Report on Learning is getting information into our knowledge system and memory is getting it out
Subject: Business | Topics:

 Chapter 1: Introduction

Being tested is an inevitable fact of life in our society.  Not only are there exams in college courses, there are tests that determine admission, placement, employment, advancement, etc.  Hence, you had best adopt a positive attitude toward being tested.  A good analogy is the marathon runner who has trained for months and now anticipates the payoff, the big race.  Similarly, after you’ve spent many weeks and months studying a subject, a test is your chance to show how much you’ve learned. The only reason for you to be intimidated by an imminent exam is if you have not been learning your lessons.

I wish that I could say at this point that, if you have been keeping up with the assignments, preparing for an exam is easy.  But the truth is that it is still an appreciable amount of work.  To see why this is so, refer again to the fact that knowledge is not verbal:

          TEXT/LECTURE   – – – – verbal – – – – –   EXAMINATION

         Learning –> .                           .<– Memory

                            .    nonverbal    .

                              — KNOWLEDGE —

          Figure 7.1  Learning is deriving non-verbal knowledge

          from words; memory is being able to recall that know-

          ledge when taking an examination.

Research question:

What are the ways students chosen to prepare for their exams?


Find out the effective ways that the students are preparing for their exams.

Chapter 2: Review of literature

No two people study the same way, and there is little doubt that what works for one person may not work for another. However, there are some general techniques that seem to produce good results. No one would argue that every subject that you have to take is going to be so interesting that studying it is not work but pleasure. We can only wish.

Everyone is different, and for some students, studying and being motivated to learn comes naturally. If you are reading this page, it’s likely that you are not one of them, but don’t despair, there is hope! Your success in high school and college is dependent on your ability to study effectively and efficiently. The results of poor study skills are wasted time, frustration, and low or failing grades. It’s your life, your time, and your future. All I can say, upon reflection of many years as a teacher, is that time is precious and not to be squandered, no matter what you believe right now.

 This guide is designed to help you develop effective study skills. It is not a magic formula for success in preparing for tests, or written or oral assignments. Studying any material requires work! However, by using the techniques described in this guide, and by applying yourself, you can gain a valuable edge in understanding material, preparing for tests, and, ultimately, learning. This guide contains some of the best and most effective techniques of successful students – students who typically have high grades in high school and college regardless of the courses they take. So read on, think about what you read, and prepare to become a successful student! If you have questions, comments or suggestions, please send to me.

Effective Study skills are about more than understanding

Effective study skills must be practiced in order for you to improve. It is not enough to simply “think about” studying; you have to actually do it, and in the process use information from what you do to get better. This is the central idea of this page. All that follows depends on this single concept. There is a saying that goes like this: “Practice doesn’t make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect.” If you want to be an achiever, take this saying to heart.

The value of a schedule

Before you even begin to think about the process of studying, you must develop a schedule. If you don’t have a schedule or plan for studying, then you will not have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up. A good, well thought out schedule can be a lifesaver. It’s up to you to learn how develop a schedule that meets your needs, revise it if necessary, and most important, follow it.

A schedule saves time

All schedules should be made with the idea that they can be revised. A good schedule keeps you from wandering off course. A good schedule, if properly managed, assigns time where time is needed, but you’ve got to want to do it!

Making every hour count

A schedule should take into account every class, laboratory, lecture, social event, and other work in which you engage. There are givens such as classes and so on that have to be incorporated. You must focus on the other “free time” available and how you will use it. Make a weekly schedule and block off the 24 hour day in one hour increments. Indicate times for classes, labs, lectures, social, and work time. Also block off a period for sleeping each day. With what is left over, plan time for study. This gives you a rough road map of the time available. Of course, you can revise your schedule as circumstances warrant.

When to study

The problem of when to study is critical. A good rule of thumb is that studying should be carried out only when you are rested, alert, and have planned for it. Last minute studying just before a class is usually a waste of time.

