Management Practices of Rupayan Group Limited
Subject: Organizational Behavior | Topics:

Significance of the Study

Though Rupayan group was the company which brought real state service in this subcontinent, it could not be the market leader in the housing industry, as of now. The growth rate of the company is slow. The subscriber base might suggest the company is already in the second position among the 50 competitors. From my point of view, it is the technology, which is not popular in this part of the world. Housing developer is the very competitive but maybe too advanced for this market. But apart from the technology if a developer provides quality service ( customer care, HR policies), offers some attractive packages, takes initiatives for  more job satisfaction among employees, it is possible to be the market leader.

This is where the other developer has started to work effectively in a greater extent. After the entry of Asset development, the market has become volatile with existing employees are moving vigorously at the offering of high salary and non-financial benefits. Some developer has been seeing their employee base increase exponentially while others are wistfully watching theirs decrease. In view of these, rupayan group has decided to change their action plan like more part time and contractual employee’s involvement etc and different policies also.

Therefore we have found it challenging to be involved in a work from which the company can benefit. Through our observation of HR policies, till first 2006, there is not a big change because after joining with DBH there is a big change of organ gram and policies are not yet implemented due to change of different divisional head.

Broad Objective

Identifying and analysing the overall Human Resource Management activities of Rupayan group.

Specific Objectective:   

  • To know Human Resources Planning practices of the Rupayan Group.
  • Understand the features of the product in order to understand its functions.
  • To learn about recruiting and selecting procedure of the Rupayan Group.
  • To identify training and development methods applied in this organization.
  • To develop and improve  HR division of Rupayan is working actively.
  • Trying to established 360 degree evalution system.
  • To set up a standard format for higher level evaluation.

Methodology

Data Collection Method: In my study I have mainly depended on primary data, which have been collected through direct, phone survey and reference source.

Primary Data Collection Method: For time consuming and availability of proper person I tried to contact people over phone and face to face discussion. In this matter we firstly try to contact with Mr.Nasir (Sr. Executive, admin and Human Resource). According to Mr. Nasir view we try to mainly arrange the HR part of our report. For questionnaire we gave Mr. Nasir totally freedom to our questionnaire. Secondly, we tried to meet Mr. Shofiqul Islam (Executive director admin Department) to take help and guidelines about organization part.

Secondary Data Collection Method:  It was really hard for us to collect data for this topic because all the information related to HR So, I some case have to take information through observation method and internal sources.

Limitation of the Study

A big numbers of limiting factors were faced while collecting information about the report. These factors are as follows:

  • All the Forms are confidential
  • All the  HR activities and development information are verbally collected
  • All the information may change due to policy
  • The software that is using by HR department is not share able or it has no demo version.
  • Most of the issues are identified through observation method.

Moreover, it has not been possible to get all required internal information of the company as these are treated as confidential company information

History of Rupayan group

Rupayan Housing Estate Limited has come into being in 1999 with a pledge to fulfill the housing need of this populous city of Dhaka. The first Residential Project named “Rupayan Easel Dream” comprising 108 Apartments in four eight storied building was successfully completed and handed over to the honourable clients with their entire satisfaction. Since then, the company continued its advancement in development works and expanded the projects in all prime locations like Uttara, Gulshan, Banani, Niketon, Eskaton, Paltan, Shantinagar, Moghbazar, Dhanmondi, Laxmibazar, Wari, Mohakhali etc. Both Residential and Commercial Projects were undertaken and completed successfully and handed over accordingly and the company is in force with numbers of ongoing projects.

The company is operating its business in its own high rise Corporate Office at Rupayan Centre, Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka. The prestigious commercial building like Faruque Rupayan Tower at Banani, Rupayan Golden Age at Gulshan avenue and well decorated and magnificent residential building with panoramic views at Gulshan, Dhanmondi and other prime locations of the Dhaka City earned name and fame for the company.

Rupayan believes in the concept of extending housing facilities to the common people of the country keeping in view of their limited income. It is first ever in Bangladesh that Rupayan has undertaken a satellite township project for the low income group at Bhuighar, Narayangonj. Twenty-eight residential buildings along with a market are being completed.

There is a plan that tentative clients will be illegible to avail the apartment in this project after booking and availing Bank Loan facility and thereby the scope of making repayment of bank loan with the amount of House Rent is nearly possible. This opportunity will make the dream true of becoming the apartment owner in case of that category of clients.

Rupayan has got housing project in nearby Savar region (Ashulia and Hemayetpurareas).

Rupayan Housing Estate Limited feels social responsibilities to serve the people with quality and commitment. With this end in view the company is working with a dynamic set of management personnel and skilled work force. We look forward to see a better future.

Finance and Commercial: This department is divided into two divisions, a) LC preparation and Purchase, and b) Fund Management. Here LC is opened for purchasing of sets and equipment, and all the funds collected are used and controlled for the maximum benefit of the company. This department is also responsible for the budgeting which takes place once a year for the next three years.

Construction: This department is responsible for the setting up and maintenance of the heavy equipment and the major telecom channels required for providing services to customers. This department is divided into 7 divisions. They are Switch, Central Base station, Microwave, Radio Frequency, Base Transceiver Station, Power, Planning and development

Background of HRM:

The study of HRM describes what human resource managers do and what they should do. While there are many definitions of HRM, its primary purpose is to improve the productive contribution of people within an organization. Until the last few years the discipline was known as personnel management’ is increasingly used in recognition of the importance of an organization’s workforce in contributing to the goals of that organization.

Today’s human resource issues are enormous and appear to be ever expanding. The human resource manager faces a multitude of problems ranging from a constantly changing workforce to coping with ever increasing government rules and regulations. Because of the critical nature of human resource concerns, they are receiving increased attention from upper levels of management. It used to be rare to see job advertisements for human resource managers. Now such advertisements are very common and encompass significant organizational responsibilities.

The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs organization have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can’t yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have — and are aware of — personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have.

The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the “Personnel Department,” mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the “HR Department” as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.

History of Human Resource Management

Human resource management is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms “human resource management” and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel management” as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. Human Resource management is evolving rapidly. Human resource management is both an academic theory and a business practice that addresses the theoretical and practical techniques of managing a workforce. (1)
Human resource management has it roots in the late and early 1900’s. When workers jobs became less labor intense and more working with machinery. The scientific management movement began. This movement was started by Frederick Taylor when he wrote about it a book titled The Principles of Scientific Management. The book stated, “The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee.”(2) Taylor believed that management should use the techniques used by scientist to research and test work skills.
Also around the same time came the industrial welfare movement. This was usually a voluntary effort by employers to improve the conditions in their factories. The effort also extended into the employee’s life outside of the work place. The employer would try to provide assistance to employees to purchase a home, medical care, or assistance for education. The human relations movement is the major influence of the modern human

resource management. The movement focused on how employees group behavior and how employee feelings. They say that communication is the oldest existential phenomenon on earth. Well, if that’s the case then human resource management would get the second place in the sibling hierarchy. In spite of being added as a subject in management courses fairly late, HRM has been a concept that was utilized ever since human beings started following an organized way of life. So shall we start digging up the history of human resource management some of human resource management’s vital principles were used in prehistoric times? Like, mechanisms being developed for selecting tribal leaders. Knowledge was recorded and passed on to the next generation about safety, health, hunting, and gathering. 1000 B.C to 2000 B.C saw the development of more advanced HR functions. The Chinese are known to be the first to use employee screening techniques, way back in 1115 B.C. And turns out it was not Donald Trump who started “the apprentice” system. They were the Greek and Babylonian civilizations, ages before the
HRM has seen a lot of nick naming in its age. Since it was recognized as a separate and important function, it has been called “personnel relations” then it evolved to “industrial relations”, then “employee relations” and then, finally, to “human resources”.
With the Industrial Revolution, came the conversion of the US economy from agriculture-based to industry-based. This led them to require an extremely well-organized structure. Further, this led them to recruit a lot of people. More so, the industrial revolution brought in maddening amounts of immigration. Again, to create employment for all the immigrants, recruitment and management of the recruited individuals gained vitality.

Early human resource management, in general, followed a social welfare approach. It aimed at helping immigrants in the process of adjusting to their jobs and to an “American” life. The main aim behind these programs was to assist immigrants in learning English and acquiring housing and medical care. Also, these techniques used to promote supervisory.

With the advent of “labor unions” in the 1790’s, the power in the hands of the employees multiplied considerably and increased at a rapid pace by the 1800s and furthermore in the 1900s. This led to the HR department being more capable of politics and diplomacy. The two feats that were quintessential to the importance of HR were; the fact that it was the HR department that got the management and the labor unions to come on common grounds. They basically worked on getting the management to see things from the labor perspective and grant them medical and educational benefits. B.F. Goodrich Company were the pioneers in designing a corporate employee department to address the concerns of the employees in 1900. National Cash Register followed suit in 1902 by forming a separate department to handle employee grievances, record keeping, wage management and other employee-related functions. Personnel Managers started seeing more sunshine since the Wagner’s Act (aka National Labor Relations Act) in 1935. There was a shift in focus from
Between the 1960s and 1970s, the HRM movement gained further momentum due to the passing of several acts like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Now, the HR department was the apple of the corporate’ eyes because, the corporate placed a lot of importance on human resource management.

So by the end of the 1970s, HRM had taken over the world! Almost all big and medium scale industries had a department to manage their recruitment, employee relations, record-keeping, salaries and wages, etc. Towards the 1980s, the importance of HR continued to intumesce for several reasons like increase in skilled labor, training, regulation compliance, dismissal, etc. The HR managers were the ones who did the hiring and the firing.

In today’s date, HR has the same importance as the other departments, in some corporate, it has more. With the constant increase in education, technology and frequent fluctuations in economic status and structures, I believe, HR is the oldest, most mature and yet, the most efficient of all management.

Meaning of HRM

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

Many people find HRM to be a vague and elusive concept – not least because it seems to have a variety of meanings. Pinning down an acceptable definition can seem like trying to hit a moving target in a fog. This confusion reflects the different interpretations found in articles and books about human resource management. HRM is an elastic term (…). It covers a range of applications that vary from book to book and organization to organization. (…)

In Managing Human Resources: Personnel Management in Transition, Stephen Bach (2005:3) argues that, compared to a decade ago, much of the controversy about the definition of HRM has dissipated. He considers that, in part, this may be due to the use of a broader and more encompassing definition of HRM. However, Bach (p.4) shows that the debate has not vanished by disagreeing with Boxall and Purcell’s (2003:1) statement that

HRM refers to:

“… all those activities associated with the management of the employment relationship in the firm. The term ’employee relations’ will be used as an equivalent terms as will the term ‘labor management’.”

Bach argues that this definition is ‘a little too broad’, stating that such a broad definition makes it difficult to:

  • Highlight any distinctive features or values that underpin HRM
  • Chart changes in the practice of HRM
  • Understand the controversy surrounding HRM

In Bach’s opinion, HRM differs from employee relations in its focus on management practices and tendency to ignore the interests of employees. In fact, he holds quite ‘hard’ views on the nature of HRM:

  • HRM is unitary (employer and employee interests should coincide) with an emphasis on organizational effectiveness
  • The interests of other stakeholders such as employees are marginalized
  • There is a predominant interest on the individual firm – specifically, within the firm – focused on individual employee motivation and aspiration
  • There is a consequent playing down of external and collective (unionization) issues

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business.[1] The terms “human resource management” and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel management” as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations.<ref name=”hrmhandbook” /> Human Resource management is evolving rapidly. Human resource management is both an

academic theory and a business practice that addresses the theoretical and practical techniques of managing a workforce.

The HRM Function in the organization plays the role of the unit taking care of the human capital. The HRM Function is responsible for the processes, which allow the organization to stay competitive on the external market and internally efficient.

Generally, the role and responsibilities of the HRM Function are defined well in theory, but the reality can be different from the organization to the organization. The HRM Function plays a different role in the manufacturing company and a completely different role it plays in the high tech IT Company. The investments needed to keep the current staff and the competition on the market usually define the playground for the HRM Function.

The HRM Function has to develop its role in the organization from the basis to the processes with the value added to the organization. The common route is to begin with the perfect services in the Personal Administration, Recruitment and Staffing and when the HRM Function is generally recognized as a “reliable Business Partner” to continue with other processes as the Leadership Development.

The value added HR Processes need a more recognized HRM Function in the organization or in the company. The HRM Function without credibility has no chance to introduce functioning value added processes and it needs to return to the basic processes to build its own credibility among the management population to have a trust.

Importance of HRM

As we know, the term ‘human resource management’ underlines a belief that people really make the difference, only people among other resources have the capacity to generate value. However, the human resource management is considered as the ‘Cinderella’ in the organization as its importance has not been discovered by the senior managers, in addition,

it has to share responsibilities with line managers, sometimes it takes more work than it is expected. Actions should be taken to help the Cinderella find her glass shoes.

Goal of HRM:

Human resource management is to help an organization to meet strategic goals by attracting, and maintaining employees and also to manage them effectively. The key word here perhaps is “fit”, i.e. a HRM approach seeks to ensure a fit between the management of an organization’s employees, and the overall strategic direction of the company (Miller, 1989).

The basic premise of the academic theory of HRM is that humans are not machines; therefore we need to have an interdisciplinary examination of people in the workplace. Fields such as psychology, industrial engineering, industrial, Legal/Paralegal Studies and organizational psychology, industrial relations, sociology, and critical theories: postmodernism, post-structuralism play a major role. Many colleges and universities offer bachelor and master degrees in Human Resources Management.

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.

Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

Objectives of HR

Objectives are benchmarks against which actions of an HRM department are evaluated. The following is one listing of these objectives:

SociMtal objective: To be socially responsible to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. The failure of organizations to use their resources for society’s benefit may result in restrictions. Societies may pass laws that limit human resource decisions.

Organizational objective: To recognize that HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. HRM is not an end in itself; it is only a means to assist the organization with its primary objectives. Simply stated, the department exists to serve the rest of the organization

Functional objective: To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Resources are wasted when HRM is more or less sophisticated than the organization demands. A department’s level of service must be appropriate for the organization it serves.

Personal objective: To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. Personal objectives of employees must be met if workers are to be maintained, retained and motivated. Otherwise, employee performance and satisfaction may decline, and employees may leave the organization.

Functions and Activities of HRM: The HRM Function is about a trust. To build the trust among the management population takes time and it cannot build over the night. The HRM Function has to work with a vision and this vision has to be sold the line management slowly. The HRM Function has to recognize the time as it cannot expect the perfect results immediately. To introduce efficient and working Performance Management System takes usually about 3 years to get proper results. There is no reason to expect a quicker implementation as the whole system is about employees and managers.

The HRM Function plays the role as the Finance Department plays in the organization. The HRM Function is not for a direct management of the processes, the HRM Function develops processes, procedures and tools for the top and line management to manage and conduct the processes in their own departments.

The HRM Function has to develop the management staff (and this is a direct responsibility of Human Resources and the top management) to work, manage and develop the employees in the organization correctly to ensure the organization healthiness.

The HRM Function is responsible for the following areas in the organization or the business:

  • Recruitment
  • Compensation and Benefits
  • Performance Management
  • Training
  • Reporting
  • Leadership Development
  • Personal Administration
  • Legal Compliant Processes

The HRM Function can be a strong player in the organization with a significant impact on the overall results of the organization. But also, in the organization its role and responsibility can be reduced on the pure Personal Administration, just taking care of satisfying the needs of the top and line management.

The function of Human Resources departments is generally administrative and common to all organizations. Organizations may have formalized selection, evaluation, and payroll processes. Efficient and effective management of “Human Capital” has progressed to an increasingly imperative and complex process. The HR function consists of tracking existing employee data which traditionally includes personal histories, skills, capabilities, accomplishments and salary. To reduce the manual workload of these administrative activities, organizations began to electronically automate many of these processes by introducing specialized Human Resource Management Systems. HR executives rely on internal or external IT professionals to develop and maintain an integrated HRMS. Before the “client-server” architecture evolved in the late 1980s, many HR automation processes were relegated to mainframe computers that could handle large amounts of data transactions. In consequence of the high capital investment necessary to purchase or program proprietary software, these internally-developed HRMS were limited to organizations that possessed a large amount of capital. The advent of client-server, Application Service Provider, and Software as a Service or SaaS Human Resource Management Systems enabled increasingly higher administrative control of such systems. Currently Human Resource Management Systems encompass:

  1. Payroll
  2. Work Time
  3. Benefits Administration
  4. HR management Information system
  5. Recruiting
  6. Training/Learning Management System
  7. Performance Record

The payroll module automates the pay process by gathering data on employee time and attendance, calculating various deductions and taxes, and generating periodic pay cheques and employee tax reports. Data is generally fed from the human resources and time keeping modules to calculate automatic deposit and manual cheque writing capabilities. This module can encompass all employee-related transactions as well as integrate with existing financial management systems.

The work time gathers standardized time and work related efforts. The most advanced modules provide broad flexibility in data collection methods, labor distribution capabilities and data analysis features. Cost analysis and efficiency metrics are the primary functions.

The benefits administration module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee participation in benefits programs. These typically encompass insurance, compensation, profit sharing and retirement.

The HR management module is a component covering many other HR aspects from application to retirement. The system records basic demographic and address data, selection, training and development, capabilities and skills management, compensation planning records and other related activities. Leading edge systems provide the ability to “read” applications and enter relevant data to applicable database fields, notify employers and provide position management and position control. Human resource management function involves the recruitment, placement, evaluation, compensation and development of the employees of an organization. Initially, businesses used computer based information systems to:

  • produce pay checks and payroll reports;
  • maintain personnel records;
  • Pursue Talent Management.

Online recruiting has become one of the primary methods employed by HR departments to garner potential candidates for available positions within an organization. Talent Management systems typically encompass:

  • analyzing personnel usage within an organization;
  • identifying potential applicants;
  • recruiting through company-facing listings;
  • Recruiting through online recruiting sites or publications that market to both recruiters and applicants.

The significant cost incurred in maintaining an organized recruitment effort, cross-posting within and across general or industry-specific job boards and maintaining a competitive exposure of availabilities has given rise to the development of a dedicated Applicant Tracking System, or ‘ATS’, module.

The training module provides a system for organizations to administer and track employee training and development efforts. The system, normally called a Learning Management System if a standalone product, allows HR to track education, qualifications and skills of the employees, as well as outlining what training courses, books, CDs, web based learning or materials are available to develop which skills. Courses can then be offered in date specific sessions, with delegates and training resources being mapped and managed within the same system. Sophisticated LMS allow managers to approve training, budgets and calendars alongside performance management and appraisal metrics.

Many organizations have gone beyond the traditional functions and developed human resource management information systems, which support recruitment, selection; hiring, job placement, performance appraisals, employee benefit analysis, health, safety and

Security, while others integrate an outsourced Applicant Tracking System that encompasses a subset of the above

In order to achieve the objectives of an organization, the HRM section or department must carry out a number of functions. The key functions of HRM can be summarized as the acquisition.

Acquisition: This is the ‘getting’ phase of HRM. It includes estimating both the future demand and supply for human resources and integrating these resources into a total human resource strategy. In other words, the objectives and future directions of the organization must be known before any reliable forecasts of people needs can be made.

Maintenance This is the ‘keeping’ function and involves providing benefits, services and working conditions that are needed if individuals are to remain committed to the workplace.

Development: This encompasses the whole domain of training and development, which has become a major area of concern and expense for organizations. Developing also includes the concepts of organizational change and development and how these processes impact upon employees.

Termination: This is the ‘saying goodbye’ activity and is sometimes known as the separation phase of employment. It involves such issues as retirement, redundancy, resignation and dismissal. These issues have become of major importance in organizations in recent years.

The HRM functions are broad sweeping. Within each of these functions there are a number of activities that human resource specialists must carry out if these functions are to be

 Fulfilled. Human resources activities are those actions taken to provide and maintain an appropriate workforce for the organization.

The five most common activities of HRM personnel in organizations are identified as:

  • Planning for human resource needs
  • staffing identified personnel need
  • Performance management and remuneration for employees
  •  Improving employees and the work environment
  • Establishing and maintaining effective working relationships.

The most essential function of HRM is given below:

Training and development: In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development.

Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. “Employee Development” was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship

Between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as “partners” or “associates” to be comfortable with. “Human Resource Development” was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that people were “resources” — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon “Learning and Development”, although that was itself not free from problems, “learning” being an over general and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other names.

