Training And Development on Employees Performance at Mcdonald’s Restaurant Ltd.

 

Introduction:

Human resource management plays an important role in the success of a company. Most of the companies are very keen to pay attention towards their employees. Mainly HRM (Human Resource Management) is all about managing people at work. The most important part of human resource management is Training and Development. It plays a key role in every organisation though few people disagree about the importance of training and development in the success of organisation. Appointing the right person at right time at right place needs more care and attention on the part of personal manager. A clear set of goals and well defined path should be needed for good training. Training changes attitudes, knowledge and skills of employees and also the way they work. A report published by workforce in May 2006 explains that despite focus on efficiency and cost control, companies are spending more and more on training and development. It is reflection of the fact that companies are keen about training and development to gain competitive advantages. Most of the companies clearly understand that if workers are smarter and better trained they can achieve their goals easily. In any organisation the central factor of Training and development is the human resources or the human capital. Human capital is viewed as the driving the force for the success of the organisation because of their skills, competencies, knowledge and experience (Becker, 1975; Schmidt & Lines, 2002; Harrison & Kassel, 2004).

 

Background For Research Area:

 

As researcher wrote in research aim and objectives and according to the topic of research the background of research is Training and development. I will focus on some critical issues regarding to training and development programmes. As Macdonald’s is already a world famous food chain so they already using very well Training and development methods but still they need research on training and development processes. Employees are the main assets of any company. Every company wants its employees to work effectively with efficacy so that the company can be lead to success. Organisational goals are always achieved by employee’s efficiency so it is an organisational need that their employees must be well trained. (Torrington et al, 2005). Organisations are taking great interest regarding their employee’s performance these days. All organisations make sure that their employee’s are getting good and the most recent n effective training and development programmes. Although there are many types of training and development programmes some give more effective and energetic employee’s to organisation (Sun, 2003; Skinner et al, 2003; Lee 2001).

 

Human Resource Management has a key role to play in training the employees. Cowling and Mailer (1998) suggests that basically training is given to both new employees and to employees who recently moved to a new work area. They also said that in change process training is necessary. That’s why training and development becomes one of the most important tasks which HRM manager has to look at. A manager should have an accurate idea about the amount and type of training that he wants his employees to be trained with. A manager should always focus firstly on type of training methods they are using and then it is also very important for a manager to make sure that those training methods are being put in practise through a proper channel. A proper method of training in a proper channel makes an employee more effective and efficient (Bratton and Gold, 2003).

 

This research paper aims to identify the training needs of suggested organization. The method of training needed and the benefit of training to the organization will be discussed in this paper. This report will also tell that whether organization achieved its goals and aims with the help of training and development. McDonald’s Restaurants Limited has been selected for research because it is very easy for me to get information because the management is very friendly to academic research. And they can also learn new things from research. The Most important reason for choosing McDonald’s is that I myself am the Employee of McDonald’s.

Company Background

McDonald’s is one of the famous global brands that have spread its presence over the last 52 years. The company started in 1955 by Roy Croc and the first restaurant was opened in Des Plaines, US. This restaurant is no longer in operation now and has been turned into a museum. McDonald’s brand mission is to “be our customer, favourite place and way to eat”. The company’s worldwide operations are bounded by a global strategy called the “Plan to Win” which concentrates on the five basics of an exceptional customer experience, people, products, place, price and promotion. The company is committed to improving their operations and thereby enhancing the customer’s experience (McDonald’s 2010).

 

McDonald’s is the leading global foodservice retailer that has more than 32,000 local restaurants in more than 117 countries. According to the company reports these restaurants serve approximately 50 million each day. McDonald’s is one of the world’s most well-known and valuable brands. It holds a leading share in the globally branded fast-food restaurants segment in virtually every country in which they do business. The company is proud that it serves the world some of its favourite foods like French Fries, Big Mac, Quarter Pounder, Chicken Mc Nuggets and Egg Muffin. The procedures followed by the company have been developed over the years. This is one area that differentiates the company from other fast-food restaurants. The attitude of the organization towards work and standards is evident from the words Roy Kroc who stated that “if you have got time to lean, you have got time to clean” (McDonalds, 2010).

 

The company has procedures in place to ensure that the right candidates go through the system and attain higher positions if they can prove their abilities. It is worth noticing that the company claims that 20 out of the top 50 management staff started in McDonald’s restaurants, including the CEO, Don Thompson and also 67,000 McDonald’s restaurants managers and assistant managers started as restaurant staff (McDonald’s 2010). This is significant considering that some take as long as 10 years to get to assistant manager position (McDonald’s 2010). The organization has ensured that people with potential are spotted and retained. In hospitality and fast-food industry, the attrition rate is high and, despite this, the organization to ensure that it motivates its staff and also to keep on motivating them to put in a better performance. It is therefore of very high importance for the organization to ensure that it motivates its staff and also looks after their satisfaction with the job that they are doing. The company uses different approaches at different levels in the organization. The responsibility of motivating staff at the restaurant level is given to the restaurant manager and the assistant manager who use promotion as a tool to achieve this. They have to ensure that they can attain lower rates of attrition and also motivate the staff so that they are satisfied by both the job as well as the organization. This is achieved by the organization by using structured training and development programme besides the use of many other tools.

 

McDonald’s opened their first UK restaurant in Woolwich, London in 1974, today the company has over 1,250 restaurants across the UK McDonald’s (UK) employs over 67,000 people, 43,000 within the company restaurants and a further 24,000 are employed by the franchisees. On average the company serves over 2.5 million customers every day. According to Peter Beresford (McDonald’s 2006) people in the organization are very important, and so is their continuous development. There are different approaches that organization uses to train their staff at various levels of employment. This research has been started to identify how the staff is trained and developed at the restaurant level. The research is based in Charing Cross restaurant to conduct the research the reason for choosing these have been mentioned in upcoming chapter. In the attempt to gain insight into the practices followed by the organization at restaurant level.

Statement Of Problem.

 

The core problem of this study is: Why training and development policies should be implemented by McDonald’s and what is the role of the line managers at restaurant level in achieving better training for the employees?

The main concern in this study is behavior of company or an organization which they show towards their employees. Organization should ensure that their staffs are well trained in most aspects of their businesses (Torrington et al., 2005). Training and development of the chosen organisation is of interest with respect to the current studies.

 

Statement of purpose:

 As for as statement of purpose is concerned the topic which writer have chosen is of very much interest for me. Researcher is an employee of McDonald’s and researcher really wants to search about training and development processes in McDonald’s. Another reason for choosing Training and Development is because it is very important part of Human Resource and Management which is a also a subject of writer specialization and in future writer would like to research more about HRM and Training and development. Above all the importance of HRM in almost every organization makes it very interesting for me to carry out my research at this topic.

