Introduction:

The Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha is the capital development authority of Dhaka in Bangladesh. The important and major activities of Rajuk are Planning that includes physical development, planning & designing the city & construction. Developmental Control, Organizing Seminars & Workshops on urban issues & represent the city and Bangladesh around the world. RAJUK exercise development control function as per provisions laid down in the East Bangal Building construction Act, 1952 and its subsequent Amendments and the Rules & By-laws framed there under. Every construction/erection/excavation with in the jurisdiction of RAJUK requires permission/approval from the Authorized Officer or Building Construction Committee appointed under the provision of the Town Improvement Act, 1953. Any type of building construction, housing, commercial, industrial and whatsoever need planning permission and they must be in conformity with the land use provision of Master Plan/Urban Area Plan/Detailed Area Plans of different SPZ’s. Building as defined in the existing building construction Rules includes a home, hut, wall and any other structure where masonry bricks, corrugated iron sheet, metal, tires, wood, bamboo, muds, leaves, grass, thatch or any other materials whatsoever. The Rules are updated time to time as per requirements. At present, two Building Construction Committees in force in which the Authorized Officers has been working as member-secretary of the committee.

What Urbanization is?

Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.

It refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization.

Urbanization indicates a change of employment structure from agriculture and cottage industries to mass production and service industries.

Why Urbanization?

Urbanization occurs naturally from individually and corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commenting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs education, housing and transportation. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage to the opportunities of proximity, diversity and market place competition.

Bangladesh is a agricultural country. When industrial revolution occurred in 18th century it also influenced of our country. The number of industry is icreasing day by day in our country. Most of the industries of Bangladesh exits in Dhaka city. Urbanization process developed thought this industrialization

Major Urban Bodies in Dhaka Cities

Urbanization promises better faculties to the citizen. For this there are lot of authorized bodies are established in Dhaka city. Such as:-

1. RAJUK
2. ii.                 WASA
3. iii.              PWD
4. iv.               DCC
5. v.                 UDD
6. vi.               HSD
7. vii.            RHD

Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK)

Background

In 1947, when India was partitioned, Dhaka became the seat of the provincial government of East Pakistan. The population increased from 0.28 million in 1951 to around 1.2 million in 1971. As the Capital of Bangladesh, which emerged as an independent country after the War of Liberation in 1971, Dhaka has now become one of the fasted growing cities in the world and its population is likely to exceed 10 million by this time. Although efforts have been made in the past to plan the growth of the City from a district town to one of the largest cities in the world, most have been unsuccessful. As a result, the living conditions have deteriorated very rapidly and the social as well as physical infrastructure are on the verge of collapse. Immediate actions are necessary to bring some discipline to the future growth of the city.

Formation of The Dhaka Improvement Trust (DIT)

The ‘Dhaka Improvement Trust’ (DIT) was established in 1956 under the provision of the Town Improvement Act -1953’ (TI Act 1953). The objectives of the Act are aiming to improve physical and urban condition of the Dhaka City. DIT was a corporate body having supreme planning and development control power within its jurisdiction.

Governance and Trustee Board:

To govern DIT, a Trustee Board was constituted with Seven Members as per provisions of the Town Improvement Act 1953. Two other Members included when the district of Narayanganj incorporated within the jurisdiction of DIT. The Chairman and three other Trustees were appointed by the government notification. The members of the Trustee Board were chosen from different service agencies and different professions to involve and contribute in the development process of Dhaka. The Chairman of Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, the Deputy Commissioner of Dhaka, the Chairman of Dhaka Municipal Committee, the Chief Engineer of Public Health and Engineering Department, and the Chairman of Narayanganj Municipal Committee were ex-officio Trustees.

Functions of Board:

The Trustee Board was involved in policy making, planning and development control of Dhaka. Conventionally, the Board called on general and special meeting to take decisions and actions on raising problems. The major functions of the organization dealt with preparation of development plans, widening roads and reduce congestions, lay out plans for better traffic circulation, providing open spaces for recreation, demolishing or constructing buildings and construction of roads, bridges and culverts. Acquiring of land under Town Improvement Act 1953 for area development, providing urban facilities and services for public uses and for improvement schemes.

Emergence of the Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK)

[The Capital Development Authority]

The Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK) had been emerged through the ongoing crisis of planned and controlled development of Dhaka City. RAJUK established in April 30, 1987 by replacing Dhaka Improvement Trust (DIT). The prime intension of the organization was to develop, improve, extend and manage the city and the peripheral areas through a process of proper development planning and development control.

Governance and Executive Bodies:

Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK) structured and governed by the Chairman and five other Members appointed by the Government. They are full time officials and the Chairman is the Chief Executive of the Authority. The overall responsibilities and functions of the Chairman and the Members are prescribed and assigned by the government. The Chairman presides all the meetings of the Authority. Special meeting commences at the request of the Chairman to address urgently raised issues. In his absence, a Member authorized by the Chairman preceded the meeting.

Organizational Structure (Organ-gram):

The existing structure of the organization stands with the old version of Organogram having 728 officials of which 140 officials under Planning Section are shown the working strength of the Authority. At that time RAJUK comprised an area of 320 sq ml after then RAJUK has extended an area up to 590 sq ml under its jurisdiction, whereas the number of officials only increased up to 1081 of which Planning Section provided for total 253 officials according to the proposal of the new Organogram prepared and placed in 1987. This Organogram has been approved by the Establishment and pending for clearance from the Finance. It seemed to unrealistic and absolutely insufficient to cope the huge area including 3 more pourashavas and existing DCC area. The ratio of manpower is less than 2 persons per 3 sq ml and most of them non-professional and unskilled. The organonogram having the number of 1081 officials is still not sufficient enough to handle the increasing pressure. In 1992, RAJUK started to execute the Dhaka Metropolitan Development Planning (DMPD) Project having recruited officials who involved with the Planning Team in the process of plan preparation for Dhaka. In 1995, the project was completed and according to the TAPP, the trained and skilled Project Officials are then ready to absorb in the main set up of RAJUK for strengthen institutional capabilities.

Meanwhile, an order circulated by the Ministry of Establishment on the basis of the proposal for recruitments of 78 project officials within the RAJUK’s main setup. The posts of 57 Project officials been approved by the Establishment for absorption in the present set up of RAJUK form 1st July 1996. In this view the Establishment has been proposed through notification that 57 officials to be merged in addition to the proposed Organogram of 1081, which now has been placed in the Finance for final approval. According to this order the manpower of Planning Department will be increased up to 308 (253 + 55). The order of Establishment now been approved by the Ministry of Finance by proposing 55 posts out 57 posts of which included with the existing 253 post and will remain under planning department of RAJUK. The conflicts between RAJUK and Project Officials become the main issue in placing Project Officials in the main set up. In view of this problem another Organogram having the posts of 1232 officials have been proposed in October 1999 to the concern Ministry for approval. Of this Organogram, Planning Section of RAJUK concerns 318 officials of which 68 new officials are to be posted under Chief Architect. This Organonogram have partially been implemented through the appointment of two Authorized Officers with the existing two posts of Authorized Officer by an order issued in February 2001. There is need some corrections according to the volume and pressure of works on RAJUK’s present activities. With the available manpower resources an organization like RAJUK never be able to achieve the target and goal at its optimum, and the service will remain at the distance, which people do not expect and deserve.

