The Department of Public Health Engineering
Subject: Organizational Behavior | Topics:

Introduction:

The Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE) is the national lead agency for provision of drinking water supply and waste management in the country except Dhaka, Narayanganj and Chittagong cities where WASAs operate. The DPHe was 1st estabisished in 1936, then it’s name was “ jnoshastho shongstha”

In 1992, Honorable minister of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperative – Barister Abdus salam Talukdar set the laid the foundation of the main office of DPHe at 175 – 178 kakrail, Dhaka 1000. The DPHE was inaugurated by the then and present Prime Minster of  Bangladesh – Sheikh Hasina in 1997.

With the challenges generate by the discovery of arsenic in incremental areas since its first detection in 1993, DPHE with its development partners is trying to ameliorate the sufferings caused by the lack of safe water. Alternative options for safe water supply are being catered in worse affected areas.

Similarly for excreta and other waste management DPHE is implementing different projects to achieve an improvement environment.

Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), a national agency under the Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Co-operatives (MLGRD&C), is entrusted to provide safe water supply, environmental sanitation and hygiene education as mandated throughout the country except three cities namely Dhaka, Narayanganj and Chittagong.

 DPHE is the focal point for initiating national policy frame work and development plans in water supply and sanitation sector of the country under the guidance of the MLGRD&C and Planning Commission of the Govt. of Bangladesh. DPHE is responsible for planning, designing, implementing and monitoring water supply and sanitation projects in both rural and urban areas of the country. It delivers hardwares in close participation of the local government institutions e.g. Union Parishad, Municipality etc. and training for maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities. The DPHE has a network of offices up to Upazila level all over the country.

It has multidisciplinary professionals like sanitary engineers, hydro geologists, chemists, hygiene educators and so on.

Mandate of DPHE

  • DPHE is responsible exclusive for water supply and sanitation facilities throughout the country excluding Dhaka & Chittagong cities and Narayanganj and Kadamrasul Pourashavas where WASAs operate.
  • Provide advisory service to GoB in framing policy and action plans for WSS
  • Provide support to the local government institutions (LGIs) in the development and O&M of the warer & sanitation facilities.

DPHE is a government organization which gives hardware support for ensuring water supply, sanitation, hygene education etc.

Water Supply and Sanitation( WSS)  Sector Status in Bangladesh

In recent past, 97% of the people had access to safe water within 150 meters. With the discovery of arsenic in groundwater, the coverage has come down to about 75%. However, alternative options are being implemented for supply of arsenic safe water.

The sanitation coverage showed a dismal figure. Only about 20% people use sanitary latrines in the rural areas. And an additional 35% rural people use homemade pit latrines.

The coverages of WSS in urban areas though balanced, are not satisfactory and are a little above 50%.

 The technological options in rural water supply are Shallow Tubewells, Deep Tubewells, Tara Tubewells, Pond Sand Filters, Rainwater Harvesters, Ring wells, Infiltration galleries depending on natural water quality and hydro-geological conditions.

 The urban water supply adopts piped water supply with deep tubewells in core areas and handpumps tubewells in the fringes.There are several surface water treatment plants also.

 For sanitation simple pit latrines, water seal latrines (single, double), offset pit latrines, septic tanks etc. are being used. About 30% of Dhaka City only enjoys conventional water borne sewerage system in the country.

The National Policy, the role of DPHE in WSS in Bangladesh and the allies in the sector

The National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation 1998

For sustainable and equitable WSS service provision at an affordable cost, the GoB formulated the National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation 1998. The highlights of the Policy are furnished below:

Development Objective

Improvement of standard of public health and ensuring improved environment.

Mid-term Goals

  1. Increasing the present coverage of safe drinking water in rural areas by lowering the average number of users per tube-well from the present 105 to 50 in the near future.
  2. Ensuring the installation of one sanitary latrine in each household in the rural areas and improving public health standard through inculcating the habit of proper use of sanitary latrines.
  3. Making safe drinking water available to each household in the urban areas.
  4. Ensuring sanitary latrine within easy access of every urban household through technology options ranging from pit latrines to water borne sewerage.
  5. Installing public latrines in schools, bus stations and important public places and community latrines in densely populated poor communities without sufficient space for individual household latrines.
  6. Ensuring supply of quality water through observance of accepted quality standards.
  7. Removal of arsenic from drinking water and supply of arsenic free water from alternate sources in arsenic affected areas.
  8. Taking measures in urban areas for removal of solid and liquid wastes and their use in various purposes.
  9. Ensuring the use of wastes for the
  10. production of organic fertilizer (compost) in the rural areas.

Strategy

  • All sector development activities shall be planned, coordinated and monitored on the basis of a sector development framework which will be prepared after the formulation of the Policy;
  • Participation of users in planning, development, operation and maintenance through local government and community based organizations of the stakeholders;
  • Development of water supply and sanitation sector through local bodies, public-private sector, NGOs, CBOs and women groups involving local women particularly elected members (of the local bodies in the sector development activities);
  • Gradual community cost-sharing and introduction of economic pricing for services;
  • Adoption of water supply and sanitation technology options appropriate to specific regions, geological situations and social groups;
  • Local Government institutions/Pourashabhas to bear increasing share of capital cost;
  • Improvement of existing technologies and conduct of continuous research and development activities to develop new technologies;
  • Social mobilization through publicity campaign and motivational activities using mass media among other means to ensure behavioral development and change in sanitation and hygiene;
  • Capacity building at the local/community level to deal effectively with local water and sanitation problems;
  • Providing credit facilities for the poor to bear costs of water and sanitation service;
  • Adoption of necessary measures in urban areas to prevent contamination of ground and surface water by solid and liquid wastes.

 Policy:

Rural water supply:

  • Communities shall be the focus for all water supply activities; all other stakeholders including the private sector and NGOs shall provide coordinated inputs into the development of the sector with DPHE as the lead agency.
  • Local government bodies in village, union and thana level shall have a direct role in planning, implementation and maintenance of rural water supply and the activities of public and private sector agencies will be coordinated accordingly.
  • As water is increasingly considered to be an economic good as well as a social good, water supply services shall be provided based on user demand and cost-sharing. In the near future concerned communities shall share at least the following portions of costs: (a) 50% for hand tubewells in shallow water table areas, (b) 25% of hand tubewells in low water table areas, (c) 20% for deep hand tubewells and other technologies for different areas.
  • User communities shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of water supply facilities and shall bear its total costs.
  • Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, operation and maintenance.

The rural water supply program shall support and promote a range of technology options.

 Rural Sanitation

  • Local government and communities shall be the focus of all activities relating to sanitation.
  • The users shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities and will bear its total cost.
  • Measures will be taken so that users can bear increased cost of sanitation services. However, in case of hard core poor communities, educational institutions, mosques and other places of worship, the costs may be subsidized partially or fully. In public toilets separate provision shall be made for women users.
  • Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about through social mobilization and hygiene education in coordination with the Ministries of Health, Education, Social Welfare, Information, Women & Children Affairs, and DPHE, NGOs, CBOs, local government bodies and other related agencies.
  • Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, implementation, operation and maintenance.
  • The rural sanitation programme shall support and promote a range of technology options for water and environmental sanitation.
  • Within a specified period a legislation will be enacted making use of sanitary latrine compulsory.

Urban Water Supply

  • In order to make the water supply system sustainable water would be supplied at cost. However, educational and religious institutions will be provided with water as per existing government rules..
  • In the future water tariff shall be determined on the basis of the cost of water production, operation and maintenance, administration and depreciation.
  • Water supply and Sewerage Authorities (WASAs) shall be responsible for sustainable water supply in the metropolitan areas where WASAs exist while in other urban areas the Pourashabhas with the help of DPHE shall be responsible for the service.
  • WASAs and Pourashabhas shall improve their operational efficiency including financial management.
  • Private sector participation will be promoted.
  • Monitoring of water quality for the purpose of ensuring an acceptable standard will be the responsibility of DPHE, DOE, BSTI, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and CBOs and they will send their reports to the water quality control committee in the Local Government Division.
  • WASAs and relevant agencies shall support and promote any collective initiative in slums and squatters in accessing water supply services on payment.
  • WASAs, DPHE, BUET and AEC shall conduct research and development activities for the development of appropriate technologies and other developments with special emphasis on difficult and under-served areas. They shall share the results of research and development and provide technical support to the private sector.
  • Efforts shall be made to upgrade the capacity of the Pourashabhas and WASAs for planning, designing, implementation, management and human resource development and the DPHE shall have appropriate institutional linkage for this purpose.
  • NGOs will play appropriate role in undertaking motivational activities

 Urban Sanitation

  • The sanitation system shall have to be self-sufficient and self-sustaining. Sanitary latrine in every household will be promoted. Along with individual sanitation, public and community latrines will be set-up by City Corporation/Pourashabha and leased out to private sector for maintenance.
  • The City Corporation or Pourashabhas shall be responsible for solid waste collection, disposal and their management.
  • The role of women in the process of planning, decision making and management shall be promoted through their increased representation in management committees/boards (Pourashava/WASA).
  • Drainage system in the cities and municipalities will be integrated with the overall drainage system with the coordination of Ministry of Water Resources.
  • Private sector and NGO participation in sanitation will be encouraged.
  • Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about by social mobilization and hygiene education.
  • Measures will be taken to recycle, as much as possible, waste materials and to prevent contamination of groundwater by sewerage and drainage.

The Role of the DPHE in WSS(Water and Sanitation services)

Except Dhaka, Narayanganj and Chittagonj cities the DPHE is responsible for the water and sanitation services of the whole country.

In urban areas, the DPHE with participation of urban local bodies is responsible for infrastructure development.

In rural areas, the WSS facilities are installed by the DPHE in close cooperation with the Union Parishads.

Besides above, the DPHE collaborates with private sector, NGOs and CBOs both in urban and rural areas.

Allies in the Sector

Alongside the public services institutions like DPHE, LGED, WASAs, DOE, AEC, DGHS Municipalities and Union Parishads, private sector, NGOs, CBOs, academic and research institutions like BUET etc. are also active in the sector for promotion of WSS/service delivery/and research activities.

 Development Partner of DPHE

World Bank
World Health Organization (WHO)
Danida
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Islamic Development Bank
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Local NGO in Water Sector
NGO Forum
Water Aid

 Functions of DPHE

  1. Except Dhaka and Chittagong city areas and Narayanganj town, DPHE is responsible for the Water Supply and Sanitation (Human excreta & sullage disposal, drainage and solid waste management) of the whole country, both in rural and urban (City Corporation, Pourashava, Upazila HQs and growth centers) areas.
  2. In Urban areas the DPHE solely or jointly with the pourashava be responsible for Water Supply & Sanitation services. Also DPHE is responsible for assisting the Pourashavas and City Corporations through infrastructure development and technical assistance.
  3. Assist Local Government Institutions (City Corporations, Pourashavas, Union Parishads etc) in the Operation & Maintenance of the Water Supply & Sanitation infrastructure & services including technical assistance.
  4. Ensure supply of adequate number of trained & skilled manpower in the Water Supply & Sanitation sector through HRD of the sector personnel & institutions for proper and sustainable management of infrastructure and services.
  5. Strengthen water testing facilities through establishment of laboratories at different levels in order to institutionalize Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance program throughout the country both in rural and urban areas to ensure safe water for the people.
  6. Carryout Hydro-geological investigations in search of safe source (both surface & ground) of water supply.
  7. Social Mobilization for Awareness raising towards proper management of water supply & sanitation infrastructure and promotion of personal hygiene practices.
  8. Develop safe water supply technologies in the Arsenic affected and other hydro-geologically difficult areas (Saline belt, stone problem areas, hilly regions and areas likely to be affected by other micro-pollutants).
  9. Research and Development activities in search of appropriate and affordable options including the indigenous ones of water supply and sanitation in the country.
  10. Ensure water supply and sanitation services/ facilities during and after the natural disasters/ calamities.
  11. Establish National Water Supply & Sanitation Information Center as a center of excellence for sectoral information management.
  12. Capacity building of the community, LGIs, private entrepreneurs and NGOs with technical know-how, information, training etc. in terms of water supply and sanitation.
  13. Monitoring and coordination of activities of the stakeholders including NGOs & private operators working in the Water Supply and Sanitation sector.
  14. Overall management of the Water Supply & Sanitation Sector Development Programme.