 

Significance of The Problem:

This topic is a very broad and of much importance in any organization. Every organization admits that employees are the main assets so their top priority is to train the employees to achieve their goals. One of the most important jobs of a manager is to identify a problem in an organization and then to solve that he needs to train his employees in a manner that he may not face such problems again. This includes the proper selection of the employee and the type of training needed to help him overcome the problem. In general training and development helps to increase productivity of the employees, team spirit, organizational culture,  quality and health and safety.

 

Research Aim and Objectives:

 

The aim and objective of this project are as following:

1. To identify the strategies available for training and development.

2. To identify if there are any training and development programs in place in the organization.

3. Ti identify to what extent the program has been successfully implemented and if it is improving employee productivity as well as organizational productivity.

4. To make recommendations for the future training and development programs so as to increase the benefits for the research organization.

 

Research questions:

 

  • What HRM practices are usually implemented in McDonald’s Charing Cross?
  • What HRM practices are usually implemented by other fast food in retail sector?
  • Why training and development is important in the fast food in retail sector?
  • What other HRM strategies could McDonald adopt to enhance employees training and development?
  • How employees are trained for modern technology?

 

Literature Review

 

Human resource management is one the major area of research in the business studies. There are many sub topics like recruitment, selection, induction, employee retention, and training and development. Training and development is the topic on which writer will research that how it is being applied in current research organization. A discussion is raised about human resource development, organizational development, and organizational learning to understand how training and development fits into the whole picture for the success of any company/organization in business world.

 

Human Resource Development:

 

There are different types of HRD definition. The definition which is provided by UK Human resource development Council is, “Human resource development is basically a part of Human Resource and Management (HRM) which specifically deals with the training and development of employees. HRD would include training an individual after he or she is hired, providing opportunities to learn new skills, distributing resources which are beneficial for the employee’s task, and any other developmental activities.” Human Resource Development is used to support employees in improving their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities. HRD includes opportunities like performance management and development, employee training, employee career development, coaching, monitoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization development. Human Resource Development can be formal such like class room training or a college course or an organizational planned change effort. On the other hand HRD can be informal as a manager coaching his employee. The main focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development and training the most senior management so that organizations and individual employees can together achieve their goals in customer service (Susan et al.,2010).

 

Many people say that there is a difference between HRM and HRD. According to them Human Resource is a major management activity and Human resource development is a profession. They might think HRM in HRD because in their point of view HRD involves in many activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, e.g., training, carer development, organizational development, organizational learning, etc.

 

In most of the organization the focus has moved from piecemeal training activities to more systematic human resource development. Organizations are changing their priorities. Organizations are becoming learning organizations and they are keeping them away from training individual employee. The competitive advantage of any firm comes from development of an organization’s human capital. This is helping in learning experience of an employee and as a whole. According to Sloman (1994) the systematic training model depends on a series of a logical steps define as a training policy, a method for identifying training needs, the formulation of training objectives, the development of a training plan, the implementation of a planned training programme, validation, evaluation and review of training. Companies are trying to adopt high level of training model to meet their skill needs and they are linking training to strategic initiatives. Traditional training models are being rejected by many companies. There have been many changes in responsibility in line with the growth of HRM, delayering and divisonalisation. Training is seen as a job of line managers, with specialist trainers being used as an internal consultancy resource. The new approach needs a very effective communication system between the strategic decision makers, line managers and specialist trainers.

 

This is now understood that employees are main asset of any organization. Bank of Montreal Chairman says employees key to maximizing continued growth. 27 February 2001 Bank of Montreal shareholders were told that employees are the real key to sustaining competitive advantage and financial performance. At the bank’s 183rd annual meeting in Vancouver the chairman said “ The foundation of Bank Montreal’s continued growth and success, and the only way to achieve its competitive advantage is through the performance of its 33.000 people.” “Even there is no doubt that investments in technology, products or delivery systems can be matched by competitors, since nothing profitable remains exclusive for long. The only sure and permanent way to stay ahead of the competition is to employ the most capable people and to ensure they are given every best opportunity to do their very best work,” (Camper, 2001). From this example it is very clear that the bank is confident of the investment it has made in people.

Human Resource Development (HRD) is a title which represents the latest evolutionary stage in the long tradition of training, educating and developing people for the purpose of contributing towards the achievement of individual, organizational and social objectives. HRD as with the title HRM are like nuts and bolts of an organisation that can be interchanged and dispensed with at will. Drucker suggested the term ‘biological HRD’ to vehemence the living nature of the people with in the organization. The scope of education is broader then the scope of training. Education has also a less immediate and less specific application than training and is often perceived as being delivered in educational institutions. Education is regarded as surrounding knowledge, skills and attitudes (Bloom et al, 1956). Distinguishing between education and training can be quite problematic. The example of difference between training and education is like young child coming home and saying we had sex training today. Now this is a severe contrast to sex education classes that involve a theoretical rather than a practical application of learning. Frank investigated theoretical base of HRD in order to distinguish it from other fields and told that HRD is based on research and theories strained from the field of adult education and is very different from learning process that occurs in children. Frank also said that HRD is concerned with better performance within a work environment but it is not about improving people’s health and personal relation with their family. HRD also tells that how theory of change relate to an organization and how an organization use these theories (Frank, 1988).

 

Human resource development is the study and practice by the help of which we can increase the learning capacity of individuals, groups, collectives, and organizations through the development and application of learning based inventions for the purpose of optimising human and organizational growth and effectiveness(chalofsky, 1992).

 

Strategic role of HRD is increased a lot by strategic pressure and this includes accelerated rate of change, focus of quality, globalization of business, increased elasticity and reaction of organizations, increased pressure to show the involvement of human resources, new competitive structure and new technology(Graven et al, 1995).HRD contributed in many ways at all organizational levels to provide support with the help of all these pressure. In today business environment HRD is not only supporting the business strategies of organizations but it is also very useful in shaping of business strategy. HRD increase the competence of employees to fulfill the organization present performance demand along with meeting present organizational needs (Swanson, 1995). Strategic HRD is helping organizations to respond challenges and opportunities. It also helps in telling line managers supervisors and managers their roles. The continuous assessment of learning and development and enabling them to advance their careers and supporting organizational growth.

The organizational environment consist of approximately six main departments, which are shown in figure below and name as distribution, finance, human resources, marketing, production and research design.

