Child Care Facilities for the Woman in the Working Place
Subject: Organizational Behavior | Topics:

This is a research paper analyze on Child Care Facilities for the Woman in the Working Place. Day care center it’s a second house. That is all us life of part. Day care center is a safe house chilled for life. Day Care means caring in day time. But that is question is caring of what in day. Day care is child care care of a child during the day by day. Day care a person other than the child’s legal guardians. Day care namely just two word day and care. Day Care means caring in day time.

 

Introduction

Woman is the fundamental organ of the human society. With the men, women play a very imperative role in the development of society as well as the whole world. From the very begging, in the development of science, literature, education, politics and religion, women were the pioneer or subsequent developer besides men.

Now a days, in 21st century, we have got a civilized world for living, although inequity of the society are there which differs on the economical development of the countries, but such civilized situation is not made over night. Some greater leaders and their activities made it. They all are not men or women, some of them were women and some were men. At present, the whole world is divided into three on the basis of the economic developments, i.e; developed countries, developing countries and under developed countries. Now, come into the developed countries, in a developed country, the human rights condition is much better than others, even they never treat a woman as weaker than a man. The government allows all in equal opportunity and gives equal value.

Bangladesh is a signatory to various international instruments, designed to secure gender equality and development of the woman status which include in Universal Declaration of Human Rights and CEDAW. Bangladesh has ratified most of the provisions of CEDAW with reservations Article 2 and 16(C), because those make conflict with personal law.  In Bangladesh, the women’s organizations, human rights organization and NGOs have been playing crucial role in implementing Beijing platform for action and have undertaken programs to eliminate discrimination against women. In 1997, the government adopted a national policy for the Advancement of Women in conformity with the Beijing Declaration and other declarations adopted at different.

Day care is a combination of two words, namely Day and Care. According to the words combination, Day Care means caring in day time. But the question is caring of what in day?

Day care or child care is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child’s legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child’s immediate family. Day care is typically an ongoing service during specific periods, such as the parents’ time at work.

 

Summary of the research

Day care is a combination of two words, namely Day and Care. Act is for the declarations cording to the words combination, Day Care means caring in day time. In other word, the women who earn money by their labor or work or duty from any institution or any others sector, then they called women workers.

It is unlawful for an employer to refuse to hire a woman because she is pregnant. It is also unlawful for the employer to give a female employee certain duties because she is pregnant, such as putting a pregnant server at the hostess stand instead of letting her wait tables.

Day care or child care is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child’s legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child’s immediate family. This information is presented to help parents understand what to expect from their child.

Drive around and look at the playground equipment in the play yards of the public schools and at the day care centers in your area. For mothers of today, usually better educated than their mothers are more aware of these factors and wanting the best for their children, are demanding the structured pre-school education and learning stimulation offered by modern day care centers.

In response to this need, Phulki has created a series of factory-based childcare centers or crèche facilities for children between the ages of 6 weeks and 2 years. In almost all cases, this idea has been received with great enthusiasm by both mothers and factory owners, and given many advantages of on-site child care centers, including increased productivity from happier workers, factory owners have been in compliance with the Factory Act of 1965.

Traditionally in Bangladesh child care responsibilities fall on the extended family.

Mothers who traditionally stayed at home to care for their children must now work either in garment factories, as brick chipper on building sites or in domestic service.

In 1997 the United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Report found that out of 175 countries, Bangladeshi standards of women’s employment, management and leadership positions, left them way below average in 144th place.

The Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act 1933: Provides for the punishment of forcing a girl under 18 years into prostitution. As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. The standard of care provided for each child must ensure maximum personal safety.

In the event of a child becoming ill or having an accident, every attempt must be made to ensure the sound management of the child to exacerbation of the situation and to secure necessary medical treatment.

In the interests of maintaining rights and to ensure the emotional security of the child, every attempt must be made to inform the parent of the status of the health of the child in such situations.

The applicant for a child day care license must submit to the Office a diagram of the proposed child day care center together with the application for licensur e.

The provider must submit to the Office a written plan for the emergency evacuation of the children from the center’s premises using a form provided by the Office.

The concern of day-care having adverse effects on children began to emerge when social change allowed women to break from the traditional role of care-taker and instead participate in the workplace.9 Now that there has been a transition in the gender role of women it is important to consider how other institutions such as day-care effect the development of children.

The amount of time spent in high quality day-care was positively related to the number of peers the child had in grade school and the number of extracurricular activities they were involved with.

However, the strength of this finding declines over time.

Evaluations were made of the quality of the day-care received in preschool and outcomes of the children were calculated through parent surveys, standard test procedures and teacher ratings.25 Quality of care seemed to have an impact on the outcomes of the children and those who received higher quality care tended to have higher and more positive ratings in most of the skills assessed.

Opting to enroll children in a quality day care program is one of the smartest decisions parents can make.

Without sufficient coverage for children younger and older than the usually covered age of 3 to 6 there is a clear deficit of possibilities for parents to plan for their respective balance of work and family tasks, thereby devaluating what might have been already achieved with respect to the age group 3-6.

Furthermore it should be taken in mind, that facilities for the age groups mentioned before have a strong link with educational and equity linked purposes, given the fact, that especially early child care of good quality can be a reliable contribution to the childrens’ personal development; especially children from difficult family and community backgrounds can profit from early professional care and an enlarged and more diversified offer of care and services in school.

The diversity of services has increased and wherever this is meeting the needs of users, such a trend should be strengthened. This holds especially true for the aim of overcoming a sharp division between collective professional services on the one and informal family care on the other hand.

In between of these extreme points, the offers of child minders, parent-child initiatives, and support and counseling services can strengthen and multiply the bridges between the private and public dimensions of child care.

 

Statement of problem

The present circumstances in Bangladesh of factory or any establishment sector are   not follow the rule and regulation of labor law. Especially the matter of women work they are-

  • not   gets proper Facility in the working place,
  • they are have the right to get a child room but have no child room in establishment,
  • Such rooms shall be conveniently accessible to the mothers of the children accommodated    therinbut the authority of the factory not arrange this facility.
  • A suitable fenced and shady open air play ground shall be provided for the older children but if examine that situation of the factory have no this kind of facility viable.