 Organization structure

The head of DPHE is Chief Engineer. The post is depended on merit and seniority. The retired personnel makes a gap in the post, then the next best person is promoted in that post. The tenure of all the engineers are like a government employee, upto 57 years.

SUMMARY OF MANPOWER
Sl. No.Name of PostExisting Sanctioned Post
Permanent RevenueTemporary Revenue* One time RevenueGrand Total    (5+6+7)
As per Enam CommitteeAfter Enam CommitteeTotal  (3+4)
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)
Class-I
1.Chief Engineer101001
2.Addl. Chief .Engineer.112002
3.Senior Engineer.6391010
4.E.E.2844723075
5.Senior r Development  engineer.035351036
6.Assistant engineer.76-591740057
7.Other Class-I02248050
Total Class-I11226138930231
Class-II
8.SAE and Equivalent0655655560711
9.Other Class-II202002
Total Class-II2655657560713
10.Class-III2660832743312823137
11.Class-IV14674188727416372798
Grand Total29201505442573517196879

Accountability system:

Accountability is according to government system. Chief Engineer is accountable to Ministry of

Projects under DPHE :

GoB Funded Projects

Sl. No.Name of the ProjectADP allocation (in Lac Taka)
1.Repair, Rehabilitation and Development of Water Supply System in Pourashavas including regeneration of Production Tube Wells648.00
2.Rajshahi City Water Supply (2nd phase)1000.00
3.Rural water supply project through out the country (5th phase)3000.00
4.Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Project in Mongla Pourashava338.00
5.Water Supply, Sanitation and Drainage Project in Sylhet and Barisal City100.00
 6.Establishment of National HRD Center of DPHE200.00

 Project on Repair, Rehabilitation and Development of Water Supply System in Pourashavas including regeneration of Production Tube Wells

1Project Title:Repair, Rehabilitation and Development of Water Supply System in Pourashavas including regeneration of Production Tube Wells
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:Repair, Rehabilitation and development of the existing water supply system in poura area:
i) Through regeneration of production tube wells which have experienced reduction of discharge
ii) To ensure the supply of water to the target population
iii) To reduce wastage of water
iv) To improve pressure in water supply system network
v) To make water supply system sustainable through creating scope for increased service connection
vi) To address adequately the locations having arsenic and iron pollution in water
4Project Period:July 1997 to June 2008
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 486.00 million taka
6Project Location:20 Pourashavas ( see attachment Below)
7Main Components:Land acquisition & Development, Regeneration of Production T/W, Construction of pump house, purchase & installation of pump motor,Pipe line development, Iron/Arsenic removal plant/Surface water treatment plant with electric sub station, Tara T/W, Submersible pump with other accessories for using bore hole camera etc

List of Pourashavas (Repair, Rehabilitation and Development of Water Supply System in Pourashavas including regeneration of Production Tube Wells)

Sl No.Name of PourashavaName of districtName of Division
1MymensinghMymensinghDhaka
2KishoreganjKishoreganj
3GazipurGazipur
4NarshingdiNarshingdi
5MunshiganjMunshiganj
6MadaripurMadaripur
7RajbariRajbari
8BograBograRajshahi
9KurigramKurigram
10SerajganjSerajganj
11ParbatipurParbatipur
12B.BariaB.BariaChittagong
13ComillaComilla
14Cox’s BazarCox’s Bazar
15ChandpurChandpur
16HobiganjHobiganjSylhet
17SunamganjSunamganj
18BarisalBarisalBarisal
19PirojpurPirojpur
20JessoreJessoreKhulna

Rajshahi City Water Supply (2nd Phase) Project –RDPP-1

1Project Title:Rajshahi City Water Supply (2nd phase) Project RDPP-1
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i) To ensure safe,adequate and convenient water supply for Rajshahi city by renovation and development of water supply system.
ii) To make the water supply system self sustained by improvement of management and institutional development.
4Project Period:July 2002 to June 2008
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 461.077 million taka
6Project Location:Rajshahi City
7Main Components:Land acquisition & Development , Test T/W,Production T/W, Pump installation, Regeneration of production T/W, Adding chlorinator to production T/W, Laying pipe line, Surface water treatment plant(5 lakh gallon/hour), Ground water treatment plant ( 400 cum/hour) etc

Rural water supply project through out the country

1Project Title:Rural water supply project through out the country(5th phase)
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i)To reduce the incidence of diarrhoeal and other water borne diseases by supplying safe water to rural population
ii) To increase the number of tube wells /water points to increase use of safe water for all domestic purposes.
iii) To ensure community participation in the operation and maintenance of rural water supply
iv) To increase water supply coverage in rural areas according to “national water & Sanitation Policy,1998”
v) To maintain water supply facilities in the rural areas during and after natural calamities.
4Project Period:July 2004 to June 2010
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 3859.889 million taka
6Project Location:Whole Country
7Main Components:Test T/W, Shallow T/W, Tara T/W, Hand Shallow T/W, PSF, Ring Well, VSST/SST, Re sinking of Shallow T/W, Tara T/W replacement, Ring well rehabilitation, Rain Water Harvesting, Pilot schemes for supply of drinking water through pond sand filter with excavation or re excavation of pond.

Establishment of National HRD Center of DPHE

1Project Title:Establishment of National HRD Center of DPHE
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i) Establish national training academy for BCS (Public Health Engineering) Cadre.
ii) Development of national HRD Center for water supply and sanitation sector.
iii) To cater the need for skilled manpower in the water supply and sanitation sector trough regular training /HRD programs for DPHE officials, NGOs, private sector,CBOs etc
4Project Period:July 2007 to June 2010
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 247.5 million taka
6Project Location:DPHE campus, Mohakhali, Dhaka
7Main Components:Architectural planning /Design/Supervision, Minibus, Microbus, Building construction including Civil, Electrical and plumbing works

 Foreign Aided Projects

Sl. No.Name of the ProjectADP allocation (in Lac Taka)
1.IDB Assisted Water supply facilities in the Coastal belt of Bangladesh (2nd Phase)1012.00
2.Bangladesh Water supply Program Project4350.00
3.Sanitation, Hygiene and Water Supply Project (GOB-UNICEF)11000.00
4.Water Supply and Sanitation in Coastal Belt Project (GOB-DANIDA)5000.00
5.Secondary Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project (GOB-ADB)3006.00
 6.Rural Water Supply in South Western part of Bangladesh152.00
 7.Groundwater Management and TPP for Survey, Investigation and Feasibility study in Upazila and Growth Center Level Pourashava having no Piped Water Supply System 1000.00
8Bangladesh Environmental Technology Verification-Support to Arsenic Mitigation (BETV-SAM)1721.00
9.Establishment of Sector Dvelopment Programme Management Unit ( SDPMU) in DPHE1.00
10.Char Development and Settlement Project-III (CDSP-III) DPHE Part209.00

IDB Assisted Water supply facilities in the Coastal belt of Bangladesh (2nd Phase)

1Project TitleIDB Assisted Water supply facilities in the Coastal belt of Bangladesh (2nd Phase)
2.a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3.Objectives of the Project:i) To make safe water available to the inhabitants of project area
ii) Enhancing the use of safe water reduce the occurrence of water borne diseases.
iii) Ensure Arsenic free water.
4.Project Period:July 2003 to December 2008
5.Cost of the Project:GOB: 76.722, PA: 496.8 & RPA:496.2 million taka
6.Project Location:The project area covers the coastal belt comprising the following districts: Chittagong, Cox’s Bazaar, Khulna, Bagerhat, Shatkhira & Bhola
7.Main Components:Deep Hand Tube Well installation, Sinking of SST/VSST, Pond Sand Filter, Rain Water Harvesting, Mini Piped Water Supply System

Bangladesh Water Supply Program Project

1Project TitleBangladesh Water supply Program Project
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:To contribute to Bangladesh’s efforts to achieve the Millenium Development Goals in water supply and sanitation by 2015.Specially the project will pilot innovative measures to scale up the provision of safe water supply free from arsenic and pathogens in rural and small towns. This will take place by:
i) Promoting rural piped water supply with private sector participation.
ii) Promoting private sector participation in water supply in municipalities (pourashavas)
iii) Implementing arsenic mitigation measures in arsenic affected villages.
iv) supporting development of adequate regulations, monitoring, capacity building and training
v) Supporting the development of local credit market for village piped water supply
vi) Implementing a monitoring and evaluation system for the project
4Project Period:July 2004 to June 2009
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 3198.2, PA: 2320.00 & RPA: 1490.0 million taka
6Project Location:All over Bangladesh
7Main Components:Feasibility study, design & sub project proposal through private sponsors ,Construction works of RPWS system through private sponsor, Feasibility study in selected pourashavas through private operators, Construction works of PPWS involving pourashava and private operator, Pre feasibility study on urban sanitation system , Sub project preparation ,supervision and monitoring through support organization , Construction works of arsenic mitigation options involving SOs.

Sanitation, Hygiene and Water Supply Project (GOB-UNICEF)

1Project Title:Sanitation, Hygiene and Water Supply Project (GOB-UNICEF)
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i) Reduce mortality, morbidity and malnutrition due to water and excreta related diseases ,especially among poor woman and children
ii) Improve standard of hygiene behaviours on a sustainable basis.
iii) Improve access of safe water in unserved and underserved areas including those suffering from arsenic contamination.
iv) Increase sanitation coverage to 100% in programme areas as per GOB goal by 2010.
4Project Period:January 2006 to December 2010
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 1175.92 & PA:4076.90 million taka
6Project Location:See attachement
7Main Components:Base Line Survey, Shallow T/W, Dev Head Tara T/W, Deep T/W, PSF, Ring Well, Village Piped Water Supply, Iron Removal Unit, Infiltration Gallery, Gravity feed system, Pipe water supply in urban slum and fringes, village pipe water supply, Community Rain water Harvestor, Community latrines, Public toilet, Drain, School sanitation and hygiene education

 Project Location of Sanitation, Hygiene and Water Supply Project (GOB-UNICEF)

Sl no.District/PourashavaNos of upazila under project
First batch (January 2006 to December 2008)
1Narshingdi3
2Jamalpur3
3Sherpur3
4Mymensingh6
5Shariatpur3
6Comilla6
7Brahman Baria4
8Nawabgonj3
9Pabna5
10Panchagar3
11Rangpur4
12Gaibandha3
13Sirajganj5
14Narail2
15Meherpur2
16Moulvi Bazar3
17Sunamganj5
2nd batch (January 2008-December 2010)
18Netrakona5
19Kishoreganj6
20Faridpur4
21Rajbari2
22Gopalganj3
23Chandpur4
24Kurigram5
25Joypurhat3
26Thakurgaon3
27Magura2
28Kushtia3
29Hobiganj4
Both 1st & 2nd batches (300 para centers in each batch)
30Rangamati7
31Banderban4
32Khagrachari5
Total Upazilas123

 Water Supply and Sanitation in Coastal Belt Project
(GOB-DANIDA)

1Project Title:Water Supply and Sanitation in Coastal Belt Project (GOB-DANIDA)
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i) To improve hygiene behaviours/practices
ii) To promote community-led total sanitation
iii) To increase the coverage of safe water supply services
4Project Period:January 2006 to June 2008
5:Cost of the Project
6:See attachement (Below)
7Main Components:Test T/W, Re sinking and Replacement of DT/Ws ,Installation of Deep Hand T/W, Mini pipe water supply system, RWHS, PSFs, Iron/Arsenic removal plant, Alternative water point, Water quality testing, Social mobilization, Community sanitation, Caretaker training, Overhead tank, Distribution line, Reticulation lines etc.