Organoram of Rajuk:

Personal Secretary

1. Secretary

i.      Deputy Secretary (Personnel and General Administration)

1. Assistant Secretary  (Personnel-1)
2. Assistant Secretary  (Personnel-2)

ii.      Deputy Secretary (Board and Coordination)

1. Assistant Secretary (Board)
2. Assistant Secretary (Coordination and Collection)
3. Assistant Secretary (Human Relation)
4. Director (Land)

i.      Deputy Director

ii.      Assistant Director (Land)

1. Law-officer
2. Magistrate
3. Member (Estate)
1. Director

i.      Deputy Director (Estate-1)

1. Assistant Director-1
2. Assistant Director-2

ii.      Deputy Director (Estate-1)

1. Assistant Director-1
2. Assistant Director-2

iii.      Deputy Director (Estate-1)

1. Assistant Director-1
2. Assistant Director-2
3. Member (Finance)
1. Director (Execution)

i.      Deputy Director (Execution)

1. Assistant Director (Internal Execution)
2. Assistant Director (External Execution)
3. Director (Finance and Account)

i.      Deputy Director (Accounts)

1. Assistant Director (Pension Cell)
2. Assistant Director (Capital)
3. Assistant Director (Revenue)

ii.      Deputy Director (Finance and Budget)

1. Assistant Director (Fund and General Account)
2. Assistant Director (Finance and Budget)
1. Member (Planning)
1. Director (Urban Planning)

i.      Deputy Director (Architectiture)

ii.      Deputy Director (Urban Planning Head office)

iii.      Deputy Director (Research)

iv.      Deputy Director (North East Urban Planning)

v.      Deputy Director (North West Urban Planning)

vi.      Deputy Director (South East Urban Planning)

vii.      Deputy Director (South West Urban Planning)

1. Director (Development Control)

i.      Authorized Officer (Design Approval-1, 2, 3)

ii.      Assistant Engineer

1. System Analyst

i.      Deputy Director (GIS)

ii.      Deputy Director (MIS)

1. Director (Plan Formulation)

i.      Director (Planning Formulation)

1. Deputy Director (Research and Documentation)
2. Deputy Director (Statistic Planning)
3. Deputy Director (Economics and Analysis)
4. Deputy Director (Urban Planning)
5. Deputy Director (Supervision and Evaluation)
6. Executive Engineer (Utility Planning)
7. Executive Engineer (Transportation and water Resources Planning)
8. Deputy Director (GIS)
9. Member (Development)
1. Chief Engineer
2. Caretaker Engineer (Project and Design)

i.      Executive Engineer (Project)

ii.      Executive Engineer (Design)

1. Caretaker Engineer (Implementation)

ii.      Executive Engineer (Implementation)

1. Caretaker Engineer (Electronic and Technical)

i.      Executive Engineer (Technical)

ii.      Executive Engineer (Electric)

iii.      Executive Engineer (Asset)

Total Human Resources

 Serial Positions No. of Positions 01 Chairman 01 02 Member 05 03 Secretary 01 04 Chief Architect 01 05 Director 07 06 Caretaker Architect 03 07 System Analyst 01 08 Deputy Secretary 02 09 Deputy Director 22 10 Executive Engineer 13 11 Magistrate 04 12 Authorized Officer 01 13 Programmer 01 14 Law Officer 01 15 Assistant Director 32 16 Assistant Secretary 07 17 Assistant Engineer 24 18 Assistant Architect 01 19 Assistant Authorized Officer 04 20 Statistician 01
 First Class- 136 Second Class- 116 Third Class- 487 Fourth Class 348 Total- 1087

Provisions of Rajuk formation and Chairman:

According to TI  Act, 1953, [4. (1) The Kartripakkha shall consists of a Chairman and not more than five other members.

(2) The Chairman and other members shall be appointed by the Government on such terms and conditions as it may determine.

(3) The Chairman and other members shall be the whole time officers of the Kartripakkba.

(4) The Chairman shall be the chief executive officer of the Kartripakkha.

(5) The Chairman and other members shall exercise such powers and perform such functions as may be prescribed, or as may be assigned to them by the Government from time to time.

(6) If a vacancy occurs in the office of the Chairman or if the Chairman is unable to discharge the functions of his office on account of absence, illness or any other cause, the Government shall make such arrangement for discharging the functions of the office of Chairman as it may consider expedient.

Functions and Responsibilities of Chairman:

Chairman has the power to control all the employees, as being mentioned in 36 of TI Act, 1953, ‘The Chairman shall exercise supervision and control over the acts and proceedings of all employees of the [Kartripakkha]; and, subject to the foregoing sections, shall dispose of all questions relation to the service of the said employees and their pay, privileges and allowances: According to 36 of TI Act, 1953, The Chairman shall exercise supervision and control over the acts and proceedings of all employees of the [Kartripakkha]; and, subject to the foregoing sections, shall dispose of all questions relation to the service of the said employees and their pay, privileges and allowances.

And According to 37 of the TI Act,Delegation of certain functions of Chairman is. [(1) The Chairman may, by general or special order in writing. delegate to any member or officer of the Kartripakkha any of the Chairman’s powers, duties or functions under this Act or any rule or regulation make thereunder except those conferred or imposed upon or vested in him by sections 27, 29 and 31.] (2) The exercise or discharge of any powers, duties or func-tions delegated under sub-section (1) shall be subject to such conditions and limitations if any, as may be prescribed in the, said order, and also to control and revision by the Chairman. According to 26 of TI Act, 1953, The [Kartripakkha] may enter into and perform all such contracts as they may consider necessary or expedient for carrying out any of the purposes of this Act.

Other personnel:

In Article 32 of TI Act, 1953, it is discussed about personnel. As mentioned like that, ‘The [Kartripakkhaj shall, from time to time prepare, and shall maintain a statement showing─ (a) the number, designations and grades of the employees (other than employees who are paid by the day or whose pay is charged to temporary. work) whom they consider it neci ssary and proper to employ for the purposes of this Act,

(b) the amount and nature of the salary, fees and allowances to be paid to each such employee, and

(c) The contribution payable under section 160 in respect of each such employee.

According to Article 34 (1), Subject to the provisions of this Act, the [Kartri-pakkha] may determine, from time to time, what officers and other employees are necessary for the performance of its functions, may also engage such experts and consultants, as it may consider necessary for the said purpose, and may fix the salaries, fees and allowances to be paid to such officers, employees, experts and consultants: kartripakkha]. [Provided that prior approval of the Government shall be necessary for creation of posts carrying pay in a scale above the Modified New Scales of Pay of Tk.2800-4425:].Provided further that the creation of any post shall be subject to specific provision being made in the approved budget in that behalf.  (2) The [Kartripakkha] shall be liable to pay such contribution for leave allowance and pension of any servant of the [Government] employed as Chairman or an employee of the [Kartripakkha], as may be required by the condition of his service under the [Government], as the case may be, to be paid by him or on his behalf.]

Personnel Management System: here it is discussed personnel system of Rajuk in below:

Recruitment system:

1. According to the constitution, article 29(3), to fill the permanent vacant position, recruitment procedures are as follows-
• Direct recruitment
•  with promotion
• With motivation and transfer
1. Any person can not be recruited if he/she does not fulfill the required qualification. In the case of direct recruitment, if any person does not suit the required age, then the condition is as follows:- If any person is already recruited on adhoc basis.

Direct recruitment

1. Any person will not be eligible for direct recruitment if he/she-
• Isn’t the citizen of Bangladesh
1. No direct recruitment in any post if-
• He/she isn’t fit physically certified by any medical officer.
• The past activities of such seleted person isn’t inspected by the appropriate agency and when they are inspected, it is not seen that he is not eligible to recruit in RAJUK.
1. Any person is not recommended to recruit in any post if-
• He/she does not submit the application form (if necessary) on the deadline which is mentioned in the advertisement by the authority.
• He/she submit the application form to chief executive officer while engaging in govt. job.

Recruitment through promotion:

1. Any person is recruited through the promotion based on the recommendation of related selection commission.
2. Any person can get promotion on the basis of seniority
3. Recruitment will be according to the 5th rank of national pay scale or the scales up to it or according to the A.C.R
4. Any person employed in the service may be promoted by his extra ordinary contribution, punctuality or to pass any respective examination.

Motivation and pre-conditional recruitment:

1. If any private organization feels the need to have the assistance of any officer of RAJUK, the organization will apply to the RAJUK. The assistance will be offered according to the consideration of RAJUK to that organization.

The following conditions will also be included-

• Duration of deputation will not be more than 3 years.
• Any person recruited to any private organization by RAJUK will go to his own office after the respective duration.
• The organization which will take the assistance from RAJUK will pay for his service.
• If any person is permitted for the deputation activities, he will be offered monetary help and other assistance according to their mentioned rule.

Selection committee:

1. There will be a selection committee comprising 5 members including 1 person selected by ministry of public works and such committee will be formed time to time to the need

The selection committee will recommend for the recruitment and for the promotion of employees.

Salary and Allowances

1. Salary and Allowances: Salary and allowances will be given to personnel in the same time if govt. wants.
2. 2. Primary salary :
• The first recruitment salary will be determined the primary salary of personnel.
• Recruitment according to merit.
• Maintenance of salary according to the direction of the govt.
1. Salary for promotion: salary will be increased according to the promotion.
2. Salary increase

(1). of incensement of salary is not in postponed, generally incensement of salary will be granted timely that determined.

(2). If incensement of salary is postponed, yhtn how long it postponed, that will must be noticed by the related authority.

(3). If any apprentice does not complete his course period successfully and does not permanent in job, he will not get any opportunity of incensement of salary.

(4). for praise worthy or outstanding performance the recruitment authority can increase twice incensement of salary to any personnel.

Punishment:

1. Discipline and Behavior
• Any employee should not be involved in politics
• Would not be dishonest
• Should not be absent without permission of authority.
• Does not take any gift from the client who has any transaction with RAJUK.
• Should not work as an agent of any insurance company.
• Should not be involved in any business activities.
• Without the permission of higher authority, the personnel should not be involved in any job with or without payment.
• Should not be involved in part-time job without the permission of regarding authority.
• The personnel can not apply directly any personal application to any member of RAJUK; if necessary he or she can present it to RAJUK through the immediate senior officer.
• The personnel cannot impose any political pressure for any job related demand.
• The personnel can not lobby with any political leader for interfering in job related mater.
• Can not communicate with media about the matter of RAJUK.
• The personnel should leave debt habitually.

Basis of punishment:

According to authority, the basis of punishment will be if any personnel convicted on-

• Misbehave
• Negligence on duty
• Escape from duty
• Inefficient or lost efficiency
• Corruption, robbery and cheating

Punishments:

Under the rules, there have two types of punishments:-

1. Minimum punishment:

1. -Insult

-stop promotion on salary

Cutting the amount of about seven days from basic salary

2. Maximum punishment:

-demotion

-decrease the salary

-suspension from job

Financial Provisions and Systems of Rajuk

Finance is one of the lead construction actors in the development process of Rajuk.  The main activities include construction of roads, box culverts and bridges and also development excavation and billion of land as well as everything depends on finance. They collect their finance basically from taxes, revenue, rent from lease land and also from govt donations. Then they expend these for urban development and to serve their actual purposes.

Financial Provisions: TI Act, 1953 provides financial provisions; here it is discussed in below about the provisions. Later, sources are discussed

Article [103.(1) of TI Act,1953-

The Corporation or Pourashava shall pay from the Corporation or Pourashava Fund to the Kartripakkha on the first day of each quarter a sum equivalent to one-half percent per quarter on the annual value of buildings and lands determined under the provisions of the Dacca Municipal Corporation Act, 1974 (LVI of 1974), or the Pourashava Ordinance, 1977 (XXVI of 1977), as it stood on the first day of the last preceding quarter.

(2) The Corporation or Pourashava contributions prescribed by sub-section (1) shall be expenditure charged on the Corporation or Pourashava Fund.]

Article 104 of TI Act,1953

The [Kartripakkha] may from time to time borrow, at such rate of interest, and for such period, and upon such terms, as to the time and method of repayment and otherwise, as the [Government] may approve, any sum necessary for the purpose of—

(a) meeting expenditure debitable to the capital account under section 137, or

(b) repaying any loan previously taken under this Act.

Article 105 of TI Act,1953

Whenever the borrowing of any sum has been approved under section 104, the [Kartripakkha] may, instead of borrowing such sum or any part thereof from the public, take credit from any Bank, on a cash account to be kept in the name of the [Kartripakkha], to the extent of such sum or part ; and, with the previous sanction of the [Government] may grant mortgages of all or any property vested in the [Kartripakkha] by way of securing the payment of the amount of such credit or of the sums from time to time advanced on such cash account with interest.

Article 106 of TI Act,1953

When any sum of money has been borrowed under section 104 or section 105 for the purpose of meeting particular expenditure or repaying a particular loan, no portion thereof shall be applied to any other purpose without the previous sanction of the [Government].

Article 107. (1)  of TI Act,1953

Whenever money is borrowed by the [Kartripakkha] on debentures, the debentures shall be in such form as the [Kartripakkha], with the previous sanction of the [Government], may from time to time determine.

(2) All debentures shall be signed by the Chairman and one other [member].

(3) The holder of any debenture in any form prescribed under sub-section (1) may obtain in exchange therefor, upon such terms as the [Kartripakkha] may from time to time determine, a debenture in any other form so prescribed.

(4) Every debenture issued by the [Kartripakkha] shall be transferable by endorsement, unless some other mode of transfer be prescribed herein.

(5) The right to sue in respect of moneys secured’ by debentures issued by the [Kartripakkha] shall vest in the respective holders of the debentures for the time being, without any preference by reason of some of such debentures being prior in date to others.

Article108 of TI Act, 1953-

All coupons attached to the debentures issued under this Act shall bear the signature of the Chairman ; and such signature may be engraved, lithographed or impressed by any mechanical process.

Article 109 of TI Act, 1953-

When any debenture or security issued under this Act is payable to two or more persons jointly, and either or any of them dies, then, rs of a deceased person against such survivor or survivors.

Article 110 of TI Act, 1953-

Where two or more persons are joint holders of any debenture or secrurity issued under this Act, a,y one of such persons may give an effectual receipt for any interest or dividend payable in respect of such debenture or security, unless notice to the contrary has been given to the [Kartripakkha] by any other of such persons.

Artilce 111 of TI Act, 1953-

All payments due from the [Kartripakkha] for interst on, or the repayment of, loans, shall be made in priority to all other payments due from the [Kartripakkha].

Article 112 of TI Act, 1953-

Every loan taken by the Board under section 104 shall be repaid within the period approved by the [Government] under that section, and, subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 139, by such of the following methods as may be so approved, namely :—

(a) from a sinking fund established under section 113 in respect of the loan, or

(b) by paying equal yearly or half yearly instalments of principal, or of principal and interest, throughout the said period, or

(c) if the [Kartripakkha] have, before borrowing money on debentures, reserved, by public notice, a power to pay off the loan by periodical instalments and to select by lot the particular debentures to be discharged at particular periods-then by paying such instalments at such periods, or

(d) from money borrowed for the purpose

(e) partly from the sinking fund established under section 113 in respect of the loan, and partly from money borrowed for the purpose under section 104, clause (b).

Article 113. (1) of TI Act, 1953-

Whenever the [Government] have approved the repayment of a loan from a sinking fund, the [Kartripakkha] shall establish such a fund and shall pay into it in every year, until the loan is repaid, a sum so clalculated that, if regularly paid throughout the period approved by the [Government] under section 104, it would, with accumulations in the way of compound interest, be sufficient, after payment of all expenses, to pay off the loan at the end of that period.

(2) The rate of interest, on the basis of which the sum referred to in sub-section (1) shall be calculated, shall be such as may be prescribed by the [Government].

Article 114 of TI Act, 1953-

Notwithstanding anything contained in section 113, if at any time the sum standing at the credit of the sinking fund established for the repayment of any loan, is of such amount that, if allowed to accoumulate at the rate of interest prescribed under sub-section (2) of that section, it will be sufficient to repay the loan at the end of the period approved by the [Government] under section 104, then, with the permission of the [Government], further annual payments into such funds may be discontinued.

Article 115 (1) of TI Act, 1953-

All money paid into any sinking fund shall, as soon as possible, be invested, under the orders of the [Kartripakkha], in—

(a) Government securities, or

(b) Securities granted by the [Government], or

(c) Debentures issued by the [Kartripakkha],

in the joint names of the Secretary to the Government [ in the Ministry or Division dealing with Finance and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of Bangladesh, hereinafter referred to as the Auditor-General, to be held by them as trustees] for the purpose of repaying from time to time the debentures issued by the [Kartripakkha].

(2) All dividends and other sums received in respect of any such investment shall, as soon as possible after receipt, be paid into the appropriate sinking fund and invested in the manner prescribed in sub-section (1).

(3) Any investment made under this section may from time to time, subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), be varied or transposed.

Article 116 of TI Act, 1953-

The aforesaid 4[Trustees] may from time to time apply any sinking fund, or any part thereof, in or towards the discharge of the loan or any part of the loan for which such fund was established ; and until such loan is wholly discharged shall shall not apply the same for any other purpose.

Article 116. (1) of TI Act, 1953-

The aforesaid [Trustees] shall, at the end of every financial year, transmit to the Chairman of a statement showing—

(a) The amount which has been invested during the year under section 115,

(b) The date of the last investment made previous to the transmission of the statement,

(c) The aggregate amount of the securities held by them,

(d) The aggregate amount which has, up to the date of the statement, been applied under section 116 in or towards repaying loans, and

(e) The aggregate amount already paid into each sinking fund.

Article 118 of TI Act, 1953-

The said sinking funds shall be subject to annual examination by the [Auditor-General], who shall ascertain whether the cash and the current value of the securities at credit of such funds are actually equal to the amount which would have accumulated, had investments been regularly made and had the rate of interest as originally estimated been obtained there from.

The [Auditor-General] may take into consideration any excees accumulation in any one sinking fund towards any deficiency in any other sinking fund.

(2) The [Kartripakkha] shall forthwith pay into any sinking fund any amount which the [Auditor-General] may certify to be deficient, unless the [Government] specially sanction a gradual readjustment.

Article119(1) of TI Act, 1953

If the [Kartripakkha] fail—

(a) To pay any interest due in respect of any loan taken in pursuance of section 104, or

(b) To make any payment prescribed by section 112, section 113 or sub-section (2) of section 118, or

(c) to make any investment prescribed by section 115, the [Auditor-General] shall make such payment or set aside and invest such sum as ought to have been invested under the said section 115, as the case may be ; and the [Mayor of the Corporation or Chairman of the Pourashava] shall forthwith pay from the [Corporation or Pourashava Fund to the AuditorGeneral] a sum equivalent to the sum so paid or invested by him; and the [Government] may attach the rents and other income of the [Kartripakkha].

[(2) Whenever the [ Mayor of the Corporation or Chairman of the Pourashava] has made any payment to the [AuditorGeneral] under sub-section (1), the [Government] shall reimburse the [Corporation or Pourashava] out of the rents and income attached under sub-section (1) and if such rents and income prove insufficient for the purpose, may, [direct the Corporation or Pourashava to increase the tax on the annual value of buildings and lands leviable by them] to such extent as may be necessary for the purposes of making up the deficiency.]

Artice 120 of TI Act, 1953-

If the Mayor of the Corporation or Chairman of the Prourashava fails to make any payment as required by section 103 or section 119, the Government may attach the Corporation or Pourashava Fund, and may direct the Corporation or Pourashava to increase the tax op. the annual value of buildings and lands levied by them to “such extent as may be necessary for the purpose of making such payment.]

Article 121 of TI Act, 1953-

All moneys paid by the 2[Mayor of the Corporation or Chairman of the Pourashava] under sub-section (1) of section 119 and not reimbursed by the [Government] under sub-section (2) of that section and all moneys payable under sub-section (1) of section 119 and levied under section 120 shall constitute a charge upon the property of the [Kartripakkha].

Article 122 of TI Act, 1953,

(1) The Chairman shall, at a special meeting to be held in the month of [May] in each year, lay before the [Kartripakkha] an estimate of the income and expenditure of the [Kartripakkha] for the next ensuing financial year.

(2) Every such estimate shall make provision for the due fulfillment of all the liabilities of the [Kartripakkha] and for the efficient administration of this Act.

Sources of Income and Expenditure:

1. 1.     Income from Land and other Properties
1. a.     Income from land:

i.      Residential land

ii.      Commercial land

iii.      Industrial factory

1. b.     Land acquisition

i.      Residential land

ii.      Commercial land

iii.      Industrial factory

1. c.      Land Allotment and Lease

i.      Land allotment

ii.      Land lease

1. 2.     Income from Constructive activities:
1. Commercial stalls
2. Bridges
3. Drainage
4. Auditorium
5. Mosques
6. Park
7. Land development
1. 3.     Income from Lease properties
1. Commercial stalls
2. Commercial buildings
3. 4.     Income from Tax revenues
1. Tax from lease
2. Market
3. Planning fess
4. Income from rent
5. Hire charge
6. Ground rent
7. g.     Others
8. 5.     Basic Income Sources:
1. Levy collection
2. Government Grants
3. Foreign Grants
5. Registration Fees
6. Publication and sell
8. Required Interest
9. Required Rent
10. Others
11. 6.     Other sources of income:
1. Govt grants
2. Foreign Donations
3. Loan from domestic and foreign sources
4. Dhaka City Corporation (Municipal contribution)
5. Narayanganj Municipality (Municipal contribution)
6. Selling Forms and Tofsils
7. Transfer fees and Conversion fees
8. Miscellaneous
1. 1.     Sources of Expenditure:
1. Salary and allowances
2. Personnel welfare
3. Employees future fund
4. Training
5. CNG, Patrol
6. Social Welfare expenditure
8. Subsidy
9. Payment of long term fund
10. Investment in resources
11. Payment of credit
12. Income tax payment
13. Payment for profit
14. Tax rates and percent
15. Import VAT
16. Sale tax on Import
17. Permission fee of Import
18. VAT on Sale
19. Sale Tax
20. Interest on govt credit
21. Export Tax
24. Development Fee
25. Electricity
26. Travelling
27. Postal telephone

bb. Fuel expenditure

1. Publicity

dd. Maintenance fee

1. Training
2. Official expenditure

gg. interest fee

1. depreciation
2. others

Jurisdiction of Rajuk

The present jurisdiction of RAJUK includes the City of Dhaka and it’s vicinity in the Districts of Dhaka, Narayanganj and Gazipur covering an area of 1528sq. kms (590sq mile) which is as follows:

• Dhaka City Corporation and areas under 14 metropolitan thanas (part or full)
• Narayanganj thana including Municipal area
• Siddhirganj thana
• Bandar thana including Kadam Rasul municipal area
• Sonargaon Thana (Part)
• Fatullah Thana
• Araihazar Thana (Part)
• Keraniganj Thana
• Savar Thana (Part) and Municipal area
• Gazipur Thana (Part) and Municipal area (Part Tongi Thana and Municipal area

Major Activities of RAJUK

Planning:

Functions of Planning Section and different Rules and Regulations:

Authorized Sections and Building Construction Committee:

RAJUK control all the development activities of Dhaka City under the provisions of Town Improvement Acts, Building Construction Rules and Land Use Regulations within the area under its jurisdiction. Any use of land or any type of construction needs approval or clearance from RAJUK and Authorized Sections are responsible for issuing those land use clearances. Till very recent past RAJUK dealt with only two (2) Authorized Sections and each Authorised Section provided and served with 1 Authorized Officer, 1 Assistant Authorized Officer, 2 Chief Building Inspectors, 25 Building Inspectors and Sub Inspectors.

Under a notification issued by the government in 7th February 2001, the number of Authorized Section increased from 2 to 4 by some structural modifications. The areas of jurisdiction also specified for each Authorized Section. They are being well supported by the Building Construction Committees consist of 7 members and headed by the Members (Planning and Development). Each Authorized Section comprised with 1 Authorized Officers, 1 Assistant Authorized Officer, 1 Chief Building Inspector, 6 Building Inspectors and 10 Building Sub-Inspectors. Each Authorized Section has specified with its own areas of jurisdiction. BC committees were inactive for a period of 3 months (from 05.01 2000 to 12.02.2001) due to reorganize the committee and transferring and appointing new Member (Planning).

Land Use Clearance and Deviation in Plans/Constructions:

Land use clearances have found some or major deviations when constructing the buildings and seemed to be regular practice almost in every cases of approved plans. These happened due to non-applications of powers and lack in enforcement of building constructions rules and regulations. Negligence in duties, intention to forgo some specific cases, poor inspection and reporting and political influence made Authorized Section a fearsome part of the organization. In case of some critical issues, clients or developers some how manage the authority for land use clearances for particular areas where development is restricted for specific purpose. Peoples claimed that the files/plans are not approved properly and sites are not inspected as per given parameters. The unnecessary harassment or time killing or missing of specific files or put objections on files are most common practice dealing the Authorized Sections. The overall performance of this section is not up to the mark as mentioned by the clients.

In some cases the process of plan or building construction approval or clearance delayed due to some undefined circumstances and caused peoples to take alternative solutions. Misuse of power and Act also shown by the Authority as claimed by the clients create unnecessary harassment and delay. The provisions of Act clearly defined that the plans should be forwarded for clearance or approval within 45 days and if, any objection made in the plan must be notified within 30 days after submission for approval. In fact the process sometimes take more time as specified in the Act and in many cases it takes years to get the approval. RAJUK’s Authorized Sections are carrying out and dealing the process of development control and responsible for issuing land use clearance or approval for building plans under the provision of TI Act.

Building Heights and Regulation:

Civil Aviation Authority is now very much worried about building heights and high-rise constructions within the city area and trying to solve this problem as early as possible. Though they are not submitted any clear proposals defining or indicating the buffer where the developments to be controlled. Civil Aviation Authority not asking RAJUK for any clarification about height zone or land use clearance procedures for high rises or not given any guidelines for height restrictions. Meanwhile RAJUK is trying to develop, include and enforce some legal frameworks to limit building heights and constructions of high rises.

RAJUK has taken the issue seriously and making liaison with the concern authorities and departments to incorporate the ideas and suggestions for better control and check the growing tendency of high-rise buildings in and around the region close to the air traffic and vulnerable areas. There is need to be defined a clear, understandable and implement oriented rules and regulations to restrict building heights in specific/restricted areas. Building heights to be limited and to be varied in terms of location and environment.

Department of Environment (DOE) has imposed objection and made restrictions over land use clearance for high-rise buildings to protect environmental hazards and degradation of environmental quality and thus asked for prior approval. There is no such restriction imposed for constructing buildings up to 6-storied, but need prior approval from concern agencies and departments those who provide urban services and facilities.

Physical Development:

Planning is the fundamental issue in the process of city development. During plan preparation RAJUK follows certain principles, which include National Urban Policy, Project Design, Planning, Multi Sector Investment Program and existing Policies and Programs of different Agencies.

Construction:

RAJUK is one of the lead “Construction Actor” in the development process of Dhaka. The main activities include construction of roads, box-culverts/culverts and bridges and also development, excavation and filling of land.

Designing:

Planning and design are the basic stage of construction. Project preparation, feasibility study, project programming and time scheduling are directly under the planning component.

• Conceptual Design
• Selection of Materials
• Design and Construction Code and Standards
• Analysis of Dimensions and their Verification
• Detailed Drawings
• Detailed Qualities and Estimate of Materials.

Development Control through different acts and rules:

The Town Improvement Act 1953:

City area is changing continuously through development activities by different actors like government agencies, private developers, individuals and others. Planned urban growth is mainly based on the development control measures. Land use control in urban areas of Bangladesh is initiated with the adoption of the Town Improvement Act 1953.

The East Bengal Building Construction Act 1952:

The East Bengal Building Construction Act, 1952, (amended 1987) is also considered a legal document for development control. Rules, regulations and ordinances of the City Authorities are also being exercised for this purpose. Every construction requires permission as per provision of The East Bengal Building Construction Act 1952 (amended 1987) (EBBC Act 1952)’. The developing agencies are empowered for planning permission and approval of building plans and prevent illegal constructions in the metropolitan areas.

Land Use Planning Rules:

Statutory rules control land use according to planning standards. It is based on land use policies including local plans, such as control of residential density, road standard, maintenance providing of infrastructure and services. The acts and the master plans of the cities are the principal legal instruments, which force and exercise planning control and standards.

The land use of metropolitan Dhaka ought to follow the provision of the City Master Plan. Housing, commercial and industrial project buildings need planning permission, which are generally practiced. It must be in conformity with the land use provision of the Master Plan.

Building Construction Rules:

According to the East Bengal Building Construction Act-1952 (amended 1987)’, each and every building within the designated areas of City Master Plan’ needs approval from the City Development Agencies. As per Acts, the definition of building is: Building includes a house, hut, wall and any other structure where of masonry bricks, corrugated iron sheet, metal tires wood, bamboo, mud, leaves, grass, thatch or any other materials whatsoever’.

The Act has empowered to initiate building rules under section 18, EBSC Act 1952 which has been updated, based on public interest, regularly since 1954, (in 1984, and in 1996). It has been formulated through the Government of Bangladesh exercising the power of the Act.

Authorized Sections and Building Construction (BC) Committees:

RAJUK has a Development Control Section (Authorized Section). Previously this section was comprised with two Authorized Officers, two Assistant Authorized Officers, four Chief Building Inspectors, 50 Building Inspectors and other staff. Now the number of Authorized Section increased in four (4) instead of two (2) by increasing the staff members and demarking the areas specified under control of each authorized jurisdiction. These sections are supported by the four Building Construction (BC) Committees headed by the Members (Planning and Development) for approval of the building plans and exercising the powers of the Act for planned growth of the city.

Other Activities

RAJUK as a prime Planning Authority represents Bangladesh as well as Dhaka City in various National and International Seminars, Symposiums and Workshops held in home and in abroad. RAJUK tries to incorporate and share the ideas and concepts related to planning and development adopted or practiced in different part of the World. RAJUK participates in various training programs to improve the organizational capabilities. RAJUK is an active member of CITYNET, SAARC-SHELTERNET and HABITAT-II.

RAJUK organize Seminars and Workshops on different Urban issues in regular basis, the seminar on World Habitat Day is an example.

Legal Aspects

A National Legal Consultant needed to be engage for an appropriate period to:

• Prepare a legislative framework for the metropolitan level governance structure for Dhaka.
• Prepare a legal framework for adoption of the Plan.
• Draft suitable national legislation or legal instruments enabling land re-adjustment schemes to be undertaken in Dhaka.

The Plan attempted to draft Interim Planning Rules into a Semi-legal format, there will still be required some legal expertise to enable them to be legally acceptable and operational in the Bangladesh context. It could be done by the approach realistically formulated by an experienced National Legal Consultant who is familiar with Planning Laws in Bangladesh.

Land Acquisition: Short Brief about Land Acquisition of RAJUK

The main purpose of Land Acquisition department is to acquire land for different projects of RAJUK. When Land Acquisition get notice/request of acquisition from the planning department, Land acquisition department opens a land acquisition file for the project and takes necessary steps. This case information includes land requirement, nature of the land, detail description of project and structure etc.According to the site map from the Town planning department the land department makes mouza wise plot index \to estimate amount of land to be acquired and also identifies the dag no in each mouza with help of RS/CS map. DC office makes an estimate of compensation with the help of RAJUK based on the area of acquisition and infrastructure of the affected plot. After DC office acquires the land they issue a possession certificate to RAJUK. Total compensation against the estimate is paid to DC office by RAJUK.  After getting possession certificate RAJUK handovers the project to project development department.

Different Planning at different phases by the authority:

Master Plan: 1959

The first Master Plan of Dhaka was prepared in 1959 by a British firm – Minoprio, Spencely and Macfarlane under the technical cooperation of the Colombo International Plan Scheme. The Plan covered roughly 830 sq. km (320 sq. miles) with a target population little over 1 (one) million assuming an average annual population growth rate of1.75% in the city areas. Expansion of city was largely predicted towards the North leading Mirpur and Tongi. The Plan in general, suggested a broad planning principle and zoned the urban area accordingly for various activities. Although, the Plan was prepared for a period of 20 years (1959-79) time but it lasted almost double till the enforcement of new plan in 1995.

Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan, 1995-2015

For development of the Plan, a project titled ” Preparation of Structure Plan, Master Plan, and Detailed Area Plan-Metropolitan Development and Plans Preparation and Management in Dhaka”. was implemented with joint funding from the GOB and the UNDP/UNCHS (HABITAT), by a Consortium of international firms-Mott Mac Donald Ltd. and Culpin Planning Ltd. in association with a local firms – Engineering & Planning Consultants Ltd., Consociates Ltd. and Development Administration Group. The project addressed Dhaka’s urban planning issues at three geographic levels: sub-regional, urban and sub-urban.  The Development Plan (1995-2015) therefore is comprised of the three components:

DHAKA STRUCTURE PLAN ( 1995-2015)

The plan provides a long-term strategy for the 20 years for the development of the greater Dhaka sub-zone with a population target of 15 million. The plan consists of a written report and policy documents with support maps of appropriate scale. It identifies the order of magnitude and direction of anticipated urban growth and defines a broad set of policies considered necessary to achieve overall plan objectives. It considers the micro environmental aspects of Dhaka, both in its existing urban form as well as for future development to keep the city free from all sorts of natural and man made hazards. The plan recognizes the positive and sustainable role of green belts, preservation of high quality wet and agricultural lands and existing rivers in and around the city limits and their continuous upgrading and evaluation and thus recommends for building a circular waterways round the city. The plan also earmarks a number of retention ponds around the city limits for retaining rain water as well as for maintains an ecological balance too and a healthy environment.

Key Policies of Dhaka Structure Plan (SP) 1995-2015

Consolidation:

New land delivery and development mechanism coupled with flood land with secure tenure in accessible locations is encouraged.

Accelerated Development:

Under this strategy the targeted areas would be existing fringe areas, i.e., areas mainly at the periphery of the more established areas where conversion from rural land occurred during the 1980s.

Planned New Area Development:

Structure Plan (SP) recognizes that the new area development on a scale and at a rate which will ease pressures on the existing urban areas requires the adoption of fundamental policy changes and the adoption of new approaches, techniques and mechanisms in public and private sector initiative

Long Term Planned New Area Development Opportunities:

With the most growth having been focused on Dhaka’s main urbanized areas and directed towards new priority areas within the areas protected by FAP 8A and 8B.

Rural and Special Areas Policies:

The policies on treatment are essentially one of conservation whereby the function performed by the area requires a degree of protection from urban impacts via policies and some basic rules and regulations.

Areas of High Agricultural Value:

Three areas of high quality agricultural land within the catchment area of Dhaka will be conserved and promoted as areas of high intensity food production.

Areas of High Agricultural Value:

Three areas of high quality agricultural land within the catchment area of Dhaka will be conserved and promoted as areas of high intensity food production.

Flood Flow Zones:

Land development within the flood plain designated areas of the plan will be controlled in order to avoid obstructions to flood flow which might otherwise lead to adverse hydraulic effects.

River Pollution Control:

Environmental protection measures will be taken to prevent pollution of the Lakhya river and its tributary, the Balu river, in order to ensure that it remains a viable, long-tern source of potable water for Dhaka city. No noxious industry should be allowed on banks of the rivers.

Flood Retarding Ponds:

Control will be maintained over the areas designated in the plan for flood retarding ponds in order to ensure that they remain capable of fulfilling their primary function of water storage at times of flooding.

Infrastructure Consolidation:

At the level of the Urban Area Plan and particularly in the course of Local Plan preparation, the authority will ensure that infrastructure consolidation programmes

Fringe Area Growth Acceleration:

To initiate and co-ordinate a range of measures aimed at stimulating. Accelerating the rate of development in the designated areas of the urban fringe.

Flood Protection Works:

To support and coordinate the multi-agency works necessary for an early completion of the flood protection measures under the FAP-proposals.

Infrastructure Initiatives:

To promote through the plan an orderly sequence of new area development by means of mutually reinforcing public sector investment programs, spear headed by drainage, flood protection and transport development.

Community Based Development Initiatives:

It recognizes the increasing importance of community-led initiatives and participation in the land development process and commits itself to the application of community-based land delivery mechanisms which give priority to meet the needs of the poor.

Priority Satellite Town/Dhamsona:

To promote Dhamsona in the Northwest of the plan area as the priority location for dispersed satellite town development.

Long-term Satellite Town:

It defers any decision to proceed with government-initiated development at the remaining satellite town like Gazipur, Savar, Kaliganj and Purbachal (Yusufganj).

Special Incentive Zone (Economic Base):

To designate special targeted locations within RAJUK’s control areas. The locations identified in the plan which are Tongi, Dhamsona, Savar and Narayangonj. The important reason has to be considered to stimulate a sound economic base in support of population dispersal.

URBAN AREA PLAN ( 1995-2005)

The Urban Area Plan (UAP) provides an interim mid-term strategy for the 10 years and covers the urban areas within Metro Dhaka Management Areas. The geographic boundaries comprise of the areas of Flood Action Plan (FAP) components 8A and 8B as well as the Tongi-Gazipur and Savar-Dhamsona areas. The Plan has several parts consisting of an explanatory report, resource maps, interim management report, interim planning rules, urban area plan maps and multi-sectoral investment programme. As an interim plan, the UAP is intended to be gradually superseded by the various Detailed Area Plans which cover specific geographic sub-areas of the city.

DND Plan

• The area (Dhaka-Narayangonj Demra) comprises of 14,500 acres (22.66 sq. miles)

These areas will offer housing opportunities and will provide planned development facilities for about 30 lac people.

Detail Area Plan (DAP) and recent phenomena

The Detailed Area Plan (DAP) provides more detailed planning proposals for specific sub-areas compliant with the Structure Plan and the Urban Area Plan. The Metro Dhaka Structure Plan area is subdivided into 26 Strategic / Spatial Planning Zones (SPZ). The DAP will be prepared for each SPZ areas eventually. Until the DAP is prepared for a sub-area, however, land use management functions will be exercised through the policies, guidelines, and rules found in the Structure Plan and the Urban Area Plan. The DMDP Project Cell of RAJUK has already completed the DAP for Dhaka-Narayangon-Demra (DND) triangle areas. Now, arguments grow up in different policy levels about DAP.

Background of the Project

The Detailed Area Plan (DAP) is third and last tier of Development Plan for Dhaka City i.e. Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (DMDP). It provides more detailed planning proposals for specific sub-areas compliant with the Structure Plan and the Urban Area Plan.

Objective of the Project

DAP aimed to implement the Structure Plan and the Urban Area Plan policies and recommendations. The specific objectives of DAP are:

• Data management and dissemination at mouza dag level
• Providing a program for Multi-sector Investment Plan
• Providing control for private sector development and clarity and security of investment for inhabitants and investors
• Providing guideline for development considering the opportunity and constraints
• Ensure sustainable environment

Total area under DAP

DAP area is 1528 sq. km or 590 sq. miles which covers the total RAJUK’s jurisdiction area.

Jurisdiction of DAP Planning Area

• Gazipur Pourashava to the North
• Dhaleshawri River to the south
• Bangshi and Dhaleshawri River to the west
• Shitalakkhya and Meghna River to the East

Duration of DAP

DAP started in July 2004. The project will be completed by December 2008.

Consultants

The total DAP area was divided into five groups and a number of small locations. These were awarded to five firms which are DDC, EPC, GBL, Sheltech (Pvt.) Ltd and BETS.

Activities of DAP

• Collection of CS and RS maps
• Collection of geophysical maps and reports
• Collection of basic statistics
• Establishment of Ground Control Point (GCP)
• Data input that is scanning and digitization of Mouza maps
• Base Map Preparation in GIS
• Physical Feature Survey
• Topographic Survey
• Socio-Economic Survey
• Case study
• Data Analysis and presentation
• Series of Consultation with the stakeholders
• Draft Plan Preparation
• Prioritizations and Phasing of public sector action plan/program
• Preparation of mechanism for Development Control, Zoning and Land management
• Preparation of Legal Support Documents to prevent Deviation, Alteration, Modification, Violation or Misuse of plan
• Public Hearing and other judgments
• Final Plan Preparation

GPS based Survey

Modern digital survey technique has been used for physical feature and topographic survey of DAP area. RTK (Real Time Kinematics) GPS and Total Station was used for survey. This will provide data with minimum error.

GIS based Database and Planning

All the data (mouza map and physical feature) in DAP are kept in GIS (Geographic Information System) based database using ArcGIS 9 software. Urban Planners and other experts used that database for plan preparation. The major advantage of this database will be efficient updating exchange, dissemination and decision support use.

DAP for other Areas

DAP for some other priority six SPZ areas of have been identified and are being prepared by the consultants. These areas are :

• MIRPUR NORTH UPTO UTTARA (location no. I )
• KAMRANGIR CHAR AREAS (location no. II )
• KERANIGONJ AREAS (location no. III )
• BEGUNBARI KHAL & ITS INFLUENCED AREAS (location no. IV )
• DEMRA – AIRPORT / TONGI BY-PASS & ITS SURROUNDINGS (location no. V )
• DHAKA – NARAYANGONJ-DEMRA (DND) NORTH AREAS (location no. VI)

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

The modern technology based planning tools ie. GIS plays a very vital role in the database management, spatial analysis and visualization of urban planning, policy / decision making,  management and monitoring. A GIS unit was installed in RAJUK as one of the four component in the DMDP. In the process of the DMDP project, the GIS unit produced  all the maps needed for the Structure Plan and the Urban Area Plan. Currently, the GIS unit is not in a very much functional stage. The hardware and software installed needs an upgradation to make the Unit more operational and cope with the present and future needs. It intends to prepare all the important strategic maps like Airport Restriction Zone, Key Point Installation, Fault Zones, Flood Zones, Utility Services and Infrastructure by GIS technology. It also attempts to have an Automated Mapping (AM) system by GIS technique for the building permission / approval in the metropolitan areas.

Urban Strategies of Socio-Economic Sector

Industrial Estates :

It designates any new general industrial areas for development in the SP period to 2015, after the Tejgaon and Tongi industrial estates are operating at full and optimum capacity.

Foot Loose Industries:

In the SP the different special areas are proposed for Foot Loose Industries in the industries would be non-polluting and non- noxious. The areas will be pre-designated industrial areas.

Polluting Industries:

The authority will commit itself to an integrated policy of the incremental environmental upgrading and relocation where necessary of Dhaka’s existing polluting industries in a manner commensurate with sound environmental practice and cost effectiveness.

Informal Sector Activities:

To encourage informal sector economic activities by means of relaxing these regulations which tend to stifle these   initiatives and providing opportunities to enhance conditions and productivity.

Dispersal of Commercial Activities:

In recognition of the prevailing low mobility levels of the majority of Dhaka’s work force the authority will seek to  promote the gradual dispersal of commercial activity to the existing suburbs and new growth areas.

City Open Space:

To promote open space and recreational facilities exploiting the resource of vacant and  under utilize  government land with in the established urban areas.

Infrastructure Sector

Incremental Network Development:

In pursuance of the proposed long–term road network the authority will seek to promote an incremental approach to its overall development as a means of conserving resources and being responsive to proven demand for the service being offered. All proposed activities for road construction is phase out.

Eastern By Pass:

The Authority will afford high priority to the development of a limited access Eastern By pass to become a key link in the emerging national net-work of arterial roads and to relief the existing urban network.

Commuter Rail Network:

In the long term strategy Commuter Rail Network will promote the development of commuter rail network, to serve the high-density sections of the main urbanized areas.

Subway Development Program:

There is no other way to ease the traffic flow and mass transit of future Dhaka but to have SUBWAY. The proposed subway lines will cover Jatrabari to Gabtoli, Jinjira to Mirpur, Madani Avenue to Mirpur Road (Beauty Cinema Hall), Fulbaria to Madartek, Gabtoli to Jahangirnagar University, Multi-modal Transport Terminal to Mirpur Road and Farmgate to Asadgate.

Water Transport Development Program:

Navigability of the encircling water-ways will enlite the old heritage of Dhaka and enhances the riverine recreational facilities in a great way. It has been prepared to efficiently utilise the natural opportunities with a view to:

• develop navigability of the encircling waterway
• develop intercity water transport system.

Development:

Basically, Rajuk is the pioneer of the development process of the capital. So, it takes necessary initiatives that are consistent to the rules, regulations according to the necessity of mass people. It approved private housing projects and it allows registered private land developers to come forward for the development of the capital and sets specific rules and regulations. All the companies try to fulfill the requirements to get approved. Besides, it gets involved in road development and subway development for DMDP area, pedstrain development in the Capital, intercity channel for communication.

The DMDP Structure Plan’s Long-term road development strategy is illustrated in su-links above. The main objective of the strategy is to establish a long-term road network for the metropolitan area which will effectively serve the needs of the growing urban concentrations, by providing improved access to the main urban area itself and linkages to areas with potential for growth. Improved road communications will be used as a positive instrument for promoting urbanization in the growth areas proposed in the DMDP Structure Plan. This is an important consideration when evaluating the feasibility of the network and particularly its sequence of development, referred to latter in this Section.

Development of Public Transport Services

DITS in its Transport Development Strategy (TDS) presents a list of six key projects distilled from their process of evaluation. Of these, two projects relate to the development of public transport facilities, manually an expanded bus service and a commuter rail service.

Integrated Transport Network Plan for Metro Dhaka

Transportation would play a major role for Dhaka’s growth both for the structure plan strategy and also for the alternate options. At this moment Dhaka is one of the least motorized cities in the world. Non motorized movement is dominant in the intracity transportation. The proportion of all travels by motorized vehicle is low. Dhaka integrated Transport Study estimated 66% of all work trips are on foot, 11% by rickshaw. Public transport is poor and disorganized with limited coverage and non motorized transport is inadequate for long distances. Mobility levels are low and consequently dwelling areas remain in close proximity to the workplace.

Development Control:

Basically, Rajuk follows some rules and regulations to control development process to make it effective:

DHAKA MAHANAGAR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION RULE’ 2008

TOWN IMPROVEMENT ACT’ 1953

PONDS, PLAYGROUND & OPEN SPACE PRESERVATION RULE

BRICK MANUFACTURING RULE

PRIVATE HOUSING PROJECT LAND DEVELOPMENT RULE’2004

D.I.T (ALLOTMENT OF LANDS) RULES’1969

Projects of Rajuk:

Lots of Projects have been implemented by Rajuk for the sake people to reinforce development process. Here it is listed below:

• Completed Projects
• On Going Projects
• Future Projects

Major Completed Projects

TOWNSHIP DEVELOPMENT/HOUSING ESTATE/SITE & SERVICES PROJECTS:

• Gulshan Model Town
• Banani Model Town
• Baridhara Residential Area & Diplomatic Zone
• Baridhara ‘J’ Block Residential Area
• Uttara Model Town (1st and 2nd phase)
• Nikunja – 1 Residential Area
• NIkunja – 2 (Joarshahara Rehabilitation Area)
• Gandaria Rehabilitation Area
• Karwan Bazar Rehabilitation Area
• Shyampur Rehabilitation Area
• Officers Housing Area at Malibagh
• Jurain (I, G Bagan) Rehabilitation Area
• Dattapara Resettlement Area

Commercial Projects:

• Dilkusha Commercial Area
• Kawran Bazar Commercial Area
• Mohakhali Commercial Area
• Gulshan Circle I and II Commercial Area
• Banani Commercial Area
• Nawab Sirajudoulla Commercial Area, Narayanganj
• Chashara, Boatkhal and Khanpur Commercial Areas, Narayanganj
• DIT/RAJUK Avenue
• Commercial Area adjacent to Jahura Market (Bangla Motor)

Industrial Estates :

• Tongi Industrial Estate
• Postogola Industrial Estate

Markets and Shopping Centres

• Nawab Yousuf Market, Nawabpur
• Shakura Market Near Hotel Sheraton
• Jurain (I.G. Bagan) Rehabilitation Area
• Karwan Bazar
• Gulshan I & II Circle
• Steamer Ghat Market, Narayanganj
• Laksmi Bazar Market
• Shopping Center cum Market, Sector – 6, Uttara

• DIT Avenue
• Panthapath, Bijoy Sarani, Pragati Sarani
• Janapath (Sayedabad ot Khilgaon Rail Crossing)
• Wari Khal Raod
• Gulshan (North-South) Avenue
• Kamal Ataturk Avenue at Banani
• Nawab Salimullah Raod at Narayanganj
• Kabi Jashimuddin Avenue, Rabindra Swarani, Shaista Khan Avenue, Sonargaon Avenue at Uttara Model Town

Open Space/ Park.Play Grounds

• Bahadur Shah Park (Victoria Park)
• Palton Moidan
• English Road Park, Armanitola Part, Sirajuddoullah Park
• Muktangan Near Secteriate Complex
• Traingular Open Space Near Bangabhaban
• Panthakunja Near Hotel Sonargaon
• Triangular Open Space at Farmgate
• Bijoy Sarani Median Park
• Open Space at Motijheel & Dilkhusha C/A
• Gulshan (South) Park, Gulshan (Central) Playground
• Gulshan (North-East) Park, Gulshan (North) Park
• Gulshan Av. Park (in front of Pakistan Embassy)
• Park/Open Spaces at Road No. 1, 11, 13, 14 & 27 of Gulshan Residential Area
• Park in from of Hotel Jalkhabar
• Baridhara Central Park of Park Road
• Park/Open Space at UN Road of Baridhara
• Park/Open Space/Playground at Sector – 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13 & 14 of Uttara

Fountains

• At the Triangle of Minto-Bailey Road (Near Hotel Sheraton)
• Fountain at Sonargaon Crossing
• Fountain in the North-west corner of Bangabhaban
• Fountain in front of Gulshan (North) Market

Bridges and Culverts

• Boat Khal Bridge at Narayanganj
• Rampura Bridge
• Bridge in between Sector 10 & 11 of Uttara
• Box Culverts over Banani-Gulshan-Baridhara and Uttara Lakes

Building/ Apartmetns/ Quarters

• DIT/RAJUK Bhaban
• DIT/RAJUK Annex Bhaban
• Constructed 42 nos. 4 Storied Residential Quarters and allocated to the various organization
• NAM Village & Villa Apartments (260 nos.) at Gulshan & Banani

Grave yards

• Banani Graveyard
• Uttara Graveyard at Sector 4, 12

Community Center

• Gopibag-Swamibag Community Center

Mosques

• Gulistan (South) Mosque
• Banani Mosque
• Ambar Sha Mosque at Kawran Bazar

On Going Projects

Housing Projects :

• Uttara Residential Model Town (3rd phase)
• Purbachal New Town
• Jhilmil Residential Project

Lake improvement/ Beautification:

• Integrated Development of Hatirjheel Area Including Begun Bari Khal Project
• Gulshan-Banani-Baridhara Lake Improvement & Beautifications Project
• Uttara Lake Improvement & Beautification Project

Car Parking:

• Multistoried Car Parking-cum-office Building at Gulshan

• Purbachal Road (Debobram to Progoti Sharani)
• Internal Roads of Prubachal New Town.
• Internal Roads of Uttara Residential Area (3rd Phase)

MIS (Management Information System):

• To Computerize regular activities of RAJUK.
• Ensure availability of organization’s various information at a glance
• Ensure network connectivity among different local offices of RAJUK
• Prepare a plan and strategy to implement E-governance activity in RAJUK
• Ensure the better services to the public
• Increase the transparency in different stages of the processes
• Establish information- bridge among all departments of organization.

Overpass:

• Overpass from Bijoy Sharani to Tejgaon Industrial Area

Flyover:

• Flyover at Kuril Intersection to connect Purbachal New Town

Rehabilitation Apartment Project:

• Rehabilitation of affected families of Hatirjheel Project Area

Future Projects

New Township Development:

• Savar
• Gazipur
• Keraniganj
• East side of Dhaka

• Extension of Madani Avenue to the Balu River (Proposed Eastern Embankment)
• Link Road From near Sonargaon Hotel to MohakhaliRail Crossing (Along the Railway Track & behind Prime minister’s Office)
• Construction of different internal Roads at DND Area

Apartment Projects:

• 20,000 Apartments at Purbachal New Town
• 22,000 Apartments at Uttara Residential Area (3rd Phase)
• 10,000 Apartments at Jhilmil Residential Area

Car Parking:

• Multistoried Car Parking at Dilkusha Commercial Area

Flyover:

• Flyover at Golapsha Mazar (Gulistan) to Babu Bazar for connecting Jhilmil Residential Area

Review Structure Plan and DAP:

Review Structure Plan and new DAP for 2030

Accountability system:

Chairman is the chief of the Authority, so he holds ultimate powers to make the personnel accountable. All the personnel are accountable to the Secretary and through secretary; they are accountable to the Chairman. There are provisions to make the authority accountable. But the mechanisms have been failed due to some unavoidable reasons. Though it is a self governed autonomous body, but it is ultimately liable to the govt for its functions. As it is performing its functions basically by the TI Act, 1953 but it has full fledge accountability mechanism. Some provisions are made to hold it accountable. In each and every processes of under the mechanism, but it cannot work properly due to lots of reasons. Administrative accountability of Rajuk is basically ensured by secretary. He monitors and handles everything concerned with adiminstration. To ensure financial accountability, there is a mechanism led by Deputy Director under Member (Finance). The Account has been audited by the auditors regularly as mentioned in 144 of TI Act,1953.

Rajuk keeps options to make contracts as it may consider necessary or expedient for carrying out any purpose of this act, but it keeps holding accountability, as it is driven by TI Act, 1953, according to the article 26 of it. But there is an option to make it accountable by the Execution of contracts and approval of estimates according to article 27. And another source of making the accountability of the contract is mentioned by article 28 of TI Act, 1953. Chairman has to keep eyes open about all the process to make it accountable. As mentioned in 30 of TI Act, The Chairman shall take sufficient security for the due performance of every contract involving an expenditure exceeding one thousand [taka]. And chairman has to sent a copy to the higher authority about the contract to finalize and consider it. Govt may form a high delegation group or taskforce to eliminate the rough methods from accountability process.

Criticism:

1. Bribes: An estimated Tk 150-200 million is transacted as bribes each year at RAJUK only for approval of plans, report says. A plot owner has to spend extra Tk 15000-20000 besides official fees for 3-4 kathas of land.
2. Corruption in planning process: Corruption in plan permission process is deep-rooted,
3. complicated process of approval: The complicated process of approval of plans seems to be an incentive for taking recourse to corrupt practices. Very often, it’s a mutual corruption, as it’s a win-win situation between applicants and RAJUK officials,
4. 4.     Lack of proper plans and projects:

‘Planning’ is one of the core programs of Rajuk, but still they have failed to make proper plans according to peoples demand. more than 90 per cent of the city’s buildings have flouted construction rules

1. 5.     Failure to fulfill public demand:

While it was established, people were expecting lots of qualitative services from it, and it has been failed to provide the expected services due to various problems of it. Sometimes, political influences hindered the whole process and sometimes personnel of Rajuk were liable for that.

1. 6.     Vital Rajuk sections most corrupt

Two vital departments of Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (Rajuk)–estate and design–have become afflicted with severe corruption and irregularities of which the officials concerned themselves have admitted, an investigation by a parliamentary probe body revealed

1. 7.     Lack of expertise:

Though it needs lots of expertise while doing of project approval, formulation, implementation, monitoring, it does not have sufficient expertise in different stages and it has to suffer in each and every steps for that.

1. 8.     Lengthily Procedures:

The approval process at RAJUK is so complicated and time-consuming that a few clients are interested to follow the due rules in obtaining official permission. Land owners have to wait for more than a year to get permission for land use. As the approval process is full of corruption and bribes, most of the clients accomplish their task compromising with the authorities. While someone is trying to finishing his job, it may take a lengthily procedures due to the corruption of the bureaucrats of Rajuk and Approved projects by it are not implementing in the proper time because of long procedural system.

1. 9.     Interfere by govt:

Though Rajuk is an autonomous body, but it cannot work independently because of Govt. interference. As Rajuk gets fund from govt. sometimes, always have to pay for this .

10. Lack of monitoring:

Rajuk approved lots of projects for planned city, but after that they don’t monitor at the implementation stage.

11. Lack of infrastructure:

Though Rajuk work for planned infrastructure, but it itself does not have enough infrastructure to complete its job for the sake of mass people.

12. Unplanned urbanization:

Planned urbanization is the main motive of RAJUK but they are not successful in achieving their purpose.

13. Lack of finance:

Their income sources are not enough to run their plans and projects properly. And staffs are not paid well. As a result, they are getting involved with corruption.

14. Political instability:

Political instability is one of the main headaches of mass people in the process of development orientation, as a result of this; consistent development processes are being hindered by the political instability created by the political parties.

Rajuk distributes flat/plot discriminately. They become influenced by politicians, powerful officials and so on. They are used to partiality when to allotting plots and flats and being biased by politically ideals.

16. Indiscipline  in maintaining building code:

According to the research, over 90 per cent of the city’s buildings have been erected without following the “Building Construction Rules 1996. While projects are implanting, in many cases, Rajuk does not follow building codes due to different reasons. Rajuk officials and owners are liable for that basically. As a result, there occur some incidents and accidents.

17. Low Compensation  rate after acquisition:

In almost times, Rajuk does acquisition, but after the acquisition it doesn’t compensate for that work properly and the rate is too lower.

18. syndication with development company:

RAJUK does syndicate with many development companies and it helps establishing unplanned housing in Dhaka city. Only four out of over 20 real estate developers’ housing are approved by Rajuk.

19. Irresponsibility:

Employees of RAJUK are not committed, sincere with their job and irresponsibility with irregularity is a great barrier.

20. Influence by influential persons:

Many influential persons always try to influence in each and every processes of development discourse to keep their own interest rather than national and always try to make bound the officials of Rajuk to do according to their sweet wills. Private housing companies, government agencies and influential people are liable for the violation of the building construction rules,

21. Brokers: lots of brokers are in Rajuk building and they have a strong syndicate to doing everything.

22. Labor union:

Rajuk faces hartals, strikes by labors incorporated in Rajuk due to various reasons. As a result, plans and programs are being hindered.

23. Illegal suspensions:

When a political govt is in power, political leaders always used to suspend their unfriendly officials and labors.

Conclusion:

Finally we can say for sustainable development social equity, economic stability balanced Environment are prerequisite. For ensuring them a cooperative efforts is essential and we hope RAJUK, City Corporation, Land Department, as well as General people should be concerned to established a dream Dhaka City.