 

Objectives of the research

This research paper express about the right to child care facilities for the woman in the working place, so

  • First objective of this research paper to ensure this facilities for the working woman,
  • This   facilities establish as a right not only right a vital element for establish a factory,
  • To implemented the rules and regulation   which are relating with matte,
  • To ensure this facilities not only for working woman but also their children in the working place,

The objective of this research work is the assessment of providing standard child day care services for the children of the working women in day time while they work in offices.

Children are the future of a nation. Their proper treatment and providing facilities for better future is the duty of a State, as well the offices of the working women when they are in  tensed with their child’s future.

Our research work indicates the government and the all sort of office authorities to establish the child day care center for the children of the women workers.

Our research work indicates the problems and challenges of establishing a day care center, by which assessment Governmental Organization and Non Governmental organization may find out the probable status of Child Day Care Center in Bangladesh.

 

Hypothesis

I have realized that when I have finish problem the woman worked in the Bangladesh Labor Act 2006 have the provision for this facility. But the facility of child care not ensure by the industrial owner so government will take stapes for make binding to establish any factory in our country, if any factory establish without this child care facility for the woman worker in working place, relating authority  not given the permission to establish any industry decks.

RESERCH Methodology

This research is an independent research, constructed intended to fulfill its object. For completing this research, we used some primary and secondary documents.

Primary Documents:

Primary documents are as follows;

  1. Internet documents,
  2. Related books,
  3. Journals, etc.

Secondary Documents:

Secondary documents are as follows;

  1. UN Reports,
  2. CEDAW Conventions,
  3. Child Right Convention,
  4. UNDP Reports, etc.
  5. We, as a researcher, takes some necessary interview and made some statistics. On the basis of analyses of those we constitute this research.
  6. we, as a researcher, have visited some day care centre and discussed with that’s officials and collect data and information from them.
  7. We, as a researcher, on the basis of aforesaid resource we made analyses and gathers necessary information and data which was need for making a fruitful research. And after passing along time with hard work we have completed our research paper.

 

Meaning

Woman is the fundamental organ of the human society. With the men, women play a very imperative role in the development of society as well as the whole world. From the very begging, in the development of science, literature, education, politics and religion, women were the pioneer or subsequent developer besides men.

Now a days, in 21st century, we have got a civilized world for living, although inequity of the society are there which differs on the economical development of the countries, but such civilized situation is not made over night. Some greater leaders and their activities made it. They all are not men or women, some of them were women and some were men. At present, the whole world is divided into three on the basis of the economic developments, i.e; developed countries, developing countries and under developed countries. Now, come into the developed countries, in a developed country, the human rights condition is much better than others, even they never treat a woman as weaker than a man. The government allows all in equal opportunity and gives equal value.

But the human rights condition of developing and under developed countries is quite different than the developed countries. In these countries, women are treated as a matter without any status. But it really true that, the above mentioned thinking is abolishing very slowly. Education and modern concept of society have developed the thinking but still such thinking is in existence.

There are a lot of international instrument and international organization for ensuring women’s rights, eliminating discrimination and development. There are some regional mechanisms also. In every where the international jurist community tries to develop the women society and establishing their rights.

Bangladesh is a signatory to various international instruments, designed to secure gender equality and development of the woman status which include in Universal Declaration of Human Rights and CEDAW. Bangladesh has ratified most of the provisions of CEDAW with reservations Article 2 and 16(C), because those make conflict with personal law.  In Bangladesh, the women’s organizations, human rights organization and NGOs have been playing crucial role in implementing Beijing platform for action and have undertaken programs to eliminate discrimination against women. In 1997, the government adopted a national policy for the Advancement of Women in conformity with the Beijing Declaration and other declarations adopted at different.

Day care is a combination of two words, namely Day and Care. According to the words combination, Day Care means caring in day time. But the question is caring of what in day?

Day care or child care is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child’s legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child’s immediate family. Day care is typically an ongoing service during specific periods, such as the parents’ time at work.

 

Definitions

Children:  the children included in the cross-sectional analyses in this report were aged six

Months to 71 months at the time of interview.  They were divided into the following age groups:

Less than 1 year old: children aged 6 to 11 months

One year old: children aged 12 to 23 months

Two years old: children aged 24 to 35 months

Three years old: children aged 36 to 47 months

Four years old: children aged 48 to 59 months

Five years old: children aged 60 to 69 months.

Non-parental child care: Non parental child care refers to care a child received that was not from their mother, father or guardian.  The reporting parent was asked whether they used child care while the reporting parent was at work or studying.  Children were identified as being in child care if the reporting parent replied yes.  Note that the at work part of the question may have been interpreted not only as paid work but unpaid work, volunteer work, or something else considered by the respondent to be work.

Parental care: Parental care refers to care a child received from a parent or guardian.  The reporting parent or was asked whether they used child care while the reporting parent was at work or studying.  Children were identified as being in parental care if the reporting parent replied no.  Note that the reporting parent may have replied no for a number of reasons, two of which could be

  1. the parents was not working or studying, or
  2. While at work or studying, the parent did not use child care.

Main child care arrangement: Main child care arrangement refers to the non-parental child care arrangement in which the child spent the most hours per week, as reported by the parent.  There are five main care arrangements discussed in the report:

  1. care outside the child’s home by a non-relative;
  2. care outside the child’s home by a relative;
  3. care in the child’s home by a non-relative;
  4. care in the child’s home by a relative care in a daycare centre; and
  5. other care which includes nursery school or preschool, before or after school programs, or other unspecified non-parental care.

 

Care in own home:  child care arrangement where child is cared for in their own home.  This type of care can be by a relative not a parent or guardian or a non-relative.

Care outside the home:  child care arrangement where child is cared for in someone else’s home.  This type of care can be by a relative not a parent or guardian or a non-relative, but does not include daycare centers.

Care in daycare centre:  Care in daycare centre means child care arrangement where child is cared for in a daycare centre.  This is considered a separate category from “care outside the home with a non-relative.

Other care:  this type of care combines nursery school/preschool, before or after school programs, or other unspecified care.

Care by a non-relative:  the caregiver is neither a relative nor a parent or guardian.

Care by a relative:  the caregiver is a member of the child’s family but is not a parent.  This includes brothers and sisters.

Licensed child care:  the parent reported that the care arrangement has been licensed by the government or approved by a family daycare agency.

Full-time child care:  the child spends 30 hours or more per week in non-parental child care.