Compensation and benefit: (CE) is a statistical term used in national accounts, Balance of Payments statistics and sometimes in corporate accounts as well. It refers basically to the total gross (pre-tax) wages paid by employers to employees for work done in an accounting period, such as a quarter or a year.

However, in reality, the aggregate includes more than just gross wages, at least in national accounts and balance of payments statistics. The reason is that in these accounts, CE is defined as “the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the latter during the accounting period”. It represents effectively a total labor cost to an employer, paid from the gross revenues or the capital of an enterprise.

Compensation of employees is accounted for on an accrual basis; i.e., it is measured by the value of the remuneration in cash or in kind which an employee becomes entitled to receive from an employer in respect of work done, during the relevant accounting period – whether paid in advance, simultaneously, or in arrears of the work itself. This contrasts with other inputs to production, which are to be valued at the point when they are actually used.

In UNSNA these items are conceptually included in the statistical aggregate:

  • Gross wages and salaries earned by employees and payable in cash.
  • Cash allowances, overtime pay, bonuses, commissions, tips, and gratuities if paid by the employer to the employee.
  • Remuneration in kind paid by the employer to the employee valued at purchaser’s prices, including meals and drinks, personal accommodation, uniforms worn outside of the workplace, vehicles or other durables provided for the personal use of employees, free personal travel, free personal fuel, recreational facilities, transport and parking subsidies, and crèches for the children of employees.
  • Real or imputed social contributions and income taxes to government payable by the employee in respect of employment.
  • The value of the social contributions in respect of labor hired, which are paid by employers – these may be actual social contributions payable by employers to social Security schemes or to private funded social insurance schemes for employees; or imputed social contributions by employers providing unfunded social benefits.
  • Income of students from paid work, including the value they contribute through work for an educational institution.
  • Income received by shareholders who are also employees of the corporation, and who receive paid remuneration (e.g. stock options) other than dividends.
  • Income by outworkers who are paid by an enterprise for work done.
  • the value of the interest foregone by employers when they provide loans to employees at reduced, or even zero rates of interest for purposes of buying houses, furniture or other goods or services.
  • Employee benefits and (especially in British English) benefits in kind (also called fringe benefits, perquisites, perqs or perks) are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. Where an
  • Employee exchanges (cash) wages for some other form of benefit, this is generally referred to as a ‘salary sacrifice’ arrangement. In most countries, most kinds of employee benefits are taxable to at least some degree.
  • Some of these benefits are: housing (employer-provided or employer-paid), group insurance (health, dental, life etc.), disability income protection, retirement benefits, daycare, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, vacation (paid and non-paid), social security, profit sharing, funding of education, and other specialized benefits.
  • The purpose of the benefits is to increase the economic security of employees.
  • The term per’s or perks is often used colloquially to refer to those benefits of a more discretionary nature. Often, perks are given to employees who are doing notably well and/or have seniority. Common perks are take-home vehicles, hotel stays, free refreshments, leisure activities on work time (golf, etc.), stationery, allowances for lunch, and—when multiple choices exist—first choice of such things as job assignments and vacation scheduling. They may also be given first chance at job promotions when vacancies exist.

Advantages of employee benefits

There are a number of advantages to employee benefits for both employer and employee.

Employer advantages

  • Helps attract and retain better qualified employees.
  • Provides high risk coverage at low costs easing the company’s financial burden.
  • Improves efficiency and productivity as employees are assured of security for themselves and their families.
  • Premiums are tax deductible as corporation expense, which means savings with quality coverage.

Employee advantages

  • Peace of mind leading to better productivity as employees are assured of provision for themselves and families in any mishap.
  • Employees with personal life insurance enjoy additional protection
  • Confidence in company’s EB schemes boost staff morale and pride in company
  • Employees enjoy cheaper rates negotiated through their employer than they could obtain as an individual

Employee disadvantages

In the UK these benefits are often taxed at the individual’s normal tax rate, which can pr Performance appraisal:

 Also known as employee appraisal, is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost and time). Performance appraisal is a part of career development.

Performance appraisals are regular reviews of employee performance within organizations

Generally, the aims of a performance appraisal are to:

  • Give feedback on performance to employees.
  • Identify employee training needs.
  • Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards.
  • Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, etc.
  • Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development.
  • Facilitate communication between employee and administration
  • Validate selection techniques and human resource policies to meet federal Equal Employment Opportunity requirements.

A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates and customers while also performing a self assessment. This is known as 360° appraisal. Forms good communication patterns

The most popular methods that are being used as performance appraisal process are:

  • Management by objectives
  • 360 degree appraisal
  • Behavioral Observation Scale
  • Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale

Trait based systems, which rely on factors such as integrity and conscientiousness, are also commonly used by businesses. The scientific literature on the subject provides evidence that assessing employees on factors such as these should be avoided. The reasons for this are two-fold:

1) Because trait based systems are by definition based on personality traits, they make it difficult for a manager to provide feedback that can cause positive change in employee performance. This is caused by the fact that personality dimensions are for the most part static, and while an employee can change a specific behavior they cannot change their personality. For example, a person who lacks integrity may stop lying to a manager because they have been caught, but they still have low integrity and are likely to lie again when the threat of being caught is gone.

2) Trait based systems, because they are vague, are more easily influenced by office politics, causing them to be less reliable as a source of information on an employee’s true performance. The vagueness of these instruments allows managers to fill them out based on who they want to/feel should get a raise, rather than basing scores on specific behaviors employees should/should not be engaging in. These systems are also more likely to leave a company open to discrimination claims because a manager can make biased decisions without having to back them up with specific behavioral information.

In the PTF Report it was claimed that “although annual Reports by ministries and departments are obligatory, they are hardly ever prepared and submitted to government, and where they, they are scanty and hardly confirms with any standards, either in terms of contents or format. The recommendation was that there should be target setting by ministries where concrete and measurable achievement can be inferred

Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well. Despite the confusion over how it should be exactly defined, performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success. Among the most commonly accepted theories of job performance comes from the work of John P. Campbell and colleagues. Coming from a psychological perspective, Campbell describes job performance as an individual level variable. That is, performance is something a single person does.

This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance which are higher level variables. There are several key features to Campbell’s conceptualization of job performance which help clarify what job performance means.

Performance versus Outcomes

First, Campbell defines performance as behavior. It is something done by the employee. This concept differentiates performance from outcomes. Outcomes are the result of an individual’s performance, but they are also the result of other influences. In other words, there are more factors that determine outcomes than just an employee’s behaviors and actions.

Campbell allows for exceptions when defining performance as behavior. For instance, he clarifies that performance does not have to be directly observable actions of an individual. It can consist of mental productions such as answers or decisions. However, performance needs to be under the individual’s control, regardless of whether the performance of interest is mental or behavioral.

The difference between individual controlled action and outcomes is best conveyed through an example. On a sales job, a favorable outcome is a certain level of revenue generated through the sale of something (merchandise, some service, insurance). Revenue can be generated or not, depending on the behavior of employees. When the employee performs this sales job well, she is able to move more merchandise. However, certain factors other than employees’ behavior influence revenue generated. For example, sales might slump due to economic conditions, changes in customer preferences, production bottlenecks, etc. In these conditions, employee performance can be adequate, yet sales can still be low. The first is performance and the second is the effectiveness of that performance. These two can be decoupled because performance is not the same as effectiveness.

Another closely related construct is productivity.[4] This can be thought of as a comparison of the amount of effectiveness that results from a certain level of cost associated with that Effectiveness. In other words, effectiveness is the ratio of outputs to inputs- those inputs being effort, monetary costs, resources, etc.

Utility is another related construct which is defined as the value of a particular level of performance, effectiveness, or productivity. Utilities of performance, effectiveness, and productivity are value judgments.

 Organizational Goal Relevance

Another key feature of job performance is that is has to be goal relevant. Performance must be directed toward organizational goals that are relevant to the job or role. Therefore, performance does not include activities where effort is expended toward achieving peripheral goals. For example, the effort put toward the goal of getting to work in the shortest amount of time is not performance (except where it is concerned with avoiding lateness).

Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization.

The term “management by objectives” was first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book ‘The Practice of Management’.[1]

The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course of actions and decision making. An important part of the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the employee’s actual performance with the standards set. Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved with the goal setting and the choosing the course of action to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfill their responsibilities.

Unique features and advantage of the MBO process

The principle behind Management by Objectives (MBO) is to create empowered employees who have clarity of the roles and responsibilities expected from them, understand their objectives to be achieved and thus help in the achievement of organizational as well as personal goals.

Some of the important features and advantages of MBO are:

  1. Motivation – Involving employees in the whole process of goal setting and increasing employee empowerment increases employee job satisfaction and commitment.
  2. Better communication and Coordination – Frequent reviews and interactions between superiors and subordinates helps to maintain harmonious relationships within the enterprise and also solve many problems faced during the period.
  3. Clarity of goals – With MBO, came the concept of SMART goals i.e. goals that are:
    1. Specific
    2. Measurable
    3. Achievable
    4. Relevant, and
    5. Time bound.

The goals thus set are clear, motivating and there is a linkage between organizational goals and performance targets of the employees.

The focus is on future rather than on past. Goals and standards are set for the performance for the future with periodic reviews and feedback.

In some sectors (Healthcare, Finance etc.) many add ER to make SMARTER, The ER can have many meanings including

For statistical purposes, the relationship of employer to employee exists, when there is an agreement, formal or informal, between an enterprise and a person, normally entered into voluntarily by both parties, whereby the person works for the enterprise, in return for remuneration in cash or in kind.

The remuneration is normally based on either the time spent at work, or some other objective indicator of the amount of work done

Recruitment and selection:

Refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm, or for a vacancy in a volunteer-based some components of the recruitment process, mid- and large-size organizations and companies often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. External recruitment is the process of attracting and selecting employees from outside the organization.

The recruitment industry has four main types of agencies: employment agencies, recruitment websites and job search engines, “headhunters” for executive and professional recruitment, and in-house recruitment. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews

Process

Job Analysis

The proper start to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis, to document the actual or intended requirement of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description and provides the recruitment effort with the boundaries and objectives of the search. [2] Oftentimes a company will have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed in the past. These job descriptions need to be reviewed or updated prior to a recruitment effort to reflect present day requirements. Starting recruitment with an accurate job analysis and job description insures the recruitment effort starts off on a proper track for success.

Sourcing

Sourcing involves 1) advertising, a common part of the recruiting process, often encompassing multiple media, such as the Internet, general newspapers, job ad newspapers, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, and campus graduate recruitment programs; and 2) recruiting research, which is the proactive identification of relevant talent who may not respond to job postings and other recruitment advertising methods done in #1. This initial research for so-called passive prospects, also called name-generation, results in a list of prospects who can then be contacted to solicit interest, obtain a resume/CV, and be screened (see below).

 Screening and selection

Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for skills, e.g. communication, typing, and computer skills. Qualifications may be shown through résumés, job applications, interviews, educational or professional experience, the testimony of references, or in-house testing, such as for software knowledge, typing skills, numeracy, and literacy, through psychological tests or employment testing. In some countries, employers are legally mandated to provide equal opportunity in hiring. Business management software is used by many recruitment agencies to automate the testing process. Many recruiters and agencies are using an Applicant tracking system to perform many of the filtering tasks, along with software tools for psychometric testing

HRM Policies:

Whatever the size of the organization and however the HRM function is structured and located, there will be a need to communicate to employees their terms and conditions of employment. These employment guidelines are usually reflected in the HRM policies. The HRM policies are general statements that serve to guide decision making. As guides rather than as hard and fast rules, policies are somewhat flexible, requiring interpretation and judgment in their use.

Structuring HRM Functions

Not all organizations carry out HRM activities in a formal or structured manner. The human resource function seems to undergo change as an organization grows. Small businesses seldom have a formal human resource unit. Rather, other managers or the manager himself or herself handle human resource functions. The main focus in these situations is usually hiring and retaining capable employees. As a firm grows, a separate staff function may be required to coordinate hum

When the organization’s human resource function becomes too much for one person to handle, separate sections are created and placed under the control of a human resource manager. These sections will usually perform tasks involving human resource manager. These sections will usually perform tasks involving human resource development, acquisition, compensation, benefits, training, health and safety, industrial relations, and termination. In still larger organizations, the human resource function takes on even more responsibility requiring even greater specialization. The importance an organization assigns to HRM is reflected in the status it has given in its hierarchy. There is evidence that over time this status has assumed increased significance as organizations have recognized
On the other hand, there has been evidence that many organizations are seeking flatter management structures and as a result are disbanding HR sections and dispersing these functions to line managers. Over expensive if there is no financial advantage to the individual from the benefit.

Data Analysis

Rupayan group of company is a very large company in our country. There are 21 company under rupayan group.Rupayan housing estate is one, specifically rupayan housing have no HR department, admin department is look after HR deparment.There are different category people are working here the head of Admin department is Mr. Akramul hossain ,I have collected all information from Mr. Nasir ,he is a assistant manager of admin department. According to MR. Nasir there are 100 managers, 200 executive and 250 ACS and 50 non ACS are working for rupayan housing estate.

According to Mr. Nasir different category of people are working for rupayan housing estate. There are different department under Rupayan housing estate.

  1. Admin department
  2. Marketing department
  3. Accounts and finance department
  4. Bill department
  5. Cr department
  6. Service department.

 For recruitment and selection company need offer different types of people for working with rupayan group. For selecting marketing give more preference that candidate must have proper knowledge about marketing- how to sell product? How to arrange customer? Sometimes company offer fresh graduate and for senior level like senior executive and manger they offer experienced people. Different department requires different educational background people. Admin department arrange all type of recruitment and selection .There are different types of recruitment and selection process: There are 30 Managers and executive are working for rupayan housing estate. All mangers and executive have good education background, most of them are post graduate and graduate and few are doctorate. There are also some Administrative client supports people are working for rupayan housing. Some people are not directly involved in job but they are highly involved in company work. Manager have minimum working experiance4-8 years and highest 16-20 years, NON –ACS have minimum 4 years and highest 8-12 years. The management always tries to give proper training of employee but sometimes mismanagement is occurred managers receive 80% training NON-ACS received 65% training almost.

Recruitment: Rupayan refers to the process of screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm, or for a vacancy in a volunteer-based some components of the recruitment process, organizations professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. The Rupayan housing estate has four main types of agencies: employment agencies, recruitment websites and job search engines, “headhunters” for executive and professional recruitment, and in-house recruitment. The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews.

Selection: Under selection, individuals with advantageous or “adaptive” traits tend to be more successful than their peers reproductively—meaning they contribute more offspring to the succeeding generation than others do. Rupayan housing estate traits have a genetic basis; selection can increase the prevalence of those traits, because offspring will inherit those traits from their parents. When selection is intense and persistent, adaptive traits become universal to the population or species, which may then be said to have evolved.

Training and development: The field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Rupayan prefers different level of training for its executive and manager. Rupayan housing estate believe” Employee Development” was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as “partners” or “associates” to be comfortable with. “Human Resource Development” was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that people were “resources” — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual.

For Training and development Rupayan housing estate encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities.

Performance appraisal: Performance appraisal, also known as employee appraisal, is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated (generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost and time). Performance appraisal is a part of career development.

Performance appraisals are regular reviews of employee performance within organizations

Rupayan housing estate performance appraisal is to:

  1. Give feedback on performance to employees.
  2. Identify employee training needs.
  3. Document criteria used to allocate organizational rewards.
  4. Form a basis for personnel decisions: salary increases, promotions, disciplinary actions, etc.
  5. Provide the opportunity for organizational diagnosis and development.

A common approach to assessing performance is to use a numerical or scalar rating system whereby managers are asked to score an individual against a number of objectives/attributes. In some companies, employees receive assessments from their manager, peers, subordinates and customers while also performing a self assessment. This is known as 360° appraisal.

Compensation & benefit:

In Rupayan housing estate, financial compensation may refer to:

Payment: A payment is the transfer of wealth from one party (such as a person or company) to another. A payment is usually made in exchange for the provision of goods, services or both, or to fulfill a legal obligation.

The simplest and oldest form of payment is barter, the exchange of one good or service for another. In the modern world, common means of payment by an individual include money, check, debit, credit, or bank transfer, and in trade such payments are frequently preceded by an invoice or result in a receipt. However, there are no arbitrary limits on the form a payment can take and thus in complex transactions between businesses, payments may take the form of stock or other more complicated arrangements.

In law, the payer is the party making a payment while the payee is the party receiving the payment.

Remuneration :

Wage or salary: A wage is compensation, usually financial, received by a worker in exchange for their labor.

Compensation in terms of wages is given to worker and compensation in terms of salary is given to employees. Compensation is a monetary benefit given to employees in returns of the services provided by them.

A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract. It is contrasted with piece wages, where each job, hour or other unit is paid separately, rather than on a periodic basis.

From the point of a view of running a business, salary can also be viewed as the cost of acquiring human resources for running operations, and is then termed personnel expense or salary expense. In accounting, salaries are recorded in payroll accounts.

Executive compensation: For executive Rupayan housing estate refers to six basic tools to compensation or remuneration.

  • a base salary
  • short-term incentives, or bonuses
  • long-term incentive plans (LTIP)
  • employee benefits
  • perquisites, or perks
  • compensation protection (Golden parachute)

Stock options

Supporters of stock options say they align the interests of CEOs to those of shareholders, since options are valuable only if the stock price remains above the option’s strike price. Stock options are now counted as a corporate expense (non-cash), which impacts a company’s income statement and makes the distribution of options more transparent to shareholders. Critics of stock options charge that they are granted excessively and that they invite management abuses such as the options backdating of such grants. Stock options also pose a conflict of interest in which a CEO can artificially raise the stock price to cash in stock options at the expense of the company’s long-term health, although this is a problem for any type of incentive compensation that goes unmonitored by directors. Indeed, “reload” stock options allow executives to exercise options and then replace them in part (and sometimes in whole), essentially selling the company stock short (i.e., profiting from the stock’s decline). For various reasons, including the accounting charge, concerns about dilution and negative publicity related to stock options, companies have reduced the size of grants to executives.

Stock options also incentivize executives to engage in risk-seeking behavior. This is because the value of a call option increases with increased volatility. (cf. options pricing). Stock options therefore – even when used legitimately – can incentivize excessive risk seeking behavior that can lead to catastrophic corporate failure.

Restricted stock

Executives are also compensated with restricted stock, which is stock given to an executive that cannot be sold until certain conditions are met and has the same value as the market price of the stock at the time of grant. As the size of stock option grants have been reduced, the number of companies granting restricted stock either with stock options or instead of has increased. Restricted stock has its detractors, too, as it has value even when the stock price falls. As an alternative to straight time vested restricted stock, companies have been adding performance type features to their grants. These grants, which could be called performance shares, do not vest or are not granted until these conditions are met. These performance conditions could be earnings per share or internal financial targets

Tax issues

Cash compensation is taxable to an individual at a high individual rate. If part of that income can be converted to long-term capital gain, for example by granting stock options instead of cash to an executive, a more advantageous tax treatment may be obtained by the executive.

Deferred compensation

Royalties

  • Nationalization compensation, compensation paid in the event of nationalization of property
  • Damages – legal term referring to the financial compensation recoverable by reason of another’s breach of duty; the money paid or awarded to a plaintiff
  • Workers’ compensation, to protect employees who have incurred work-related injuries. Example is the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act

The company used three types of method: According to Mr. Nasir rupayan housing estate refers three types of method

Statistical Analysis:  is considered by some to be a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data,[1] while others consider it to be a branch of mathematics[2] concerned with collecting and interpreting data.[3]Statisticians improve the quality of data with the design of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics also provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business.

Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called descriptive statistics. This is useful in research, when communicating the results of experiments. In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and are then used to draw inferences about the process or population being studied; this is called inferential statistics.

Inference is a vital element of scientific advance, since it provides a prediction (based in data) for where a theory logically leads. To further prove the guiding theory, these predictions are tested as well, as part of the scientific method. If the inference holds true, then the descriptive statistics of the new data increase the soundness of that hypothesis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (a.k.a., predictive statistics) together comprise applied statistics.[4]

There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject.

The word statistics can either be singular or plural.[5] In its singular form, statistics refers to the mathematical science discussed in this article

  • Computerized forecasting: Employees daily attendance, Salary forecasting and different types of segment are doing here.
  • Management judgment:  Management takes different types of decision when necessary. Employees recruited selection compensation and benefit all depends management decision.

The organization is used following types of test for developing employment skill: After selection MR. Shofiqul Islam (General Manager) admin take different type of test for selected employee

  • Tests of cognitive level: cognitive ability test and two types of job knowledge tests for predicting job performance. Further, I examined job knowledge as a mechanism through which cognitive ability affects performance. Finally, I examined both types of tests relative to specific propositions from stereotype threat theory. Specifically, I examined the propositions that perceptions of the tests may cause mean score differences between Blacks and Whites and compared the effects of test perceptions relative to both test types. Results demonstrated that job knowledge accounted for significantly more variance in task performance than cognitive ability. Furthermore, job knowledge completely mediated the effects of cognitive ability on performance. However, stereotype threat theory’s proposed test perceptions failed to account for mean test score differences between the two groups. Rather, Blacks’ misperceptions relative to what each test was designed to measure was found to be detrimental for test performance. Also, regardless of what the test was designed to measure, Blacks still perceived both types of tests as (stereotype) threatening.

Tests of physical ability: In 1994, approximately 1.4 million claims were filed for workers’ compensation in California alone. In fiscal year 1995, workers’ compensation payments cost California businesses $9.9 billion; however, this figure underestimates the total burden, since only about 60 percent of injured workers receive workers’ compensation. Total costs for work injury and disease in California probably exceed $14 billion, not including the costs of lost industrial productivity (NIOSH, 1997). Back injuries constitute about half of these claims.

A significant number of ADA claims against employers are for back injuries. These claims may be brought by current employees or job applicants. Since physicians have few means of truly assessing the functional capacity of workers during the replacement medical examinations, employers have little objective information as to whether the newly hired person is capable of performing strength demanding tasks or capable of returning to the job.

The ADA permits employers to set production standards and hiring qualifications. By investing the effort to set production standards and a policy of hiring the most qualified job applicant, employers can defend themselves against ADA claims with valid strength testing.

By determining the relationship between strength and job tasks and by setting a job-related standard, an employer can strength test job applicants to screen out those with a significant risk of back injury and persons with serious functional limitations. Persons who perform lifting tasks that are near their maximum capacity are 300 percent more likely to experience a disabling back injury than persons who perform job tasks well below their maximum capability.

By hiring the most qualified applicants (the strongest workers for jobs requiring high levels of strength), persons at high risk are avoided in the workplace.

Claims by persons who lack strength due to weakness have no

Simulation ability: Meeting the educational needs of the current generation of students, referred to as Gen Y students, is a pedagogical challenge. Research suggests that Gen Y students learn most effectively in environments where they are actively engaged and in control of their learning. The in-class learning simulation described in this paper is designed to appeal to the more active learning style of Gen Y students. The simulation focuses on the process flow and accounting for products in a job cost environment.

The simulation requires students to actively perform three different job functions in a manufacturing environment. First, they assume the role of inventory manager in which they receive and inventory raw materials. Second, they assume production roles, in which they analyze prototypes, order materials, build products, and accumulate production costs. Third, they assume the role of cost accountant. In this role, they account for the accumulation and application of product costs. By completing this simulation, students build a frame of reference for manufacturing production processes that should deepen their understanding of accounting in a production cost environment.

This simulation has a difficulty level appropriate for freshman and sophomores but can be easily adapted for upper level accounting classes. Several options for adaptability of content are presented in the instructor’s notes. The simulation is designed to follow lectures on the text material and takes approximately one hour of class time. It does not require any outside preparation by students. Prior students have rated this simulation as a very helpful hands-on learning experience that greatly enhanced their understanding of the job cost process.

Measuring personality &interest:

Personality tests are used to determine your type of personality, your values, interests and your skills. They can be used to simply assess what type of person you are or, more specifically, to determine your aptitude for a certain type of occupation or career.

Personality tests range from the five-minute Color Quiz which is supposed to determine your personality type by the colors you select, to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator which is one of the top-rated personality tests that helps assess your personality type and helps to explore career options.

There are a variety of tests that measure your intelligence or aptitude, inventory your skills and assess your ability to succeed in a career.

Aptitude

Aptitude tests measure your ability to acquire a skill or do a particular type of work. These are the type of tests employers typically use to screen candidates for employment. Self Assessment and Aptitude Tests are available online and, in many cases, are free. Tests are available on just about every topic. There are tests to determine whether you have an aptitude for sales or for firefighting, for example. You can even take a Circus Aptitude Test to find out if you should run away and join the circus!

Career

Career Tests are used to provide an indication of which jobs match your personality type and which careers you have an aptitude for. You can take a quick test online and get immediate result or take more extensive (and professional) tests to determine which careers might interest you.

Intelligence

Intelligence tests measure your intellectual functioning, or in plain language, how smart you are. They are designed to measure an individual’s mental skills. A person’s intelligent quotient (IQ) is a measure of intelligence derived from the results of specially designed tests. The quotient is determined by dividing an individual’s mental age by his chronological age and multiplying the result by 100.

Inventories
Inventories are checklists that you can use to identify factors which you relate to – and which you don’t. They measure how your interests match those of other people employed in certain occupations. Career inventories, like the Strong Interest Inventory, provide a summary of your interest areas and the occupations that match your interests.

Personality

Personality tests and other psychological tests measure your personal characteristics, your emotional makeup and your stability. They are often used by trained career counselors as a tool in the self-assessment part of the career planning process. Some of these tests can be personally interpreted online, others need a counselor to interpret them. Use our directory of Online Personality Tests to get a sense of what type of personality you have.

Take a break from the serious stuff and try some fun quizzes. You can measure your stress level, decide if you are burned out, assess how healthy you are or discover how you feel about love!

It’s important to note that none of these tests will provide you with a definite answer on what you should do with your life. Rather, you should use them as a tool to generate informed guesses and see them as one part of your overall career planning.

More Resources

Taking a career personality test is a little like playing “what do you want to be when you grow up?” with a twist. The twist is that personality tests can give you ideas about what you should do rather than you simply pondering what you want to do. Here are career tests you can take online and information on how they work

Work sample test:

Work sample tests are used to test applicants with tasks similar to those involved in the actual job. Examples include (but are not limited to) keyboard tests, computer application tests, data tests, non-standard letter/memo/report writing, verbal/written presentations and on-the-job simulations. Work sample tests are based on the premise that the best predictor of future behavior is observed behavior under similar situations.

Advantages

  • high reliability and realism to the actual job
  • high content validity since the work samples are a sample of the actual work performed on the job
  • typically more favorably viewed by examinees than other types of assessment methods because of their close similarity to the actual job
  • difficult for applicants to mislead or falsify competency, which enhances the validity between the test score and performance on the job
  • Work sample tests use equipment that is identical or similar to the actual equipment used on the job.

Disadvantages

  • may be costly to administer and replicate in a test environment
  • less effective at predicting performance on jobs where tasks typically take days or weeks to complete
  • less effective at measuring an applicant’s aptitudes, thus restricting the test to measuring ability to perform the work sample and not more difficult tasks that may be encountered on the job

Assessment centre:

The term ‘Assessment Centre’  can be defined as ‘A method for assessing aptitude and performance; applied to a group of participants by trained assessors using various aptitude diagnostic processes in order to obtain information about applicants’ abilities or development potential.’

As you can see, this does not refer to a location, but to a process which is being increasingly used by organizations to assess staff, either as part of the recruitment process or for internal promotion. Assessment Centres allow you to demonstrate aptitude and general skills related to the requirements of the job.

The Assessment Centre develops a set of varied exercises which are designed to simulate different aspects of the work environment. These exercises usually last from half-a-day to two full days. They are usually conducted at the employer’s training facility or in facilities provided by the HR consultancy, that have been contracted to design and conduct the testing.

the most common type of assessment centre exercises include:

An in-tray or in-basket exercise asks to assume a particular role as an employee of a fictitious company and work through the correspondence in your in-tray. This exercise is designed to measure your ability to organize and prioritize work.

In a presentation exercise, you will be given a topic or possibly a choice of topics and asked to make a presentation of around ten minutes with five minutes at the end for questions. This is designed to measure your presentation skills including your ability to organize and structure the information and to communicate your points clearly and concisely.

Group discussion exercises involve you working with other candidates as part of a team to resolve a presented issue. These exercises are designed to measure interpersonal skills such as group leadership, teamwork, negotiation, and group problem solving skills.

Panel interviews are regarded as a more objective means of assessing your suitability as you will be interviewed by between three and five people and therefore the decision is not reliant on just one person’s opinion. In addition, they are usually more structured than a one-to-one interview as the panel need to assess all of the candidates against the same criteria.

The expense of conducting an assessment centre is usually somewhere between $1,000 and $5,000 per candidate. This tends to restrict their use to situations where the costs can

Be justified in terms of preventing high expenses associated with unsuitable personnel e.g. high staff turnover or poor job performance resulting in low productivity.

Assessment centers are seen as one of the most effective ways of identifying top candidates who’ll get on well with others and fit in with the organizations culture. According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development’s ‘Recruitment, Retention and Turnover 2004 Survey’, 34 per cent of employers now use assessment centers when recruiting managers, professionals and graduates. This figure will inevitably grow as organizations seek to make more accurate selection and promotion decisions.

The assessment centre method is utilized in a variety of settings including industry and business, government, armed forces, educational institutions, and safety forces to select individuals for supervisory, technical, sales, or management positions. One recent trend is in the development of mass testing. This is done by video-taping candidates as they perform various exercises and by using objectively scored exercises. This permits the assessment of a much larger number of candidates per day as the scoring is done later and requires far less observation and administration.

Assessment centers are usually used after the initial stages of the selection process, because of the large amount of time and expense in conducting them, and usually follow the initial job interview. Other measurements such as psychological tests may complement the selection process. They are commonly held either on employers’ premises or in a hotel and are considered by many organizations to be the fairest and most accurate method of selecting staff. This is because a number of different selectors get to see you over a longer period of time and have the chance to see what you can do, rather than what you say you can do, in a variety of situations

Assessment Centres may be conducted by HR personnel within the employer company or by outside consultants. They are highly structured in their design, application, and assessment procedure and are specifically adapted to assess factors such as your level of skills, aptitude and compatibility with the organization’s culture. Each test measures a range of indicators within these factors.

During each test, a group of observers will rate you on a range of set indicators, using a prescribed performance scale. Results are then cross compared against the same indicators, which are measured in other tests. Following test completion, observers meet to discuss the test results and reach a group consensus about your ratings.

At the beginning of the assessment, you should receive an initial briefing about the timetable of tests, location of rooms etc. Prior to each test, you will be given instructions describing the exercise, your role, timeframe’s, equipment etc. You will not be told in detail about the individual indicators which will be measured. In addition, you are unlikely to receive feedback on your results, unless you have been successfully selected.

There are different types of interview method are following by the company:

Structured interview: A structured interview (also known as a standardized interview or a researcher-administered survey) is a quantitative research method commonly employed in survey research. The aim of this approach is to ensure that each interviewee is presented with exactly the same questions in the same order. This ensures that answers can be reliably aggregated and that comparisons can be made with confidence between sample subgroups or between different survey periods.

Structured interviews are a means of collecting data for a statistical survey. In this case, the data is collected by an interviewer rather than through a self-administered questionnaire. Interviewers read the questions exactly as they appear on the survey

Questionnaire. The choice of answers to the questions is often fixed (close-ended) in advance, though open-ended questions can also be included within a structured interview.

A structured interview also standardizes the order in which questions are asked of survey respondents, so the questions are always answered within the same context. This is important for minimizing the impact of context effects, where the answers given to a survey question can depend on the nature of preceding questions. Though context effects can never be avoided, it is often desirable to hold them constant across all respondents.

  • Depth interview: Conducted usually on one to one basis, an IDI is designed to reveal the underlying motives of the interviewee’s attitudes, behavior, and perceptions. Research technique conducted in person in the field (rather than in the researcher’s office) by a trained interviewer for the purpose of learning the motivation of consumers in the purchase decision process. In the unstructured home environment, the interviewer interacts with respondents and encourages them (usually in a one-on-one situation) to freely express their opinions, ideas, feelings, thoughts, and attitudes. The objective is to go beyond the superficial and to probe into consumer behavior. Depth interviews, along with focus group interviews, are helpful in the evaluation of consumer reaction to a product or service.

Recommendations

A primarily prepaid high growth potential Bangladesh’s real estate market has been almost doubling in client base since 1985 and yet is at a mere 45.9% penetration level. With this significant growth prospects for an over five-fold increase in client base in the long term. On the flipside, relatively low GDP per capital levels to rest of the region combined with other economic and demographic factors make it a low predominantly prepaid market even in this early growth phase.

Considering the report and analyzing it these following recommendations are presented:

despite the low tale-density of Bangladesh and REHAB strong subscriber growth (historical  of 97%) since 1995, REHAB has to expansion premium of more than 5x over the vendor shares, so that a substantial portion of their  investment will be channeled to the company to develop housing infrastructure. At the same time, have to appoint a chief technology officer (CTO), a chief operating officer (COO) and managerial-level finance position, as well as three of the seven members of the board.
Also they have to increase the number of Properties from the current 50 to up to 100 to increase coverage.

Rupayan housing estate current strategy remains revenue driven, rather than client driven. They have to now focus on subscriber. However, rehab potential holding expansion would enlarge its subscriber market share effectively, as supply continues to lag demand in Bangladesh, although the respective line yield is difficult to determine at this juncture.

According to the HR side there still need some improvements which are given below:

  • Different KPI or employee evaluation systems with in different department which is more complicated to evaluate. See. Appendix
  • Only few people handle all evaluation procedure.
  • There is no standard format for higher level evaluation
  • There is no 360 degree evaluation system.
  • Performance based on only yearly base evaluation process.
  • No feedback guidance after evaluation.
  • Poor software utilization, where it works only for database management.

 

rupayan group

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