Project location (Water Supply and Sanitation in Coastal Belt Project)
(GOB-DANIDA)

Sl no.District/PourashavaNo.of upazila under this projectName o the upazila under this project
Rural Component
1Noakhali4Noakhali sadar, Begumganj, Companiganj,Hatiya
2Feni1Shonagazi
3Laxmipur3Laxmipur,Ramgati,Raipur
4Patuakhali6Patuakhali, Baupal, Dasmina, Galachipa,Kalapara, Mirjaganj
5Barguna5Barguna, Amtali, Bamna, Betagi, Patharghata
6Barisal4Barisal,Bakerganj, Banaripara, Wazipur
7Perojpur4Pirojpur, Mathbaria, Bhandaria, Sarupkathi
8Jhalakathi1Khathalia
Urban Sub Component
9Feni Pourashava
10Ramganj Pourashava
11Noakhali pourashava
12Patharghata purashava

Secondary Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project (GOB-ADB)

1Project Title:Secondary Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project (GOB-ADB)
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i)To increase the water supply coverage up to 90% from the present coverage of 29%(average) by the year 2015 with an additional inclusion of 19.48 lakh people under water supply system
ii) To increase the sanitation coverage from 74% to 100% by the year 2010 confirming to the GOB commitment-“Sanitation for all by 2010”.
iii) Improved capacity of secondary towns to plan, implement, operate, manage, maintain and finance water supply and sanitation investments
iv) Improve capacity of DPHE to plan, design, supervise, monitor and provide technical assistance to local water utilities and sanitation units
4Project Period:August 2006 to June 2012
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 1430.97, PA: 3425.00 & RPA:319.764 million taka
6Project Location:Name of the Pourashavas:
B.Baria, Jessore, Pirojpur, Sirajganj, Natore, Jhenaidah, Moulvi Bazaar, Kishoreganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Madaripur, Choumuhani, Narshingdi,Joypurhat, Sherpur and Laksmipur
7Main Components:Awareness campaign for sanitation, Training, Rehabilitation of water mains/IRP/OHT/SWTP and PTW, Restoration of house connection, Repair, maintenance and renovation of DPHE’s district level office, renovation of existing public toilet, Installation of Production T/W, Construction of AIRP/Surface Water Treatment Plant/OHT, Replacement of water mains, New Distribution mains/House connection/Stand pipes, Water points, Public toilet, Community latrines, School latrines .

Rural Water Supply in South Western part of Bangladesh

1Project Title:Rural Water Supply in South Western part of Bangladesh
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i) To investigate hydro-geological and hydro logical condition for identification of viable water sources.
ii) Provide arsenic safe and saline options on emergency basis in the highly affected areas.
iii) To increase the coverage of safe water supply services.
iv) Dissemination of appropriate water supply technologies through demonstration and motivation of people to build their own safe water points
4Project Period:July 2007 to June 2012
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 397.405 million taka
6Project Location:see attachment below
7Main Components:Feasibility study including hydro geological and hydrological survey, investigation, supervision and orientation, Community mobilization, Training, Piloting of safe water supply options, Installation of safe water supply options

Project Location of Rural Water Supply in South Western part of Bangladesh

Sl no.DistrictNo. of Upazila under this projectName of the upazilas under this project
1Bagerhat9Sadar, Chitalmari, Fakirhat, Kachua, Mollahat, Mongla, Morrelganj, Rampal, Saralkhola
2Jessore8Ahboynagar, Chowgacha, Sharsha, Bagerpara, Jhikargacha, Keshabpur, Sadar, Monirampur
3Khulna8Batiaghata, Dacop, Dumuria, Digholia, Koyra, Paikgacha, Phultala, Terokhada
4Shatkhira7Assasuni, Debhata, Kalaora, Kaliganj, Sdar, Shyamnagar, Tala

 Bangladesh Environmental Technology Verification-Support to Arsenic Mitigation (BETV-SAM)

1Project Title:Bangladesh Environmental Technology Verification-Support to Arsenic Mitigation (BETV-SAM)
2a)Sponsoring Ministry/Division:Local Govt., Rural Development & Co operatives/Local Govt. Division
b)Executive Agency:Department of Public Health Engineering
3Objectives of the Project:i) Test and verify the performance of 7 to 10 new technologies ” screed in” for testing and verification
ii) Ensure that the technologies verified in ETV-AM and under this project stand the “test of time” in sustained use in real field condition (monitoring) and acquire a sence of which arsenic removal technologies are fiscally and socially viable ( fiscal and social monitoring and evaluation).
iii) Secure the institutional sustainability of arsenic technology verification in Bangladesh.
iv) Provide early support to the Government of Bangladesh and private sector actors in the development of plans and programs to ensure that those arsenic technologies that are eventually developed on a large scale basis in Bangladesh are properly maintained and replaced when required.
4Project Period:July 2005 to June 2009
5Cost of the Project:GOB: 5.78 & PA: 674.22 million taka
6Project Location:
7Main Components:Training ( Management of verification and monitoring/ Laboratory management/ Local training), Technology screening/testing/verification, Institutional capacity building, Technical documentation, Program management, Social mobilization, Technology deployment, Technolgy monitoring, Quality control of sample, Base line and follow up survey.

 ADP Allocation for 2008-09 for DPHE

  • Long-term Cyclone Preparedness and Rehabilitation Project for Water Supply and Sanitation
  • Improvement and Extension of Existing Water Supply and Sanitation System in Pourashavas at District and Upazila HQs.
  • Piped Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Upazila Headquarters.
  • TAPP for Industrial waste Management
  • TAPP for Preparation of Locational Master Plan for Water Supply and Sanitation (Drainage & Waste management)
  • Water Supply and Sanitation Project in SIRD affected area and Cyclone affected area
  • Piped Water Supply Project for Sharonkhola Upazila Headquarters.
  • Intregrated Sanitation Improvement Project in District Town Pourashavas (1st Phase)
  • Feasibility and Project Preparation Study for Development of Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Facilities for Chittagong Hill Tract Districts.
  • National Sanitation Project (2nd Phase)

DPHE : Research & Developments

DPHE conducts many Research & Developments. Such as research on ground water.

Ground water is predominant source of water supply system in Bangladesh. In rural areas, water supplies are generally provided by hand pump tube wells which tap water from underground. But in many places, water supplying with hand pump tube wells are facing severe problems due to various reasons. The major reasons are:

  1. Lowering of Water Table.
  2. Water Quality Problem.
  3. Absence of Suitable Water Bearing Formation.
  4. Arsenic Contamination Problem

DPHE is therefore, has been conducing Research and Development activities to improve existing technologies, develop cost effective alternatives and develop alternative technological option to provide water in the problematic areas.

Historical Background:

Considering the problem encountered in rural water supply a technical committee comprising experts from different organizations started their work on Research and Development activities before 1982. Because of water table depletion, hand pump other than #6 was very essential to be introduced in Bangladesh. After a series of discussions, workshop and field verification, TARA hand pump technology for low water table area has been developed in Bangladesh in the year of 1984.

Considering the importance and the magnitude of the R&D activities, it was felt necessary to establish a separate setup of manpower to be engaged in Research & Development activities. Accordingly, DPHE Research and Development Division was created in 1989 under GOB-Unicef project. The R&D committee headed by Superintending Engineer, DPHE Ground Water Circle comprising members from academic institutions, development partner has been playing advisory role on R&D activities since 1992.

In early nineties, detection of arsenic in ground water has caused a threat for ground water based water supply system in Bangladesh. On growing concern over arsenic contamination, a number of studies has been fielded to identify the causes of arsenic contamination, its magnitude and to find out the ways of arsenic mitigating technologies. Apart from this, a number of alternate water options are being explored in the field to evaluate the performance of the options in terms of technical and social aspect.

Major Activities of DPHE in the research on ground water. :

Implication of Declining Water Table:

 Since 1986, DPHE has been monitoring the fluctuations of groundwater table using a measuring network having one tubewell in each union of the country. Measurements are taken once annually during peak dry season. The data indicates the area where the water table has fallen beyond the suction limit has increased from 12% in 1986 to 20% in 1990. As a result a large number of tubewells fitted with no 6 suction pump become non-functioning during dry season. During 1992-95 an in depth study had been carried out to predict the area of the country where the water table would be beyond the suction limit in the year 2010.

 Development of TARA Pump:

Due to declination of water table, a large number of no 6 suction pump started to be inoperative particularly in dry season in different parts of the country. To cope up the problem, Tara pump has been developed based on principle of displacement pump. The pump is submerged in water connected with handle through piston rod. It can yield water within 15meter water table.

 Introduction of MINI TARA & Extended piston in 1.5 inch dia shallow well:

 Concersion of DSP into TARA: The conventional deep-set pumps were becoming obsolete due to difficulties & expensive maintenance. These wells could easily be converted into TARA, provided the upper well casing remains within water level. 10 nos of such conversion had been made in Ghatail thana of Tangail district. It was proposed to install further 40 such wells to observe the performance; maintenance and construction defect if any to standardize the design.

Water Quality Problem:

Coastal Belt Mapping Updating: In coastal belt areas the major problem encountered in tubewell was salinity of excess concentration. Besides this, in some places no suitable aquifer was available. In 1990-91 a detailed map of the coastal belt was prepared showing different problem areas on it. After that, extensive work to find out suitable water bearing layer was done. By this time some areas were found successful, some areas found unsuccessful for normal hand pump well, where alternate technologies were being applied and some new areas with different problem were identified. All these changes were incorporated in the maps and the coastal belt mapping were updated. The exercise was started in 1993 by conducting 4 workshops in this regard. The activities continued up to 1995 and the maps were again updated.

Danida Supported R & D activities under DPHE- R & D Division

Pond Sand Filters (PSF):

R & D Model PSF:

From the assessment of ITN model PSF it has been revealed that it costly to accommodate by poor household, construction and O & M seems a bit difficult by local private sector and users. Then R & D division has taken initiative to develop a new design. Accordingly the designed has been made and piloted. The design capacity is for about 40 families ie about for 200 users. The estimated cost is about Tk 30000/. The user contribution is 20 % of the estimated cost. It has been monitored for about 7 months for technical, socioeconomic, management and O & M aspects. The findings are satisfactory to be replicated.

Rain water Harvesting System:

R & D division has designed and piloted community based Rain Water Harvesting System (RWHS) to serve 3 to 5 families ie about 25 to 30 users for drinking and cooking purpose. The storage tank volume is 2500litre. The construction cost is about Tk 11000/. The user contribution in construction is 20 % of the estimated cost. The models designed to ensure 7 months water security. It has been monitored for about 7 months for technical, socioeconomic, management and O & M aspects. The findings are satisfactory to be replicated.

Piloting on Water Source with Raised Platform:

After 2004 flood, it was planned to construct water source with raised platform in flood shelter or strategic location as emergency preparedness so that the flood distressed people can get water form these sources during flood. In these context water source with raised platform was designed and piloting of 20 no such technologies was carried out in Narsingdi, Lakhmipur, Sylhet and Moulvibazar ( 5 nos at each district).