Part-time child care:  the child spends less than 30 hours per week in non-parental child care.

 

Working women and rights of them for being worker

Work is a basic phenomenon of our common humanity. We all work – though we may not be recognized and waged – work underpins the struggle for development. It is the wasted potential of so many people, who are willing to undertake the tasks society needs to be done but who are prevented from doing so by an uneven distribution of power and resources, which enable underdevelopment to persist.

Women Workers

When women get or earn wages by her labor, then she called women worker. In other word, the women who earn money by their labor or work or duty from any institution or any others sector, then they called women workers.

while women represent 50% of the world’s adult population, and one-third of the official labor force, they perform nearly two-third of all working hours, receive only one-tenth of the world income and own less than 1% of the world’s property.

But, women have always worked and their labour plays a key role in the survival of millions of families. They work longer hours and hard work than men and have a greater range of responsibilities, but the work they do is often neither publicly nor privately acknowledged. Women are not a minority group or special category .Similarly, women’s work is not just another issue. Although women have been subordinated and marginalized in different ways for much of history, their labour-and the exploitation of that labour is the foundation of society wealth. Women perform the vital function of producing society’s producers and yet this role is made to appear private, marginal and without economic value.

Nowadays, women are not only work for social welfare they also contribute in economic welfare. Most of the women of the whole world now work and earn as same as men. But the situation of women has not been changed, the working women,

  • earn less for comparative work, are often barred from certain forms of lucrative employment, and perform much of their work in the unpaid private sector, including the rural sector. They have no choice but to accept poorly paid, undervalued work in often dangerous working conditions and with no job security.
  • earn on average about three-fourth of the pay of male of same work, outside the agricultural sector, in both developed and developing countries.
  • in most countries approximately twice the unpaid time men do.
  • make up 31% of the official labour force in developing countries and 46.7% worldwide.
  • who works in rural area produce more than 55% of all food grown in developing countries.
  • legal barriers, including those derived from customary law to the ownership of, or access to, land, resources, capital, and technology, restrict women’s advancement.

 

Working Women in the Modern Global Economy:

Unskilled women workers have entered export‐processing industries throughout the developing world at an alarming rate.  Women overwhelmingly occupy the lowest paying, most unstable jobs, producing our clothes, agricultural products and other luxuries for export to the US.

As the free trade model replicates worldwide, multinational corporations exploit increasingly weak and flexible labor laws. The result is that women workers are systematically denied their rights to regular pay and regular working hours; equal pay for equal work; permanent contracts; safe and non‐hazardous work environments; and freedom of association.  Labor law reforms have denied women access to social, maternity and health benefits and women are increasingly subject to subcontracting schemes that blatantly undermine these rights.  In light of the global economic crisis, precarious employment has increased women are the first to be unemployed or underemployed.

 

Weak Labor Laws Hurt Working Women in around the World

  • More than 80% of the women workers in Colombia receive less than the legal minimum wage.
  • Women have lost an average of $21‐25 a week after the 2002 labor law reform.

With the reforms, the workday was extended as the workweek became 48 hours a week, distributed over a period of 6 days allowing employers to create a margin of between 6 in the morning to 10 at night to organize the workday.  Extra payment for working on Sundays and public holidays was reduced.

  • On average women earn 14% less than men.
  • Precarious employment has a very negative impact on female incomes.

The labor law reform was adopted in Colombia to reduce labor costs.  The government claimed this would generate more employment but the results were that.

According to Colombia’s National Labor School from 2005‐2007, the

  • Underemployment rate went from 31.6% to 34.8% as temporary jobs increased.   During the same period, the rate of workers who claim that their income is inadequate increased by 4%.
  • Less than 35% of the women have access to social security

Studies from the Colombia Auditor General’s office and the World Bank all acknowledge that the labor law reform has not met its goals. Analysts have concluded that it has increased poverty by reducing workers’ income.

Bangladesh receives trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences but.

  • Fewer than half the women in Bangladesh garment factories have a contract and most get no maternity or health coverage.

 

Rights of Women Workers

Women are guaranteed equal access to employment, before and during the hiring process. Companies and employment agencies must encourage and review applications from both sexes, and discourage discriminatory requests. Hiring-related advertising should not suggest a preference for male or female candidates.

Benefits

Retirement and pension plans should be available to women workers and allocated on an equal basis. Information and communication about benefits, including retirement and pension plans, should be provided to all workers, including women workers.

In case of injury, women workers have the right to medical care, compensation for lost wages during recovery, or compensation for permanent damage resulting in weakened ability to work, or death.

Career Opportunities:

All employees, including women, should be appropriately informed of opportunities for promotion, transfer and training. Company rules or policies should not exclude workers of one sex from seeking these career opportunities.

Cultural Identity:

All workers, including women, have the right to observe religious holidays, celebrations and prayers. Women workers have the right to time off from work in order to mourn a deceased relative, and to wear traditional dress and hairstyles.

 

Equal Pay:

Women workers have the right to receive remuneration based on work performed, not based on their sex. Pay structures should be built on objective criteria. All salary bonus systems should reflect equal pay for both men and women workers.

Facilities and equipment:

Facilities and equipment in the workplace should be available to all workers, including women workers. Equipment should accommodate the needs of women workers; for example, appropriate sizes should be available for uniforms.

Freedom from harassment:

Women workers have the right to work without being encumbered by harassment or bullying. Women workers may not be asked to performing additional work tasks because of their sex. Victims of harassment should be protected from workplace retaliation after filing complaints.

Sexual harassment may include jokes, inappropriate comments or looks, or invitations for sexual liaison.

Women workers have the right to file a complaint against inappropriate treatment at the workplace. Complaints should be reviewed and researched by a designated committee before a resolution is reached.

Marital Status, Maternity and Breastfeeding:

Women workers have the right to seek employment and undergo hiring processes regardless of marital status, whether single, married, widowed or divorced. Job-related responsibilities involving travel or entertainment do not justify inquiry into marital or family status.

The Maternity Protection Convention of 1952 states that women workers, while on maternity leave, have the right to sufficient pay to maintain themselves and their babies.

Medical benefits, including prenatal, hospital and post-natal care, should be provided. When breastfeeding, women should have two 30-minute breaks each day for that purpose.

