded in Bangladesh used as fuel for cooking. For this reason most Bangladeshi people gets most economic facilities. On other hand gas also used for produce heat in most fertilized factory.

iv.   Future:   

 

Futures of natural recourses of Bangladesh are looking bright. We have opportunity to research and we also have bright prospect. Proper uses of natural resources can bring our economy in a very higher position.

v.  Natural Gas:

Our natural gas and other resources helping us, it makes our import cost of gas and other energy very low. All the mineral resources that we have we need not to import those. By this way they saved a huge amount of foreign currency.

 vi.  Making road, Highway, Dam:

 Hard Rock and small rock that can be found in our country we use them to make our road highway and Dam.

vii.  Development of Agriculture:

Our mineral resources especially natural gases help us to produce more agricultural product indirectly. Natural gas helps to produce fertilizer and fertilizer helps us to produce more crops.

 viii.   Natural income:

A mineral resource of this country helps to make the nation income of this country.

 ix. Solve Unemployment:

Mineral and power resources helps to spread our economic activities and solve little portion of unemployment problem, It helps us to solve unemployment thus this way—–

  1. Many people all over the country works in different places. People work in gas field Oil field and other places when we find our mineral resource. It creates opportunity for our people to get works and get new job.
  2. For mineral resources many industry are building our country, it also creating many peoples employment opportunity.
  1. c.      A huge number of people involved in working to distribute and transport the raw material of industry and industrialized product.
  1. d.      Mineral resources help to make the agriculture sector more productive. For that reason our agricultural sector are being able to create more opportunity for those people who are still unemployment.

 x.  Higher living standard:

Availability of mineral resources makes our natural income high. Helps to create employ opportunities and spread economic activities. For that per capital income also rises and standard of living of our people being higher People are getting more facilities. In total we can say it our mineral resources importance knows no bound. For development of our industrial sector and our economy it operates a great importance. But we are very unlucky that we have lack of sufficient amount of mineral resources. Iron, Manganese, Bauxite etc mineral is not available in our country and our oil resources not rich. If we have these resources then our country could be more developed.

Conclusion

There are some crucial elements for the development of a country. Mineral resources are one of those crucial elements. When we talk about the economy of a developing country like Bangladesh then we has to min it that mineral resource could be a great turning point for this types of economy. As a developing country our resources might be our turn event point sine we haven’t sufficient amount of mineral an power resources we have to consider it as our bad opportunity but we should have to be concern with those resources what we have. In foreign market our natural gases has a great demand we utilize it properly and earn a hug amount of foreign currency by exporting this resource. Natural resources are not in our hand it is a win fall gain so it will not be far that we are only considering that what we haven’t.

Our manpower is a great substitute to natural resources. If we start to make a good combination between our manpower and natural resources then we can say that it will bring a great positive affect on our economy.

According to the total paper our resources especially mineral and power has a great impact on our economy. The most powerful indicator of a country’s economy must be their mineral and power resources.

References

 

  • Bangladesh Statistical Burro
  • CPD
  • Internet
  • Mineral resources of Bangladesh
  • Higher secondary economics and commercial geography

 Term paper on Economic Aspects of Mineral and Power Resources in Bangladesh