 In evaluation it was found that water point with raised platform installed in flood shelter ( mostly school or college where people take refuge during flood) or strategic location would be used by the people in normal time and be useful during flood period. Following the findings of piloting, the said technologies were incorporated in the UNICEF assisted Post Flood Rehabilitation project. Under this project about 3500 nos such technologies were installed. After 2007 flood, carried out by CEGIS revealed that these options were very effective during flood.

Pond Sand Filters (PSF):

a. Iron Removal Unit : As a part of the DPHE-UNICEF R & D activities, 10 nos Iron Removal Units have been constructed with different models including using VS ring. Water quality monitoring including its performance evaluation as regard to O&M and acceptability by the community will be start at last part of February 2008. removal of manganese also be include in water quality monitoring programme.

b. Mark-3 and Afridev Technology : It was reported that some part of the country (particularly Rajshahi zone), facing acute lowering of water table exceeding 100 ft. In these areas Tara-dev is not suitable. So Mark-3 and Afridev pump capable of abstracting water having water table around 150 ft. has been taken for piloting under DPHE-UNICEF R&D activities. 5 such tubewells ( 1 in Tongi, 2 in Chapai Nawabganj and 2 in Rajshahi) have already been installed. These technologies will be monitored, reviewed and to be modified for make it more suitable in terms of performance and cost of the technology as well.

c. Safe Water System (SWS): Household Chlorination of Dug well

Piloting on point of use water treatment technologies has been undertaken by DPHE-WHO-UNICEF initiatives. Under these piloting household chlorination is being done in the dugwell of Homna upazilas. EPRC and TWSDA have been engaged as a partner agency. Baseline survey has been completed. Other works like distribution of disinfectant, motivation of the community, testing of water quality is going on.

d. Drilling deep tubewll in gravel problem area

In some region in the country including arsenic affected areas, deep drilling is very difficult due to existence of gravel layer. As a part of DPHE-JAICA initiatives, piloting on improvement of water jet method was undertaken to penetrate the gravel layer. Using the said method five deep test drilling have successfully installed in gravel problem areas like Harirumpur of Manikganj and Damurhuda of Chuadanga, Ckowgacha of Jessore, Bera of Pabna. In Bera and Chowgach, arsenic free aquifer could not be found. In Manikganj, more deep drilling will be done using the said method for confirming the deep tubewell as a suitable option in Manikganj areas. The final report is under preparation for printing.

d. Effectiveness of sealing on deep tubewell:

According to the protocol of deep tubewell mentioned in Arsenic policy, sealing is to be done to prevent the leaching of arsenic in deep aquifer through drilling hole. Accordingly clay sealing is being done in deep tubewell. But the procedure of clay sealing raised some confusion regarding its effectiveness. In this context as a part of the DPHE-JAICA R&D activities, initiatives has been undertaken to findout the best possible procedure of clay sealing and to examine its effectiveness. Two tubewells of 1.5” diameter were installed at first for experimenting gravel shrouding and clay sealing with clay balls( Clay: Bentonite = 1:1). Three tubewells of 3” diameter were installed and among those one was sealed with cement, one was sealed with clay ball and the rest one without any sealing. Tracer element test was carried out to verify leaking of sealed and without sealing wells. Water samples are now in lab for chemical analysis. Three tubewells of 1.5” diameter were also installed in same methods of which one was sealed with cement, one was with clay ball and the rest one ithout any sealing. Tracer element test for these tubewell will be done very soon. All the tube wells are installed in Kadamtal , Benapole upazila.

Training

SIDate/DurationTrainee Category Title of the training Course Number of traniee Financed By
2006-2008
128-30, August 2006Training on “Sanitation: Practice & Improvement”.25WHO
229 August 2006Seminar on “Arsenic Removal Technology (DARD) Component”.24UNICEF
304-06 September 2006Training on “Sanitation: Practice & Improvement”.25WHO
414 September 2006Training on “Preparation of cash accounts, submission & using 13 digit budget code in water Supply & Sanitation Project”.168UNICEF
525 – 27 September 2006Training on “Development of Arsenic Removal Technology (DART)” .26UNICEF
603 – 21 December 2007Training on “AAS and Preparation of SOP”.09JICA
718 – 20 December 2007Training on “Water safety plan”.12WHO
819 – 21 December 2007Training on “Sanitation: Practice & Improvement”.25WHO
926 – 28 December 2008Training on “Sanitation: Practice & Improvement”.25WHO
1016 – 26 April 2008Basic Training on “Water Supply & Sanitation for the New recruited Sub Assistant Engineers”.25WHO
1107 – 17 May 2008Basic Training on “Water Supply & Sanitation for the New recruited Sub Assistant Engineers”.23WHO
1214 – 18 January 2008Training on “Iron and Manganese analysis by AAS Method”.07DPHE
1319 February – 22 March 2007Basic Training Course on “Laboratory activities”.17JICA
1419 – 23 February 2007Basic Training Course on “Laboratory activities”.16JICA
1512 – 14 June 2008Training on “Manganese and Iron Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) Review”.07JICA
1617 – 21 June 2007Training on “Review of laboratory test for sample Analyzer”.17JICA
2008-2009 Fiscal Year
1703 September 2009Training on “Water Supply Sanitation & Hygiene (WSSH) in emergencies for the DPHE field level staff in five flood affected districts.35WHO
1804 September 2008Training on “Water Supply Sanitation & Hygiene (WSSH) in emergencies for the DPHE field level staff in five flood affected districts.35WHO
1905 September 2008Training on “Water Supply Sanitation & Hygiene (WSSH) in emergencies for the DPHE field level staff in five flood affected districts.23WHO
2013 September 2008Training on “Water Supply Sanitation & Hygiene (WSSH) in emergencies for the DPHE field level staff in five flood affected districts.35WHO
2123 September 2009Training on “Water Supply Sanitation & Hygiene (WSSH) in emergencies for the DPHE field level staff in five flood affected districts35WHO
2229 October – 8 November 2009Basic training course on “Water Supply Sanitation “23WHO
2312 November – 22 November 2009Basic training course on “Water Supply Sanitation “19WHO
2410 January – 11 January 2009Training on “Installation, calibration, testing O & M of emergency Water Treatment Plant at SIDR affected area“19WHO
2513 January – 16 January 2009Training on “Installation, calibration, testing O & M of emergency Water Treatment Plant at SIDR affected area“20WHO
2629 March – 3 April 2009Training on “Water Safety plan, financial Management and Service Rules“17WHO
275 April – 10 AprilTraining on “Water Safety plan, financial Management and Service Rules“17WHO

 

Training Course Conducted By DPHE Training Division from the year 1997
SIDate/DurationVenueTitle of the training Course DPHEPourashavaDPEDPINGOFinanced By
121-24, December 97BIMManagement Techniques for Senior DPHE officials13WHO
219-27, April 98BIMImplementation of TOT on organization & Management of Training for DPHE Executive Engineer.15WHO
320-22 April 98Comilla LaboratoryDrinking Water Analysis for Arsenic & Information Management37WHO
418-19, May 98Nipsom AuditoriumTOT on Arsenic Testing with field test kits36UNICEF
512-23 July 98EGISEnvironmental Impact Assessment Course3——-
625-29, October 98BIMTraining on Development of Management Communication skills for SDE/AE27WHO
715-17,
November 98
BIMTraining on Development of Management Communication Skills for Executive Engineer17WHO
86-10,
December 98
BIMTraining on Basic Accounting for DPHE Accounts Assistant20WHO
914-17,
February 99
DPHE Trg DivisionRefreshers Training on Planning & Implementation of Health Educators17WHO
109-10, June 99DPHE Trg DivisionTraining for Pump Drivers & Asstt. Pump Drivers of Pourashavas923 Town WSP
1113-14, June 99DPHE Trg DivisionTraining for Pump Drivers & Asstt. Pump Drivers of Pourashavas9-do-
1216-17, June 99DPHE Trg DivisionTraining for Pump Drivers & Asstt. Pump Drivers of Pourashavas19-do-
1320-21, June 99DPHE Trg DivisionTraining for Pump Drivers & Asstt. Pump Drivers of Pourashavas12-do-
1421-23, Sept 99DPHE Trg DivisionTraining for Pump Drivers & Asstt. Pump Drivers of Pourashavas20WHO
1526-28, Sept 99DPHE Trg DivisionTraining for Pump Drivers & Asstt. Pump Drivers of Pourashavas23WHO
1610-12, Nov/99DPHE Trg DivisionFinancial Management of DPHE Executive Engineers18WHO
1728-30, Nov/99DPHE Trg DivisionFinancial Management of DPHE Executive Engineers20WHO
1821-24, Dec/99DPHE Trg DivisionFinancial Management of DPHE Executive Engineers15WHO
1927, February 2000IEBTraining on Modern Management5WHO
209, April/2001IEBTraining on Modern Management5WHO
2124-27, July/2000DPHE Trg DivisionFinancial Management for DPHE Executive Engineers17WHO
227-10, August 2000DPHE Trg DivisionFinancial Management for DPHE Executive Engineers18WHO
2316 July – 24 Aug 2000Access, DhanmondiComputer Training on Smart Presentation18WHO
2423 Oct-02 Nov 2000DPHE Trg DivisionBasic Training on Newly Recruited Assistant Engineers11UNICEF
2502-12 Oct 2000DPHE Trg DivisionBasic Training on Newly Recruited Assistant Engineers28UNICEF
2618-28 Sept 2000DPHE Trg DivisionBasic Training on Newly Recruited Assistant Engineers27UNICEF & DANIDA
2722-26 July/01APDTraining for NGO’s Personnel on Management skills4WHO
282000-2001BUETFellowship for DPHE Personnel2WHO
2913 Dec 98 – 4 Feb 99DPHEIndustrial attachment of the final year students of Dhaka Polytechnic Institute18DPI
308 WeeksDPHEIndustrial attachment of the final year students of Dhaka Polytechnic Institute19DPI
318 WeeksDPHEIndustrial attachment of the final year students of Dhaka Polytechnic Institute33DPI
3210 DaysDASCOHTOT on PRA towards Promotion22WHO
337-11 August/02BIM ChittagongHealth, Safety and Engineering16WHO
3413-15 May/02DPHE Gaibandha DivTOT on School Sanitation & Hygiene Education521UNICEF
3513-15 May/02DPHE Jamalpur DivTOT on School Sanitation & Hygiene Education617UNICEF
366-8 May/02DPHE Brahman BariaTOT on SSHE319UNICEF
373-5 June/02DPHE Madaripur DivTOT on SSHE724UNICEF
3828-30 May/02DPHE Chudanga DivTOT on SSHE217UNICEF
3928-30 May/02DPHE Rangpur DivTOT on SSHE423UNICEF
403-5 June/02DPHE Serajgonj DivTOT on SSHE233UNICEF
416 Feb-26 April/02DPHEIndustrial Attachment for Polytechnic Final Year Student—-43DPI
426 Feb/01DPHE Trg. DivTraining on Orientation of DPHE EEs/AE/SDE/SAE Under 15 Upazilas Projects35UNICEF
4323-26 July/01DPHE Trg. Div.TOT on Communication Skills for SDE/UP Manager/ Communication officer under 15 Upazila1434UNICEF
4413 July/2001DPHE Trg. Div.TOT on Arsenic Testing under 15 Upazila Project718UNICEF
457-11 Oct 01ITNTraining of Laboratory Personnel under 15 upazila Project4UNICEF
4612-17 July 2003DPHE Trg. Div.Computer Networking and Customizing Software14UNICEF
4726-31 July 2003DPHE Trg. Div.Computer Networking and Customizing Software14UNICEF
4802-07 Aug 2003DPHE Trg. Div.Computer Documentation System14UNICEF
4916-20 Aug 2003DPHE Trg. Div.Computer Documentation System14UNICEF
5023-28 Aug 2003DPHE Trg. Div.Computer Documentation System14UNICEF
5101-02 Oct 2003DPHE Trg. Div.Training on Operation & Maintenance of Production Well & Pump for Pourashava Pump operators.23WHO
5215-16 Nov 2003DPHE Rangpur CircleTraining on Operation & Maintenance of Production Well & Pump for Pourashava Pump operators.25WHO
5327-28 Jan 2004DPHE Khulna CircleTraining on Operation & Maintenance of Production Well & Pump for Pourashava Pump operators.24WHO
543-12 Oct 2004Training DivisionTraining on “Water and Sanitation for DPHE Assistant Engineers”23UNICEF
5512-16 Sept’2004Training DivisionTOT on Community Development and Mitigation Activities in 3 Upazilas under 35 Upazilas program618BAMWSP
5619-20 Dec 2004Training DivisionTOT on “WAGTECH Pota test kit”16UNICEF
5721-22 Dec 2004Training DivisionTOT on “WAGTECH Pota test kit”13UNICEF
5829-31 Jan 2005Training DivisionPublic Procurement Regulation – 200323UNICEF
5912-14 Feb 2005Training DivisionPublic Procurement Regulation – 200326UNICEF
6003-07 April 2005Training DivisionComputer Database Management Using MS Access 200016UNICEF
6105 April 2005Training DivisionTraining on Arsenic Detection using Digital Arsenator17UNICEF
6206 April 2005Training DivisionTraining on Arsenic Detection using Digital Arsenator9UNICEF
6317-28 April 2005Training DivisionComputer Database Management Using MS Access 200015UNICEF
643-5 May 2005Muradnagor, ComillaTraining on Impact of Arsenic Contaminated Water Ingestion, Alternative Water Options, Information Dissemination and Community level management” for Imams150
Total694164154113242