Physical demands:

Health and safety should not be compromised when assigned to lift, carry or otherwise transport heavy loads. Pregnant women or women who have recently given birth have the right not to be asked to carry heavy loads. Pregnant women workers should not be forced to work with vibrating machines or radiation equipment.

Right to Equal Treatment:

Female workers have the right to be treated equally in the workplace. This means that a woman cannot be discriminated against in the hiring process–that is, not getting a position because she is a woman, despite being equally qualified. A female worker also has the right to perform any duty for which she is qualified and cannot be made to do certain work because she is a woman–for example, making women sew and men press in a garment factory. Companies cannot discriminate against women in firing–laying off only female workers while downsizing, for example.

Rights Against Sexual Harassment:

Women have the right to protect themselves against any sexual requests or demands at work, physical touching and a sexually hostile environment. This includes situations when women are forced into sexual relations by a colleague or supervisor for a promotion or job security. A sexually hostile environment includes a place of work where offensive sexual names or jokes are used. If this type of behavior is interfering with a woman’s–or any employee’s–ability to work comfortably, it will likely qualify as sexual harassment.

Maternity Rights:

Maternity rights grant female employees protection from being discriminated against for being pregnant. It is unlawful for an employer to refuse to hire a woman because she is pregnant. It is also unlawful for the employer to give a female employee certain duties because she is pregnant, such as putting a pregnant server at the hostess stand instead of letting her wait tables. A woman also cannot be fired because she is pregnant. If other employees are given medical leave, a pregnant woman has a right to take medical leave when she has a baby. She also has the right to keep her job despite being pregnant.

Wages and Hours:

Female workers have the right to earn at least the federal minimum wage. They also have the right to earn one-and-a-half times normal hourly wage for every hour worked over forty in one week. These conditions are the same for documented and undocumented workers alike. Immigration status should not be an issue when attempting to enforce these rights.

Other Rights:

A woman has the right to speak a language other than English at work, unless speaking English is necessary to conduct business. She also has the right to enforce all her employee rights. An employer who retaliates or punishes her because she does so faces additional penalties.

 

Maternity Rights

A pregnant woman is entitled to maternity benefits from her employer, provided she is employed under a continuous contract. That requires employment of over 18 hours per week. The maternity benefits include:

Maternity Benefits

Maternity leave

Provisions of the labour code: 

In section 46 of the labour law 2006 have been created for maternity leave of 16 weeks (8 weeks before and 8 weeks after the delivery). But the law also makes a provision that no worker shall be entitled to receive the benefit unless she has served under the owner for a  minimum period of six months prior to the notice of the probability of the delivery.

Provisions of the previous labour laws:

Section 3 of the Maternity Benefits Act, 1939 provides maternity leave of 12 weeks (6 weeks before and 6 weeks after the delivery).

Changes in present law: 

The new law increases the maternity leaves to sixteen weeks from twelve weeks and decreases the duration of the qualifying service period – for  availing the benefit – to six months from 9 months.

Also, no maternity benefit shall be payable to any woman if at the time of her confinement she has two or more surviving children

Procedure Of Payment Of The Maternity Benefit

Provisions of The New Labour Code:

Three options are open to the mothers as per section 47 of the new labour law:

  1. The owner shall pay the total benefits payable for the preceding 8 weeks within 3 days from the submission of the certificate of the probability of delivery (childbirth) by a Registered Physician and shall pay the remaining amount after three working days of the submission of the proof-of-delivery.
  2. The owner shall pay the benefits payable for the preceding 8 weeks including the day of  the delivery within 3 days from the submission of the proof of delivery and pay the remaining within the next eight weeks after the proof of delivery is submitted
  3. The owner shall pay all the benefits payable within 3 days from the submission of the proof-of-delivery to the owner.

 

Provisions of the Previous Labour Laws

Previously the procedure was guided by the Section 5 of Maternity Benefits Act. 1939. The aforesaid Act provided more stringent payment procedure as  there was the provision of payment within 48 hours after the certificate from any physician was  submitted, whether there remains any working day or not.

Changes in the present law

Changes have been made in favor of the management, as the management is required to pay the

benefit within three working days. As per the earlier law, it was binding upon the management to

pay the benefit within 48 hours only.

 

Amount of the Maternity Benefits

Provisions Of The New Labour Code

As per sections 48 of the new labour code there is a provision of the payment in terms of daily, weekly or monthly, as and where applicable, average wages. The section also provides the formulae for the calculation of the aforesaid average wages as follows:

Daily Average Wages (DAW) or Weekly Average Wages (WAW) or  Monthly Average Wages(MAW) = The total amount received by the worker during the immediate preceding three months / Total actual working days during that period.   Changes brought by the new law: No change has been made.

 

Benefits In Case Of The Death Of Mother

Provisions Of The New Labour Code

The person nominated by the mother who died, or in the case where no such person is nominated, her legal representative, shall be entitled to receive the benefits as described above.

Discrimination

Many mothers returning to work also face the risk of discrimination against them by their employers. This may be for many reasons such as resentment at the claiming of maternity benefits, a perceived reduction in commitment or flexibility, or a preference for a temporary replacement who performed the job while the employee was on maternity leave.

However, no matter what the reason the law provides protection against discrimination on the grounds of sex, pregnancy and family status. Employers are not entitled to discriminate against employees on the grounds of their pregnancy or sex or family status or treat them less favourably than the employer would treat someone who was not in the same position. Forms of discrimination include termination, other detriment and the denial of opportunities which would have been available but for the discrimination, as well as direct discrimination where the employer deliberately places an employee at a disadvantage because of their sex, or pregnancy. The law also prohibits indirect discrimination.

Therefore if an employer, for example, treats the part-time employees less favourably, this may have the indirect effect of discriminating against women and mothers if the majority of part–time workers are in that category.

On returning to work, she suspected her employers wished to terminate her employment and she enquired as to their intentions. After a short period they made allegations of poor performance and terminated her employment. The Court reviewed the evidence and decided that one of the reasons for the dismissal was discrimination on the grounds of her pregnancy, sex and family status.

Mothers returning to work should be aware that discrimination on the grounds of their position and status as mothers or by reason of them having taken maternity leave, is unlawful. The discrimination can also be indirect and unintentional. Nevertheless such conduct by the employer will be unlawful if it places employees in that protected category in a less favorable position than the one they would have been in but for their sex or status.

