Industrial Attachment on Masco Industries Ltd (Part 2) - Assignment Point
Industrial Attachment on Masco Industries Ltd (Part 2)
Subject: Organizational Behavior | Topics:

CHAPTER- 6

LABORATORY SECTION LAB SECTION

Laboratory is the heart of dyeing Industry. An efficient laboratory can increase the efficiency of dyeing. So, laboratory in-charge is sometimes called pilot. Before bulk production, a sample is sent to buyer for approval. Laboratory supplies the recipe to the floor.

Laboratory line:

Standard sample: At first recipe % of standard sample is measured by CCM (computer color matching) system.

Laboratory Trial: Then by taking those recipe laboratory officers produce laboratory trial and match with standard according to buyer requirement.

Approved Sample: Then sample swatch, which is matched with the standard, is send to buyer for approval.

  Purpose of Laboratory:

  • Get color approval from buyer.
  • Recipe supply to the floor.
  • Shade correction.
  • Minimize the deviation between bulk and laboratory.
  • Development of lab dip
  • Physical test
  • Chemical test
  • Purity test (dyes and chemicals)

 Machineries in Dyeing Laboratory:

 The Factory is equipped with a most modern setup of brand new & latest model Laboratory and Quality control machines of Europe & USA origin. Details as under:

Lab Dyeing machine:Machine no: 01M/C: data Color Sample dyeing m/cModel: AHIBA NUANCE ECOOrigin: USAM/C NO- 02 Brand name: Sample dyeing aidBrand: KS-24FOrigin: N/A
Spectrophotometer: Data ColorModel: Spectra flash SF600 plus CTOrigin: USAColor Matching Cabinet (Light box): No. of Light Box: 02 Light Box no: 01 Brand : VeriVideModel: CAC-60Origin : UK

 

Light Source: Day Light (D-65)UVTL-84A (F11-10 degreeTest Name: Colorfastness to Washing, Dry cleaning. Name of the m/c: Rota Wash Origin: U.KTest Method :ISO105-C06Washing Machine: Wascator FUM71 CLS
Test Name : Shrinkage Test. Name of the m/c : Eltrolux Model: W455HOrigin : U.KQuick wash for shrinkage test Test Name: Dimensional Stability, Spirality, and Appearance after washing.Name of the m/c : WascatorEltrolux W455HOrigin : U.KTest Method : ISO 6330, ISO 26330
Test name:  Fastness to RubbingM/C: Crock meterDryer: Electrolux-T4130 Opty Dry
Rota Wash: SDL InternationalOven: SDL
Perspiration tester: SDLElectronic GSM measuring machine
1.  pH Measurer: Hanna pH-2112. Microprocessor pH meter. 

 Development of lab dip:

Receiving standard swatch

Spectrophotometer reading

Recipe start up software

Start up recipe given

Manual dispersion (pipetting)                     Auto dispersion machine

Pot dyeing

Unload

 

Normal wash

 

Acid wash

 

Hot wash

 

Cold Rinsing

 

Drying

Pot dyeing

Unload

 

Normal wash

 

Acid wash

 

Hot wash

 

Cold Rinsing

 

Drying

Colour measurement of standard samples :-

 Color measurement is mainly done for the purpose of shade matching as perfectly as possible. Shade matching of the produced sample with the standard one is compulsory. Color measurement can be done by two methods –

In manual method, the std. sample’s color is measured by comparing it with previously produced samples of different tri-chromatic color combination. The sample with which the color of the std. matched, that sample’s color recipe is being taken for shade matching .This method’s accuracy completely depends on the vision of the person related to it but person must be needed gather experience about color matching.

The instrumental method is more reliable if it is operated accurately to do the work of color measurement. “Spectrophotometer” interfaced with a PC is used for shade matching .This instrument works with the principle of reflectance measurement of light at different wave length. When the standard sample is being subjected under spectrophotometer, then the instrument suggest a recipe with required tri-chromatic colors within the tolerance limit of color difference. In this way, color measurement of the standard sample is carried out for the purpose of shade matching.

Instrumental color measuring methods:

Functions of Spectrophotometer:

  1. Color difference
  2. Metamerism
  3. Pass/fail operation
  4. Fastness rating
  5. Shade library
  6. Cost comparison
  7. Color match production
  8. Reflectance cure

Lab dips confirmation:

Receive standard swatch

Reference recipe from data color

Calculation for dye solution

Recipe Preparation by Datacolor:

Color Matching Check Report:

PREPARATION AND STORAGE OF STOCK DYES AND CHEMICALS:

 1.      Preparation of Concentration of stock dye soln

Normally 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% stock solution of dyes are  prepared in beakers for daily used.

 2.      Preparation of Concentration of stock chemical soln

Similarly 25% salt and 25% soda stock solutions are prepared in beakers    for daily use.

DYES AND CHEMICALS MEASURING FORMULA FOR LABORATORY:

The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow –

Fabric weight x Shade %

Amount of dye soln (ml) =   ——————————————-

Concentration of stock dye soln %

 Example

In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5gm

Shade % = 2%

[If used 0. 5 % stock soln of dyes] then ,

5 X 2

Amount of dye soln (ml) =      ———      =    20ml   .

0. 5

The amount of chemical soln (ml) is measured as follow –

Fabric wt. * M : L * g/l

Amount of chemical soln (ml) =      ————————————–

1000 * Conc. of stock  soln %

Example

In recipe, Fabric wt.  = 5 gm

Salt      = 20 g/l

M: L   = 10

[if taken  25 %  stock soln of salt] then,

5 x 10 x 20

Amount of chemical soln (ml) = ——————— =   4 ml

1000 x 0.25

Lab dip preparation procedure:

  1. The main objection suitable:
  • For good dyeing.
  • For good shade matching.
  • Mass production suitable.

 2.      Lab Procedure for the 100% cotton fabric:

  • Calculate the recipe.
  •  Weight the fabric
  • Take the beaker keen the fabric into the beaker.
  • Then the dyes, chemicals & required amount of water take into the beaker by the digital pipeting.
  • Then weight the salt by the electric balance and add in to the beaker.
  • Then the beaker set in to the lab dyeing machine for dyeing
  • Start the program for dyeing the whole dyeing time 60 min at 60 0C temperature. (The dyeing time and temperature depends on which classes of days are used for dyeing)
  •  After 30 min add the then add the soda ash. By pipeting.
  • Again run the program next 30 min at the same temperature.
  • Finished the dyeing time then the sample taken from the beaker first cold wash & then cold wash.
  • Then acid wash as for neutralization.
  • Then soaping required soap solution 10 min at 900C temperature.
  • After the fabric again cold.
  • Then dry the lab dip and compare with the standard.

CHAPTER- 7

DYEING SECTION

FLOW CHART FOR DYEING

BATCHING

SELECT M/C NO.

FABRIC LOADING

SELECT PRODUCTION PROGRAMME

PRE-TREATMENT

SELECT RECIPE FOR DYEING

RECIPE CONFIRMED BY DM/PO

DYEING

POST TREATMENT

UNLOAD

Dyeing Division:

Area                         : 40,000 sft.

Men Power                : 400

Produciton Capacity : 19,200 kgs/day

List of Machines as bellow:

Bulk Dyeing Machines

S.L No

Brand

Origin

Description Of Machine

Capacity In Kgs

No. of Machine

01

Thies

Germany

“Thies” brand high temperature & high pressure Dyeing machines
(Model -2003)

“Thies” brand high temperature & high pressure Dyeing machines
(Model -2003

Types of M/Cs according to their Temperature

High Temperature M/C  (max temp-140o C)

Atmospheric M/C  (max temp- 98o C)

 Features of high temperature Machine

  • The M/C is designed for the pre-treatment, dyeing and after-treatment which can provide temperature up to 140o C.
  • Nozzle get interlock after temperature exceed 80o C.
  • Loading per nozzle 250 kg
  • Design pressure: 350-550 kpa
  • Design Temp: 140o C
  • Hydraulic Test Pressure: 585 kpa
  • Manufacturer: Germany(Thies), Turkey (Dilmenler)
  • No of nozzles: 1-6

Features of  Atmospheric Machine

  • The M/C is designed for the pre-treatment, dyeing and after- treatment under atmospheric condition.
  • Nozzle is sized for smooth passing through by the fabric and extensive exchange with the dyeing liquid.
  • Two standard nozzles sizes with suffucuently large diameter are available.
  • Circulation pump is sized for heavy fabric.
  • Production capacity :200kgs per nozzles
  • No of nozzles: 1-6
  • Maximum temperature: 98oC
  • Maximum pressure :1 atm

Main Parts Of The Winch Dyeing Machine 

  • Main tank
  • Preparation tank
  • Pump
  • Filter
  • Heat exchanger
  • Additional tank
  • Lid

Filter

  • The filter eliminates the loose fibres in the dye bath.
  • Consequently it reduces the loose fibre load on the fabric.
  • Changing and cleaning the filters is sometimes forgotten, with the result that the dyeing machine’s muzzle pressure decreases, with the effect that running is disturbed and tangles can occur.

 Automatic self cleaning filter system:

  • No cleaning filter.
  • No pressure variation in the nozzles due to lint buildup due to automatic regulation system.
  • No lint on fabric due to 100% filtration of the circulation liquor.

Additional Tank

  • Additional tank is used for:
  • Color dosing
  • Salt dosing
  • Chemical dosing
  • Auxiliaries dosing
  • Salt dissolving

Heat Exchanger

  • Theory of Application:
  • Two fluids of different starting temperature flow through the heat exchanger.
  • One flows through the tubes ( the tube side) and the other flows outside the tubes but inside the shell (the shell side).
  • Heat is transferred from one fluid to the other through the tube walls, either from tube side to shell side or vice versa.
  • The fluids can be either liquid or gasses on either the shell or the tube side. In order to transfer heat efficiently, a large heat transfer area should be used, so there are many tubes. In this way, waster heat can be put to use. This is a great way to conserve energy.

Function of Dissolution Pump

  • Dissolution pump makes the chemical concentration (salt, soda, dye, auxiliaries) low before passing it to the main tank.
  • This concentration is reduced in 1:4 ratio (liquor from additional tank: liquor from the main tank).
  • As a result, rate of chemical dosing become slow which gives better fixation.
  • Thus better yield and even dyeing can be obtained.

Advantages of variable chamber setting

  • Better alignment of the fabric.
  • More loading facility.
  • Less entanglement

Ways of liquor flow from the additional tank

Two ways:

  1. Injection
  2. Dosing
  • Linear dosing
  • Progressive dosing
  • Decreasive dosing

The factors to feed and check before loading

  • Variable Chamber setting according to the linear density and loading
  • Calculate and feed the exact MLR and feed in batch data.
  • Ensure the Ph in every step of dyeing.
  • The factors to concentrate during dyeing
  • The operator should change the filter :
  • After Enzyme wash
  • After Drain dyeing bath
  • After rinsing bath

DYEING PARAMETERS CONTROL CHART

  • Water level before fabric loading (lit)
  • Loading time (min)
  • Water level after fabric loading ( after running 05 mins)
  • Dosing time of caustic
  • Run time
  • Dosing time of per-oxide
  • Total time need to raise temp
  • Gradient (Degree/ min)
  • Total run time (min)
  • Total time need to cooling at 80oC
  • Gradient (Degree/min)
  • Total MIR/ Rinsing time to 50oC
  • Total run time after acid dosing
  • Check PH
  • Total runtime after peroxide killer dosing
  • Check residual per-oxide (ppm)
  • Total run time during enzyme

DYEING

  • Water level (lit)
  • Check PH before color/salt dosing
  • Total time for color dosing
  • Total run time
  • Total salt dosing
  • Total run time
  • Check PH after salt dosing
  • Total time for soda dosing
  • Check PH after soda dosing (after running 05 mins)
  • Total time need to B/D
  • Drain the bath
  • Total time for MIR/ Rinsing
  • Drain the bath
  • Total time for acid dosing
  • Check PH
  • Temp for soaping
  • Soaping time
  • Drain the bath
  • 2nd soaping temp
  • Soaping time
  • Drain the bath
  • Total MIR/ rinsing time

Raw materials for Dyeing

Raw materials used in the dyeing section are:

  1. Grey fabrics
  2. Dyes
  3. Chemicals

Grey Fabrics

Following types of grey fabrics are dyed in Masco Industries Limited:

  • Single jersey
  • Single jersey with spandex
  • Heavy jersey
  • Polo pique
  • Back pique
  • Single lacoste
  • Double lacoste
  • Fleece
  • 1 x 1 Rib
  • 2 x 2 Rib
  • Rib with spandex

PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR MACHINE WASH

Wetting agent

Caustic

Hydrous

Run time 20´ at 130ºC

Pretreatment:

Double Bath White Dyeing

 Dyeing Critical Colors

Dyeing Deep Colors

Dyeing Light Colors

Enzyme Treatment

Fixing & Softening

Neutralizing & Wash-off ( Light Color )

 Neutralizing & Wash-off (Critical Color )

Neutralizing & Wash-off (Deep Color )

Common Dyeing Faults with their Remedies

Uneven Dyeing

Causes:

  • Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring & bleaching)
  • Improper color dosing
  • Using dyes of high fixation property
  • Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres
  • Lack of control on dyeing m/c

Remidies:

  • By ensuring even pretreatment
  • By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres
  • Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals
  • Proper controlling of dyeing m/c

 Batch to Batch Shade Variation

Causes:

  • Fluctuation of Temperature
  • Improper dosing time of dyes & chemicals
  • Batch to batch weight variation of dyes and chemicals
  • Dyes lot variation
  • Improper reel speed, pump speed, liquor ratio
  • Improper pretreatment

 Remedies:

  • Use standard dyes and chemicals
  • Maintain the same liquor ration
  • Follow the standard pretreatment procedure
  • Maintain the same dyeing cycle
  • Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the shade
  • The Ph, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily

 Patchy Dyeing Effect:

Causes:

  • Entanglement of fabric
  • Faulty injection of alkali
  • Improper addition of color
  • Due to hardness of water
  • Due to improper salt addition
  • Dye migration during intermediate dyeing
  • Uneven heat in the machine, etc

Remedies:

  • By ensuring proper pretreatment
  • Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals
  • Heat should be same throughout the dye liquor
  • Proper salt addition

 Roll to Roll Variation or Meter to Meter Variation:

Causes:

  • Poor migration property of dyes
  • Improper dyes solubility
  • Hardness of water
  • Faulty m/c speed, etc

Remedies:

  • Use standard dyes and chemicals
  • Proper m/c speed
  • Use of soft water

 Crease Mark:

Causes:

  • Poor opening of the fabric rope
  • Shock cooling of synthetic material
  • If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal
  • Due to high speed m/c running

Remedies:

  • Maintaining proper reel speed & pump speed
  • Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature
  • Reducing the m/c load
  • Higher liquor ration

 Dye Spots:

Causes:

  • Improper dissolving of dye particle in bath
  • Improper dissolving of caustic soda particle in bath

Remedies;

  • By proper dissolving of dyes & chemicals
  • By passing the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer, so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed

 Wrinkle Mark:

Causes:

  • Poor opening of the fabric rope
  • Shock cooling of synthetic material
  • High temperature entanglement of the fabric

 Remedies:

  • Maintaining proper reel speed & pump speed
  • Lower rate raising and  cooling the temperature
  • Higher liquor ratio

 Softening Mark:

Causes:

  • Improper mixing of the softener
  • Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener
  • Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener

Remedies:

  • Maintaining proper reel speed & pump speed
  • Proper mixing of  the softener before addition
  • Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application of softener

CHAPTER- 8

FINISHING SECTION

Finishing:

Textile finishing, in a restricted sense, is the term used for a series of processes to which all bleached, dyed, printed and certain grey fabrics are subjected before they are put on the market. In fact, finishing includes the final treatment of every kind of fabric made from every kind of fiber.

 Objective of finishing:

  • Improving the appearance — Luster, whiteness, etc
  • Improving the feel, which depends on the handle of the material and its softness, suppleness, fullness, etc.
  • Wearing qualities, none — soiling, anticrease, antishrink, comfort, etc.
  • Special properties required for particular uses — water — proofing, flame proofing, etc.
  • Covering of the faults in the original cloth.
  • Increasing the weight of the cloth.

Types of finishing:

1)      Chemical finishing:

a)      Chemical reaction of auxiliaries with fibers.

b)       Application of the handle modifying products / additives

2)      Mechanical Finishing:

. • Mechanical treatment with machines

Finishing effects:

• Easy – care

• Crease recovery.

• Dimensional stability.

• Good abrasion resistance.

• Improved tear strength.

• Good sew ability

• Soft or stiff handle.

• Shine or luster

After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During eyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer’s requirement knit fabric are finished in open form or tubular form.

For Lycra:

Slitting

Heat Setting

Sewing

Drying

Slitting

Stenter

Compacting

The machines that are used in open line that is given bellow:

1.Slitting m/c (2)

2. De-watering m/c

3. Stentering machine

4. Dryer

5. Open Compactor (2)

The machines that are used in tube line that are given bellow:

1. De-watering m/c

2. Dryer

3.  Tube Compactor

Other machines:

1. Sueding m/c

2. Raising

Finishing specification of MASCO Industries Ltd

Squeezer or De-watering Machine:

Brand name                 : Tube Tex

Model No                    :   Delta Plus-4-60

Origin                          : U.S.A.

Capacity                      : 5 tonsHydro extractor:

Brand name                 : Man Mool

Model No                    :   n/f

Origin                          : Korea

Capacity                      : 3 tonsSlitting and Squeezer Machine:

  1. i.        Machine no: 01

Brand name                    : Bianco

Model No                       : N/F

Origin                             : Italy

Capacity                         : 10 tons

  1. ii.      Machine no: 02

Brand name                    : Ionox

Model No                       : N/F

Origin                 : Germany

Capacity             : 10 tonsSoft Calendar Machine:

Brand name                 : Dongnam

Model No                    : DNC-400

Origin                          : South Korea

Capacity                      : 5 tons

 Tube Compacting machine:

Brand name                 : Tube Tex

Model No                    :   Delta Plus

Origin                          : U.S.A.

Capacity                      : 10 tonsLafer Machine (Open Width Compactor)

Brand name                 : Lafer SPA

Model No                    : N/F

Origin                          : Italy

Capacity                       : 10 tons

 Dryer (open width)

Brand name                 : Suntex ag

Model No                    :

Origin                          : China

Capacity                       : 10 tonsOpen Width Compactor)

Brand name                 : Lafer SPA

Model No                    : N/F

Origin                          : Italy

Capacity                      : 10 tonsStenter machine (IL SUNG)

Brand name                 : Sun Super S

Model No                    : N/F

Origin                          : South Korea

Capacity                      : 10 tonsRaising machine

Brand name                 : I. KUANG

Model No                    :   N/F

Origin                          : Taiwan

Capacity                      : 10tons

Max Speed                  : 100 m/minSuedding machine

Brand name                 : Mario Costa

Origin                          : Italy

Capacity                       : 5-6 tons

Description of finishing machines

Squeezer or De-watering Machine:

Brand name                             : Tube Tex

Model No                                : Delta Plus-4-60

Origin                                      : U.S.A.

Capacity                                  : 5 tons

Padder pressure                       : 1-1.5 bar

Pressure capacity                     : 3-7 bar

Over feed range                      : -5% to 10%

Max working speed                : 80m/min

Normal working speed            : 40~60 m/min

Function:

  • Reduce water content.
  • Apply chemicals.
  • Apply over feed to give some compaction.
  • Open the fabric from the rope form.
  • Width wise stretch the fabric.
  • Plait the fabric.

Main parts of the machine:

  • Squeeze roller (to remove water)
  • Stretcher (to control width)
  • Overfeeding wheels (to control GSM)
  • De-twisting device (to deliver the fabric roll in untwisted from)
  • Folding device (to deliver the fabric in folded form)
  • Squeezing roller
  • Padder for softener

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

After completing the dyeing process from the dyeing m/c then the fabrics are ready for de-watering. In de-watering m/c tubular fabrics are mainly processed. There is a magnetic sensor which scene the twist of the fabric and its direction and turn the fabric in opposite direction to remove twist automatically. Here dewatering is performed De-watering is the process to remove the water from the fabric completely by squeezing and it is done by the padder. A suitable expander is used before the fabric is passed through the nip of the padders, which expands the fabric flat wise and adjust the width. The expander width is adjusted as S/J- 20%, PK-25%, Int.-35%, Lacoste-40% wider than the required width. There is a pair of rubber coated padder, where water is removed from fabric when passed through the nip of it.

Normally squeezer contain single or double padders where,

– One for removing water and

– Other for applying finishing chemicals such as softener.

But this finishing is done only for the tubular fabric. Open width knitted fabrics is applied finishing treatment later in stenter.

Here present the compressor which given compress air to form ballooning before passing through the padder. This balloon remove crease mark but not form the maximum balloon otherwise shrinkage increase.

In feed and out feed traverses which present in albatros control the following functions by the over feeding system:

  • Control the width (dia) of the fabric
  • Control the spirality of the fabric
  • Control the crease mark of the fabric
  • Control the length of the fabric

Operational Parameters:

  • Speed: as much as possible (400 m/min). Higher the GSM lower the Speed.
  • Over feed: As required, Higher the GSM higher the over feed
  • Padder pressure: 3-7 bar as required, higher the GSM lower the padder pressure.
  • Width: Fabric width is adjusted as required width.

Special features:

  • Single squeeze roller and single padder present
  • One for squeezing and other for applying softener finished.
  • Above 70% water can be removed.
  • Maximum 60 inch diameter can be extended.
  • Softener tank present

Maintenance during operation:

  • Proper balloon forming by compressor air otherwise crease mark appears.
  • Padder contact point adjusts perfectly according to the fabric construction otherwise accurate water will not remove.
  • Albatros must be clean every one or two hours.

Parameters Used for Different types of Fabric:

For Cotton Fabric:

fabric type                         

Over Feed

%

Stretch

 in inch

Folder Tension

%

Machine Speed (m/min)

Single Jersey

+8 to +10

2” – 3”

-14 to -15

60-65

Single lacoste

+4 to +5

     2”-4”

-17 to 18

60-65

Polo Pique

+3 to +4

3”-4”

-17 to -18

60-65

Inter lock

-1.5 to +2.5

8”-10”

-18 to -20

55-60

 Rib

+4.5 to 5

-18 to -20

60-65

 For Polyester:

fabric type                         

Over Feed

%

Stretch

 in inch

Folder Tension

%

Machine Speed (m/min)

Single Jersey

+3 to +4

2” – 3”

-16 to -18

55-60

Single lacoste

+4 to +5

     3”-4”

-18 to -20

55-60

Polo Pique

+1 to +2

3”-4”

-17 to -18

55-60

Inter lock

+3 to 4.5

5”-6”

-18 to -20

55-60

 Rib

+3 to +4

8”-10”

-14 to -16

60-65

These data are varied depending upon the Grey GSM and Finished GSM and also on the dia of fabric. All these parameters are suitable for Grey GSM range 140~160 to get Finished GSM 170~185 without Lycra fabric. All these data are practiced in the mill which may vary factory to factory.

 DRYER

Dryer (open width)

Brand name                 : Suntex ag

Model No                    :

Origin                          : China

Capacity                      : 10 tons

Over feed range          : 0% to 25%

Speed range                : 4-30m/min

Temp. Range               : 110-1800 C

No of chamber            ::          :

No of burner               :

No of motor                       : 08

Fuel combustion chamber:

Fuel                             – Natural gas

Fuel pressure               -7.2m bar

Capacity                      -300kw

Voltage                       -240/400v

Frequency                   -50Hz

Year                            -12/2003

Function of the machine:

1. To dry the fabric with help of steam

2. To the shrinkage

3. To prepare for next Subsequent process

4. To dry tubular and open width fabric without tension

Main parts of the machine:

i)        Heating chamber

ii)      Blower

iii)    Padder

iv)    Synthetic blanket as a conveyer

v)      Folder

vi)     Exhaust fan

Production:

Capacity: 10 ton/day

Actual production: 7-8 ton/day

Heating system:

1. Gas fired

Utility:

1. Gas (to make fire)

2. Electricity (to run the machine)

3. Compressed air (to spread the fire)

 Working principle of dryer:

After de-watering then the fabric through the dryer. The main function of the dryer is given below,

– To dry the fabric.

– To control the overfeed system.

– To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M.

This machine contains two chambers. Two mesh endless conveyors are placed lengthwise to the chamber named conveyor net and filter net, each chamber contain a burner, which supply hot air .This hot air is guided through the ducting line by suction fan .There are nozzles placed in between filter net and conveyor net .When the fabric pass on the conveyor net, hot air is supplied to the wet fabric to dry it. There are exhaust fan which such the wet air and deliver to the atmosphere through the ducting line.

The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the m/c & the G.S.M of the fabric. If the m/c temp. is high then m/c speed also high and the m/c temp. is low then m/c speed also low . The vibration speed of the m/c for heavy fabric is 730 m/min and normal fabric is 480 m/min.

 The temperature of different chambers according to the shade of the fabric

Shade                         

Chamber-1

Chamber-2

Light

1200 C

1300C

Medium

1350C

            1400C

Dark

1500C

1700C

Operating parameters:

Temperature: Set the temperature between 1200C to 1300C for white color and 1500C to1700C for other color.

GSM   Temperature   or moisture content   temperature

Over feed: set the over feed up to 10%~20% or as required to get finish GSM.

Speed: set the speed as much as possible (6 ~ 20 m/min). GSM Speed

Parameters used for different fabric:

For cotton fabric:

Fabric Type                         

Over Feed

%

Temperature

 

M/C speed

(m/min)

Folder Speed (m/min)

Light color

Deep color

High GSM

Low GSM

Single Jersey

-15 to -201450 C1650 C6.5-7

8-9

2-3

Single lacoste

-20 to -251450 C1650 C6-7

8-9

2-3

Polo Pique

-20 to -251450 C1650 C6-7

8-9

2-3

Inter lock

-20 to -251550 C1700 C5-6.5

7-8

2-3

 Rib

-51450 C1650 C4-4.5

5-5.5

3-4

Grey Melange

-201500 C1650 C4-4.5

5-5.5

3-4

For polyester fabric:

fabric type                         

Over Feed

%

Temperature

 

M/C speed

(m/min)

Folder Speed (m/min)

Light color

Deep color

High GSM

Low GSM

Single Jersey-5%1350 C1150 C10-12

8-10

4-6
Single lacoste-5%1350 C1150 C10-12

8-10

5-6
Polo Pique-5%1400 C1150 C10-12

8-10

5-6
Inter lock-5%1350 C1100 C6-8

8-9

4-5
Rib-5%1450 C1150 C4-4.5

4.5-6

5-6

Grey Melange

-5%1300 C1150 C6-8

5-5.5

5-6

Following things are also considered in Dryer machine:

  • If fabric is more Redder then the standard one, then reduce the Temperature.
  • If fabric is more Yellower then the standard one, then increase the Temperature.
  • If fabric is more Bluer then the standard one, then increase the Temperature.

COMPACTOR

Machine specification of compactor:

No. of Compacting m/c: 02

Open Width Compactor (02)

 Brand name : Lafer SPA

Model No: N/F

Origin: Italy

Capacity: 10 tons

Over feed range: -5% to +50%

Max. Temperature: 1000 C  to 1400 C

Max. working speed: 50 m/min

Min. working speed: 5 m/min

Tube Compacting machine:

Brand name :Tube Tex

Model No: Delta Plus

Origin: U.S.A.

Capacity: 03 tons

Over feed range          : -5% to +50%

Max. Temperature: 1000 C  to 1400 C

Max. working speed: 30 m/min

Min. working speed: 5 m/min

Function

  • To control shrinkage.
  • To control width.
  • To control GSM.
  • To make fabric surface  smooth.
  • Heat seating for lycra fabric.

Important parts

– Over feed roller.

– Expander.

– Blanket(2)

Operational parameter:

-Set the temperature at 120 °C (as required)

-Set the speed as much as possible (15-25 m/min).GSM m/c speed.

-Set the overfeed % as required; to increase GSM, overfeed need to increase to a certain limit.

Special features of compactor:

  • Operating system is computerized.
  • Steam bar present which soften the fabric for compacting.
  • In compacting zone, edge, retard roller, compacting shoe and steel plates are present.
  • A pair of pulley is present for fabric dia control.

Working principle:

The main object of compactor is to make the fabric surface smooth, to control the residual shrinkage, GSM and if required fabric width also. To control the residual shrinkage the fabric is previously shrinkage artificially by gathering of loops of knitted fabric and it is set by heat and pressure. In tube compactor, the dried tubular knitted fabric is face to steam when it passed through the teflon coated conveyor  belt. When a cotton fabric absorbs water, it swells and shrinks (particularly in length direction) because the absorbed water allows the cellulose chains to move relative stain free position. Then the fabric is passed through the expander. This machine contains two compaction units to compact both side of the tubular fabric. Each unit contains a hot rotating cylinder, blanket which rotate in contact with the cylinder and the Teflon cover, while passing the expander roller, the fabric is over feeded. The fabric is compacted with the pressure of blanket and the Teflon cover while passing through the hot cylinder. Due to compaction stitch length is reduced. Then the fabric is passed through the counting device. Before packing, the fabric is inspected carefully.

Different parts f a Compactor:

Control board (Computerized)                        Conveyor chain                                                       Takeout roller

fabric type                         

Over Feed

%

Temperature

 

 Speed (m/min)

Stretch (%) in inch

 

Light color

Deep color

Single Jersey20 to 22 %1300 C1100 C20-250.758-9
Single lacoste28 to 301300 C1100 C20-2515-6
Polo Pique28 to 321350 C1150 C15-201.5-26-8
Inter lock25 to 301350 C1100 C20-2226-7
Rib10 to 151350 C1150 C20-2224-5

Grey Melange

15 to 201350 C1150 C20-252.56-7

All these data are suitable for this machine only and also suitable for the fabric whose Grey GSM range is 140-160 and finished GSM range is 170-185 without Lycra fabric.

  • If fabric is less Reddish than the standard one, then Increase the temperature and reduce steam.
  • If fabric is less yellowish than the standard one, then Increase the temperature without  steam.
  • If fabric is less Blueish than the standard one, then reduce the temperature and increase steam.\

SlittingMachine (or De-watering machine):\

Brand name     : Bianco

Model No             : N/F

Origin       : Italy

Capacity               : 10 tons

Max speed        : 82 m/min

Slitting:

Slitting is a process that is applied for cutting the tubular fabric through the intended break Wales line on lengthwise direction prior to stenter processing.

Machine parts:

1. Rotary blade: To cut the fabric through break Wales line.

2. Ring: To help cutting.

3. Guide Roller: To guide the fabric to plaiting.

4. Plaiting: To plait the fabric.

5. Sensor: Sense for cutting through break Wales line.

Working principle:

The slitting m/c has 4 units – initial squeezer, de-twisting, slitter and padder. After dyeing completed and falling of water from fabric the fabric is fed in slitting m/c. So it is necessary to remove some water initially for the case of further processing in this m/c. The initial squeezer does this work. The de-twisting unit removes twists that may present in tubular rope form fabric. This unit has 3 de-twisting rollers, one rotation drum and 2 feeler rollers with sensors. By these rollers it detects twist in fabric and removes by rotating rope fabric in opposite direction. Before slitting there is a blower which blows air to open the tubular fabric & makes it easy to pass over cigger. The cigger can be extended in circumference and opens the tubular fabric in full circumference. Slitting is done by using open mark detecting golden eye by around knife. Then the fabric passes through the padder where washing or chemical treatment is done. Squeezer is used to remove 60-70% of water. After removing water width is controlled by stretcher and fabric is delivered by folding device.

Operational parameter:

-Set the padder pressure as required (3-7bar)

-Set the speed as much as possible (30-80m/min).

Function of the Machine:

  • Used to remove excess water after pretreatment and dyeing.
  • To slit the tube fabric by the knife for opening of the fabric and ready for stentering.
  • Delivered fabric in crease free state.
  • Before squeezing balloon is formed with the help of compressed air passing by a nozzle or air sprayer.
  • It can control the diameter of fabric and GSM and shrinkage by over feeding mechanism.

STENTER

Brand name                                         : Sun Super S

Model No                                            : N/F

Origin                                                  : South Korea

Capacity                                              : 10 tons

Maximum Speed                                 : 100 m/min

Chamber                                              : 8

Maximum steam pressure                    : 2bar

Maximum air pressure             : 10 bar

Important parts of stenter

  • Burner (12)
  • -Exhaust air fan (16)
  • Over feed roller.
  • Suction fan (12)
  • Nozzle
  • Chain arrangement

FUNCTION OF STENTER:

– Drying

– Shrinkage control.

– Heat setting.

– Width control Finishing chemical application.

– Loop control.

– Moisture control.

– Spirility control.

Stenter – Automation

 

1. Automatic Speed Control of machine through programmed Dwell time

2. Squeezer Pressure

3. Fabric wet pick-up control

4. Over-feed control

5. Exhaust moisture control in dryer

6. Fabric moisture control in dryer

7. Width indication and control

8. Chamber and fabric temperature control

9. Pick Controllers for GSM control

Working Principle:

Stenter machine is generally used for finish the open fabric. This stenter machine consists of 8 chambers, each contains 2 burners, two blowers, two ducting line, nozzles and suction fan attach with the suction line. The burner produces hot flue gases which guided through the ducting line by the help of blower. There are some nozzles placed above and below the fabric passing way with the help of nozzles. The hot air is circulating in the chamber and the moisture of the fabric is evaporated, which leave the chamber with the help of the suction fan, through the ducting line. The temperature of each chamber can control automatically by controlling the intensive burner. Generally lower temperature is maintained the first and last chamber then the others.

The speed of fabric is maintained according to the moisture content of the fabric.  After passing the fabrics to the all chambers, the fabric is collected for compaction.

The performance of the stentering range depends on proper introduction of the fabric type in to the machine. The finer the fabric is being processed, ther greater the significance of the correct, crease free and fault free finished fabric production.

In stenter machine the fabric is first passed through the different rollers including weft straightening device, uncurling device, for proper feeding of the fabric into the machine. Then it passes through the selvedge detector which tdetect the selvedge and adjust the rail for proper gripping of fabric in the pin arrangement. This stenter machine consists of both pin and clip arrangement. The fabric is first grip and pinned by the pin and gust before entering the chamber, pin are locked by clip arrangement. To maintain proper destination of the fabric, length wise overhead and width wise tension is given to the fabric.

STANDARD OPERATING PARAMETER FOR DIFFERENT FABRIC IN STENTER

fabric type                          

GSM

Dia

Temperature

Over Feed

Padder Pressure

Speed (rpm)

Blower rpm

 

Single Jersey

115-150

2″ +

110-140

40-45%

2 bar

30-35

1100-1300

Single Jersey

160-220

2″+

120-170

40-45%

2.5 bar

25-30

1200-1400

Lycra Single Jersey

160-220

4″+

130-160

50%

2 bar

25-30

1200-1400

Lycra Single Jersey

200-250

4″+

140-160

50%

2 bar

24-28

1200-1400

Pique

160-200

3″+

130-160

40-45%

1.5-2 bar

25-30

1200-1400

Lycra Pique

190-220

4″+

130-160

50%

2 bar

20-25

1200-1400

Fleece/ Terry

260-300

4″+

140-170

40-45%

2 bar

20-25

1200-1400

1×1 Rib

160-220

2″+

130-160

45%

2 bar

20-25

1300-1400

2×2 Rib

190-220

2″+

140-160

45%

2 bar

20-25

1200-1400

Interlock

190-220

3”+

130-160

50%

2 bar

20-25

1200-1400

*S/J fabric feed at 3-5 degree angle.

*Others fabric feed, straight.

 Masco Industries Ltd

Some are parts:

Industrial Attachment on Masco Industries Ltd (Part 1)

Industrial Attachment on Masco Industries Ltd (Part 2)

Industrial Attachment on Masco Industries Ltd (Part 3)

 

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