 

 Arsenic contamination and Mitigation in Bangladesh: Role of DPHE

Introduction

Water supply in Bangladesh is predominately based on groundwater sources. In the context of very high prevalence of diarrhea diseases in Bangladesh, bacteriological quality received priority as a criterion for drinking water supply. Groundwater is free from pathogenic microorganisms and available in adequate quantity in shallow aquifers for development of low cost tubewell based water supply for scattered rural population. Bangladesh achieved a remarkable success providing 97% of rural population with bacteriologically safe tubewell water. This was considered as the largest population coverage by safe water supply in the region. Water is universal solvent and capable of dissolving almost everything to a certain extent but the possibility of having arsenic at high concentration had never been considered seriously in the past. Unfortunately, arsenic contamination of shallow aquifers in many parts of the country has made shallow tubewell water unsafe for drinking.

Fundamental of Arsenic:

  • Arsenic is widely distributed throughout the Earth’s crust, most often as arsenic sulfide or as metal arsenates and arsenides. It is the 20th most abundant element in the earth’s crust.
  • Arsenic is introduced into drinking-water sources primarily through the dissolution of naturally occurring minerals and ores.
  • Most important route of exposure is through the oral intake of food and beverages. There are a number of regions where arsenic may be present in drinking-water sources, particularly groundwater, at elevated concentrations.
  • Arsenic in drinking-water is a significant cause of health effects in some areas, and arsenic is considered to be a high-priority substance for screening in drinking-water sources.
  • Concentrations are often highly dependent on the depth to which the well is sunk.

Identification of Arsenic in Bangladesh:

  • Arsenic in Tubewell water was first Identified in 1993.
  • At Present Prevalence of Arsenic in Drinking Water has been identified in 61 out of 64 Districts of the Country. (Except, Hilly Districts)
  • However the Degree of Contamination varies from 1% to over 90% with an average contamination of 29%.
  • Arsenic in drinking-water is a significant cause of health effects in some areas, and arsenic is considered to be a high-priority substance for screening in drinking-water sources.
  • In 268 (at present 271) out of 463 Upazilas of the country the Problem identified from the Survey of DPHE-UNICEF & DPHE-BGS (British Geological Survey). Survey of DPHE–UNICEF in 198 safe Upazilas identified 12 more Upazilas having arsenic problem.

Health Effect:

  • Excess amount of Arsenic intake above the permissible limit in Human body makes Arsenicosis diseases.
  • Maximum permissible limit for Bangladesh 0.05 mg/l
  • WHO guideline value = 0.01 mg/l

Fact from WHO Guidelines

  • Provisional guideline value 0.01 mg/litre (10 µg/litre). The guideline value is designated as provisional in view of the scientific uncertainties.
  • Occurrence Levels in natural waters generally between 1 and 2 µg/litre, although concentrations may be elevated (up to 12 mg/litre) in areas containing natural sources.
  • Basis of guideline: There remains considerable uncertainty over the actual risks at low derivation concentrations, and available data on mode of action do not provide a biological basis for using either linear or non-linear extrapolation
  • Limit of detection 0.1 µg/litre by ICP/MS; 2 µg/litre by hydride generation AAS or FAAS
  • Treatment achievability: It is technically feasible to achieve arsenic concentrations of 5 µg/litre or lower using any of several possible treatment methods. However,this requires careful process optimization and control, and a more reasonable expectation is that 10 mg/litre should be achievable by conventional treatment, e.g., coagulation.

Scale of the Problem:

  • Mostly Shallow Tubewells are contaminated 29% of the sampled Tubewells are found contaminated nationally.
  • Deep Tubewells (>150m depth) are generally safe.
  • Survey findings indicated that irrigation is not the major cause of the Ground water Arsenic Problem (DPHE-BGS Study, 2000).
  • 30-35 millions people are expected to be exposed to Arsenic contamination.
  • The worst affected Districts:

Chandpur(90%), Noakhali(69%), Shriatpur(65%) , Munsiganj(83%),

Satkhira(67%), Meherpur(60%), Gopalganj(79%), Comilla(65%),

Bagerhat(60%), Madaripur(69%), Faridpur(65%), Laxmipur(56%)

Arsenic Mitigation activities by DPHE

  • Awareness Building.
  • Testing of Tube well Water.
  • Marking of Contaminated and Uncontaminated ube wells.
  • Providing Alternative Water Supply Options.
  • Patient Identification & Management

Awareness Building :

Disseminate Knowledge about arsenic posioning through multi-media channels.

  • TV
  • RADIO
  • POSTER
  • LEAF LET
  • Inter Personal Comm.
  • It is not contagious

National Screening Summary

Upazilas screened:270
Total tubewells (TW):5.07 million
TWs screened:4.95 million
TWs found green:3.50 million (71% of screened)
TWs found red:1.44 million (29% of screened)
Estimated total TWs:approx. 8.61 million nationwide (90.3% private)
Nationwide tubewell contamination:approx. 20%
For detail information visit web site www.bwspp.org

Arsenic by well type

Based on data in 15 upazila study by DPHE

Four Steps of Mitigation:

A.Awareness Building : DPHE, DGHS and NGO Partner.
B.Testing of tubewell and marking of contaminated & uncontaminated tube well : DPHE with NGO Partner
C.Patient Identification and management : DGHS
D.Providing alternative water supply option: DPHE with NGO partner

Alternate water supply option

The following option were identified as Arsenic mitigation option. These are categories as two group:

 a) Non Chemical

 b) chemical.

Non Chemical Option

Pond Sand filter : Treat pond water :

Oldest method to abstract water by digging a hole and using bucket with rope. Now it is upgraded by setting hand pump and covering the top of the well.

Mostly suitable in shallow depths above the contaminated aquifer. But it has a secondary risk of bacteriological contamination.

Dug well should be installed with safety from sanitation where deep tubewells are not successful.

Village Piped Water Supply

Surface water or Ground water source will be used. Existing Irrigation well which is arsenic safe can also be used where available .

Chemical option:

Surface water or Ground water source will be used. Existing Irrigation well which is arsenic safe can also be used where available.

 Rapid Assessments of Arsenic Mitigation Option

  • ITN-BUET conducted a health risk assessment of different non-chemical alternative options with the assistance of APSU, a DFID funded government project.
  • Four options namely Dug well, PSF, Rain water Harvester and Deep Tube well were
  • Microbiological contamination was very high in Dug wells and PSFs.
  • More than 90% dug wells and PSFs were found to contain TTC
  • Microbiological contamination was least in Deep tube wells.
  • Only 8% Deep tube wells were found to contain TTC
  • Microbiological contamination was found moderate in rain water harvesters.
  • 40% – 60% rain water harvesters were found to contain TTC.
  • No or very low chemical contamination was found in Rain water harvesters

DPHE Laboratories

Water quality testing is one of the major activities required before supplying safe water to its consumers. On this ground establishment of laboratories has been gaining increased attention day by day. The Development of laboratories in DPHE are summarized below:

 1) In the early eighties, 4 Zonal laboratories were established at Rajshahi, Khulna, Comilla & Mymenshing with Dutch assistance.

2) One laboratory at Noakhali has been established with Danish assistance.

3) One laboratory at Jhenaidah has been established with Danish assistance.

4) Existing 4 zonal laboratories have been strengthened by renovating the physical infrastructures and supplying sophisticated equipment like Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) under the Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project (BAMWSP) funded by IDA and SDC.

5) 5 more Zonal Laboratories are being established at Dhaka, Barisal, Sylhet, Bogra and Rangpur with modern infrastructure facilities and sophisticated equipment liks AAS under the BAMWSP funded by IDA and SDC.

6) JICA has come up to establish a central laboratories for DPHE by constructing a modern laboratory building and equipping it with sophisticated facilities for water testing, which will act as coordinating & reference laboratory for all the laboratories of DPHE and will also administer training functions for the laboratory personnel.

7) JICA has also come up to renovate/Upgrade the two existing laboratories at Noakhali & Jhenaidah as Zonal Laboratories.

SANITATION SCENARIO, BANGLADESH

The global commitment of Johannesburge declaration 2002 is to achieve 50% coverage of the un-served population (2.40 Billion) with sanitation facilities by the year 2015.

Government of Bangladesh declared the target of achieving a state whereby every household in the nation will have a sanitary latrine by 2010. The target will be fulfilled in three phases by 2005, 2008 and 2010.

The Government Initiatives so far to achieve 100% Sanitation by 2010

  • Local Government Division of the Government of Bangladesh carried out a nation-wide baseline sanitation Survey in 2003 involving govt. and Local government Institutions and acquired relevant information to prepare a comprehensive plan to achieve the sanitation target. The summary of the baseline survey is presented below :

Households with hygienic, unhygienic and no latrines

Area/RegionNumber of HouseholdsHouseholds with Hygienic Latrines (%)Households with Unhygienic Latrines (%)Total Households with Latrines (%)Households With No Latrines (%)
National2,13,94,09333.2224.8057.9541.99
Rural1,83,26,33228.7724.3353.1046.90
Urban30,67,76159.7727.6287.3912.61
City Corps.12,16,42469.9227.5597.472.53
Municipalities18,51,33753.1027.6680.7619.24

The reasons for not having a latrine

Area/RegionNumber of Households with No LatrinesLack of Money (%)Lack of Space (%)Lack of Awareness (%)Preference for Open Defecation (%)Lack of Material(%)
National89,82,55173.2310.6425.134.231.99
Rural85,95,62672.9010.3025.324.272.05
Urban3,86,92580.4718.2620.853.320.59
City Corps.30,72767.9131.5323.045.533.20
Municipalities3,56,19881.5517.1220.663.130.37

Respondents were free to cite more than one reasons

  • The Government of Bangladesh has taken up an extensive program of “ National Sanitation Campaign” in order to ensure Government’s Commitment of achieving 100% sanitation by the year 2010. In this regard the month of October, each year has been declared Sanitation month.
  • Govt of Bangladesh hosted SACOSAN (South Asian Conference on Sanitation), 2003 in October in order to (i) assess the state of Sanitation & Hygiene, sharing experience and lessons learnt in the region (ii) raise the profile of Sanitation & Hygiene in South Asia following WSSD (iii) generate political commitment through a joint declaration and (iv) strengthen leadership/advocacy for improved sanitation & hygiene in South Asia.
  • Local Government Division of Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives has allocated 20% of the Upazila (Sub-District) development grant for improvement of sanitation. In this regard a guidelines has been formulated for proper utilization of the aforesaid grant. In case of City Corporations and Municipalities, Government also earmarked 20% of the development grant for improvement of sanitation.
  • Task Forces/WatSan Committees with definite terms of reference have been formed in the National, City Corporations, District, Municipality, Upazila, Union and ward levels to materialize the national sanitation program.
  • Local Government Division of Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives has adopted a “National Sanitation strategy” to reach the target.
  • ·         Local Government Division declared additional development grants to Municipality/ Upazila Parishad/Union Parishad and awards to head of those Local Govt. Institutions for achieving 100% sanitation under their jurisdiction. Up to September2006, 1211 no Union Parishads, 95 no Upazila Parishads and 54 no Municipalities have achieved 100% sanitation coverage.
  • Local Government Division of Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives has adopted a policy to provide sanitary latrine sets to “Hard-Core Poor” free of cost, who will install the latrine set and construct its superstructure of their own.

Policy and Strategy

Rural Water Supply

  • Communities shall be the focus for all water supply activities; all other stakeholders including the private sector and NGOs shall provide coordinated inputs into the development of the sector with DPHE as the lead agency.Local government bodies in village, union and thana level shall have a direct role in planning, implementation and
  • maintenance of rural water supply and the activities of public and private sector agencies will be coordinated accordingly.
  • As water is increasingly considered to be an economic good as well as a social good, water supply services shall be provided based on user demand and cost-sharing. In the near future concerned communities shall share at least the following portions of costs: (a) 50% for hand tubewells in shallow water table areas, (b) 25% of hand tubewells in low water table areas, (c) 20% for deep hand tubewells and other technologies for different areas.
  • User communities shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of water supply facilities and shall bear its total costs.
  • Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, operation and maintenance.

The rural water supply program shall support and promote a range of technology options.

Urban Water Supply

  • In order to make the water supply system sustainable water would be supplied at cost. However, educational and religious institutions will be provided with water as per existing government rules.
  • In the future water tariff shall be determined on the basis of the cost of water production, operation and maintenance, administration and depreciation.
  • Water supply and Sewerage Authorities (WASAs) shall be responsible for sustainable water supply in the metropolitan areas where WASAs exist while in other urban areas the Pourashabhas with the help of DPHE shall be responsible for the service.
  • WASAs and Pourashabhas shall improve their operational efficiency including financial management.
  • Private sector participation will be promoted.
  • Monitoring of water quality for the purpose of ensuring an acceptable standard will be the responsibility of DPHE, DOE, BSTI, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and CBOs and they will send their reports to the water quality control committee in the Local Government Division.
  • WASAs and relevant agencies shall support and promote any collective initiative in slums and squatters in accessing water supply services on payment.
  • WASAs, DPHE, BUET and AEC shall conduct research and development activities for the development of appropriate technologies and other developments with special emphasis on difficult and under-served areas. They shall share the results of research and development and provide technical support to the private sector.
  • Efforts shall be made to upgrade the capacity of the Pourashabhas and WASAs for planning, designing, implementation, management and human resource development and the DPHE shall have appropriate institutional linkage for this purpose.

NGOs will play appropriate role in undertaking motivational activities.

Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

National Policy for Safe Water Supply & Sanitation 1998

Local Government Division

Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives

Purpose

Safe water and sanitation are essential for the development of public health. The

Government’s goal is to ensure that all people have access to safe water and sanitation services at an affordable cost. To achieve this goal and to ensure that development in the water supply and sanitation sector is equitable and sustainable, formulation of National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation is essential.

Background

The Government started its initial intervention in the water supply and sanitation sector

with the objective of gradually building an effective service delivery mechanism about 62 years ago. After independence, the Government laid emphasis on rehabilitation of damaged water supply and sanitation services and installation of new facilities in rural and urban areas through the Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE). Services were provided mostly free of charge. The role of the users in decision-making, cost sharing and operations and maintenance was negligible. However, subsequently user participation increased significantly. Rural communities are now responsible for operation and maintenance of hand-pump tube-wells and receive training for the purpose. The responsibility for installation, operation and maintenance of urban water supply (excepting Dhaka, Narayangong and Chittagong) was initially with DPHE only

but now it is shared with the Paurasabhas. Recent project-based activities in the Paurasabhas and their involvement in planning, implementation and management have had a positive impact on improvement of Paurasabha capacity. Most of the Paurasabhas and the Union Parishads now have Water Supply and Sanitation Committees (WATSAN) comprising the user communities for supervising water and sanitation related activities. In addition to DPHE, the Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) is also involved in planning and implementation of water and sanitation services in certain Paurasabhas and growth centers identified by the Planning Commission under selected projects. In 1983 Water Supply and Sewerage Authorities (WASA)

were established in Dhaka and Chittagong cities. The responsibility of water supply, sewerage and drainage in Dhaka city and water supply in Chittagong city now rests with the respective WASAs. In the year 1990 Narayanganj town was brought under the jurisdiction of Dhaka WASA. In Dhaka city water supply coverage is only 65% and sanitation coverage is around 72%, of which 30% may be assigned to water borne sewerage. But the average coverage conceals the intra- and inter-regional disparities. The ratio of tube-well to persons is around 70 in the shallow water table area; and 200 and 300 in the coastal and low water table areas respectively. Pollution of surface water is increasing because of imperfect water management and environmental pollution. The recent detection of arsenic in ground water is an issue of grave concern. To preserve environmental quality and to mitigate arsenic contamination research and

field surveys are being carried out.

The government is encouraging and supporting the involvement of other partners, such

as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) market oriented business organizations and similar private organizations in water and sanitation development. This combined promotional campaign for better health and hygiene has increased the demand for tube-wells and sanitary latrines. Due to increase of private sector its capacity for production, installation and maintenance of tube-wells and sanitary latrines has also increased. Materials for installing tube-wells and spares for maintenance are produced by private manufacturers and are available in the market in abundance. The materials which were imported before are now mostly manufactured in the country. A number of NGOs have devised and implemented innovative and effective approaches

for service delivery.

 Overview

The gradual success made by Bangladesh in the provision of basic water supply services to its rural population has earned plaudits. In terms of a service level defined as percentage of population living within 150 meters of a tube-well, the present rural water supply coverage1 is over 90% and the rural sanitation coverage is 16%, though it increases to 42% when `homemade’ 2latrines are considered. The urban water supply3 and sanitation coverages are both around 50%. Although the achievement is significant in the context of South Asia, it is recognized that the goal of total improvement in general health and well being has only been partially achieved. Incidences of morbidity and mortality from water-borne diseases are still high and achievement in behavioral changes in sanitation leaves much to be desired. Inequities in access to water and sanitation services persist. Urban areas are better served compared to the rural areas and in the rural areas the poor enjoy fewer facilities compared to the rich. On the other hand, the facilities provided are not used optimally and service sustainability remains to be improved.

Consequently,development activities are hampered and efforts to improve public health have had limited effect. However, many development projects have attempted to redress these inadequacies but these adopt divergent approaches and the benefits are limited only within project boundaries. It is globally recognized that physical provision of services alone is not a sufficient precondition for sustainability or improvement of health and well being of the people. Greater attention needs to be focused on elements of behavioral changes of users and sustainability through user participation in planning, implementation, management and cost sharing. The need for change within the conventional programs are recognized by the government and all the stakeholders in the sector. The aim to bring about the changes calls for transition from traditional

service delivery arrangement. Institutionalization of strategic partnership process between the central and local government in coordination with other organizations within the civil society is one way of bringing about this change. This will result in the introduction of a service delivery  rocess whose focal point will be the user communities. The change will necessitate the adoption of new institutional and financial arrangements. The knowledge and idea acquired from this new approach and experience could be reflected in a comprehensive policy. The government recognizes the urgent need of a comprehensive national water and sanitation policy which would  eflect its commitment to pursuing a sustainable strategy and incorporate the initiatives based on

recent experiences. The national policy shall provide a long term framework for adoption and implementation of action plans of the government. In the policy, awareness of the longer-term perspective is also important. In this perspective, it will be easier to take appropriate actions within the regular programme under normal circumstances. At the same time, it will be helpful in facing emergency situations. The National Policy will encompass a vision for the future in the light of which programmes can be undertaken in a systematic manner.

Considering the above the National Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Policy has

been formulated with the objective of making water and sanitation services accessible to all within the shortest possible time at a price affordable to all. Past experiences were reviewed to emphasize the positive aspects while formulating the policy.

Objectives:

The objectives of the ‘National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation’ are to

improve the standard of public health and to ensure improved environment. For achieving these objectives, steps will be taken for:

 a) facilitating access of all citizens to basic level of services in water supply and sanitation;

b) bringing about behavioral changes regarding use of water and sanitation;

c) reducing incidence of water borne diseases;

d) building capacity in local governments and communities to be effectively with problems

relating to water supply and sanitation;

e) promoting sustainable water and sanitation services;

f) ensuring proper storage, management and use of surface water and preventing its

contamination;

g) taking necessary measures for storage and use of rain water; h)ensuring storm-water

drainage in urban areas.

Within the overall objectives the following targeted for achievement in phases in the near

future:

i. Increasing the present coverage of safe drinking water in rural areas by lowering the average

number of users per tube-well from the present 105 to 50 in the near future.

ii. Ensuring the installation of one sanitary latrine in each household in the rural areas and

improving public health standard through inculcating the habit of proper use of sanitary

latrines.

iii. Making safe drinking water available to each household in the urban areas.

iv. Ensuring sanitary latrine within easy access of every urban household through technology

options ranging from pit latrines to water borne sewerage.

v. Installing public latrines in schools, bus stations and important public places and community

latrines in densely populated poor communities without sufficient space for individual

household latrines.

vi. Ensuring supply of quality water through observance of accepted quality standards.

vii. Removal of arsenic from drinking water and supply of arsenic free water from alternate

sources in arsenic affected areas.

viii. Taking measures in urban areas for removal of solid and liquid waste and their use in various

purposes. Ensuring the use of waste for the production of organic fertilizer (compost) in the rural areas.

Strategy

The strategy of the National Drinking Water Policy will be developed on the following

principles:

a) All sector development activities shall be planned, coordinated and monitored on the basis of

a sector development framework which will be prepared after the formulation of the Policy;

b) Participation of users in planning, development, operation and maintenance through local

government and community based organizations of the stakeholders;

c) Development of water supply and sanitation sector through local bodies, public-private

sector, NGOs, CBOs and women groups involving local women particularly elected members

(of the local bodies in the sector development activities).;

d) Gradual community cost-sharing and introduction of economic pricing for services;

e) Assigning priority to under-served and un-served areas;

f) Adoption of water supply and sanitation technology options appropriate to specific regions,

geological situations and social groups;

g) Local Government institutions/Paurashavas to bear increasing share of capital cost;

h) Improvement of the existing technologies and conduct of continuous research and

development activities to develop new technologies;

i) Close linkages between research organizations and extension agents/implementing

agencies;

j) Social mobilization through publicity campaign and motivational activities using mass media

among other means to ensure behavioral development and change in sanitation and hygiene;

k) Capacity building at the local/community level to deal effectively with local water and

sanitation problems;

l) Mobilization of resources from users, GOB and development partners for implementation of

activities of the sector in a coordinated manner based on targeted plan of action;

m) Providing credit facilities of an sanitation service;

n) Regular qualitative and quantitative monitoring and evaluation to review progress of activities

and revision of the strategy based on experiences;

o) Wherever feasible safe water from surface water sources shall be given precedence over

other sources; and

p) With a view to controlling and preventing contamination of drinking water, regular and

coordinated water quality surveillance by Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE),

National Institute for Preventive & Social Medicine (NIPSOM), Atomic Energy Commission

and Department of Environment (DOE) and random testing of quality of drinking water

(including bottled water) by DPHE, Bangladesh Standard Testing Institute (BSTI) and DOE to

determine the level of contamination;

q) Adoption of necessary measures in urban areas to prevent contamination of ground and surface water by solid and liquid wastes.

 Definition

i. Safe water supply means withdrawal or abstraction of either ground or surface water as well

as harvesting of rain-water; its subsequent treatment, storage, transmission and distribution

for domestic use.

ii. Sanitation means human excreta and sludge disposal, drainage and solid waste

management.

iii. Sector means the safe water supply and sanitation sector.

Scope

This policy shall cover the geographical area comprising Bangladesh.

Policy Principles

Based on local and international experiences, the following principles have been adopted as the

 basis for policy formulation:

Basic needs – It is necessary to expand and improve the water supply and sanitation services in order to satisfy the basic needs of the people. The need to expand these facilities is greater in the case of under privileged groups and regions.

The value of water – Water has an organic, social and concurrently an economic value. To ensure that service provision is viable, the price of water should reflect its economic value, with the eventual objective of covering the cost of supply. However, the transition from the current level of subscription to new rate of payment should be gradual and there should be a safety net for hard-core poor communities.

Participation of users – Users are at the center of all development activities. Effective use of resources and the provision of appropriate service level is facilitated by user participation at various stages of planning, implementation, operation and maintenance.

Role of Women – Since women play a crucial role in water management and hygiene education at the household level, recognition of women’s role will contribute to the overall development of the sector.

Technology Options – Promotion of various technology options will be sustainable for both water supply and sanitation keeping the needs of specific areas and socio-economic groups of people.

Investment – Investment in the sector should focus on facilitating water and sanitation services, leading to improvement of public health, well being of the people and economic development. It is important to address the weaknesses on a priority basis with emphasis on maintaining the operation of existing services. At the same time further coverage, specially to the under-privileged sections of the community, is necessary. Investment projects in this sector will be successful if these take into consideration the above-mentioned issue. The formulation and revision of the project will also be easier if the project incorporates the lessons learned and uses the feedback from the field.

Integrated development – Isolated initiatives for development of water and sanitation services generally lead to waste of resources. To ensure best use of limited resources for effective development, coordination is necessary among all tiers of the government, local government bodies, NGOs and other related parties including private sector.

Capacity building – The capacity of the sector should be expanded in order to improve and broaden the reach of services it provides. This will require actions related to human resource development, implementation of appropriate institutional arrangements, active involvement of user groups, and new roles for the government, local government bodies, NGOs and private organizations. Decentralization of decision making, training at the local level and local initiatives for resource planning are essential for success.

Private sector – Many functions of the water supply and sanitation sector can be undertaken by private organizations. This will promote increased service coverage and thereby lessen the burden on the government. It is necessary to 8 strengthen an administratively and financially enabling environment for the private sector to

participate and contribute to sector development. Involvement of the private sector is essential to establish a closer relationship between the quality of services of the sector and its financial viability.

Environmental integrity – It is desirable that all development activities related to water supply and sanitation are considered within broader environmental considerations.

Emergency responses – All government and non-government bodies should be prepared to take necessary measures for immediate response before and after natural disaster. Involvement of all other stakeholders is also necessary.

Holistic approach – Drinking water supply and sanitation is a sub-sector and as such should be coordinated into the overall National Health Policy, National Water Policy, National Education Policy and National Environment Policy.

Policies

In general, the urban and rural water supply and sanitation issues appear similar, but they do differ in institutional aspects, and in content and magnitude. As such, policies for rural and urban areas are presented separately.

 Rural Water Supply

 Communities shall be the focus for all water supply activities; all other stakeholders including the private sector and NGOs shall provide coordinated inputs into the development of the sector with DPHE as the lead agency.

Local government bodies in village, union and thana level shall have a direct role in planning, implementation and maintenance of rural water supply and the activities of

public and private sector agencies will be coordinated accordingly.

 As water is increasingly considered to be an economic good as well as a social good,

water supply services shall be provided based on user demand and cost-sharing. In the

near future concerned communities shall share at least the following portions of costs:

(a)50% for hand tube wells in shallow water table areas,

(b) 25% for hand tube wells in low

water table areas,

(c) 20% for deep hand tube wells and other technologies for difficult

areas.

User communities shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of water supply

facilities and shall bear its total costs.

Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making

during planning, operations and maintenance.

 The rural water supply program shall support and promote a range of technology options. Technological packages and specifications for hardware and service levels shall be formulated on the basis of experience, needs and results of research and development. The experiences gained in this regard by DPHE, Private Sector, NGOs, CBOs will be shared for appropriate programme development.

 During natural disaster, necessary measures shall be taken on an emergency basis so that people have access to safe water and do not have to drink contaminated water. Necessary measures shall also be taken to prevent contamination and damage of tube wells during natural disaster. DPHE shall store enough materials and spares to take

immediate action for repairing or installing tube wells in collaboration with local bodies,

NGOs and CBOs. While the tube wells installed immediately after natural disaster will be

&ee of cost, a part of rehabilitation of tube wells will be charged according to the age of

the tube well damaged or destroyed.

The capacity for qualitative and quantitative monitoring, analysis of information and policy implementation of the Local Government Division will be improved.

 Alongside the program for distribution of hardware, emphasis will be given on publicity campaign and social mobilization through training of volunteers at village level for use of safe water for all purposes and water conservation.

 Priority will be assigned to water supply in difficult and under-served areas.

1 In each and every village of Bangladesh at least one pond will be excavated/excavated and preserved for drinking water. Necessary security measures will be undertaken to prevent water of the pond from contamination.

Rural Sanitation

 Local government and communities shall be the focus of all activities relating to

sanitation. All other stakeholders including the private sector and NGOs shall provide

inputs into the development of the sector within the purview of overall government policy

with DPHE ensuring coordination.

 The users shall be responsible for operation sanitation facilities and will bear its total cost.

Measures will be taken so that users can bear increased cost of sanitation services. However, in case of hard core poor communities, educational institutions, mosques and other places of worship, the costs may be subsidized partially or fully. In public toilets separate provision shall be made for women users.

Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about

through social mobilization and hygiene education in coordination with the Ministries of Health, Education, Social Welfare, Information, Women & Children Affairs and DPHE,NGOs, CBOs, local government bodies and other related agencies.

 Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, implementation, operation and maintenance.

The rural sanitation programme shall support and promote a range of technology options for water and environmental sanitation. Technological packages and specifications for hardware and service levels shall be formulated. The experiences gained in this regard by DPHE, NGOs, CBOs will be shared for sustainable program development.

Use of organic waste material for compost and bio-gas will be promoted and contamination of water by various waste materials will be discouraged.

Within a specified period legislation will be enacted making use of sanitary latrine compulsory.

Urban Water Supply

 In order to make the water supply system sustainable water would be supplied at cost. However, educational and religious institutions will be provided with water as per existing government rules.

 In the near future water tariff shall be determined on the basis of the cost of water

production, operation and maintenance, administration and depreciation.

Water Supply, Sewerage Authorities (WASAs) shall be responsible for sustainable water supply in the metropolitan areas where WASAs exist. Whereas in other urban areas the Paurasabhas with the help of DPHE shall be responsible for the service.

WASAs and the Paurasabhas shall be empowered to set tariffs, bylaws, appointment of staffs, etc. according to their needs and in accordance with the guideline laid down by the government.

WASAs and the Paurasabhas shall improve their operational efficiency including financial management. In the near future billing and collection targets will be 90% and 80% respectively. Paurasabhas and WASAs will take actions to present the wastage of water. In addition they will take necessary steps to increase public awareness to prevent misuse of water. Paurasabhas will take appropriate measures to reduce unaccounted for water from 50% to 30%. Dhaka WASA and Chittagong WASA will also lower their unaccounted for water from the present level.

 In order to promote operational efficiencies the government’s development grant to the –

 Paurasabhas shall take into account the following :

a) water supply coverage in terms of area and population;

b) amount of un-accounted for water;

c) increase in revenue income.

 The role of women in planning, decision making and management shall be promoted through ensuring increased representation in management committees/ boards (Paurasabha/WASA).

Private sector participation will be promoted through BOO/BOT and other arrangements. For this purpose opportunities will be created for involving the private sector in billing and collection. A guideline on private sector participation in the sector will be prepared by the government.

During natural disaster WASAs and relevant agencies shall take appropriate measures for providing safe drinking water. This will include repairing and cleaning of pipelines, production well and other installations, emergency supply through water trucks and other necessary measures. The government will reimburse the cost of water supplied free of charge by the Paurasabhas, WASAs and other related agencies during emergency situations.

Monitoring of water quality for the purpose of ensuring an acceptable standard will be the responsibility of DPHE, DOE, BSTI, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and CBOs and they will send their report to the water quality control committee in the Local Government Division.

 WASAs and relevant agencies shall support and promote any collective initiative in slums and squatters in accessing water supply services on payment.

WASAs, DPHE, BUET and AEC shall conduct research and development activities for the development of appropriate technologies and other developments with special emphasis on difficult and under-served areas. They shall share the results of research and development and provide technical support to the private sector.

Efforts shall be made to upgrade the capacity of the Paurasavas and WASAs for planning, designing, implementation, management and human resource development and the DPHE shall have appropriate institutional linkages for this purpose. For future planning and strategy formulation regarding development projects Local Government Division’s Monitoring, Evaluation & Inspection Wing shall monitor the activities of the

sector.

In consultation with relevant government and non-government organizations DPHE, WASA and BUET will formulate an appropriate training program and impart the same in a decentralized manner.

 The capacity of the Monitoring, Evaluation and Inspection Wing of Local Government Division for qualitative and quantitative monitoring, analysis of information, policy implementation, evaluation and revision shall be increased.

NGOs will play appropriate role in undertaking motivational activities.

 Urban Sanitation

The sanitation system shall have to be self sufficient and self- sustaining. Sanitary latrine in every household will be promoted. Along with individual sanitation, public and

community latrines will be set-up by City Corporation/Paurasabha and leased out to

private sector for maintenance.

 The City Corporations or Paurasabhas shall be responsible for solid waste collection, disposal and their management. These organizations may transfer, where feasible, the responsibility of collection, removal and management of solid waste to the private sector. Where WASAs exists, they shall be responsible for sewerage and storm water drainage systems.

The City Corporations and Paurasabhas shall be empowered to set tariffs, by-laws, appointment of staffs, etc. according to their needs and in accordance with the

guidelines laid down by the government.

The role of women in the process of planning, decision making and management shall be promoted through their increased representation in management committees/boards (Paurasabha/WASA).

Drainage system in the cities and municipalities will be integrated with the overall

drainage system with the coordination of Ministry of Water Resources.

Private sector and NGO participation in sanitation will be encouraged. 8.4.7. Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about through social mobilization and hygiene education in alliance with the Ministries of Health, Education, Social Welfare, Information, Women & Children Affairs, DPHE, NGOs, CBOs, local government bodies and other related agencies.