Studying for lecture courses

If your study period is before the lecture class, be sure you have read all the assignments and made notes on what you don’t understand. If the study period is after the lecture class, review the notes you took during class while the information is still fresh.

Studying for recitation courses

For classes that require recitation, such as foreign language, be sure to schedule a study period just before the class. Use the time to practice. Sometimes, practice with others can help sharpen your skills in a before-class study period.

Making and revising a schedule

Don’t be afraid to revise your schedule. Schedules are really plans for how you intend to use your time. If your schedule doesn’t work, revise it. You must understand that your schedule is to help you develop good study habits. Once you have developed them, schedule building becomes easier.

The Process of Study

How to use your time

Time is the most valuable resource a student has. It is also one of the most wasted of resources. The schedule you develop should guide you in how to allocate the available time in the most productive manner. Sticking to your schedule can be tough. Don’t dribble away valuable time. Avoiding study is the easiest thing in the world. It’s up to you to follow the schedule you prepared. A good deal of your success in high school or college depends on this simple truth.

Where to study

You can study anywhere. Obviously, some places are better than others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place you choose to study should not be distracting. Distractions can build up, and the first thing you know, you’re out of time and out of luck. Make choosing a good physical environment a part of your study habits.


Thinking skills

Everybody has thinking skills, but few use them effectively. Effective thinking skills cannot be studied, but must be built up over a period of time. Good thinkers see possibilities where others see only dead-ends. If you’re not a good thinker, start now by developing habits that make you ask yourself questions as you read. Talk to other students who you feel are good thinkers. Ask them what it is they do when they think critically or creatively. Often times, you can pick up valuable insights to help you become a better thinker.



The SQ3R method

The SQ3R method has been a proven way to sharpen study skills. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. Take a moment now and write SQ3R down. It is a good slogan to commit to memory to carry out an effective study strategy.

Survey – get the best overall picture of what you’re going to study BEFORE you study it an any detail. It’s like looking at a road map before going on a trip. If you don’t know the territory, studying a map is the best way to begin.

Question – ask questions for learning. The important things to learn are usually answers to questions. Questions should lead to emphasis on the what, why, how, when, who and where of study content. Ask yourself questions as you read or study. As you answer them, you will help to make sense of the material and remember it more easily because the process will make an impression on you. Those things that make impressions are more meaningful, and therefore more easily remembered. Don’t be afraid to write your questions in the margins of textbooks, on lecture notes, or wherever it makes sense.

Read – Reading is NOT running your eyes over a textbook. When you read, read actively. Read to answer questions you have asked yourself or questions the instructor or author has asked. Always be alert to bold or italicized print. The authors intend that this material receive special emphasis. Also, when you read, be sure to read everything, including tables, graphs and illustrations. Often times tables, graphs and illustrations can convey an idea more powerfully than written text.

Recite – When you recite, you stop reading periodically to recall what you have read. Try to recall main headings, important ideas of concepts presented in bold or italicized type, and what graphs charts or illustrations indicate. Try to develop an overall concept of what you have read in your own words and thoughts. Try to connect things you have just read to things you already know. When you do this periodically, the chances are you will remember much more and be able to recall material for papers, essays and objective tests.

Review – A review is a survey of what you have covered. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish, not what you are going to do. Rereading is an important part of the review process. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process. During review, it’s a good time to go over notes you have taken to help clarify points you may have missed or don’t understand. The best time to review is when you have just finished studying something. Don’t wait until just before an examination to begin the review process. Before an examination, do a final review. If you manage your time, the final review can be thought of as a “fine-tuning” of your knowledge of the material. Thousands of high school and college students have followed the SQ3R steps to achieve higher grades with less stress.


A primary means by which you acquire information is through reading. In college you’re expected to do much more reading than in high school. Don’t assume just because you’ve “read” the assignments that is the end of it. You must learn to read with a purpose. In studying, you may read the same assignment three or four times, each time with a different purpose. You must know before you begin reading what your purpose is, and read accordingly.

