Physics

Thermosphere

Thermosphere Definition Thermosphere is the region of the Earth’s upper atmosphere lying above the mesosphere and extending from a height of approximately 80 km (50 mi) to between 550 and 700 km (341 and 434 mi) above the Earth’s surface. At these high altitudes, the residual atmosphe.....

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About Ionosphere

About Ionosphere Definition Ionosphere is the part of the earth’s atmosphere beginning at an altitude of about 30 miles (50 kilometers) and extending outward that contains electrically charged particles. It consists of three layers, which all have the same characteristic of high concentrati.....

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About Magnetosphere

About Magnetosphere Definition Magnetosphere is the region surrounding a planet, such as the earth, in which the behaviour of charged particles is controlled by the planet’s magnetic field. The magnetic field near the surface of many astronomical objects resembles that of a dipole. The fiel.....

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Red dwarf

Red dwarf Definition Red dwarf is a small, dim star with relatively cool surface temperatures, positioned to the lower right on the main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Red dwarfs, at about 0.1 to 0.5 solar mass, consume their nuclear fuel very slowly and live for about 100 billion y.....

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Radio Wave

Radio Wave Definition Radio Wave is a very low frequency electromagnetic wave (from roughly 30 kilohertz to 100 gigahertz). Radio-wave communications signals travel through the air in a straight line, reflect off of clouds or layers of the ionosphere, or are relayed by satellites in space. They a.....

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Magnetic Reconnection

Magnetic Reconnection Definition Magnetic Reconnection is a fundamental dynamical process (physical process) in highly conductive plasmas. In the process, magnetic field energy is converted to plasma kinetic and thermal energy. It occurs on timescales intermediate between slow resistive diffusion.....

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Variable Star

Variable Star Definition Variable Star is a star whose actual or observed brightness varies periodically. These changes can occur with varying degrees of regularity and intensity, over times ranging from a fraction of a second to many years. Intrinsic variation occurs because of changes of the st.....

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Flare Star

Flare Star Definition Flare Star is a variable star that sporadically displays sudden increases in brightness, sometimes becoming six times as bright in a matter of only a few minutes, after which it gradually fades back to its normal brightness. The cause of this phenomenon is thought to be an e.....

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Geomagnetic Storm

Geomagnetic Storm Definition Geomagnetic storm is a disturbance in the magnetosphere due to near-Earth space weather that happens when the interplanetary magnetic field turns southward and remains that way. These storms result from variations in the solar wind that produces major changes in the c.....

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Solar Flare

Solar Flare Definition Solar Flare occurs when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. On the Sun’s surface are huge magnetic loops called prominences. When they touch, they short circuit each other, setting off explosions. The amount of energy releas.....

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Aurora

Aurora Definition Aurora is a luminous phenomenon that consists of streamers or arches of light appearing in the upper atmosphere of a planet’s magnetic Polar Regions and is caused by the emission of light from atoms excited by electrons accelerated along the planet’s magnetic field l.....

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Hall Effect

Hall Effect Definition Hall Effect is a direct result of Lorentz forces acting on the charges in the current, and is named after U.S. physicist Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938). It is development of a transverse electric field in a solid material when it carries an electric current and is placed in.....

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