 

These all departments are related to one another although most of the organization outsourced some of the elements such as distribution(John P.Wilson, 2005). Training and development is very important in every time and in every organization weather it is small or big and Human resource and development is like back bone for any organization because people are main asset of any organization.

 

Organizational Development And Organizational Learning:

 

Organizational development has come out as a key element in the strategic management of change. OD (Organizational Development) provide focus for the cultural and organizational change which is needed for a lot for continuous improvement, support systems, culture and activities to the success of organizational goals. It enables better use of financial, human and technological resources, promote a better sense of organizational purpose and it is hence more likely to bring the required performance improvement. OD is a dynamic valued based approach to systems change in organizations and communities. In simpler OD defined as a behavioral science approach to the improvement of organizational efficiency which should lead to the accomplishment of organizational objectives. In practise OD is about moving the organization on purpose. In any organization OD create an environment which enables staff to understand and deliver the organization’s objective. It supports managers and staff to accomplish their aims and objectives through the condition of an infrastructure for performance and development. OD involves both hard and soft issues. Strategies, policies, structure and system are considered as hard issues whereas developing skills, behavior, attitudes, culture and style of leadership which enable the organization to achieve performance are considered as soft issues. To avoid conflict between goals and needs both of these issues should be addressed. A strong and successful organizational development is not easy because it involves undertaking issues related with change and service improvement. In any process of organizational development following steps should be keep in mind like establishing a central point to organize and support organizational development activities. Organizational development should within the organizational structure correctly. We should be flexible and creative in using approach to the organizational development. Organization should take important steps to build proper organizational skills and capacity. Momentum should be kept going. Organizational development, wherever apply, attempts to improve the overall success of the organization (Tina Buckle, 2005).

 

Research Methodology:

 

This chapter elaborates how the research study was carried out. It also talks about the limitation of the research and the methods used in this research. After looking at the literature available on training and development the research will look at the methodology which is used to perform the research. The research process ‘onion’ (saunders et. al., 2003) is one of the most used research process structures. Using this structure we can classify different approaches, strategies and data collection methods available under different research philosophies. The research philosophy depends on the aims of the research along with its objectives. But in this case a mixture of two philosophies is being used. This research clearly shows a very higher influence of phenomenology in its approach to get the findings (Hussey and Hussey, 1997). The reason is that the research does not pre define variables, but discover human behavior in naturalistic settings, i.e., the research organizations. In this research the deduction approach is being used.

In good research design charts there is always a detailed research plan that how the research will be conducted. It will not only anticipate but also specify the decisions interconnected with the plan and explain how the data processing, data collection and analysis will be carried out, but will also represent a logical basis for each of these decisions (Blaxter et al, 2oo1). There are two approaches to reasoning which may result in this gain of new knowledge, namely inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is a theory building process starting with observation of exact instances, and seeking to establish generalisation about the phenomenon under investigation. Deductive reasoning is a theory testing process which commences with an established theory or generalization, and seeks to see if the theory relate to specific case (Walliman, 2005). This current research reviews all the previous theories in relation to training and development and then sees if any or all of these theories are applicable from organizational prospective. So we can say that this research attempts to identify the issues surrounding training and development by applying the deductive approach. Better results can be achieved with the combination of research approaches. Under the deductive approach multiple strategies for research are used. It can be deduced that it is ok to ‘mix and match’ approach different research strategies under the deductive approach. The strategy which we used in current research are research as an exploratory study and as a case study. The current research will be the combination of these two strategies on the basis of the information which we collected from the education sources as mentioned in the next paragraph. This current research could be ascertained to be a case study as only the study of small set of restaurants is involved which might not reflect the actual scenario in the whole organization taken in a holistic approach. This case study also allows the researcher to look at the population which might be similar in terms of jobs profile and work area, and on the basis of this the researcher could produce some overview.

As exploratory research allows the researcher to address general informed questions from observation of the data collected, this type of case study is often very helpful to stimulate the further research. According to Robeson (2002), as cited by Saunders et al (2003), enquiries can be classified in term of their purposes as well as the research strategy used. Mostly the classification is used in three fold one of exploratory, descriptive and explanatory.

According to Saunders et all(2003) are very common and valuable to find the proper conclusion. Hussey and Hussey (1997) define experimenter research as; it is a research which is based on looking for new ideas. Exploratory research always have great advantages so this research falls under it. The most important advantages are flexibility and adaptability to change. On the other hand explanatory research is seen to be flexible as it has a broad focus but while progressing it gets narrow. It involves in formation of original idea and not testing or confirming the existing research area it is difficult to manage in short period as in the current case. This type of research needs a lot of study and time. If we look in the current case the researcher is trying to gain insights into the variables chosen in the research organization. This research is classed as exploratory research as it is trying to identify the influence of training and development to an organization as well as to an individual and also that how it helps in development of both. The researcher felt that these two methods are ideal and suit the research question because it allows the researcher to look at the organization’s working style individually and also the whole organization by using exploration as its main tool.

Time horizons is another aspect of the ‘onion process’ that should be mentioned. We will class this result as a cross sectional research because of limited time available to conduct the research. According to Saunders et al (2003) and Hussey and Hussey (1997) that such researches comes under the cross sectional studies which are studies of a particular phenomenon at a particular time. These type of researches are designed such that they look that what is happening in a particular time using a research area in research setting. Most of the researches conducted at Masters and Bachelors are classed under this category. (Turabian, 1987).

Data Collection Method

After deciding the research strategies the next step is to collect the data. The researcher uses the both primary and secondary data to perform the analysis and come to a conclusion. Normally secondary data are of the following types.

Documentary (which is written or non written material)

Survey (censuses, regular or ad-hoe surveys).

 

Hakim (2000) defines secondary data as the data that were collected for another purpose and already exist somewhere. To find the findings of the research the researcher need to know about what has been written in same area. By using literature review the researcher can find that how their findings are similar or dissimilar to the research which was conducted previously (Easterby-Smith et al, 2002). According to Churchill (1991), the first step in any research is to collect secondary data to see whether the problem can be or thoroughly solved without collecting costly primary data. Similarly according to Kevin (1999) believes that secondary data provide the researcher with a source that they can use to answer or at least begin to answer the research question. Since the research is conducted from the organisational perspective so it is very necessary to understand the previous researches which has been conducted in the organisation and in the same industry. Hakim (2000) says that sometimes researchers may need to understand and relate previous researches that have already been performed in similar circumstances. Researcher can also use publication data which is industry specific or area specific and relates to the research question (Kevin, 1999). Secondary data was not only used as a reference frame for study but also was a channel to develop the questionnaires for the primary research process. Secondary information of these types can be found in books, journals, articles, newspapers and magazines, corporate reports conference papers, archives and internet, etc. The use of literature available from the internet will be kept minimum because of the validity issues of the available information.

 

According to Saunders et al. (2003), “a group of people to whom we are going to approach our studies and come to a conclusion is called a sample.” We can reduce the amount of data by using sampling techniques and we can use that data by considering only data from a sub group rather then all possible cases. In current research sampling is used to to identify the sample from the population. The researcher select a sample based on the researchers continence and knowledge about people involved. This process in convenient because of location and distribution and collection and above all it is very cheap to use. Applying this technique the researcher selected 3 restaurants in Central London and hourly paid staff along with the shift running managers are chosen to complete the survey questionnaire and restaurant managers are also chosen for one-to-one interviews.

 

For primary data the current research is looking to employ triangulation as suggested by Bell (2005) and Alvesson and Deetz (2000). By triangulation the researcher can use the strength and weaknesses by data collection methods being employed. They also believe that when two or more methods are used the researcher should make sure that the chosen method is appropriate with respect to the research being conducted. But there is also an other opinion according to Sanuders et al. (2003) that the choice of data collection method should not be based on preconception of the researcher because it can make up the researcher’s bias. To write the finding and analysis in current research triangulation is used.

 

Hart (2005) mention that questionnaire as a tool to measure a few variable of the particular concept by a sample of selected population. It allows generalisation as well. According to Saunders et al (2003) researcher can find the relation between different variables by the help of questionnaire by defining the cause and effect relationship between those variables. Hussey and Hussey (1997) believes that questionnaire should be used only when sample is large as they are cheaper and less time consuming option then interviews. The number of participants was very high so it would have been difficult to use transcribing and personal interviews to gain the data. Above all the data collection is very cheap and affordable to the researcher so that he cannot invest money and time which is mostly the case when structured interviews are employed for data collection. Because of all these factors the researcher used questionnaire.

There are three types of interviews identified by Hart (2005) structured, semi structured and unstructured. According to him interviews are prominent methods of generating in depth qualitative information from small groups. Interviews allow the researcher to link the individual responses to the research questions. In this research the researcher used semi structured interviews because it allows the researcher to vary questions from one interview to another while maintaining the theme of the interviews. As for as questions are concerned the interviews are similar to the questionnaire. The researcher used sample size of interviews but this form of data collection would not be suitable if the number of interviewees is more then 10. for the current research the tape recorder is used to record the interviews and also to transcribe them as suggested by Bryman and Bell (2003). This always insured that there is no interviewer or researcher bias when finding are jotted down.

 

Research Ethics And Validity:

 

Hussey and Hussey (1997) cites that every researcher must take due consideration of the moral, ethical and legal standards in research while avoiding risks. According to Potter (2002) a research thesis has to describe the research methodology being used so that it could be repeated by someone else to test the validity and reliability of the thesis in general and research process particular.Potter (2002) is of the opinion that academic research should be taken very seriously as it gets exposed to public specially if they are made available in the library for future academic researchers.

 

Confidentiality, accuracy and honesty these are some major ethical considerations that researcher needs to be aware. When we deal with the commercial organisation the confidentiality is very important. The researcher should not breach any confidentiality contract that the organisation expects him or her to maintain. Another important thing for the researcher is to ensure that data is valid and reliable so it is necessary for the researcher that has been presented both accurately and honestly (Denscombe, 2002; Potter, 2002). The most ethical concern of most participants is with respect to privacy, confidentiality. Anonymity, objectivity of research, Data protection and interpretation of the information provided by them (Saunders et al, 2003; Hussey and Hussey 1997; Hart 2005). A confidentiality statement was used at the beginning of the survey to remove concern of confidentiality and privacy from the mind of participants. However while dealing with the interviews objectivity of the research was clarified before an appointment was taken. Interviewees were also informed about the importance of their views along with their right to be informed.

 

Ownership of Data is another aspect of ethical importance. According to Denscombe (2002) the researcher owns to the right to the data and the conclusions that are drawn from the data collected also belong to the researcher. So it is responsibility of the researcher to inform the participants about this aspect. Researcher should make sure that participants are taking the research seriously and give the answers to the questions according to their views instead of providing soft answers which the researcher may like to hear or know (Potter, 2002; Hussey and Hussey, 1997). In light of these suggestions the participants were made aware about ownership of data and also that this data will be kept anonymous so that no one is affected by participating in the research.

Limitation Of The Data And Analysis

The data which is obtained by the researcher is the mixture of the qualitative and the quantitative and it is collected by the interviews and the questionnaire by the researcher. The information will be in descriptive in nature and will be in words. Qualitative analysis will not be used as it is all about number and statistical information so it is not suited. The best way to analyse such data is the quantitative Analysis (Saunders et al, 2003;Hussey and Hussey 1997; Easterby-smith et al, 2002; creswell, 1994).

Quantitative Analysis, as cited by Walliam (2005), is more similar to descriptive and secondary in nature. Summarising of Data in the form of charts, tables, percentage and averages will be involved. Computerised tool will be used in this research. Cresewell (1994) Hussey and Hussey (1997) and Saunders et al, (2003) are all of opinion that data analysis and interpretation of data available from interviews will involve categorisation, unitising data, recognising relationships and developing categories to facilitate it, and developing and testing hypotheses to research conclusion.

Quantitative techniques are very often used to investigate issues relating to the operation of the institutions, particularly its organisations and how this impacts its members. For the current research the researcher has used categorisation to ensure data is presented without much repetition and also to ensure that the time required to interpret them is reduced.

 

Data Analysis And Findings:

 

Findings

 

The research was started with the problem of Training and Development from the 3 restaurants from the chosen change of the organisation being investigated. As we have seen in literature review that training and development is very important in many organisations. The research looks at the three restaurants that have been chosen for the current research, to see what effort is being made to ensure productivity of individual restaurants. The current research uses the structure similar to the literature review to take its findings and present them using a relative analysis of the assembled data.

 

Classification Of Respondents Of Survey:

 

A survey questionnaire ( Appendix A)for the current research was distributed among the hourly paid staff and the restaurant managers in given three restaurants. Researcher used a sample a sample based on criteria which is mentioned in chapter three. The restaurants manager created the part of interview group who were asked questions based on the interview theme as specific in appendix B. 70 survey were given and the number of responses received were 49.The total response of the survey was 71%. The number of employees who opted out of the survey was 16. the rest of the 5 responses were lost either by respondents or by restaurant managers. The responses were different in nature from restaurant to restaurant. In first restaurant all respondents were willing to give their details for participation in the survey. In second restaurant each employees wished to remained anonymous on the other hand 3rd restaurant had a mixed response to staying anonymous.

 

The descriptive analysis of the demographic data that was compiled shows that the maximum respondent of the survey were of the age groip of 18-25. This age group contained 84% of the research sample and the least was between age group of 33-40 with 2% while the age group of 26-32 made up for the rest 14%. Also the same analysis shows that about 70% of the respondents were female staff. Now in term of experience in years the correspondent had majority of people e.g 66% of the respondents working for hardly 1 or 2 years and the longest serving employees more den 10 years were found only 4%. This should be noticed that 24% were working for 2-5 years and the remaining 16% were working for 5-10 years.

 

Finding of Questionnaire:

 

The questions were asked to respondents about implementation of training and development in the current organisations. When the respondents were asked if human resource development is critical from the organisation point of view 30% suggested that they agree 12% suggested that the organisation doesn’t give importance to human resource development. How ever 50% of the respondents were not sure if the organisation considers the human resource development to be critical. Similarly when asked if the organisation has a development strategy in place 80% suggested OD strategy is in place while 20% suggested they were not sure if there is nay such strategy. In the next question the respondent were asked about the factors that make organisational development important and the response which researcher found is shown in the table 4.2. and it is noticeable that respondent didn’t suggested any new reasons which could be the lack of interest or they do not find any other factors to be important.

 

It can be seen that all the respondents consider enhancing effectiveness and continuous learning to be the most important factors about organisational development. From the responses it can be said that 54% of the respondents feel that organisational development promote change. However only 20% believe continuous learning to be an important factor with respect to organisational development. In next question the respondents were asked about the learning preferences and response which were given are shown in figure 4.2 below. If we notice that option none were not be chosen by any respondent and hence it has 0% responses.

 

The respondent were asked about the commitment of the organization towards being a learning organization and 80% said that McDonald’s is committed towards being a learning organization while the 20% said that McDonald’s is not committed or lacking in terms of being a learning organization. In another question when asked that if the company believes in continuous improvement 24% suggested that organization believes in continuous improvement while 44% though that the company is not going towards continuous improvement. The remaining 32% suggested that they were not sure about this aspect. When researcher asked that organization believe in cross cultural training and the responses were given in Figure 4.3 below.

The next question was asked to understand that if the respondent were aware of the training and development process in the organization and 100% suggested that they are aware of the process being followed by the organization. Similarly in next question when they asked weather they were happy about training and development program 60% suggested they were happy and 40% suggested that they were unhappy about the programme. And when they were asked about the fairness of the process the responses were very similar to the above question. When asked about the tool being used to evaluate the training 60% suggested that OCL (observation check list) is used while 40% suggested that performance appraisal is used to evaluate training. Finally when they were asked that how many times appraisals are conducted in a year 10% suggested that it is done once in a year and 90% suggested that it is done twice in the year. It can be seen that none of the respondent either “never” or “more then twice” as a response.

 

Finding From Interviews:

The questions were asked to the interviewees in a way that they could provide detailed answer. Some of the questions were asked to either change the topic of discussion or to ensure that interviewees do not deviate from research area and these questions were involved short and similar answers. The interviewees were asked questions according to the area covered in the literature review. The detailed discussion is carried out in second part of this chapter.

 

When the interviewees were asked about their opinion about human resource development most of them suggested that it is the process of changing an organization and its employees. They also suggested about planned and unplanned learning but their focus was in achieving and maintaining the competitive advantages of the organization. When they were asked that they consider HRD to be important most of them said that HRD is very important in gaining competitive advantages of the organization. They also said that HRD ensure employees skills-sets which are very beneficial for the organization development.

 

The interviewees were asked that how top management influences change leading to organizational development to which they suggested that when management changes their vision it brings a lot of change and staff has to deal with it. Similarly when they asked about the organizational development all of them suggested that it is all about the planned process that bring a change that how organization look at different aspects within in the organizational culture. When they were asked about the reasons behind OD being important they said quality of work, Empowerment, continuous learning, effective workforce and enhanced productivity are some of the important reasons. At the same time when they were asked about the learning in the organization all of them suggested that learning is always encouraged by the organization. Some of them also suggested that they believe in self learning while some of them suggested that training should be in fix duration and if there is some new products or new technology then organization must train them. And when it was asked about team based learning and individual learning most of them said they prefer learning in team.

 

When they were asked about existing Training and Development process it was different answers from interviewers some of them said they are satisfied with the current training and development process and they told that an audit is conducted once in a year to ensure that current T&D process is good enough or not they also look that what has been achieved in term of current T&D process. While some interviewees said this system need more improvement and one of them said that the whole T&D system should be changed. When questioned about the beneficiary of the T&D process almost all of them including managers suggested that they and organisation itself is beneficiary from Training and Development.

 

When they were asked about different training provided by the organization they suggested that there are different types of training and they are attending those training programs from starting of their job with the organization. They told about the induction where employees get training about all aspects of the job. Organization gives brief description about nature of the job and about the organization itself. After this when employees start working there is another training called as ongoing training in which employees learn new skills that enables them to perform efficiently at different stages. After that another important training is of management in which staff is taught to manage their own workforce as well as other around them. Finally when they were asked that how training is appraised all of them told that there are two methods one is performance appraisal and other is observation check lists (OCLs). Another thing was noticeable that most of the employees were not happy with the performance appraisals done with in the organization on the other hand some of them were very happy with the performance appraisals. The researcher noticed that some of the employees think that performance appraisals should be done neutral because most of the managers are biased. Interviews suggested that appraisals give them chance to tell managers that what they expect from the organization.

 

Data Analysis:

Researcher is using both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyse the data that was collected by means of survey, questionnaire, and semi structured interviews. In questionnaire out of 70 employees 49 respondent and success rate is 71%. This required rate is very good. Similarly the researcher also did semi-structured interviews. The researcher also discussed with supervisors and took their views about the research just to make sure that the research is valid and reliable. It is clearly seen in the findings that just 14 people who opted out the research and all the people participated to whom survey was distributed. Credibility of the researcher also counts and in this research the researcher credibility was very well know so the response were 100%. The people who contributed in the research was mostly young under then 25 year of age and another important thing to notice is that female staff responded 70%. As maximum numbers of employees were crew members because of the McDonald’s main workforce so the researcher found them scattered in terms of position.

 

Another important thing which helped the researcher a lot is that in interviews he asked very open minded questions so that he could get better and detailed answers. But on the other hand in survey the question had mainly 3 options out of which the respondent can choose his answer. Some of the questions were also very simple they needed only short and simple answers. The researcher used the respond given by the interviewees in the findings rather than putting all details and this will be discussed in next few sections.

 

Human Resource Development:

 

According to Holden and Livian (1992) many of the European countries have increased their training expenditure. On the other hand Bishop (1993) suggest that accurate costing of training, and poor firm performance often result in cuts in training budget. In the current research all the interviewees agreed with Bratton and Gold (2003) and told that HRD is process of changing an organization, its employees and group of people within it. McDonald’s is a very well known and large scale organization so they can afford to spend on HRD but if we take a look at small organization it is very difficult for them to implement official human resource development. In this research interviewees commented that in academic content they cannot found any data about human resource and development. They also suggested that planned and unplanned learning is very important to achieve the development process. Interviewees also said that the main focus is always on gaining the competitive advantages for the organization while employees are being trained. Another important point which researcher noticed that the Restaurants always profits and productivity these two things are always on top priority and they are not willing to lose this focus from profits and productivity when concentrating on development of resources. Organization always needs to understand that HRD must increase profitability factors for the organization but workforce capabilities should be improved. The training should not be given for the sack of training there should be a purpose behind it.

 

When they were asked that why they think that HRD is important almost all of them had one answer that the organization looks at HRD to improve employees skills-set so that organization can achieve its competitive advantages. McGoldrick et al, (2001) tells a very similar and simple view and suggest that the organization that always looks and focus at improving the skill-set of their employees they always achieve competitive advantages over other organization in similar industry. By focusing on employees skill-set can increase the work force which can manage more tasks and do the task in less time. Another aspect that Desimone et al, (2002) observed was the lack of measure of assessing training needs arising from strategic goals, poor developed systems for evaluating training effectiveness, and insufficient information systems to capture record analyses and communicate human resource Development information. In current research none of the manager suggested disadvantages of the process affiliated with the running of the good HRD process so this aspect was not raised.

 

Results of the survey respondents is upsetting as only 30% of respondent consider that the organization consider human resource development to be critical. In Researcher point of view that it is may be correspondent were not sure how human resource and development could be useful for the organization or may be respondents were not sure the importance of HRD to the organization. This aspect should be looked by the organization and researcher also mentioned this in recommendations for future research.

 

Organizational Development:

 

In findings it can be seen that the interviewees suggested organizational development as a planned process that brings change in how people in the organization look at the different aspects that are related with the organization and its culture. Similarly according to Burke (1994) organization development is all about change in the organizations culture through utilization of behavioral science technologies, research and theory. The interviewees also agreed with this statement and they suggested that factors that causes change and implements the process such that an organization get an edge over competitors. Interviewees also suggested that mergers influence the organizational development and when asked how could they say merger influences organization development three of them said that from previous experiences and 2 said that from their training in McDonald’s for the position of assistant manager.

Influence of “change in top management”, this is a reason which was given by the interviewees and not identified in the literature. They said when management change their vision it brings a lot of changes within the organization and the staff has to cope with all these changes.

When the correspondents were asked about McDonald’s organizational development strategy 80% said that McDonald’s has an organizational strategy on the other hand 20% was not sure about organizational development strategy of the organization. Respondent chosen ‘not sure’ as an answer which gives little help when analysis the perception about any particular aspect. So there was no negative respond so it can be said that at least staff doesn’t imply lack of organization development process.

 

There are huge and long term advantages of Organization Development as it is a planned process. In current research when interviewees were asked about the reason behind organizational development most of them suggested there are many advantages and most important are workforce effective, enhance productivity, improves the quality of the work and continuous learning of the staff across the organisation. Similarly when respondent were asked same question they also chose similar option and they also added more that improvement in quality of work is a factor that made organizational development more important. It can be seen among the entire correspondent that continuous learning and enhance effectiveness is most important factors of organizational development.

 

Organizational Learning:

 

Organizational learning has become an important strategy that creates competitive advantages for organization (Boocock et al, 2002). This is a fact that competent employees are valuable assets for any organization. In the literature review it is clearly mention that there is a clear difference between organizational learning and learning organization. Sun (2003) suggests that organizational learning is a descriptive process and critical in trying to understood learning process. On the other side learning organization is an action oriented and perspective which explain that how organization should learn.

When asked about the learning in the organization all the interviewees suggested that learning is always encouraged by the organization. They also suggested there are different approaches depending on the situation and employees. Some of the interviewees suggested that they believe in self placed learning while other believed that training should be completed in fixed duration depending on the level of the difficulty of the task. If we notice we will come to a conclusion that organization doesn’t have any permanent approach of learning and it has been totally left on the managers to manage this aspect. It means that in the current organization we can see organizational learning but we cannot consider the company as learning organizations.

When the respondents were asked about the commitment of the organization towards being a learning organization, 80% said that McDonald’s is committed to learning and 20% said that McDonald’s is lacking in commitment in terms of being a learning organizations. Researcher himself felt while the research that the organisation is a learning organization. But after the discussion with interviewees researcher found that company is not a learning organisations.

Also when they asked if the company believes in continuous improvement, 24% suggested that organization believes in continuous improvement and 40% thought that company is not of a mind towards continuous improvement. This is an additional factor which proves that company is not a learning organization. This should be noticed that in interview all the interviewees suggested that company believes in continuous improvement. So researcher couldn’t draw a clear result from all these information.

According to Kim (1993) organization can learn, independent of any specific individuals, but not independent of all individuals. So from this it is clear that most of the companies prefer learning as a team but they need to rely on individual as well to complete the learning process. When asked about preferences between individual and team based learning mostly all of them suggested that learning should be in team rather than individually. On the other hand in survey 10% suggested that they prefer individually, 36% suggested they prefer learning in team, however 50% suggested that they prefer both forms and 4% did not replied.

Training And Development

Organizational learning has become an important strategy that creates competitive advantages for organization (Boocock et al, 2002). This is a fact that competent employees are valuable assets for any organization. In the literature review it is clearly mention that there is a clear difference between organizational learning and learning organization. Sun (2003) suggests that organizational learning is a descriptive process and critical in trying to understood learning process. On the other side learning organization is an action oriented and perspective which explain that how organization should learn.

 

When asked about the learning in the organization all the interviewees suggested that learning is always encouraged by the organisation. They also suggested there are different approaches depending on the situation and employees. Some of the interviewees suggested that they believe in self placed learning while other believed that training should be completed in fixed duration depending on the level of the difficulty of the task. If we notice we will come to a conclusion that organization doesn’t have any permanent approach of learning and it has been totally left on the managers to manage this aspect. It means that in the current organization we can see organizational learning but we cannot consider the company as learning organizations.

When the respondents were asked about the commitment of the organization towards being a learning organization, 80% said that McDonald’s is committed to learning and 20% said that McDonald’s is lacking in commitment in terms of being a learning organizations. Researcher himself felt while the research that the organization is a learning organization. But after the discussion with interviewees researcher found that company is not a learning organizations.

Also when they asked if the company believes in continuous improvement, 24% suggested that organization believes in continuous improvement and 40% thought that company is not of a mind towards continuous improvement. This is an additional factor which proves that company is not a learning organization. This should be noticed that in interview all the interviewees suggested that company believes in continuous improvement. So researcher couldn’t draw a clear result from all these information.

According to Kim (1993) organization can learn, independent of any specific individuals, but not independent of all individuals. So from this it is clear that most of the companies prefer learning as a team but they need to rely on individual as well to complete the learning process. When asked about preferences between individual and team based learning mostly all of them suggested that learning should be in team rather than individually. On the other hand in survey 10% suggested that they prefer individually, 36% suggested they prefer learning in team; however 50% suggested that they prefer both forms and 4% did not replied.

 

Training and Development chapter 2:

 

It can be seen in literature review on training and development in chapter 2 that training and development is always considered as very important factor in growth and development of any organization (Bratton and Gold, 2003). They also argue that training is a kind of luxury for small organization they cannot afford it. But in the current research the organization is not small it is a world wide organization and also very well known organization so it can afford training. They will not look at affordability factor. In current research organizational training is not optional but employees can avoid it by opting out the management training but still normal training is required to maintain the standard of the organization. If there is a new product, promotion, or any new process comes in the current organization in that case employees has to go through training weather he want it or not. Management training can be avoidable but normal training which is necessary for the flour is must. Training doesn’t include only fees of course but cost on term of absence from the organization at that period of time is also counts. If we see in current organization here absence because of training cost doesn’t count. It is why that most of the training are given with in the organization mostly on the flour except of that managerial trainings otherwise this factor is ignored.

 

In current research when employees were asked about the existing training and development process all of them replied positively and said that yes there is a training and development program. But on the other hand when they were asked to explain the process most of them said that it is too long to discuss in shot interviews because it is a detail process. In short some of them told that Training and development is a process by which managers find right people for right job and they move right people to organization ladder and give them required training so that they can manage their responsibilities effectively and efficiently. Now there was different kind of views when employees were asked about T&D process two of interviewee said that training is a short term organizational concern that is helping employees to complete give task to them. However they added that development is something which is concerned with employee’s future responsibilities and it is very essential for them. If we look in HRD prospective according to Torrington et al, (2005) training is the first and most common HRD activity that always focuses on employees learning, skill, knowledge and attitudes to perform a job. They also suggest that after training development is second important activity which focuses on learning new skill, knowledge, and attitudes to do that job perfectly or to do a new job in the future time. One of the important thing which researcher noticed that in current organization T&D process is not an optional issue because higher management is trying to focus on it a lot by regularly audit and by surprise visits. This audit is conducted once in a year and the auditors take a deep look that what the organization has achieved in terms of training and development. In survey the researcher only asked that weather they are aware of T&D process or not. The answered was positive. They were not asked abut detail of T&D process because it would have been very difficult for researcher to analyses information from 49 respondents.

Cross cultural training is one of the important concepts of organizational development. Especially in UK if we see the workforce is becoming more cultural diverse. So it is very important for the organization to train their employees to become more competent and more effective with the complexities of new and mix environment. When the interviewees were asked about the mix culture they said that in the current organization we have employees from different nationalities but they do not influence the training and development process. at the same time when in survey the same question was asked that if the organisation believe in cross cultural training or not so 50% of them suggested that organization does not believe in it and 20% of them said they are not sure on the other hand 30% disagreed. Higher management should take notice of it that why employees think like that. Other important things which most of the interviewees told that the recruitment of new employees shouldn’t be biased and people should be selected from all different nationalities. Researcher himself feels that only two or three nationalities were dominant in all stores. It is because most of the employees want their own nationality people to be recruited. Being a world wide organization McDonald’s should take some serious step about cross cultural training especially in UK it is too much multicultural society.

 

As suggested by Osowska (1996) the interviewees also agreed that any organisation who incest in training can expect a lot of benefit from an increase in employee motivation job satisfaction and productivity gains. Researcher noticed that in current organization the standard of Health and Safety is too high he couldn’t find any absentees due to sickness and work related accidents. Researcher found that most of the employees were not happy with the pay increment and the job security. According to Matlay and Cressy (1997) benefits to employee includes higher pay increment and increased job security. Researcher couldn’t find enough benefits for the employees.

Raelin (2000) said that from the prospective of employer’s training and development also ensures decrease in cost of recruitment as well as decrease in rate of turnover. The interviewees suggested that for employers the benefit includes the improve productivity, better quality of service decrease in turnover and flexible work force. In today fast food industry they need staff with multiple skills to deal with highly flexible nature of work so companies should focus on building a workforce that is competent, flexible, adoptable and highly professional. Finally when they were questioned about benefits of training and development to the line managers working on the flour they suggested that flexible and adoptable nature of the trained staff helped a lot on the flour to ensure high efficiency and customer satisfaction. And they are also very cooperative with the line managers.

When they were asked about the training provided by the organization interviewees suggested that mostly there are three types of training first of them is induction which is always given in the start of employee’s job in induction organization told the employees about each and every aspect of the job and nature of the job. Organization also makes sure that employee is aware of company policies and company goal and objectives. Induction is considered very critical as well because it involves health and safety training as well. Now a days health and safety is like back bone for any organization so the current organization focus a lot on health and safety because good Health and safety insures in decrease in absentees because of sick and work related accident. The second training is ongoing training in which employees get trained while working on the flour. Employees learn new skills in it which enable them to perform efficiently at different stations. The third type of training is management training in which special trainee train the staff to manage themselves and people around them. Current organization focuses a lot on quality so that the restaurants can deliver the highest possible customer service. Organization can achieve highest possible service only when they take feed back from the costumers and the staff as well. Feed backs are very important for the quality of organisation as well it also tell that how customers think about the current organisation’s products. Performance appraisals are also very important for the employees feed back. Researcher thinks that proper and up to date training as well as feed back from the customers and employees can help an organization to achieve their goals.

However when they were asked that how training is appraised in the organization most of the interviewees suggested that organization believes in it and do it time by time. Current organization used observation check list (OCL) as a evaluation tool. Performance analysis is another important method which is applied twice in a year. It is to ensure that employees should aware what organization is expecting from them in next 6 months. In some performance appraisals Method current organization used OCL as a too to evaluate employee performance. Interviewees also suggested that appraisal gives them a chance to tell manager that what they are expecting from the organizations.

When they were asked about the tools being used in evaluating training 60% suggested that OCL (observation check list) is used and rest of 40% said that performance appraisal is used to evaluate training. And finally when they were asked about the how many times appraisal are conducted in a year so 90% suggested that twice in a year and 10% suggested that it has been done once in a year. Researcher noticed that employees are aware of both of the methods. In the results from survey the researcher found that almost 50% of the correspondents are not happy with the training and development process taking place in the organization now this is very serious issue for the organisation. Similarly 50% of the staff was not happy with the process of selecting staff to for training. They suggested that process is totally unfair.

Researcher thinks that perceptions of the employees towards the organization are a detail and concerning issue which can be looked in additional research. In next chapter will take a look at what understands of researcher in terms of research organization and training and development.

Conclusion And Recommendations

The current research tried to highlight the importance of training and development and the factors which make training and development for large scale companies like current research organization, McDonald’s Restaurants Limited. Employees are the main asset for any organization and in the current research if we look at the literature review it is proved that people are the main assets. There is another important factor which was noticed that if any organization wants to achieve its goals or competitive advantages employees of that organization must be productive and affective. The management cannot achieve any objective if the employees are not well trained and effective. It is very necessary to enhance the employee’s skill-set if company want to gain competitive advantages over the competitors. This will not be wrong if we say that it became an organizational need that employees should be well trained and so that they can handle the different situations. In the literature review different kinds of training are mentioned which should be given to the employees. Both the new and existing employees should be trained equally because only training can make them perfect and they will be able to maintain the standard of the organization. Especially the employers which are moving the ladder of the organization should be trained very well because they are going to manage the organization later. Research also shows that when a company is going through any kind of change training is always required. Human resource Manager should take training as a serious issue and need to find the right people who need training in the organization. This research paper tried to find training needs of the current organization and weather the management is paying attention on areas where they need training or not. This research was carried out on three restaurants of McDonald’s in central London. The researched tried to look at different kind of strategies which company follows in terms of training and development. Research also looked that weather staff is well trained to perform better and have highly productivity. The main objective of the research was to understand that why training and development is most important for the organization and also to understand it organization as well as employees point of view. It is proved from research that organizations do not train staff just to improve their abilities but they want to improve employee’s capabilities as well so that they can help organization in long term.

Area like human resource development, organizational learning, organizational development training and development is directly related and considered as major factor. These areas and the effect of T&D on these areas are already discussed in literature review. In current research looked at the significance of training and development in all of these areas by the help of academic literature and how it is suitable for the current research organization. Researcher took restaurants manager out put very serious and analyses was done by the help of manager in put as a primary data along with the survey response.

The researcher looked at the issue that human resource development organization design, learning, work place learning, job design, training and development and researcher is using training and development and using training to understand the influence of training and development in McDonald’s restaurant. In current research the writer also looked at other different issues which are directly related T&D. In the beginning of the research writer also considered areas like motivation organization design, structure, job satisfaction as areas that could be looked but writer left because these were moving him away from research area. All of these areas can be taken up as a different research as mentioned in recommendation for “Future Research” in section below.

 

The current research focused at four main areas which are related to personal development. The first and most important was HRD because it is related to ensure employees skill-sets which further leads to organization development and also gave competitive advantages to the organization like over competitors. Planned and unplanned learning are very important to achieve and maintain competitive advantages for the organization. The second important aspect was organization development and it is also noticed that interviewees point of view development is planned process that bring change in organization and the peoples, culture of the organization. Another important part which was observed that organizational development makes work force more effective, improves quality of work and enforces empowerment along with making culture of new learning among the staff.

The third aspect in the research was whether the organization implements, organizational learning and believes the organizational learning. From the interviews, surveys and discussion raised above, it can be clearly notice that organization is not focusing on learning organization. But on the other hand it believes on the organizational learning. In the survey it showed negative when employees were questioned whether the organization believes on continuous learning or not. Researcher considered it main factor that why the organization is not learning organization and believe in continuous learning. Finally the fourth and most important aspect which was look by the researcher was training and development. The writer focused a lot on it because it was main theme of the research. If we see in the current organization. It has a training and development cycle which shows they are trying to train peoples depending on the requirement of the standards of the restaurant and individual. As organization is a worldwide organization and they have a well reputation so they are aware of the advantages for the organization. That is why organization in discussion focusing a lot on training and development. Organization knows well that the training and development in increasing motivation and job satisfactory levels. Improves skill-set and maximum pay rise. Similarly for the employer there are huge benefits for training and development which includes productivity, improved quality of service, reduced turnover, efficient and flexible work force. Line Managers learn various different things from training and they can implement on the floor. Hence it will not be wrong that training makes line manager more flexible and adaptable. And the staff who get training they cam co-operate very well with the line manager to achieve the goal of an organization. This could be said that effective use of training of development in the organization makes sure there are many peoples who can work on different position on different times depending on the need of the organization.

 

Recommendation For Current Research:

 

The writer found many important aspects from this research which are given below:

1. First of all writer found a big lack of information among hourly paid staff and human resource development. Most of the employee who respond the survey were not aware of HRD. So the writer recommended organization should look to produce awareness about this issue.

2. Secondly, the writer did not found organization as the learning organization if an organization want to keep improving profits and maintain the standard in the market it is very necessary for the organization to become a learning organization. It will bring positive change in the organization and they moved towards continuous by using training and development techniques.

3. Another important issue writer found which was about fairness of training process the writer thinks it should be considered. Organization should understand why employees are not happy with the training process and they should take positive measures to ensure that employees are satisfied with the process.

4. From the survey and interviews it was observed that cross-cultural training should be promoted.

 

Recommendation For Further Research:

The current cross-sectional research which was done in three restaurants Central London, UK. Any new can be done by changing the city and the need of T&D accordingly. The research could have been in more detail and extended if the researcher considered the whole country. But this thing should be notice that this should be expensive process, because a lot of traveling and time involved which is critical. Some of the areas like HRD learning organization in Organizational Development have not been observed in detail. A new research can be done to understand these concept as these are very important for an organization. The different data collection method and research strategy and different analysis could be use in the same organization, to conduct the validity of this research document to provide critique on the current research. Literature of the current research can be used in different organization to check if the findings are similar in the organization being research and the current organization.

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