In consultation with relevant government and non-government organizations DPHE, WASA and BUET will formulate an appropriate training program and impart the same in a decentralized manner.

 Department of Environment will be consulted on solid waste management.

 Measures will be taken to recycle, as much as possible, waste materials and to prevent contamination of ground water by sewerage and drainage.

Institutional arrangement

As regards water supply and sanitation sub-sector the Local Government Division will be

responsible for overall planning, identification of investment projects and coordination of activities of agencies under it (viz. DPHE, LGED, WASAs) and local government bodies, private sector, NGOs and CBOs (community Based Organizations). But each of the relevant organizations/institutions will be responsible for its own activities. To coordinate, monitor and evaluate the activities of the sector and to determine future work programme Local Government Division will constitute a forum with representatives from relevant organizations. Except Dhaka and Chittagong city areas DPHE will be responsible for the water supply and sanitation of the whole country. In other urban areas the Department of Public Health Engineering will solely or jointly with the Paurasabha be responsible for such services. In urban areas DPHE will be responsible for assisting the Paurasabhas and City Corporations (except in the cities of Dhaka and Chittagong) through infrastructures development and technical assistance

as may be necessary. Besides, both in rural and urban areas, DPHE will increasingly collaborate with private sector, NGOs and CBOs.

 In particular foreign aided projects where it is specifically required as a component of

overall infrastructure package, LGED may undertake water supply and sanitation related

activities. In such project-based cases LGED shall assist the concerned Paurasabha in the implementation and provide technical assistance. Relevant WASAs will be responsible for water supply and sanitation in Dhaka and Chittagong city areas. Involvement of the private sector in these activities will be explored and

examined. Local Government bodies like Zilla Parisahad, Upazila Parishad, Union Parishad and Gram Parishad will be gradually provided with more scope to contribute in the activities of this sub sector. Congenial atmosphere will be created and necessary support provided to facilitateincreased participation of the privateector, NGOs and CBOs in the activities of the sector both in rural and urban areas. Private sector and NGO investment will be encouraged in manufacturing, sale and distribution of different types of tube wells, sanitary latrines etc. They will also be encouraged to participate in the installation of piped water supply system where feasible. All relevant organizations will give emphasis on the reduction of dependence on ground water and increased use of surface water. They will ensure storage, management and use of surface water.

 Policy implementation

Drinking water supply and sanitation is a sub sector within the broader sector of health, environment and water and as such the National Policy in this sub sector shall be made consistent with the national policy for health, environment and water.

Future investment projects in the public sector shall be made within the framework of this policy as far as practicable. Endeavors will be made to coordinate the activities of private sector and NGOs through the Policy. Projects or activities undertaken at the level of the individual, community or organization will be coordinated by the Local Government Division within the framework of the Policy.

 Strategies will be formulated in the light of the Policy at various levels in consultation with the Ministry of Planning. WARPO under Ministry of Water Research will also have a role in formulating and implementing strategy. A comprehensive strategic plan of operations shall be prepared and investment projects identified. The process shall be participatory and may involve dialogue with all stakeholders including development partners. To enhance available knowledge and to fill information gaps focused studies shall be undertaken with a view to improving decision making. The policy planning, coordination and monitoring of the sector activities will be the responsibility of Local Government Division. The Local Government Division will have interaction with the Physical Infrastructures Division of the Planning Commission for the purpose of

 • Reviewing on-going activities;

• Planning programmes in the water supply amd sanitation sector for the on going Five

Year Plan (1997-2002) and the next Five Year Plan period;

• Formulating guideline for allocation of specific activities for the implementing agencies

within the public and private sector (City Corporations, ‘Paurasabhas, DPHE, WASAs,

LGED, NGOs, etc.) with cost estimation. Specific activities like monitoring progress of on-going activities, strategic planning and program formulation, etc. and their allocation among different agencies (public sector, private sector, NGOs, CBOs, etc.) will be as initially discussed in paragraph 9 above.

The Local Government Division will liaise and negotiate with donors (bilateral,multilateral, etc.) trough ERD for commitment of resources for the Sectoral Program. Local government institutions and private organizations will also mobilize resources at the local level through motivational activities. The Local Government Division will prepare Half Yearly Report on the activities of the sector and submit to the concerned authorities.

NATIONAL POLICY FOR ARSENIC MITIGATION 2004

In Bangladesh surface water is abundantly available during monsoon but it is scarce during the dry season. Ninety seven percent of the population relies on ground water for drinking purpose. Ground water used for drinking in many areas of Bangladesh has been reported to have contamination by arsenic above the Bangladesh National Standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb). The percentage of contaminated tubewells in villages varies from more than ninety percent to less than five percent. Geographically, the tube wells in the delta and the flood plains regions, which comprise 72% of the land area, are more or less affected by arsenic contamination.

Arsenic contaminated aquifers have no regular pattern, varies both horizontally and vertically within short distances.

Population exposed to arsenic in Bangladesh runs into millions, thousands of people are suffering from arsenicosis and many among them have developed cancer and other complications.

Arsenic contamination is geological and there is no known control at source and also there is no proven treatment for arsenicosis. Hence the primary option is alternate supply of arsenic safe drinking water. Therefore, it is simultaneously a water supply and a health issue.

Water supply brings with it the issue of appropriate and affordable technology options to the community. The shallow tube wells, cornerstone of the water supply miracle in Bangladesh, can no longer provide safe water for drinking and cooking in arsenic affected areas.

Symptoms of arsenic poisoning bring in the social dimensions. People with arsenic induced symptoms face social sanctions with apparent but no real justification.

Arsenic in ground water used for irrigation may also have affect on agriculture and food chain.

The variety of ways arsenic affects life and people have attracted the attention of a diverse group of stakeholders. Different ministries and government agencies, academics, NGOs and bilateral/multi-national development partner agencies are pursuing separate programmes without any co-ordination. This is resulting in duplication of activities and conflicting strategies that inhibit synergy and optimal use of scarce resources.

A policy guideline for arsenic mitigation programmes for arsenic affected areas to guide and co-ordinate all activities has therefore, become imperative.

Objectives

The policy provides a guideline for mitigating the affect of arsenic on people and environment in a holistic and sustainable way.

This will also supplement the National Water Policy 1998, National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation 1998 in fulfilling the national goals of poverty alleviation, public health and food security.

Policy Statements

Access to safe water for drinking and cooking shall be ensured through implementation of alternative water supply options in all arsenic affected areas. All arsenicosis cases shall be diagnosed and brought under an effective management system. Impact of arsenic on agricultural environment shall be assessed and addressed.

Rural Sanitation

SANITATION STRATEGY

  • Local government and communities shall be the focus of all activities relating to sanitation.
  • The users shall be responsible for operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities and will bear its total cost.
  • Measures will be taken so that users can bear increased cost of sanitation services. However, in case of hard core poor communities, educational institutions, mosques and other places of worship, the costs may be subsidized partially or fully. In public toilets separate provision shall be made for women users.
  • Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about through social mobilization and hygiene education in coordination with the Ministries of Health, Education, Social Welfare, Information, Women & Children Affairs, and DPHE, NGOs, CBOs, local government bodies and other related agencies.
  • Women shall be encouraged and supported to actively participate in decision making during planning, implementation, operation and maintenance.
  • The rural sanitation programme shall support and promote a range of technology options for water and environmental sanitation.

Within a specified period legislation will be enacted making use of sanitary latrine compulsory

Urban Sanitation

  • The sanitation system shall have to be self-sufficient and self-sustaining. Sanitary latrine in every household will be promoted. Along with individual sanitation, public and community latrines will be set-up by City Corporation/Pourashabha and leased out to private sector for maintenance.
  • The City Corporation or Pourashabhas shall be responsible for solid waste collection, disposal and their management.
  • The role of women in the process of planning, decision making and management shall be promoted through their increased representation in management committees/boards (Pourashava/WASA).
  • Drainage system in the cities and municipalities will be integrated with the overall drainage system with the coordination of Ministry of Water Resources.
  • Private sector and NGO participation in sanitation will be encouraged.
  • Behavioral development and changes in user communities shall be brought about by social mobilization and hygiene education.

Measures will be taken to recycle, as much as possible, waste materials and to prevent contamination of groundwater by sewerage and drainage.

 Water Supply Infrastructure constructed under different projects

  1. Water treatment plant in Kushtia
  2. Water treatment plant in Rajshahi
  3. Village pipe water supply
  4. Arsenic Removal plant
  5. Overhead tank at Noakhali

Limitation

The allocation for DPHE in budget is not sufficient. DPHe works in all the upazillas in Bangladersh. Water and Sanitation is very important task. So huge allocation is required.

The DPHe engineers and Chief Engineer hav no decision making power. DPHE has to follow blindly all the orders from Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperative.

 The engineers of DPHE, personnel are not happy with the personnel management system in DPHE. The promotions are politicized. Party favor of ruling party helps personnel to get good positions.

 Women personnel are too less in DPHe. About 15 % of the employees are women. In the 32 top posts of DPHe office, only 3 are women.

 To see the outcome, DPHE has monitoring cell. But there is no extra allocation for this.

 There is lack of regular posting. Non regular posting and Extra posting is often practiced.

 Lack of motivation and appreciation is a great weakness.

 The BCS cadres come to DPHE top posts. But the field workers, project workers are not recruited in main office.

 The salary of project workers are too less.

 Computerization and e – Governance is almost absent.

 The personnel do not feel it necessary to know about citizen’s charter.

 Recommendation:

  1. Regular posting is required.
  1. Increase huge allocation for water supply and sanitation.
  1. Empty posts should be immediately filled up.
  1. It is necessary to include the project personnel into revenue sector.
  1. The Government must give freedom to DPHE to some extent so that they can take own decisions
  1. More women must be recruited.
  2. Motivation factors should be innovative. HRD department must be active and invent ways to motivate people.
  1.  Alongside the BCS cadres, the project personnel also should be recruited in DPHE office.

Conclusion:

Pure water is an un avoidable element in human life. Urban administration always focused on peoples needs, facilities. There can be many organization for urban administration. In Bangladesh we have Rajuk for metropolitan planning, housing and settlement, LGED, PWD, roads and highways etc. Water management is a vital part of urban administration. For this we have WASA in Dhaka, Chittagong and Narayanganj. DPHE is an urban administrative entity which ensures pure drinking water for people and waste management in the country except Dhaka, Narayanganj and Chittagong cities where WASAs operate. DPHE is responsible for planning, designing, implementing and monitoring water supply and sanitation projects in both rural and urban areas of the country. DPHE ensures Arsenic free water for rural people. DPHE’s efforts and functions, research’s are enabling our people to survive with clean water. Last few years, DPHE is successful to invent new techniques of getting pure water by filters, chulli system, PSF’s etc which enabled our people to have a far better health, hygene, standard of life. Awareness raising programs on arsenic, red and green tube wells, filters etc was a nation wide huge effort by DPHE. Most of rural Bangladeshi people came to know about Arsenic from the programs of DPHE. DPHE faces many problems such as lack of fund as they are run mostly by government fund. If they are allocated with more resources and more government support, DPHE can expand their good work to peole.

 Reference:

Interviw with –

  1. Engineer. Md. Nuruzzaman,  Chief Engineer . DPHE.
  1. Engr. Md. Moniruzzaman, Assistant Chief Engineer, DPHE
  1. Dewan Naquib Ahsan, Additional Chief Engineer (Planning)
    Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE)
  1. Engr. Ehete Shamul Russel Khan, Executive Engineer, DPHE, Monitoring Division.
  1. www.dphe.gov.bd/
  1. Class lectures.

Public Health Engineering

Related Organizational Behavior Paper: