Medical

Structure and Functions of Neuron

Structure and Functions of Neuron Overview Nerve cells together with neuroglia form the tissues of the nervous system. A neuron is a specialized type of cell found in the bodies of all eumetozoans. Only sponges and a few other simpler animals lack neurons. The features that define a neuron are el.....

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About Respiratory Enzyme

About Respiratory Enzyme An enzyme, such as oxidase, that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from its substrate to molecular oxygen during cellular respiration. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze, or affect the rate, of chemical reactions without themselves being altered in the process. Specific.....

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About Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

About Radioimmunoassay (RIA) RIA or Radioimmunoassay is an in vitro assay that measures the presence of an antigen with very high sensitivity. Basically any biological substance for which a specific antibody exists can be measured, even in minute concentrations. RIA has been the first immunoassay.....

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Quantum Hall Effect

QHE: Quantum Hall Effect Quantum Hall Effect is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall Effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized valu.....

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Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is at the center of cellular metabolism, playing a starring role in both the process of energy production and biosynthesis. It finishes the sugar-breaking job started in glycolysis and fuels th.....

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Computer Assisted Tomography

CAT – Computer Assisted Tomography Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) scan is a diagnostic test that enables the spinal canal to be imaged and assessed for specific conditions. The scan works by shooting an x-ray beam at 160 points throughout the body and crystals opposite the beam pick up .....

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Mechanisms for Autophagy

Mechanisms for Autophagy Autophagy is a tightly regulated pathway with an important housekeeping role, allowing cells to eliminate damaged or harmful components through catabolism and to recycle them to maintain nutrient and energy homeostasis. Autophagy is also a major protective mechanism which.....

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A Novel Therapy against Malaria

A Novel Therapy against Malaria Youyou Tu from China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine used a compound from a traditional herbal medicine to tackle the challenge of developing novel malaria therapies. She used the plant Artemisia annua and extracted its active component. Tu was the first to.....

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Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity Innate (natural) immunity is so named because it is present at birth and does not have to be learned through exposure to an invader. It thus provides an immediate response to foreign invaders. However, its components treat all foreign invaders in much the same way. They recognize .....

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Prion Diseases

Prion Diseases Prion Diseases comprise several conditions. A prion is a type of protein that can trigger normal proteins in the brain to fold abnormally. Prion diseases can affect both humans and animals and are sometimes spread to humans by infected meat products. The most common form of prion d.....

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Ion Channel

Ion Channel Each living cell is surrounded by a membrane which separates the world within the cell from its exterior. In this membrane there are channels, through which the cell communicates with its surroundings. These channels consist of single molecules or complexes of molecules and have the a.....

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Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism

Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism Cholesterol is an extremely important biological molecule that has roles in membrane structure as well as being a precursor for the synthesis of the steroid hormones, the bile acids, and vitamin D. Both dietary cholesterol, and that synthesized de novo, are tr.....

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