Getting the Main Idea

Getting the main idea in reading is central to effective studying. You must learn what the author’s central idea is, and understand it in your own way. Every paragraph contains a main idea. Main ideas are perfect for outlining textbooks. Make it a habit to find the main idea in each paragraph you read.

Extracting Important Details

Extracting important details means that you locate in your reading the basis for main ideas. There is usually one important detail associated with every main idea. The more important details you can identify, the easier it will be to review for examinations because you have made a link between an idea and information that supports it. The more links you can make between details and ideas, as well as ideas themselves, the more powerful will be the efforts of your study.

Don’t Read Aloud to Yourself

Generally, reading aloud to yourself does not help you study more effectively. If you move your lips while you read, you’re not reading efficiently. If you read aloud or move your lips while you’re reading, you are reading slowly, so stop moving your lips. Try putting a finger over your lips. Your finger will remind you not to move your lips. Make an effort to read faster and retain more – after a while, you’ll be surprised how little effort it will take.

Taking Notes

Like reading, note-taking is a skill which must be learned and refined. Almost invariably, note taking, or the lack of it, is a constant deficiency in the study methods of many high school and college students. Learning the ingredients of good note taking is rather easy; applying them to your own situation depends on how serious you are in becoming a successful student.

Where to Keep Notes

You must learn to keep notes logically and legibly. Remember, if you can’t read your own writing a few days after taking notes, they are of little use. By all accounts, the best place to keep notes is in a loose-leaf notebook. Use dividers to separate the different classes you take. Make it a habit of using your notebook to record ALL your notes. If you’re caught without your notebook and need to take notes, always have a supply of loose-leaf paper with you. Insert your note papers into the notebook as soon as you can. Be sure to buy a good notebook, as it will get a lot of wear and tear.

Outlining Textbooks

First of all, don’t underline. Use a highlighter. Experience has shown that text passages highlighted are more easily remembered than the same passages underlined. In outlining a text, don’t just read along and highlight what seem to important words. That technique rarely works. The act of outlining works much better.

Taking Lecture Notes

Surveying, Questioning, Listening

Taking accurate and concise lecture notes is essential. Develop the habit of taking notes using appropriate methods described earlier in the SQ3R technique. For example, when you listen to a lecture, formulate questions as you listen. Your main job in taking lecture notes is to be a good listener. To be a good listener, you must learn to focus and concentrate on the main points of the lecture. Get them down, and then later reorganize them in your own words. Once you have done this, you have set the stage for successful reviewing and revising.

Reviewing and Revising

As you prepare for examinations, tests, or other assessments, you should spend time reviewing and revising your lecture notes. Begin the process by reviewing your notes right after a lecture. If you wait too long, you may discover that the notes just don’t make sense. Don’t hesitate to revise your notes based on the review process.

Research Notes

Any form of note-taking that requires compilation of information by categories, rather than in narrative form is best done using index cards. You can sort, edit and arrange index cards to suit your particular study needs. The most important point in using cards is to indicate the correct reference or topic at the top of the card. Use the cards for study, review, to help organize information for papers, reports, or projects. An even better idea, if you have a personal computer, is to organize your categorical information in a database. Once you set it up, finding, updating and adding new information is quite easy. If you have a printer, you can print out your notes in a variety of ways.

Taking Examinations

Objective Examinations


Survey any objective examination to find out what types of questions are being asked. Surveying helps you to know what to expect.

Knowing the Ground Rules

Always read directions! Indicate your answers exactly the way the directions state. Make sure your answers are clear. Determine what the scoring rules for the test are and follow them to your advantage. For example, if wrong answers are penalized, don’t guess unless you can reduce the choices to two.

Answering Easy Questions First

Answering easy (to you) questions first is the best strategy. If you stumble over difficult questions for too long a time, you may not be able to complete the exam.

Picking out Key Words

Objective examination questions usually contain one or more key words. A key word or group of words are those on which the truth or falsity of a statement hinges. Learn to spot the key words in the statement that define the meaning. If a statement contains two clauses, one of which is false, the whole statement is false. Usually, two-statement true-false questions are either both true or both false.

Reading Multiple-Choice Questions

Multiple choice questions are essentially true-false questions arranged in groups. Usually, only one alternative is correct. Your job is to pick the alternative that is more nearly true than the others. Read multiple-choice questions the same way as for true-false. Eliminate obvious false choices.

Reading Other Types of Questions

The methods used to answer true-false and multiple choice questions apply to matching questions as well. Always scan the entire list of alternatives before matching any. As in the other types of questions, try to identify key words in each list and test them. Completion questions require you to provide a word or phrase. When you encounter completion questions, choose your words carefully. If you don’t know the answer, give it your best guess, as often times such responses get at least partial credit.

Essay Examinations

Planning your time in answering essay questions is more important than in objective type tests. The general rule is not to get carried away on one or two questions to the extent that you cannot answer that other questions in the time allowed. Read through the entire examination first. Get a feel for the questions you are expected to answer. If the exam allows you to choose from a number of questions, be sure to number your answers exactly to match the questions.

When you follow directions for an essay exam, pay attention to the key words the instructor has included. Such words as “list,” “describe,” “compare and contrast,” and “outline” have special meaning. Don’t “write around” the question but answer it directly. If a question asks you to list something, don’t write a narrative about it. Answering essay questions directly is always the best policy.

After scanning the list of questions to be answered, choose the ones you know most about. A good idea is to prepare an outline of your answers. The outline will help you remember important ideas and facts to be included in your response. Another technique is to do a “memory-dump.” This technique is discussed in the last section of this guide, “Power Study Tips.”

Good handwriting is an absolute essential. If your cursive writing is very hard to read, try printing instead. Most instructors value clear handwriting. Grammar, punctuation, and spelling also count. Well-written grammatically correct answers almost always receive higher grades than poorly written grammatically incorrect answers, even though the answers themselves are the same.


Writing Themes and Reports

Reviewing the Topic

Students usually have some freedom to choose the subject of themes or reports. When you make this choice, be sure that the topic is acceptable to the teacher, and is as interesting to you as possible. Another consideration is that of availability of resource material. Your task is made much easier when there is a good amount of reference and resource material available.

Using Correct Punctuation and Grammar

As in writing essays questions, good grammar and punctuation are a must. Most students use word processors to write papers. Be sure to use the spell checker that almost all word processors have built in. Many word processors also have some sort of grammar checker. Learn to use a grammar checker, as it can point out serious flaws in your writing and help you become a better writer. Most grammar checkers explain the grammar rules that apply to the suggested corrections to your writing.

Gathering Materials Before You Write

Before you begin writing, assemble the materials you will need. Use index cards, notes, bibliographies, summaries, reports and reviews as part of your preparation process. Using index cards for references is an excellent way to organize your materials. Computer database programs can also help you classify and organize reference materials.

Preparing an Outline and Writing the Paper

Once you have your topic, have gathered and organized your materials, it is time to outline your paper. Put your outline on paper! Don’t make the mistake of trying to keep everything in your head. Make your outline in the form of main headings or ideas with sub-headings fleshing out the flow of the paper. Using the outline as a guide begin writing begin by asking yourself what the paper is going to say and what conclusions you want to reach. Doing this ahead of time will help keep you focused and prevent you from straying from the purpose of the paper. Making up the outline as you go along almost always results in a less than satisfactory product. Writing is important in high school and is a key to success in college and in many professions. Become a good writer by writing, revising, and reviewing your work. Don’t be afraid to ask other students to critique your work. Try to write in your own natural style, be aware that most good writers go through many revisions, and be prepared to do the same. Writing and test-taking are the end results of developing good study skills. There is no magic formula for success. If you follow the suggestions in this guide, apply them and think about them, you’ll have taken a giant step toward becoming a successful student.

Power Studying Tips for College Students

The following tips have proven to be extremely powerful guides for organizing, thinking, studying, and learning in college. They represent the best advice of successful college students. The can also work for high school students.


Study Space

Tip: Your study space should be as quiet and comfortable as possible. Avoid studying in noisy places such as cafeterias, recreation rooms, or lounges.

Tip: When studying, keep a waste basket handy.

Tip: Have a consistent place for everything, and above all, keep it there!

Tip: Have everything needed for study handy beforehand. Don’t waste valuable time looking for books, notes, of other information. After you have assembled the items you need, put them where you can reach them easily.

Study Habits

Tip: Begin study no less than 30-90 minutes after a meal.

Tip: Never study within 30 minutes of going to sleep.

Tip: Prioritize! Make a list of what you intend to study, prioritize the list, and stick to it!

Tip: If possible, study no more than 30-40 minutes at a stretch. Many students retain more by studying for short periods with breaks in between. It all depends on what you’re trying to study, but generally, after a period of study, take a break.

Tip: Take study breaks away from your desk or wherever you are studying. Let the break be a time to think about other things. Use some break time to reflect, not constantly review what you have just studied.

The Classroom

Tip: Distractions in the classroom are deadly. To help avoid distractions, sit near the front of the class. You’re less likely to miss something important, and there are far less distractions at the front than any other location.

Tip: Think! Thinking is one of the most important things you can do in class. If you just sit there passively, and not think, class can be deadly. Think about what the teacher is saying BEFORE writing down anything. Writing down each word is a WASTE OF TIME. Reorganize in your mind what the teacher says, and then write it down. This way you will be connecting the teacher’s words with HOW you think. If you do this, your notes will make a lot more sense later on.

Tip: Pay attention to the course outline or syllabus. Generally, important points and materials are referenced here and repeated. Don’t be afraid to ask the teacher if there is something you don’t understand. Most teachers will be glad to clarify for you.

Preparing for Class

Tip: Efficient students do not underline! Underlining is not a productive way to emphasize textbook material. It’s best to use a highlighter.

Tip: Read the table of contents of your texts carefully. If the textbooks have chapter summaries, read them first! If you don’t understand the material from the summaries, go back and highlight. Take notes on what you have highlighted and review your notes. Tip: Break study material into short segments of length dependent on its difficulty. Remember, concise notes are more powerful than copious notes. Think about the material! Then take notes on what you don’t know or are not sure of.

Test Taking

Tip: For essay examinations, try the “memory dump” technique. If permitted, write down everything you’ve memorized – facts, names, dates, ideas, events, and so on BEFORE you do anything else. Sometimes reading through the essay questions can distract you from what you’ve studied. The “memory dump” technique requires that you write down everything possible BEFORE you begin writing essay answers. This way, you are less likely to forget something important.

A Final Word

The study skills presented here depend on one thing, and that is your willingness to WANT to improve and do well in school. If you really don’t want to make the effort and sacrifice, no amount of suggestions, ideas, or outlines can help much. You are the one who is responsible for your education, and effective study skills can help you. To that end, one last word of advice — work smart, not hard.


The research is being conduct on the students of class ix and x of East west int.School, Anawara BegumMuslimGirlsHigh School and College, Armanitolagovt.High School, AhmedBawaliSchool. There were 20 students who participated in the research and answered different questions that were prepared for them.

Data analysis

Interpretation of data:

Q. 1 What percentage of seen and unseen chapters do you have in your syllabus?

a) 50% – 50%      b) 60% – 40%      c) 80% – 20%

Here we see 100% students say that the ratio is very sharp, 80% – 20% which is very pitiful picture in the EnglishMediumSchool in considering real learning. Students have 80% seen chapters where they get notes provided by the school authority and thus they get good marks in the exam memorizing the answers.


data Figure 1.1 shows the students’ response to the question no 1


Q. 2 What types of questions are given in the exams and how the answers are expected to be written?

a) Questions and answers should be the same as the notes given in class.

b) Questions can be different than the notes and the answers should be the same.

c) Questions can be a bit different than the notes and the answers should also be different.

By analysing the answers given by students we find that 60% students say the questions and the answers in their exam should be the same as given in the notes where as 40% percent say questions can be changed they have to write the answers as given in the notes. This shows another dangerous point in evaluation. As students are not expected to write answers themselves, it is clearly demotivating them to study independently.

dataFigure 1.2 shows the students’ response to the question no 2

Q. 3   If you write answers just the same that are in the notes what percentage of number you expect? (Besides spelling mistake)

a) 100%      b) 95%       c) 70%        d) -70%

Here 60% students expect to get 100% marks if they can produce just as the same as their notes and 40% SS are not sure about getting full marks but they expect 90%. The researcher thinks these students are not sure because they don’t know if they would be able to understand when the questions are given in a changed form.

Q. 4   Do you think doing good result it is very important to memorize the notes given from the school?

Strongly agree                                                       Strongly disagree

The answers of the students give us the idea 60% of them think that they must memorize notes otherwise it is impossible to do good result. While 40% think they can depend not only on seen topics but also on unseens. So they do not strongly agree with it


 Figure 1.3 shows the students’ response to the question no 4

Q. 5  Do you think the students who make notes themselves should get more marks than those who exactly follow the notes?

Strongly agree                                                       Strongly disagree

 We get the obvious picture of providing ready made notes when we analyze the data we got here. We see that 60% of the students opinion is students should memorize notes should get more marks than the students who make their notes themselves. But 20% think the students should have a combination of their own notes as well as the given one. Another 20% believe if the answers are written correctly the students who are making notes themselves should also get good marks like the students who write exactly like the notes.

dataFigure 1.4 shows the students’ response to the question no 5

hat is your idea about learning? Are your books enough to learn about a particulars topic?
Q. 6  What is your idea about learning? Are your books enough to learn about a particulars topic?

a) Yes, because these contain vast knowledge.

b) Yes, because these are enough for our age level.

c) No, because in order to acquire knowledge we need to learn more.

dataFigure 1.5shows the students’ response to the question no 6

Analyzing the data here we find 40% students are satisfied with their learning and they already got demotivated to further study. Another 20% is also satisfied with their text books but we find that still 40% of them have thirst for further knowledge which can be utilized to improve our teaching learning system.

1.2 Analysis of answers given by the parents of the students.

No of questions
























Table 1.2 at a glance shows the data collected from the parents group (Out of 10 parents)

Q. 1  Which one of the following you think most appropriate?

a) Real learning is more than passing the exam.

b) Passing exam is the proof of learning.

c) Real learning is something we can apply in our real life.

We find here 60% parents think passing exam is the proof of real learning. Where as 20% think it is more than passing exam and other 20% think real learning is something to apply in our real life. Here one thing becomes very clear to us that most of the parents do not have correct conception about real learning. They just believe in passing exam. They think, the way the schools are following is the best and they are contented with the schools. Other 20% think real learning is more than passing exam, but no parents mentioned what are those. The researcher asked them but they could not answer clearly what they mean by this “more”, although it is understood that they are not wholly satisfied only with passing exam. Another 20% parents are from the educated and learned class. Teachers of Universities, renowned Schools and some Engineers are included in this class whose conceptions are realistic, who have chosen the option C.

Q. 2 If you find your child’s teacher made a silly mistake in the notes out your child’s mark for this in the exam what will you do?

a) I will strongly claim and get my child the mark for that because this is teacher’s mistake.

b) I will strongly claim but if she doesn’t give the mark I’ll accept it.

c) I will not claim because my child is supposed to notice a silly mistake done by the teacher and take care of it on their own.

An interesting finding is, the parents who do not have clear idea about real learning, they are very anxious about the silly mistakes of the teachers and busy to get their children good position in the class.

The other 40% parents think they should at least claim for it and if possible their children will get the mark.          So we find 40% parents are ready to have a tag to war with the teachers to get their children marks for the mistakes which the teachers did not notice. When s/he gives notes to the students. Here we find another big problem of note providing of that is students just memorize what the teachers has given in the notes and do not apply their knowledge.

          Another 20% parents seems very concerned of acquiring knowledge who are not that much exam oriented and want their children to learn actually. They have chosen option no- C.

Q. 3 What is yours strategy to help your child do good result in the exam?

a) I make sure that my child memorizes the notes given from the School.

b) I tell him to take preparation himself in his own way.

c) I encourage him/her to study more than the notes.

Here we can see most of the parents already got exam oriented, who believe and follow exactly the notes given from the schools. So 60% of them have chosen option – a. Other 20% parents said that they tell their children to take preparation in their own way but and the rest 20% tells their children to learn more because they think their children should not only pass the exam but get thorough idea about the topic and if the questions are given in other way than in the notes (though if happens occasionally their children can answer these.)

Q. 4 Do you think students should make their notes and do not depend fully on the notes given by the Schools.

Strongly agree                                            Strongly disagree

This is another significant attitude of the parents, which shows how much exam oriented they have become as the get the notes from the schools.

So we see 60% of the parents strongly disagree with the proposal. But still here also we find some parents who really intend their children work themselves and get proposed to O/A levels.  Another 20% parents believe there should be an agreeable combination with these two ideas. These parents are the mediocre. They are concern for future at the same time can’t ignore present situation.

Q. 5 What should be the ratio of seen and unseen items in the exam?

a) Seen more unseen less.

b) Seen less unseen more.

c) Both in the same percentage.

d) All should be seen.

This is also a very significant point to show parents attitude the exam preparation of their children. We see here 40% parents say there should be more seen items than unseen. Another 40% believe a 50-50 combination of seen and unseen and the rest 20% parents who believe in passing the exam have chosen the option – all should be seen.

1.3 Analysis of answers given by the parents of the students.

No of the questions

















Table 1.3 Shows the data collected from the teachers (Out of 10)

Interpretation of data

Q. 1. Do you think students are not taking good preparation for they do not know what will be the exact question?

a) Yes                                      b) No

Here we see that 60% teachers think students are a bit reluctant to take good preparation for the exam if it is totally unseen. But other 40% think if the students are doing enough practice and getting regular feedback they can do good result, no matter if they are taking good preparation or not. During their practice they get prepared for the exam so it is nothing to be worried about.

Q. 2. Do you think students are losing their interest to learn more about a topic since they can easily get good number by memorizing notes?

a) Yes, most of them.

b) No, they’re not.

c) Yes, to same extent.


Figure 3.1 shows the students’ response to the question no 2

Data collected from the teachers gives us the clear idea about students demotivation to further learning. So here we see that 60% of the teachers observed most of them are not getting interest to learn more about a topic than their text books and 40% teachers say that it doesn’t decrease their interest about learning which can be partially correct bur but the researcher herself thinks that may be these 40% teachers have given the answers based on some of the enthusiastic students who are involved with extra curricular activities like debate, quiz competition etc. So these students are doing it for their own interest to that field, not for acquiring knowledge. Any way this attitude of the students is also appreciable.


Q. 3.  How far these types of tests are valid to judge students’ talent?

a) It gives picture of 80 – 90% talent.

b) Less than 50%.

c) More than 50%.

This question deals with validity of the tests, where we find 50% of the teachers do not think the tests which we are taking are not valid.  Where we can’t get the correct measure of our students talent and merit. So they’ve chosen option while 20% teachers think the test are valid while more than 80-90% of their talent can be judge by these tests. Other 20% think it is possible to get the picture of students talent and merit more than 50% but not up to 80%.


Q. 4 Do you think unseen items should be given more emphasis in the class to take good preparation for the exams?

a)     Yes, it should be given more emphasis over seen items.

b)    No, because it will not provide exact questions given in the exam.

c)     No, because students should take preparation themselves.


Figure 3.2 shows the students’ response to the question no 4

As the students getting so much exam oriented the teachers are very anxious and 100% of them think the unseen items should be given emphasis over seen items to make our students prepared for the future O/A levels exam.



What I hope is apparent in the figure is that the learning process in which you have been engaged is all for naught unless you are able to remember the information when called upon to do so.   Now how many times has an answer been on the tip of your tongue such that you know you know it but just can’t think of it?  How many times have you remembered an important point, but not until after you have already left the exam?  How many times have you given a good answer, but to the wrong question, or kept coming up with the wrong answer when trying to recall the right one?  All of these familiar experiences illustrate problems of memory, the ability to remember information that you have learned.

The task of preparing for an exam, then, is one of finding ways to insure that you will be able to recall information quickly if you need it during the exam.  It is NOT a matter of learning the information; it is too late for that.  Nor is it a matter of reviewing the information as you presumably have been doing right along.  What is now required is to devise techniques that will insure that you have ready access to the knowledge you have already learned.

It is worth repeating the marathon analogy to point out that very few of the runners who start in a marathon have any expectations of winning.  For most of them the goal is simply to finish the race, and possibly to set a new personal best time.  Likewise, your goal is just to do your very best to demonstrate how much you have learned.

The most helpful thing that a student can do to prepare for an exam is to organize the pertinent information in some way.  Although your mind is not designed like a filing cabinet, it can function that way when appropriate.  If your knowledge about a topic is arranged in your memory systematically, you can search for it efficiently.  On the other hand, if your mind is like a “junk drawer” into which you have put things haphazardly, you may know that it’s in there somewhere but have difficulty finding it.  Any kind of orderly arrangement of the information helps remembering it.


Why does organization help memory if your mind is not really designed like a filing cabinet?  Because you recall information from your memory by giving yourself recall cues.  A recall cue is any stimulus that can elicit from your memory the information you are trying to remember:  S (cue) –> R (information). Most of the time, the exam item itself serves as a recall cue:  S (item) –> R (answer).  It is when you can’t immediately think of the right answer that you have to search your memory for the desired information.  Rather than just sitting there hoping that it “comes to you,” you can remind yourself of the way you had the information organized and search for it in a systematic way:

     S (item) –> search S (cue) –> R (answer).

There are many forms of organization and I shall illustrate some of them.  They all share the property of showing how main ideas are related to each other.


You may have had teachers who advised you against using mnemonic “devices.”   One of my teachers called them “vices” and equated using them to cheating.  He was the type who believed that, because he had learned to do things the hard way, so should we!  A much more reasonable view is that today’s students need to know every trick they can in order to cope with the ever-expanding world of knowledge.  You can use mnemonics as a recall cue to intervene between a question on an exam and your knowledge of the answer.

A brief introduction to some mnemonic techniques is given in Appendix I.  Skill in using them will serve you well not only in college but throughout your life.  I therefore urge you to practice using them at every opportunity.

One age-old example of a good essay exam item is:  “Make up a question and answer it.”  I tried using that item…once, and most of the students objected vehemently that the item was unfair, that they did not know  how to make up good exam questions. Their job, they said, was to answer questions, not ask them!  From that time on, I have required my students to write exam items as a part of their assignment.  I assure you that writing and answering items is a very valuable tactic in preparing for exams.



Why should you write and answer questions over the material on an up-coming exam?  The answer to that question lies in understanding the way we remember information.  Something “comes to mind” when some cue that is associated with that information occurs.  By writing exam items, you are making up various cues that will later help you recall the information.  And by answering the items, you are practicing the very behavior required on an exam, namely recalling information from memory.  Every time you recall something, it is easier to recall it again in the future.

Furthermore, making up items often forces you to think about the topic more completely.  For example, this chapter began with the distinction between learning and memory.  The most obvious exam item would be, “What is the difference between learning and memory?”  You should first rehearse the answer, “Learning is getting information into your knowledge system, memory is getting it out.”


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