Day  Care Service

Day care or child care is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child’s legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child’s immediate family. Day care is typically an ongoing service during specific periods, such as the parents’ time at work.

The service is known as child care in the United Kingdom and Australia and day care in North America.

Day care is provided in nurseries or crèches or by a nanny caring for children in their own homes. It can also take on a more formal structure, with education, child development, discipline and even preschool education falling into the fold of services.

Some child minders care for children from several families at the same time, either in their own home or in a specialized child care facility. Some employers provide nursery provision for their employees at or near the place of employment. Child care in the child’s own home is traditionally provided by a nanny or au pair, or by extended family members including grandparents, aunts and uncles.

The day care industry is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions. The vast majority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in house nanny or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends.

Another factor favoring large corporate day cares is the existence of childcare facilities in the workplace. Large corporations will not handle this employee benefits directly themselves and will seek out large corporate providers to manage their corporate daycares. Most smaller, for-profit day cares operate out of a single location.

In general, the geographic limitations and the diversity in type of daycare providers make child daycare a highly fragmented industry. The largest providers own only a very small share of the market. This leads to frustration for parents who are attempting to find quality child daycare, with 87% of them describing the traditional search for child daycare as “difficult and frustrating.

 

Non-Profit Daycare

Considerable research has accumulated showing that not-for-profits are much more likely to produce the high quality environments in which children thrive.

  • Non-profitday cares have some structural advantages over for-profit operations:
    • They may receive preferential treatment in rents especially if they are affiliated with a church that is otherwise unoccupied during the week, or with a school that has surplus space.
    • Location within a school may further bring the advantage of coordinated programs with the school and the advantage of a single location for parents who have older school-age children as well.
    • Parents are typically the legal owners of the non-profit day care and will routinely provide consulting services for free.
    • Non-profits have an advantage in fund-raising as most people will not donate to a for-profit organization.
    • Non-profits, however, are typically limited in size to a single location as the parent-owners have no motivation to manage other locations where their children are not present.
    • They may suffer from succession issues as children grow and parents leave the management of the day care to others.

Local governments, often municipalities, may operate non-profit day care centers. In non-profits, the title of the most senior supervisor is typically executive director, following the convention of most non-profit organizations.

 

For-Profit Daycare

Family day cares can be operated by a single individual out of their home. There may be occasions when more than one individual cares for children in a family childcare home. This can be a stay-at-home parent who seeks supplemental income while caring for their own child. There are also many family childcare providers who have chosen this field as a profession. Local legislation will regulate the number and ages of children allowed per family child care home. Some localities have very stringent quality standards that require licensure for family child care homes while others require little or no regulations for childcare in individual’s homes. Some home day cares operate illegally with respect to tax legislation where the care provider does not report fees as income and the parent does not receive a receipt to qualify for childcare tax deductions. Family childcare may be less expensive than center based care because of the lower overhead in family childcare. Many family childcare providers may be certified with the same credentials as center based staff.

 

Children And development stages

Children

Biologically, a child is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Some vernacular definitions of a child include the fetus, as being an unborn child. The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Child may also describe a relationship with a parent or authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion. It can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in a child of nature or a child of the Sixties.

Children are the plural term of Child.

Child development refers to the biological and psychological changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two, it may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment. Human beings have a keen sense to adapt to their surroundings and this is what child development encompasses.

Supervision of Children:

The child day care center must have an available staff member who will promote the physical, intellectual, social, cultural, and emotional well-being of the children. The staff member responsible for the care of the children must be closely supervised by the child day care center. Assignments and workloads must provide consistency of care to children and must allow staff members to fulfill their respective responsibilities.

The director must be on-site during the hours of operations and a designated person must be assigned to perform the duties of the director in case of absence. Children in a child day care center must not be left without the competent direct supervision at any time.

 

Day Care Center

Day care or child care is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child’s legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child’s immediate family. Day care is typically an ongoing service during specific periods, such as the parents’ time at work.

The service is known as child care in the United Kingdom and Australia and day care in North America.

Day care is provided in nurseries or by a nanny caring for children in their own homes. It can also take on a more formal structure, with education, child development, discipline and even preschool education falling into the fold of services.

Day care center is a specific center or place from where above mentioned facilities can be found.

Day Care provides care for a person during the day. It is provided away from the person’s home and transport is usually arranged as part of the service.

The purpose of day care, as part of Community Care, is to help people remain living at home as an alternative to living in some form of residential or nursing home.

Day care offers benefits both to the people who receive it and to any careers who look after them. For people going to day care, it:

  • gives them the opportunity to mix and meet with others especially if they are isolated at home;
  • offers stimulation through social contact and activities;
  • gives them a meal and a bath; and
  • allows them to re-learn skills they may have lost through illness or disability or to learn new skills they need to cope with changing circumstances.

It offers carers a few hours break from caring for someone. This is sometimes called respite.

A typical day’s care might be:

  • 9.30am Collected from home by taxi or minibus
  • 10.30am Arrival at Day Centre, tea or coffee
  • 11.00am Activities such as discussion, games, crafts, exercise, employment
  • 12.00pm Lunch
  • 1.00pm More activities
  • 2.00pm Tea or coffee, prepare to leave
  • 3.00pm Arrive home

Everyone going to day care will have a care plan produced by a social worker. This plan will describe what they will do at day care and what they should get out of it. The facilities and type of care provided in day centres vary. Through the care plan, the social worker will aim to ensure that the person goes to a day centre which can provide care to meet that their needs.

 

There are other kinds of day services and day care:

  • Luncheon clubs are social clubs rather than care centres. These are not run by Cumbria County Council. They are often run by voluntary organisations. Your social worker or Customer Services at your local Cumbria County Council Adult Social Care office can tell you more about these.
  • Employment schemes are run for people with learning disabilities and people with mental health problems. These offer employment opportunities to people who may otherwise have difficulties finding work.
  • Day care for children includes family centres, childminders and playgroups.

 

Who are entitled to get Day Care Facility:

Day care for adults is for people aged 16 and over including:

  • older people (over 65);
  • older people who are mentally frail (over 65);
  • people with mental health problems (16 – 65);
  • people with learning disabilities (16 – 65);
  • people with physical disabilities (16 – 65);
  • people with visual impairments (16 and over); and
  • people with hearing impairments (16 and over).

 

Present Status in Bangladesh

The child day care is not a new oriented matter in Bangladesh. It has a respective development background in our society. Both of the Governmental and non Governmental sectors took initiative for establishing the Child Day Care center in Bangladesh.

Government Initiative:

The People’s Republic of Bangladesh is a democratic based political country. the government has taken some initiative for child day care services for the children of working women.

A news report is given below

Child day care centre’s object is Unsuccessful: A report of Bangladesh Protidin dated 1st march, 2011 by zinnatun nur.

The implementation of the child day care centre project, governed by Government, for the children of working women can’t be successful. At present, only 24 day care centers are in operation among the 42 day care centers established for the poor and middle class families. Rest of 18 are stopped for the various reasons.

Basically these day care centers were established for providing caring facilities during day time to the children of working women. These facilities were provided, for the working women intended to flexibility in working in own office. It is founded that in most of the day care centers, the numbers of child are less than the seat limit. But, government bears losses in this project for the maintenance of such day care centers.

It is informed from the information of Department of Women, 12 day care centers among the active day care centers are for lower class working women, 6 day care centers are for middle class working women and  6 for the combined lower and middle class working women. Among these, in Dhaka, 20 Babies are in the center of Department of Women, 20 babies are in  AGB Day care center, 35 babies in Khilgaon Day Care center, 40 babies are in Secretariat Day Care centers, 26 babies are in Azimpur Day Care Centers and 25 babies are in Mirpur Day care Centers.

The in charge of Day care center of Department of Women named Shirajum Munira says, still such mentality of working mothers towards admission in Day Care centers are not developed. For this reason,  only for a nominal fees the service, like a mother, has been provided but babies have admitted less than that ratio.

The object of this project is providing care for the babies of working women (6 months to 6 years) of lower and middle class working women. In these centers, ideal foods, EPI providing, Pre schooling, Indoor and outdoor games and entertainment facilities are provided from 8 AM to 5.30 PM for fees of 30 to 300 taka per month.

The Project Director named Mainul Haque says, only for lack of advertisement, this project does not watch the light of success.

In Bangladesh private organizations or NGO are more active than Governmental organization. As same also in this matter of child day care, private sectors are more active than governmental initiatives. It is true that government took the initiatives for betterment of the people but for having some limitations and barriers government cannot be successful on their projects.

It is also true that, government arranges lots of formalities to implement their projects which kill the time. But there is no certain day long formality in private sectors.

 

There are Some Non governmental Initiatives on Regard of Child Day Care  Service:

Don Bosco School: Don Bosco School provides child day care service for the students of that school and the babies of female teaching faculty of same school. Although this initiative is not so renowned  but it definitely better for the babies as well as female employees.

No outer babies are allowed here for caring. But this service is charged.

SOS: SOS opened their first community in Dhaka in 1973 and SOS Youth Home has been established, where the child days care service is provided.

Singapore International School: Singapore International School is a renowned English medium school in Uttara. They provide day care for their student only for the time after completion of classes to at 5 p.m. It is not charged but here also, outer is not allowed.

 

Functions of Standard Day Care Services

These resources include educational services and child care centers which can take on different forms, depending on the area in which they are provided, the funds invested in them, and the entities responsible for the resources. But regardless of their form, today’s child care centers seem to have specific functions which existed in the savannah thousands of years ago.

  1. Educational Function

Children who go to good child care centres acquire knowledge and skills they will need to survive, develop and grow in the present and into the future. This educational function prepares children for school. Through play and interactions with others, it lays the foundations for their learning, integration with the group, scholastic success, and eventually, their full participation in community life. Only those who belong to and identify with the group can develop and achieve.

  1. Practical Function

Day care centers also serve by looking after children while their parents or tutors are not around. Thus, they must adapt, to a certain extent, to the practical requirements of families and the community in terms of  their proximity, flexible schedules, affordability, accessibility, diversification, and the like.

  1. Social and Cultural Function

Day care centers are a venue for the transmission of social and cultural values. The centers continue and complement values taught in the home. They are the places where children are exposed to and influenced by others’ values, where children consolidate their value system, acquire their own visions of the world, learn to socialize and function as part of a group.

  1. Democratic and Civic Function

Because child care centers take in all children, regardless of gender, ethnic origin, religion, abilities, family composition or financial situation, they serve an important democratic and civic function – a function in which equal opportunity and justice for all are daily realities, where being part of the group is reflected in the activities carried out together and with shared objectives, and where the search for the common good takes individual well-being into account.

Having your child in a quality daycare program can be comforting and essential for working parents. But even the best daycare arrangements have disadvantages.

For example, you are bound by the hours of the daycare facility and the holidays on which it closes. A late pick-up can be costly and the center’s proximity to work or home can be a logistical challenge. And there are other challenges to be considered by anyone looking to place a child in daycare.

  1. Fast-Spreading Illness

Your child may never have picked up a cold or ear infection in his young life, but a week into daycare and your whole family may be battling fevers and runny noses, or worse.

Viral upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the two most common illnesses that occur in children enrolled in daycare, and that secondary attack rates within families can be as high as 27 percent for respiratory illnesses and 70 percent for gastroenteritis, according to the report from Children’s Hospital Boston, which is affiliated with Harvard. The report also noted the value of frequent and thorough hand washing with antibacterial soap as a means of reducing the spread of illness in the home.

  1. Different Rules

You and your child may have worked out a “time out” or reward system that seems to change inappropriate behavior to better behavior. But in a room with a dozen or more toddlers or pre-schoolers, teachers aren’t likely to have the time or opportunity to work through all those issues with every child, every day. That’s why it’s vital that parents and teachers discuss or perhaps compromise on rules and discipline issues to provide the child with some consistency between daycare and home.

  1. Unhealthy Influences

When it’s your child’s turn for snack day, you might try to do the right thing and bring in healthy fruit or maybe cheese and crackers. But the next day, another parent could be packing junk food. Likewise, words you never utter at home can come bounding out of the mouths of babes who hear them from their “classmates.” Before enrolling your child in a particular daycare center, visit it and try to get a sense whether this particular program reflects your values and priorities.

  1. Guilt

Of course, the biggest concern with daycare is probably guilt. Handing over your child to someone else, even for just part of the day, can be troubling for most parents. It’s especially so when researchers determine that daycare can lead to a weaker bond between mother and child, particular in the infant and toddler stage. The effect is small, however, and may not cause meaningful differences in such relationships. And the study did note that mothers who made extra efforts to be sensitive to their child’s emotional needs could help compensate for the daycare effect.

 

Standard of Day Care – Facility Provided

National standards should be agreed in the following areas

  • Space Requirements
  • Laundry
  • Food Preparation Facilities
  • Toilets and Hand Basins
  • Nappy change
  • Sleeping Facilities
  • Storage
  • Administrative Clerical Staff

 

Space Requirements

The physical environment affects the behavior and development of both children and adults. The quality of the physical space affects the level of child involvement and the type of interaction between staff and children. The amount, arrangement and use of space, both indoors and outdoors, convey important information about the quality of daily life.

The provision of adequate open play space is to

  • enable an environment to be created that fosters optimal growth and development through opportunities for exploration and learning
  • ensure the provision of an environment that is free from overcrowding to minimize the danger of accidents and health risks associated with cramped, confined places.

Agreed Standard

 The indoor space requirements shall be 3.25 sq meters of unencumbered play space per child. When calculating this space, such items as any passage way or thoroughfare, kitchen, toilet or shower area are located in the building, or any other facility, such as cupboards are to be excluded.

The outdoor space requirement shall be 7 sq meters of useable play space per child. In inner city areas the outdoor space requirement may be less if the Minister is satisfied that a lesser requirement will not impact negatively on children using the area and where alternative sites are not available to meet the needs of the community.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. laundry

To maintain the health and well being of children and to minimise the risk of cross infection, all centers must have adequate and hygiene arrangements for the laundry requirements of the centre.

Agreed Standard

The centre shall have laundry arrangements either on the premises or through another facility, service or arrangement.

 The centre shall

(a) Comply with the Building Code Of Australia F2.3 (C ii) – i.e. laundry facility comprising a washtub, and space in the same room for a washing machine or wash copper

(b) Provide sanitary facilities for the storage of soiled clothes, linen and nappies pending their laundering or disposal.

 

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Food Preparation Facilities

Children need adequate nutrition which includes a wide variety of foods. Children can learn about foods and meal expectations during the early childhood years. To ensure that the dietary needs of children are met, the centre shall have food storage and preparation facilities on the premises or through another facility, service or regular arrangement.

The extent to which the centre provides food preparation facilities is dependent on the practices of the service in relation to main meals. In centers where main meals are prepared on the premises full kitchen facilities will be required.

The national standards set a requirement for kitchen facilities, regardless of the meal preparation practices, as all services will have some requirement for food storage and heating, together with the cleaning of plates and other eating utensils. This is in conformity with the Building Code of Australia requirements.

Agreed Standard

The centre shall comply with the Building Code Of Australia F2.3 C. – i.e. one kitchen with facilities for the preparation and cooking of food for infants, including a kitchen sink and space for a refrigerator.

The centre shall have a stove/microwave, hot water supply, and refrigerator.

NOTE: Child care centers shall comply with State and Local Authority legislation. Some specific health regulations may require additional standards. e.g. SA requires a hand basin in the kitchen.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Toilets and Hand Basins

Toilet facilities should be sufficient in number to

  • ensure the health and well being of children
  • ensure minimal delay for children requiring use of a toilet
  • enable independent access.

The provision of toilets and hand basins at a suitable hight for children is to

  • increase the confidence and skills of children
  • encourage hand washing after toileting
  • decrease cleaning and frequency with which staff must assist children onto the toilet, thus allowing more child contact time for developmental activities
  • decrease the necessity for lifting, thus recognizing occupational health had safety issues

Agreed Standard

As per the Building Code Of Australia F2.3 -9b. i.e. For every 15 children or part thereof there shall be

            (a) a junior toilet, or adult toilet with a firm step and a junior seat

            (b) one hand basin either with a firm step, or at a height so as to provide reasonable    

                  child access

In addition for children under 3 years there shall be one potty for every 5 children or part thereof.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Nappy Change

To maintain the health and safety of children who are not toilet trained the centre must have nappy change facilities that

  • are sufficient to meet the number of the children in the centre
  • are of a type that are easily cleaned to prevent cross infection
  • will minimize occupational health and safety implications for staff

Agreed Standard

Where children under the age of three years are cared for in a centre the following shall be provided

                    (a) a changing bench or amt with an impervious washable top for every 10 children or part thereof

                    (b) a sink type bath with hot and cold running water in or adjacent to the nappy change area.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Sleeping Facilities

The provision of adequate bedding is necessary to ensure that children have access to a bed to ensure undisturbed sleep. The provision of individual bed linen and implementation of adequate hygienic measures are necessary to minimize the risk of cross infection.

The centre shall have sleeping facilities which enable a significant number of children to sleep/rest at any one time. The extent to which children sleep is dependent on their age. Infants sleep for longer periods of time and at more frequent intervals than do children who are older. Whilst the sleeping requirements of children who are three years and over are less than those of infants it must be assumed that all children under school age may wish to sleep during the course of a day at child care.

Agreed Standard

The centre shall have at least one bed or mattress for every two licensed places for children who are two years of age or older.

The centre shall have at least one cot or other age appropriate bedding for each licensed place for children under the age of two years.

The centre shall have individual bed linen and blankets for each child and a centre procedure that ensures that children do not share the same bed or bed linen prior to washing the bed linen.

The proprietor shall ensure that beds, cots, stretchers or mattresses are so arranged that there is easy access to each child and ease of exit is maintained.

 

  1. Storage

To guard against the accidental poisoning of children through the consumption of harmful substances all goods that are not suitable for human consumption must be stored safely.

To ensure that children develop a sense of caring for their individual belongings and in acknowledgement of the right to individual space and privacy, it is necessary that children have access to a space for storage of their personal belongings. Failure to provide such space will lead to a sense of institutionalization.

On order to foster their independence children need to be able to access toys, books and equipment suitable to their developmental needs. Provision within children’s play areas of open storage and display units of a height suitable to children enables them to independently access equipment without the assistance of an adult.

Agreed Standard

The centre shall have storage facilities which are secure and inaccessible to children, for cleaning materials, disinfectants, flammable, poisonous and other dangerous substances, tools, toiletries and first aid equipment.

The centre shall have adequate storage facilities for indoor equipment.

The centre shall have display areas in each play room that are accessible to children for the placement of indoor equipment The shall have storage space for each child’s personal belongings.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Administrative Clerical staff

The way in which a program is administered will affect all the interactions within it.

Effective administration facilitates the provision of high quality care for children.

The effective operation of a child care centre requires space for the administrative functions of a centre, for private consultations with a guardian/parent and for respite of staff. These areas are not to encroach upon the indoor area of 3.25 sq meters required for child play space.

Agreed Standard

A child care centre shall have ready access to space for administration, for private consultations with parents and for respite of staff. This space is not to encroach upon the indoor area of 3.25 sq meters required for child play space.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

Standard of Day Care – health and safety

National standards should be agreed in the following areas

  • Fencing
  • Glass
  • Telephone
  • Pools
  • Heating
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Illness and Accident
  • First Aid
  • Food
  • Outdoor Play Equipment
  • Building Cleanliness, Maintenance and Repair
  • Staff Health\
  • Smoking
  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Child Health
  • Medication
  • Emergency procedures/Fire Drill

 

Fencing

The provision of boundary fencing around outdoor play areas is necessary to ensure that children cannot impulsively run out into dangerous situations. The design and height of fencing should be such as to prevent children from scaling or crawling under it. Locking mechanisms should be provided in order to overcome potentially dangerous situations when gates are not closed. The provision of fencing is not a substitute for consistent supervision of children in outdoor play areas and it is acknowledged that children with a will may scale seemingly child-proof fencing.

Agreed Standards

Outdoor play spaces shall be fenced on all sides with fences at least 1200mmhigh. The design of the fence should be such as to prevent children from scaling or crawling under it.

All gates leading to or from play areas shall be of the same height and be equipped with a child-proof self-locking mechanism.

Child care premises that are adjacent to or provide access to any hazards, including water hazards or major roads, shall be isolated from such hazard by a fence that is at least 1500mm in height or by an approved pool fence.

Any side of a stairway, ramp, corridor, hallway or external balcony which is not abutting a wall shall be enclosed to prevent a child falling through.

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Glass

Children must be protected from falling through window glass. The nature of children’s play increases the risk of accidental collision with sheet glass. The provision of safety glass to a standard as required in the Building Code of Australia minimizes breakage in the event of minor collisions.

Agreed Standard

Any glazed area accessible to children shall be safety glazed or effectively guarded by barriers which prevent a child striking or falling against the glass

Implementation

As a minimum, States and Territories will not require that existing services upgrade to the new standard. However, some States and Territories may require that the new standard applies to existing services. In all cases where a service is not required to upgrade to the new standard, a statement to this effect is to be written on the license and publicly displayed.

 

  1. Telephone

The provision of a telephone in a child care centre is necessary for the general business operations of the service, but more importantly for the calling of emergency services and notification of parents in the case of illness or accidents. For this reason the telephone should be accessible to staff during he operating hours of a centre.

Agreed Standard

The centre shall have an operating telephone readily accessible to staff.

 

  1. Pools

Children can drown in as little as 5 centimeters of water. Whilst most drowning occur in swimming pools, chide care centers must be mindful of other potentially dangerous situations. Particular attention must therefore be paid to children in the presence of water.

The proposed standards on child/adult ratios in relation to excursions must apply when children have access to swimming pools. Australian Standards in relation to fencing around swimming pools apply automatically to child care services. The proposed standard refers specifically to safety precautions when using wading pools. A practice where the pool is emptied after every use prevents accidents in the event of child using ti unsupervised. The practice is also supported by evidence demonstrating that bacteria and algae that may be detrimental to children, can grow quickly in unchlorinated water and be of considerable health risk to children.

Agreed Standard

 All paddling pools shall be emptied after sue and stored so as to prevent the collection of water.

Requirements by State or Local Authorities in relation to fencing around swimming pools shall apply to child care centers.

  1. Heating

The provision of safety features around heating and cooling units is necessary to ensure the safety of children. Ione of the most common household accidents involve children coming into contact with hot appliances causing burns and scalds.

Agreed Standard

That all heating and cooling units shall be adequately guarded to prevent accidental contact with hot surfaces or moving parts and the emission of any sparks or flames.

All equipment controls shall be guarded to prevent children’s access.

Fans in child rooms shall be in an inaccessible position to children.

 

  1. Infectious Diseases

For the general health and well being of children and staff it is necessary to minimize the risk of cross infection, both through the practice of strict hygiene codes and the isolation of children from the centre when infection occurs.

Parents have the right to know the centre policies to satisfy themselves that the centre practices are in keeping with their expectations.

The centre practices must respect the rights of individual privacy and be in keeping with Commonwealth and State Acts that specifically deal with a particular disease. In States and Territories where the health authority has recommended practices of exclusion, these should be maintained.

Agreed Standard

The licensee shall ensure that the centre has a policy on infectious diseases which outlines the exclusion practices for children who have an infectious disease or who have been exposed to an infectious disease.

The licensee shall ensure that the policy is practiced

The licensee shall ensure that information about the occurrence within the centre of infectious disease (with the exception of those diseases dealt with by the Commonwealth Privacy Act or State or Territory Health Acts) in either the staff or children is made available to the parents or guardians of children in a manner that is not prejudicial to the rights of individual children or staff.

 

  1. Illness and Accidents

The standard of care provided for each child must ensure maximum personal safety.

In the event of a child becoming ill or having an accident, every attempt must be made to ensure the sound management of the child to exacerbation of the situation and to secure necessary medical treatment.

In the interests of maintaining rights and to ensure the emotional security of the child, every attempt must be made to inform the parent of the status of the health of the child in such situations.

The administration of medication poses a serious question for corers. Failure to follow good practice may result in an accident. Duplicate dosages could be administered or medication to which the child is allergic could be given. In order that the interests of the child, parents and staff are maintained, administration of medication must only be given with parental consent, or in the case of emergency with permission from a medical practitioner. A record must be kept of all medication given to a child with a record of the staff administering the medication.

The occurrence of a serious accident or death of a child in care causes much distress for all parties. The licensing authority requires notification of such occurrences so that assistance can be offered to individuals who may benefit from support (this may be provided by the licensing authority or referred appropriately). Monitoring of such occurrences also enables the identification of hazards that may otherwise go noticed in a centre.

 

Related Organizational Behavior Paper: