A Report On Industrial Attachment At FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD
Subject: Science, Textile | Topics:


The internationally recognized Buyers or clients are looking for those countries for producing their apparel products where  different  types of mills have established  as a one stop source for the global apparel  market,  satisfy  and meet  customer’s  expectation  by  developing  and providing products  and services  on time, which offer value  in terms of Quality, Price, Safety  &  Environmental  impact.  And  also  assure  complete  compliance  with  the international  quality  standards  and  also  to  provide  the  employees  internationally acceptable working condition/standards. In Bangladesh, there are different types of Textile Industry those are producing high quality textile and apparel product. FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is one of them. FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is Garments Manufacturer & Exporter, having all state of the art facilities with annual turn over Tk. 10,00,00,000  to    12,00,00,000 . They have Different types of Cutting, Sewing, and Finishing machines supplied by mostly Japan, Taiwan, U.K, USA, Singapore, etc. which are very latest. It has high production rate finished garments are produced per day. The production is controlled by skill persons. All of the decision makers of production sector in FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. are not textiles graduates. Finishing are well branded. They produce their product for their buyer and client those are coming from international market like U.K, Ireland, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain. They follow all the system for their machines maintenance so production can not hamper.

In this report, I have tried to give some information about FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. and I have observed that FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. produce high quality garment and fulfill the special requirements from the different types of buyers by according different internationally recommended standard method.


The term is “textile” derived from the Latin textilis and the French texere, meaning “to weave,” and it originally referred only to woven fabrics. It has, however, come to include fabrics produced by other methods. Thus, threads, cords, ropes, braids, lace, embroidery, nets, and fabrics made by weaving, knitting, bonding, felting, or tufting are textiles. Some definitions of the term textile would also include those products obtained by the papermaking principle that have many of the properties associated with conventional fabrics. In addition to clothing and home furnishings, textiles are used for such industrial products as filters to air conditioners, life rafts, conveyor belts, tents, automobile tires, swimming pools, safety helmets and mine ventilators.

From fabric to garment, The FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is truly integrated undertaking. The FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export garment markets. The goal of the FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality garment from Bangladesh With highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources. The FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s growing ready made garments export sector.


Company Name                                  : FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd

Type & Business of the company       : Garments Manufacturer & Exporter.

Factory Location                                 : VOLAIL, WEST MASDAIR, BSIC INDUSTRIAL AREA

Project Investment                              : $ 2.00 Million

Annual Turnover                                 : $ 5.00 Million.

Total Manpower                                  : 1000 (Approx.)

Factory Floor Space                            : 126,000 sft

Factory Equipments                            :Different types of Cutting, Sewing, Finishing and Generator machines supplied by mostly Japan, Taiwan, EU, USA, Singapore, etc.

ProductRange                                                :Men, Women & Kids

Main Production                                 :Basic T-Shirt, Tank top, Long Sleeve T-Shirt, Polo Shirt, Shorts, Pajama Set, Ladies & Kids Knitwear & all kinds of knit garments & Knit fabrics.

Production Capacity                           : 4000 pcs/day (Average)

Buyers                                                 : H&M, GAP, BIMTEX, ANAF, BHS, MILES, LOLLY TOYS, GEORGE  and IVORY

Main Market                                       : EU, UK & Canada.

Payment Terms                                   : Confirmed Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

Fax Number:                                       + 880 – 2 – 8813542

E–mail Address:                                 INFO@ASROTEX.COM


The FARIAH KNIT TEX Ltd. is committed to the best human workplace practices. Their goal is to continuously improve their Human resource policies and procedures through education, training, communication and employees involvement.

To that end FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd.  has identified eight (8) areas of importance. The company commits to management review, employees open communication, policy development and coordination with the SA 8000 standard to comply with all state/local laws and industrial/factory laws of peoples republic of Bangladesh to provide a favorable employment environment that respects understands the needs of its employees.

The company commits to inform all employees of its policy and position on the SA 8000 standard. All employees will be made aware of the policy and company statement upon implementation. Going forward all new employees will be trained on SA 8000 in new employees’ orientation. Periodically throughout the year the company will reaffirm its commitment to the SA 8000 policy through employee communications such as office notice, demonstration and payroll stuffers. The eight (8) identified areas are:

  • Child labor
  • Forced labor
  • Health & Safety
  • Freedom of assembly/ Right to collectively bargain
  • Discrimination
  • Disciplinary practices
  • Working hours
  • Remuneration/ Compensation


The management and Employees of FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. works to implement quality in all steps of  their activity starting from selecting raw materials through all steps of productions to the ultimate finished products. To ensure quality at all levels they adhere the following objectives:

  1. 100% Follow – up customer feedback promptly.
  2. Encourage every employee to suggest/recommend for improvements.
  3. Prompt reply to customer complaints to build their confidence and satisfaction.
  4. Minimizing the downtime for every machine.
  5. To increase 5% export every year.
  6. To decrease 8% customer complain every year.
  7. To minimize 5% rejection of products every year.
  8. Ensure timely shipment.

RAW MATERIALS FOR KNITTING                                                

Types of raw material USED:



Source of yarn for knitting:

Name of the spinning MillsLocation
TECHNO spinning LtdGazipur
The Delta spinningKashimpur, Gazipur



Knitting is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. The length wise columns of stitches, corresponding to the warp in woven cloth, are called WALES; the cross wise rows of stitches, corresponding to the filling in woven cloth, are called COURSES, FILLING KNITS (WEFT KNITS) are those fabrics in which the courses are composed of a single strand of yarn, while warp knits are those in which the Wales are composed of single strand of yarn. GAUGE corresponds to the yarn in a woven fabric, and is defined as the number of needles of yarns in half inches of cloth. The higher the gauge, the more compact and finer is the cloth.



Classification of Knitting Section:

Knitting section is divided into two section-

1.Circular knitting section.

2.Fabric inspection section .

Circular knitting section.

There are two types of machines available in FARIHA.These are single jersey and double jersey.

Process flow chart of knitting IN FARIHA

Sample fabric

 Design analysis

Machine selection

Setting the machine for the specific design

Yarn in cone form

Feeding the yarn cone in the creel

Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape

positive feeding arrangement and tension devices


Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting




In every mill, there maintains a sequences in production processing. It is also followed in this mill where we were in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below:

1)    Firstly, knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as accordance as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production officer about it.

2)    Production officer informs technical in charge and knows about machine in which the production will be running.

3)    Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about machine for production considering machine condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity, etc.

4)    Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM for required final GSM.

5)    Supervisor checks daily production regularity and make operator conscious about finishing tin due time.

6)    Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he calls for the mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in charge. Then he comes in spot.

7)    After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they sent in dyeing section.


  1. Machine Diameter;
  2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute);
  3. No. of feeds or feeders in use;
  4. Machine Gauge;
  5. Count of yarn;
  6. Required time (M/C running time);
  7. Machine running efficiency.

Relationship between knitting parameterS:

1. Stitch length increase with the increase of GSM.

2. If stitch length increase then fabric width increase and WPI decrease.

3. If machine gauge increase then fabric width decrease.

4. If yarn count increase (courser) then fabric width increase.

5. If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM and WPI increase.

6. For finer gauge, finer count yarn should use.

7. Grey GSM should be less than finish GSM.





Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. These includes-

Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.

Finished G.S.M.

Yarn count

Types of yarn (combed or carded)

Diameter of the fabric.

Stitch length

Color depth.


Point considered while setting grey GSM:

Enzyme level


Suided or non- suided

Changing of GSM:

Major control by VDQ pulley.

Minor control by stitch length adjustment.

Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley     moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase.


Cam setting

Set of needle

Size of loop shape


If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. In dark shade dye take up% is high so GSM is adjusted then. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively smaller.


By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased –

1. By increasing m/c speed:

Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased. But it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed.

2. By increasing the number of feeder:

If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.

3. By using machine of higher gauge:

The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased.

4. By imposing automation in the m/c:

a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system.

b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation.

c) Photo electric fabric fault detector.

5. By imposing other developments:

a)    Using creel-feeding system.

b)    Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage.

c)    Using yarn feed control device.


Faults and their causes in knitting:   

Hole mark:


Buckling of the needle latch

Buckling the sinker

Higher G.S.M

Star mark:


Buckling of the needle latch.

Yarn tension variation during production.

Low G.S.M.

Oil spot/Grease spot:


Excess oil/Grease use.

Jamming of needle & sinker.



Yarn comes from different lot.

Faulty cam use in the m/c.

Needle mark:


Faulty needle use in the m/c.

Sinker mark:


Faulty sinker use in the m/c

Fabric Shrinkage:


Yarn twist.                                                  Twist     Shrinkage

Knitting tension.

Fabric G.S.M.                                           G.S.M.      Shrinkage


Single Jersey M/C:

a)    S/J  Plain

b)    Single lacoste

c)    Double lacoste

d)    Single pique

e)    Double pique

f)     Mini jacquard

g)    Terry

Interlock M/C:

a)    Interlock pique

b)    Eyelet fabric

c)    Mash fabric

d)    Honeycomb fabric

e)    Face/Back rib

Rib M/C:

a)   1X1 Rib fabric

b)   2X2 Rib  fabric

c)   Separation fabric

d)   Honeycomb


S/J without lycra  –

   Fabric G.S.MYarn Count
      110 – 120   40 S – 36 S
      120 – 130   36 S – 32 S
      130 – 140   32 S – 28 S
      140 – 150    28 S
      150 – 160    26 S
      170 – 210    24 S

Rib without lycra  –

   Fabric G.S.MYarn Count
     180 – 190  36 S – 32 S
     190 – 200  30 S
     200 – 215  28 S
     215 – 230  26 S
     230 – 250  24 S
     250 – 300  24 S


Interlock without lycra  –


   Fabric G.S.MYarn Count
     200 – 220  34 S
     220 – 230  32 S
     230 – 250  30 S
     250 – 300  26 S

Lacoste  without lycra  –

   Fabric G.S.MYarn Count
      180 – 190  30 S
      190 – 210  28 S
      210 – 230  26 S
      230 – 250  26 S

 40D Lycra Rib  –

  40D Lycra S/J –

   Fabric G.S.MYarn Count
      180 – 190  34 S
      190 – 210  32 S
      210 – 220  30 S
      220 – 240  28 S
      240 – 250  26 S


Creel: Creel is used to place the cone.

Feeder: Feeder is used to feed the yarn.

Tensioning device: Tensioning device is used to give proper tension to the yarn.

VDQ pulley: VDQ pulley is used to control the GSM by controlling the stitch length.

Guide: Guide is used to guide the yarn.

Sensor: Sensor is used to seen & the machine stops when any problem occurs.

Spreader: Spreader is used to spread the knitted fabric before take up roller.

Take up roller: Take up roller is used to take up the fabric

Fixation feeder: These types of feeder are used in Electrical Auto Striper Knitting Machine to feed the yarn at specific finger.


After collecting fabric rolls from different machines, these fabrics need to inspect thoroughly by the quality inspectors to assure required quality before dyeing. Quality assurance of knitted grey fabric is described here.


1)    Brought good quality yarn.

2)   Machines are oiled and greased accordingly.

3)   G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately.

4)   Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month.

5)   Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system.


The list of equipment to assure quality:-

  1. Inspection m/c.
  2. Electronic balance
  3. GSM cutter.
  4. Measuring tape.
  5. Scissors.
  6. Indication sticker.


Body & rib inspection:

All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. For any major or minor faults like thick-thin, barre mark, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle line, slubs etc are recorded in inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system.



FARIHA maintains the ISO: 9001:2000 standards in case of quality. Therefore, the four point system is followed to inspect the body & rib fabric. The defects found and points given against are recorded in the inspection sheet. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at FARIHA.

Four (4) – Point system for knitting fault inspection:

Knitting fault




Any hole


Needle/Sinker line


Needle breakage(upto 10)


Press off


Thick, Thin, Dirt, Oil spot, Contamination up to 3″ in length


Thick, Thin, Dirt, Oil spot, Contamination up to 6″ in length


Thick, Thin, Dirt, Oil spot, Contamination up to 9″ in length


Thick, Thin, Dirt, Oil spot, Contamination above  9″ in length


Quality(points per 100 square meter)=(Total point X GSM)/(Roll weightX10)

Quality Classification:

<2020 – 30>30



Lab Dip Development means the sample which is dyed according to buyer’s requirements (similar shade and so on).Depending on lab dip development sample dyeing and bulk production dyeing planning done.

Objective of Lab Dip

The main objectives in lab  dip are as follows.

To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing.

To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or Spectroflash.

To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.

Finally approved Lab Dip(Grade: A B C)

Development of lab DIP IN FARIHA.

Receiving standard swatch

Spectrophotometer reading

Recipe start up software

Start up recipe given

Manual dispersion (pipatting)

Pot dyeing


Normal wash

Acid wash

Hot wash

Cold Rinsing


Colour measurement of standard SAMPLE:

Color measurement is mainly done for the purpose of shade matching as perfectly as possible. Shade matching of the produced sample with the standard one is compulsory. Color measurement can be done by two methods-  

Color measurement

 Manual method

Instrumental method

 In manual method, the std. sample’s color is measured by comparing it with previously produced samples of different tri-chromatic color combination. The sample with which the color of the std. matched, that sample’s color recipe is being taken for shade matching .This method’s accuracy completely depends on the vision of the person related to it but person must be needed gather experience about color matching.

The instrumental method is more reliable if it is operated accurately to do the work of color measurement. “Spectrophotometer” interfaced with a PC is used for shade matching .This instrument works with the principle of reflectance measurement of light at different wave length. When the standard sample is being subjected under spectrophotometer, then the instrument suggest a recipe with required tri-chromatic colors within the tolerance limit of color difference. In this way, color measurement of the standard sample is carried out for the purpose of shade matching.


Preparation of Concentration of stock dye soln-

Normally 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% stock solution of dyes are prepared in beakers for daily used.

Preparation of Concentration of stock chemical soln

Similarly 25% salt and 25% soda stock solutions are prepared in beakers    for daily use.      


The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow –

Fabric weight x Shade %

Amount of dye soln (ml) =   —————————————-

Concentration of stock dye soln%

Example –


In recipe, Fabric wt. = 5gm

Shade %   = 2%

[If used 0. 5 % stock soln of dyes] then ,

5 X 2

Amount of dye soln (ml) =      ———      =    20ml   .

0. 5

The amount of chemical soln (ml) is measured as follow-

Fabric wt. * M : L * g/l

Amount of chemical soln (ml) =      ————————————–

1000 * Conc. of stock  soln %

Example –

In recipe, Fabric wt.  = 5 gm

Salt           = 20 g/l

M: L         = 10

[ if taken  25 %  stock soln of salt  ] then ,

5 x 10 x 20

Amount of chemical soln (ml) = ———————————– =   4 ml

1000 x 0.25


Machineries for lab dip IN FARIHA


1. Machine name:Crockmeter

Company        : Daelim Starlet Co. Ltd

Origin              : Korea

Model             : DL2007


2.Light box :VERIVIDE

This includes 4types of light-





Machine no    :01

Name of m/c   : Daelim Starlet

Temperature   :140 C

Model              :DL6000

Origin              :Korea

Machine no    :02

Name of m/c   Launder-o-Meter

Temperature   :130 C

Origin              :Korea

Machine no    :03,04,05

Name of m/c   :Insesit Washing Machine, Miele Washing Machine, MAYTAG Washing Machine.

Origin              : Not found

Stock solution PREPARATION:

Shade %Stock solution %

for production:

 Shade %saltsodawater






124.5 and over8020






A. For 100% cotton fabric (all in one method):


v  Fabric weight measured by electric balance.

v  Calculate the recipe.

v  Keep the fabric in the pot.

v  Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by pipe ting .

v  Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depend on types of dyes being used.

Program – 1: For light shade

Fixed temp. = 600c

Time         = 60 min.

Program – 2:  For dark shade

Fixed temp. = 800c

Time         = 60 min.

v  After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times.

v  Acid wash for neutralization.

v  Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950c.

v  Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard


Organogram of dyeing and finishig IN FARIHA




The raw materials used for production are-


  1. Grey Fabric
  2. Dyes and Chemicals


Grey fabrics:


Following types of grey fabrics are dyed –


v  Single jersey

v  Interlock

v  Lacoste

v  Rib

v  Lycra rib

v  1 x 1 rib & othrers


The required grey fabric is produce in this industry sometimes they dye in sub contact.





Dye & chemical Used in FARIHA :


AidsChemicals NamePrice (kg/Tk)
General ChemicalsSoda Ash20
Gluber Salt (anhydrous)17
Acetic Acid97
Formic Acid 
Oxalic Acid70
Invatex AC110
Cationic SoftenerAlcamine CWS230
Sun Soflon-21210
Non-lonic (White)Sun Soflon-A300 
Supamine FPs 
AnticreaseTexport GL-500140
Texport D-900154
Ciba Fluid C165
Wetting AgentInvading DA175
Sun Morl CK-1180
FlxingNeofix R-250(FDR)360
Cibatex ECO400
BufferAmonium Sulphide30
Cibatex AB-45160
Soaping AgentAlcosper AD125
Lipotol PS-60117
Sadopur RSK145
SequesteringInvatex CS110
Neocrystal BGS163
Sirrix 2UD150
LevellingCibacel BDC330
Neocrystal 200B175
Drimagin E2R267
Lyoprint RG245
Setamal BL300
 Invatex PC160
Croaks N145
EnzymeBio-Polish EC480
Bio-Polish AL520
Tinozyme 44L550
StabilizerStabilizer Sifa210
BrightenerSiba White370
Uvitex BHV289
Uvitex BBT309
Naka white340
Leucopher BMB550
















Brand name


Dyes name






Ciba Geigy



















 Cibacron Yellow FN2R
 Cibacron Yellow (H2G)
 Cibacron Red FN-3G
 Cibacron Red FNR
 Cibacron T/HGN
 Cibacron bLUE FNR
 Cibacron Yellow F4G
 Cibacron Blue HGN
 Cibacron Navy WBT
 Cibacron Navy H2G
 Ciba Scarlet F-3G
 Ciba Br. Blue FNG
 Ciba Black WHF
 Cibacron Orange FNR
 Cibacron Red HB/WB
 Cibacron Yellow HB/WR
 Cibacron Blue FGFN
 Ciba Orange FR
 Cibacron Red HD
 Cibacron Navy FNB
 Cibacron Orange FBR
 Ciba Dark Blue WR
 Cibacron Orange W3R
 Cibacron Blue HRN-01
 Cibacron Br. Yellow H-4GN
























 Sumifix Sup. Scarlet 2GF
 Sumifix Sup. T/Blue G
 Sumifix Sup. Blue EXF
 Sumifix Sup. Red EXF
 Sumifix Sup. Yellow EXF
 Sumifix Br. Blue R
 Sumifix Br. Yellow 4GL
 Sumifix HF Yellow 3R
 Sumifix HF Red G
 Sumifix HF Red 2B
 Sumifix HF Blue 2R
 Sumifix Sup. Marine EXP
 Sumifix Sup. Bri. Red 3BF
 Sumifix Red 4BNF
 Sumifix Bri. Yellow 3GF
 Sumifix Sup. Bri. Blue BRF
 Sumifix Sup. Red GF
 Sumifix Dark Brown BRS

















Livafix Yellow CA
 Livafix Red CA
 Livafix Blue CA
 Livafix fast RedCA
 Livafix Amber CA
 Livafix Rubine CA
 Livafix Br. Yellow CA
 Livafix Scarlet CA


















 Remazol Yellow RR
 Remazol G. Yellow RGB
 Remazol Red  RGB
 Remazol Blue RR
 Remazol Br. RSPL
 Remazol Ultra Carmine RGB
 Remazol Red RR
 Remazol T/Blue BB
 Remazol Br. Blue BB
 Remazol Navy RGB
 Remazol Deep Black GWF
 Remazol Br. Yellow 3GL
 Remazol Red F3B
 Remazol Green 6B





  Dyes name

Imperial Chemical company











 Taifix Red SF 3BT
 Taifix Yellow SF 3RT
 Taifix Black SF BSDT
 Taifix Black SF BT
 Taifix Br. Blue RTSPC
 Everzol Black B
 Everzol Black GR
 Everzol Red 3BS
 Everzol Yellow 3RS





















 Terasil G/Yellow W3R
 Terasil Red W4BS
 Terasil Red WW-BFS
 Terasil Blue WRBS
 Terasil Blue BGE-01
 Terasil Yellow 4G
 Terasil Yellow W4G
 Terasil Red R
 Terasil Blue WBLS
 Terasil Navy WRS
 Terasil Black WNS
 Terasil Red WRS
 Terasil Red WFS
 Terasil Orange 5RL
 Terasil Yellow W5SL
 Terasil Red FBN
 Protofix Red 3BS
 Protofix Yellow 3RS


 Japan Nakalon Blue 2 RLS
 Nakalon Yellow 4GN
 Nakalon Bri. Blue BGF





Responsibility of production officer:


v  Overall supervision of dyeing & finishing.

v  Dyes & chemicals requisition issue & check.

v  Program making, sample checking color measurement.

v  Control the supervisor’s operators & helpers of machines.

v  To give dye-line or the program slip according to daily production plan, batch preparation & PH check.

v  To rectify the finished fabric which rejected from quality control department

v  To check daily production report.

v  To study dye & chemicals nature delivery by the manufacture & applied them correctly to the production to get best product.



Job Description:


Title: Production officer.

Dept: Dyeing

Report to: Senior production officer.

Job summary: To plan execute & follow up the production activities & control the quality production with related activities.




Machine TypeQuantity
Winch dyeing m/c6


Machine no:1

Machine nameWinch dyeing m/c
Capacity900 kg
Nozzle pressureWater inlet=4bar,Steam inlet=6bar
Temperature rangeUp to 140OC


Machine no:2

Machine nameWinch dyeing m/c
Capacity750 kg
Nozzle pressureWater inlet=4bar,Steam inlet=6bar
Temperature rangeUp to 140OC



Machine no:3

Machine nameWinch dyeing m/c
Capacity600 kg
Nozzle pressureWater inlet=4bar,Steam inlet=6bar
Temperature rangeUp to 140OC


Machine no:4

Machine nameWinch dyeing m/c
Capacity750 kg
Nozzle pressureWater inlet=4bar,Steam inlet=6bar
Temperature rangeUp to 140OC




Machine no:5

Machine name Winch dyeing m/c
Capacity150 kg
PressureWater inlet=4bar,Steam inlet=6bar
Temperature rangeUp to 140OC



Machine no:6

Machine nameWinch dyeing m/c
Capacity25 kg
Temperature rangeUp to 140OC







Ingredient Quantity
Wetting agent (Sun Mori CK-1)0.5 g/l
Anti creasing agent (Texport D – 600)1.3 g/l
Sequestering agent (Sirrix-SQ)0.5 g/l
Caustic3 g/l
Stabilizer (Neorate PH-100 )1 g/l
Hydrogen per oxide (H2O2)3.5 g/l
Peroxide killer(Crocks-N)1 g/l
Acetic acid1 g/l
Enzyme treatment
Acetic acid0.3 g/l
Bio –polish EC1 g/l
Acetic acid for leveling agent0.3 g/l
Levelling agent(Neocrystal EDX/200B)1 g/l
Anti creasing agent (Texport D – 600)1.5 g/l
Salt40% owf
Soda15% owf
After Treament
Fixing agent (Neofix ECO/Cibafix FRD)0.5 g/l
Soaping agent(Lipotol PS-60)0.8 g/l
Acetic acid1 g/l
Acetic acid0.2 g/l
Softener( Perrostol CWS)1 g/l


Recipe for machine  wash
Detergent (Solax)0.5 gm/L
Caustic1 gm/L
Hydrous2 gm/L


Different parameters in dyeing :


A. pH
During peroxide bleaching & scouring9-11
During enzyme treatment4.5-5
Before addition of leveling agent6-6.5
Before addition of color softener(Perrustol IMA-500)6-6.5
Before addition of  white softener(Perrustol VNO-500)4.5-5
Softener at stenter & de-watering5.5-6
Silicon softener5.5-6
Reactive dyeing10.5-12
Disperse dyeing4.5-5.5



B. Temperature 
For cotton scouring95-110˚C
For cotton cold wash40-50˚C
For cotton hot wash70-80˚C
For cotton acid wash60-70˚C
For cotton dyeing80˚C ( For hot brand)/60˚C(For cold brand)



C. Time


For scouring and bleaching60-90 mins
For reactive dyeing60-90 mins
For disperse dyeing60-90 mins

COTTON DYEING steps with Curve:

Required amount of water was taken into the machine

The fabric was loaded and run for 5-10 minutes in normal temperature

CK-2,D-600/C,SQ-12UD and PH-100(Scouring Chemicals) were added at a time for 5 minutes

Caustic was added at normal temperature for 5 minutes

Temperature increased at 600 C

Hydrogen per Oxide(H2O2)was added for 5 minutes

Temperature increased at 950C and continue for 1 hrs

Sample check

Cold wash at 400C for 5-10 minutes

Hot wash at 950C for 5-10 minutes

Required amount of water was loaded

Croak-N was added

Acetic acid was added

Temperature increased at 800C for 15-20 minutes

 Cold wash at 400C and drain

Water filled and Acetic acid was added

PH check at 4.5

Temperature increased at 550C

Enzyme (Bio-EC) was added and   run for 1hrs at 550C

Shade check

Cold wash at 400C and drain

Water filled/Required amount of water was taken

Temperature increased at 95-990C for 5-10 minutes

Cold wash at 400C and drain

Acetic acid was added

PH check at 4.5

EDX/200B and C/D-600 were added at a time

Salt dosing

Color dosing  for 30 min

Run for 10 min

Soda dosing for 40 min

Run for 7 min

Temperature increase at 600C for 5 min

Run for 10 min

Shade check (OK)


Water was filled at required amount

Temperature increase at 800 C for 10 min

Hot wash at 900 C for 20 min and shade check in this time (OK)


Water was filled at required amount

Acetic acid was added for neutralization for 10 min

Shade check (ok)

ECO/FRD was added for 10 min


Water was filled at required amount

PH check at 6.5

(C.W.S) softener was added

Final shade check and run for 20 min

Unload the dyed fabric





Common faults and their remedies in knit dyeing



1. Crack, rope & crease marks:



v  Poor opening of the fabric rope

v  Shock cooling of synthetic material

v  Incorrect process procedure

v  Higher fabric speed


v  Pre-Heat setting

v  Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature

v  Reducing the m/c load

v  Higher liquor ratio

v  Running at a slightly higher nozzle pressure


2. Fabric distortion and increase in width:



v  Too high material speed

v  Low liquor ratio


v   By decreasing both nozzle pressure & winch speed



3. Pilling:



v  Too high mechanical stress on the surface of the fabric

v  Excess speed during processing

v  Excess foam formation in the dye bath


v  By using  of a suitable chemical lubricant

v  By using antifoaming agent

v  By turn reversing the Fabric before dyeing

4. Running problem:

A. Ballooning:


v Seam joining with too densely sewn


v By cutting a vertical slit of 10-15 cm in length for escaping the air.

B. Intensive foaming:


v Pumping a mixture of air and water


v  By using antifoaming agent

5. Uneven dyeing:


v  Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring, bleaching & mercerizing)

v  Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres

v  Quick addition of dyes and chemicals

v  Lack of control of dyeing m/c


v  By ensuring even pretreatment

v  By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres

v  By slow addition of dyes and chemicals

v  Proper controlling of dyeing m/c

6. Shade variation (Batch to batch):

Batch to batch shade variation is common in exhaust dyeing which is not completely avoidable. Even though, to ensure a consistent batch to batch production of shade the following matters should be controlled carefully-

v  Use standard dyes and chemicals

v  Maintain the same liquor ratio

v  Follow the standard pretreatment procedure

v  Maintain the same dyeing cycle

v  Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the shade

v  Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process.

v  The Ph, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily.



7. Dye spot:




v  Improper mixing of dyestuff in the solution, in right amount of water, at the temperature.



v  We should pass the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer when adding it to the chemical tank, so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed.


8. Roll to roll variation or Meter to Meter variation:


v  Poor migration property of dyes.

v  Improper dyes solubility.

v  Hardness of water.

v  Faulty m/c speed, etc



v  Use standard dyes and chemicals.

v  Proper m/c speed.

v  Use of soft water





9. Crease mark:


v  Poor opening of the fabric rope

v  Shock cooling of synthetic material

v  If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal

v  Due to high speed m/c running


v  Maintaining  proper reel sped & pump speed.

v  Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature

v  Reducing the m/c load

v  Higher liquor ratio



10. Softener Mark:


v  Improper mixing of the Softener.

v  Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener.

v  Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener



v  Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.

v  Proper Mixing of the softener before addition.

v  Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application of softener


































Sample Development process in apparel Industry


                                 Product Package/Measurement chart


                                               Design Sketch



                                                   Working Pattern


          Received                           Sample Garment



Send to buyer


                                                           If Ok

If not Ok

Approved sample




Product Package

Product Package is known as technical package. A product package is detailed description of garments. It is also called merchandising detailed sheet. By this product package at first the sample of the garment is prepared than after approved the sample the bulk order is produced. In a product package the following information for a garments can be achieve-



Style no of garments

Item description of the garments

Design/Specification of the garments

Measurement list of the garments

Color of the garments

Size of the garments

Packing instruction of the garments

Folding instruction of the garments

Types of sewing thread/types of stitch used in different garment

Types of accessories and trimmings used for that garment & also the placement of the garment

Instruction for care label

Types of fabric used and the weight of the fabric

Consumption & Construction of the fabric

Another product package


Types of sample:


Fit Sample- The sample which is made by following only the measurement chart. Then the sample we get that is called fit sample. For this type of sample buyer only check the measurement of the apparel nothing else.


Proto type sample- Actual fabric and the accessories used to make this sample then it is send to the buyer. It is only of one size like “M”.


Size set sample- When all size of sample (small, medium, large) are included in a set those sample is called is size set sample.


Production Sample- During production some of the sample garments collect from the production line then it send to the buyer these are called production sample.


Shipment Sample- After final inspection  when we shipment the goods to buyer destination two pieces sample should be send to buyer air as advanced this sample are called shipment sample.


Approved sample- The sample which is approved by buyer.


Sample garment- The garment which represent the huge quantity of garment that is called sample garment.



Some information of sample section:


No. of total worker                                        =            90

No of pattern table                                        =            6

No of sewing machine                                  =            72

Vacuum iron table                                         =            2

Inspection table                                             =            2

Fault removing table                                     =            2

Packing table                                                =            2



Name of size of garments


SS, SYX, SY, S, M, L, XL, XXL, 3XL, 4XL, 5XL, 6XL, 7XL, 8XL, 9XL, 10XL.



Marker making:


Marker is a thin paper where all parts of a (or more than one) style drawn by placing pattern by pencil and then it place upon the lay and cut along the drawing line is called marker. The process of marker making is called marker making. The method is available in FARIHA.


Manual method


FARIHA used only Manual method to make a marker.


Awareness during Marker Making:


  • Pattern alignment
  • Pattern direction
  • Parts missing
  • Mismatched checked/ stripes
  • Over lapping
  • Marker too wide than fabric
  • Poor Or double line marking
  • When pattern pieces are laid down on the layer of fabric, the grain line should be parallel to the line of the warp in a knit fabric where pattern pieces are laid across the layer’s the line is kept parallel to course





Problems of marker making:

There are many problems behind this. They are as follow:


  1. The nature of the fabric and desired shape and style of the garments.
  2. The requirements of quality of cutting.
  3. The requirements of production planning



Factors related to marker efficiency:


1. Marker planner:

Marker depends on experience, honesty, sincerity, trial and techno knowledge. The more the number of markers the more is the possibility to get higher efficiency.

2. Size of garments:

The more the number of the pattern sizes are included, the more possibility to get more efficiency.

3. Marker length:

Higher the marker length higher the efficiency. It can also help to increase the production of cutting room.

4. Fabric Characteristics:

Systematical fabrics are those which are similar to all directions. Marker efficiency is good in those types of fabric. However marker efficiency will be less for asymmetrical fabrics.

5. Marker width:

The more the fabric width this is easier to plan or make marker which will increase the efficiency.   

Cutting Section

 Fabric checking

 Fabric spreading according to the quantity

Marker making


Serial given by number sticker

Deliver into sewing section



Spreading means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layers of specific length. The cutting marker paper is laid in the top of the fabric layers. The maximum width of the cutting marker constrained by the usable width of the fabric. During spreading number of the plies should be not more than three hundreds. The number of lay depends on the thickness of the fabric and the height of the knife.

In SARDAR industry use straight method for spreading .It is the most common method for Bangladeshi garments.

Straight method:


Every ply is placed according to the marker length. It is most common of the garments are used this type of ply.

Information of cutting section



Total worker                =          200

No. of table                 =          10

No. of pattern Master  =          10

No. of Straight knife    =          30

10 hours production    =          40000 pieces

Cutting Machine (Straight knife):


Brand Name               :           Brute (Eastman)

Origin of Country        :           USA

Company                    :           Buffalo

Volt                              :           220v

Quantity                      :           24

Features of Straight knife:


1. Possible to cut pattern pieces directly from the fabric lays.

2. Could be used to cut for higher depth of fabric.

3. High cutting speed.

4. Sharp and heavy corners can be cut.

5. Blade could be sharpened by attached grinding facilities.

6. Blade height 10 to 33cm.

7 .Blade stroke 2.5cm to 4.5cm.


Information of print Section:

No. of machine                       =          4

Print table length                     =          145 meter

No. of print table                     =          3

Per table capacity                   =          140 pieces

Uses dyes for print in FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD.

1. Pigment dye

2. Rubber dye

3. High density dye

4. Plastic solid dye

5. Glass bit dye

6. Pup dye

Dryer machine uses in printing in FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD.

1. Hand dryer machine

2. Heat transfer dryer machine

3. Quaring dryer machine

Quaring dryer machine:

Name                                      = Kidd+Zigring

Model                          = KZ082\73

Origin                          = Thailand

Uses temperature                   = 156˚

Maximum temperature           = 180˚

Sewing section

Flow chart process of sewing section

Receive bundle of various parts from cutting section

Place it in the end of the line to a helper

Open the bundle

Through it to sewing


Finished sewing


Send to finishing section



Joining the fabric by the use of needle and thread is called sewing. Sewing section is the biggest section in a garments industry. It is a universal and widely used method of joining fabric. The main purpose of sewing is to produce seam.


A line along which two or more fabrics are joined by sewing, fusion, and gluing, stapling or alternative method is termed as seam. Usually near edge of sewn fabric pieces.

Specification of motor used in sewing machine:

Volt                              =          220V

AMP                            =          3.7

RPM                            =          1430

Type                            =          SP

Bearing                        =          6202-6201 ZZ

Frequency                   =          50 HZ

No. of Sewing machine in 4 floors (Line wise)

Sewing Machine in floor “A”:

Line A1Running Machine17Idle Machine1Total


Line A2Running Machine20Idle Machine121
Line A3Running Machine18Idle Machine624
Line A4Running Machine17Idle Machine320
Line A5Running Machine16Idle Machine1430
Line A6Running Machine20Idle Machine828
Line A7Running Machine22Idle Machine1234
Line A8Running Machine31Idle Machine536

Sewing Machine in floor “B”

Line B1Running Machine32Idle Machine8Total


Line B2Running Machine37Idle Machine845
Line B3Running Machine24Idle Machine125
Line B4Running Machine18Idle Machine321
Line B5Running Machine24Idle Machine024
Line B6Running Machine21Idle Machine223
Line B7Running Machine23Idle Machine225

Sewing Machine in floor “C”

Line C1Running Machine48Idle Machine17Total


Line C2Running Machine44Idle Machine650
Line C3Running Machine38Idle Machine846
Line C4Running Machine48Idle Machine250
Line C5Running Machine38Idle Machine240
Line C6Running Machine40Idle Machine444
Line C7Running Machine36Idle Machine036
Line C8Running Machine36Idle Machine2258

Sewing Machine in floor “D”

Line D1Running Machine37Idle Machine2Total


Line D2Running Machine62Idle Machine165
Line D3Running Machine30Idle Machine030
Line D4Running Machine24Idle Machine1438
Line D5Running Machine33Idle Machine437
Line D6Running Machine25Idle Machine1944
Line D7Running Machine35Idle Machine035
Line D8Running Machine17Idle Machine1229

Machine Details in sewing unit of FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD. 

Machine NameBrand Name   Country of


No. Thread Used in m/c  SetsTotal Quantity
Plain MachineJUKIJapan2 Thread159 



BROTHERChina2 Thread125
Flat Lock cylinder bedPEGASUSJapan5 Thread128 


JUKIJapan5 Thread126
Flat Lock flat bedPEGASUSJapan5 Thread114
JUKIJapan5 Thread75
Over Lock MachinePEGASUSJapan4 Thread56 



PEGASUSJapan4 Thread42
JUKIJapan4 Thread17
BROTHERChina4 Thread12
PEGASUSJapan5 Thread18
Back Tape MachinePEGASUSJapan4 Thread6555
KANSAIJapan4 Thread75
Button attach MachineBROTHERChina1 Thread2525
Button Hole MachineBROTHERChina2 Thread2222
Kansai MachineKANSAIJapan8 Thread3232
Snap button attach machinePEGASUSJapan 3030
Rib cutter machineJUKIJapan4 Thread1515
Precoating MachineKANSAIJapan 2525
Bar Tack MachineBROTHERChina 3030



Needle is used to sew the fabric by thread.

Function of Needle


To make a hole in the fabric without damaging the threads of the fabric

To make a needle thread loop.

To pass the needle thread loop through the loop of the lopper thread.


Name of Needle used in FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD.

Machine Name                   Needle for m/c           Needle Size


Plain M/c                                             DB                       7, 9,11,14,18

Over lock M/c                                     DC                       7, 9, 11, 14

Flat Lock M/c                                      UY128                  7.9,11,14,16

Button Hole M/c                                  DP x 5                   9, 11, 14

Button attach M/c                               TQ                         9, 11, 14

Computer button attach                      DP x 17                 9, 11, 14

Kasai                                                   UOX1                     9, 11, 14

Feed of the arm                                   TV64\9                  9, 11, 14


Some information for needle:

Company Name         :           Organ

Origin              :           Japan

Price                            :           10-30TK (Per needle)



Broken needle policy:

1. If any needle breaks down in the time of work then broken part and needle change from needle man with a new needle.

2. If worker do not find out the broken part then worker inform to supervisor.

3. If worker do not find out broke part then the garment will be reject. Because that garment can be contain this broken part.


Plan of needle policy:

1. Worker should be carefully in time of sewing.

2. Needle selection should be correct.

3. Correct fabric tension and thread tension.

4. Proper needle setting in sewing machine.




Layout of basic Polo Shirt:


Join Parts Name                 Machine layout

Computer control cycle machine


Logo attach to the front part




Shoulder joining



Shoulder top seam





                                      Sleeve joining




                                     Placket joining




Placket top seam




                                    Born top seam




Loose tuck




                        Collar and Cuff cut to edge





Collar tuck




                        Collar with tape joining to body





Tape top seam with main label




                                   Facing top seam



Placket 1\16 seam




                                  Placket top seam





                                    Placket box seam




Rib joining to cuff





                                      Side tuck seam





                                      Side band seam






                        Side seam joining to care label




Placket bottom cutting and sewing




                                    Placket Bottom tuck




Sleeve cuff tuck




                                        Bottom hem




Button hole




                                     Button attaching



Finished garment

Time Study for Polo shirt in FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD.

Join Parts NameNo. of machineProduction

Per hour(pieces)

Logo attach to the front part1240
Shoulder joined1240
Shoulder top seam1270
Sleeve joined2360
Placket joined1240
Placket top seam1300
Born top seam1300
Loose tuck1210
Collar and Cuff cut to end edge1840
Collar tuck2360
Collar with tape joined to body1300
Tape top seam with main label1180
Facing top seam1240
Placket 1\16 seam1270
Placket top seam1240
Placket box seam2300
Rib joined to cuff1360
Side tuck seam2300
Side band seam3360
Side seam joined to care label3360
Placket bottom cutting and sewing1420
Placket Bottom tuck1480
Sleeve cuff tuck2480
Bottom hem1240
Button hole1240
Button attached1300



Sewing layout of a Men’s T-shirt



Join Parts Name                  Machine layout



Shoulder joining



Rib making



Neck joining




Tape joining




Neck tope seam




Tape tope seam




Main & size label joining




Sleeve joining




Arm hole tope seam



Side seam




Sleeve Tuck




Sleeve hem




Bottom hem




Flag label joining


Finished garments

Sewing fault


Fault descriptionCategory
Open seamMajor
Raw material/ shades/ wrong sideMajor
Oil or Dirt stainsMinor
Holes in materialMajor
Measurement out of rangeMajor
Wrong size labelMajor
Missing trimMajor
Wrong trimMajor
Uneven stitch line or partsMajor
Loose / skip stitchesMajor
Uncut threadMinor
SPI not correctMajor
Uneven shoulder lengthMajor/Minor
Rib shadingMajor/Minor
Stripe MismatchMajor/Minor
Irregular bottom hemMajor/Minor
Wrong Placket shapeMajor/Minor
Poor jointsMajor/Minor
Raw edgesMajor/Minor
Seam PuckeringMajor/Minor
Wrong button/Hole placementMajor/Minor
Uneven sleeve lengthMajor
Back neck tape unevenMajor/Minor

Quality control system:


Inspector will check each & every process at the work station and reporting.

Defect and measurement both should be checked in the line.

If the inspector finds a defective unit, corrective action should be taken.

The concern production supervisors should rectify defective unit with the    same operator

Proper attachment of machine

Transportation section to section or station to station

Proper maintenance, cleanliness




Finishing Section


Flow chart process of finishing section




Measurement cheek


    Quality inspection


                         Size separate


       Hang tagging






            Packing / Hanker setting


Final inspection


Send to packing section



Information of finishing section


Total worker                                                                =220

No. of Iron table                                                                      =73

No. of inspection table                                                            =73

No. of final inspection table                                        =12

No. of folding and packing table                                 =18

No. of Hang tag , Color and Shade checking table =12


Thread sucking machine

No. of machine                       =          4

RPM                                        =          2600

Model no                                 =          TSO 5-12

Origin                                      =         Bangladesh


Chemical uses to remove spot from garment in finishing section:


Fabric spot                                    Chemical used


1)    Dyeing spot —             CF

2)    Cutting spot                             Thinner

3)    Print spot/ Dirty spot   D.D. Max

4)    Oil spot–                                 Thinner/powder

5)    Sewing spot–              Lifter

6)    Yellow spot–               G. Flux

7)    Iron spot–                    G. Flux=C

8) Thinner:

To remove spot like soil spot, color spot, dust and ant spot.

9) Lifter:

To remove spot like oil spot, soil spot.

10) Water:

To remove some color like, ink color.



Packing section


Flow chart process of Packing section


Receive from finishing section


Folding & insert a board, tissue

Poly packing




Applied costape on the carton pack



Packing completed



Barcode means buyer provides some code for their specific style by using code. This code attached with the Hang tag. This bar code


Hang tag:

Hang tag mainly attached with the finished garments. It’s gives support to the barcode.








Types of carton


  1. DEPEND ON  STITCHING  :   1. Stitching Carton

2. Now stitching Or Metal Free Carton


2. DEPEND ON   PLY               :  1. 3 Ply Carton

2.  5 Ply Carton

3.  7 Ply Carton

3. DEPEND ON SIZE                 :  1. Master Carton

2.  Inner Carton

Carton Measurement

Carton management

Formula (1)   = (L+W) (W+H)X2 in cm    (Without Wastage)


Formula (2)   = (L+W+6) X (W+H+4) X 2/10000 (Include Wastage)

Price   = (L+W) (W+H) X 2 x Rate per Square Meter


= Rate/Pc


Information that mentioned on the carton

Buyer name              :           Jack & Jones

FREDSKOBBET      :           7330 brand

Order No.                   :           SARDAR  RCH 574437

Design No.                :           12033552

Style                           :           Durable tee

Deb s/s PR EA09

Size/colorSMLXLXXLTotal Pieces
State yellow2686224






Destination               : Great Britain

Carton meast            : 57*37*30





Another Different type of machine of FARIHA KNIT TEX LTD.


No. of boiler    :           2

Company        :           Cleaver brooks

Model  :           CBW 200 350 150

Volts                :           415v

Input                :           14645000 BTU (British Thermal Unit)

12000 BTU      =          1 tone

Pressure          : (150 st) psi

Capacity          :           5.5 tones

Made in Turkey




No of Generator          :           4

Company                    :           Caterpillar (USA)

Rated Power               :           1030 KW

Rated Frequency        :           50 Hz

RPM                            :           1515

Volt                              :           400v (3 phase)

Volt                              :           220v (single phase)


Quantity -80


Vacuum Table

Quantity – 80


Tread Sucker

Quantity- 04


Fabric dyeing machine:

Machine name            = Squeezer

Function                      = Water remove and de-twisting

Brand name                = Santex

Origin              = Switzerland


Batch turning machine\Hsing Cheng machine:

Model              = HC -20HP-A15619-2

Function                      = To make the fabric soft.

Origin              = Taiwan


Yarn Store


Imported Yarn:

Yarn name:                                                     Count                          Country

Nhar, ST, GDM, Moloya, RSWN       24, 30, 34,                   Sudan

Simpatara                                                       40(Single PC) Thailand


CBC, PC, Cotton                                            30, 32, 40(Combed) Bangladesh


Gulsan, Gulisstan                                            28, 30, 34(Combed) Pakistan


Lycra                                                               20, 40                          Korea



Information that mentioned on the Sack of imported yarn:

1. Brand name

2. Gross weight

3. Net weight

4. Count of yarn

5. Lot number


Knitting Store\Grey store:


No. of worker                          =17

Capacity of knitting store                    =500 tone




Accessories store:


No. of worker  :           9


Name of some accessories

  1. Sewing thread
  2. Button
  3. Eyelet button
  4. Zipper
  5. Interlining



5. Lining

4. Label

6. Lace

a. Main label

b. Care label

c. Size label

d. Price label

d. Flag label

5. Motif

6. Neck board

7. Back board

8. Plastic collar insert

9. Hang tag

10. Price ticket

11. Tissue paper

12. Poly bag

13. Dosting

14. EMB

15. Elastic

16. Shoulder tape

16. Tag pin

17. Blister bag



Fabric dyeing chemical store:


Uses chemical:

1. OSR 100



4. SOF

5. HDL 160

6. Caustic soda

7. Per oxide

8. OSR

9. Acetic acid

10. SAF
11. Ciba –c

12. RLC

13. Enzyme

14. Salt

15. Soda ash

16. E2R

17. RSK

18. CPX

19. SUN

20. 4BK

21. CWS

Warning in chemical store :


High danger dyes and chemicals for human and others:


  1. Caustic soda
  2. Per oxide -50%
  3. Hydrose


Medium danger dyes and chemicals for human and others:


  1. Acetic acid
  2. Alkaline CW5
  3. Cibacel DBC
  4. Ciba fluid C
  5. Sandoclen PCLF
  6. Sirriz 2UD
  7. Antimossal HTS
  8. Ceramine KWL
  9. Denemax-9992
  10. Oplavon ASVU
  11. Ladiaust 1097U
  12. Stabilizer SOF
  13. Hydrocol SUN
  14. Baranal –W
  15. Sandoper MET
  16. Invetex PC
  17. Mollan -130



Low danger dyes and chemicals for human and others:

  1. Ciba yellow FN2R
  2. Ciba Red FNR
  3. Ciba blue FNR
  4. Ciba blue FNG
  5. Ciba orange HR
  6. Ciba deep red RGB
  7. Rema yellow RR
  8. Rema red RR
  9. Rema blue RR
  10.  Ryno red MEBL
  11.  Ryno G yellow ME2RL
  12.  Ryno orange ME2RL
  13.  Ryno black HFGR
  14.  Ryno yellow WR
  15.  Ryno navy WB
  16.  Polo yellow 3RS
  17.  Polo red 3BS
  18.  Polo black B
  19.  Polo blue R(SPL)
  20.  Polo black GR
  21.  Polo T blue G
  22.  Polo yellow 4GL
  23.  Uvitex BHT
  24.  Uvitex BBT
  25.   Utrapor BN
  26.  Mega white CO
  27.  Glober salt
  28.  Soda ash



Process flow chart of Merchandising




Negotiation with buyer & collect order




Sample making


Get approval & placement of order


                                      Collect accessories for production


Line balancing


Production monitoring




Final Inspection


Document preparation for banking




Definition of merchandiser

Merchandising refers to the techniques used to sell and buy products. A merchandiser is someone who purchases a product from a manufacturer, and then sells it to buyers. There are numerous techniques that a merchandiser may use to convince buyers to buy the products he or she is selling.


The term merchandising is defined as follows:

  • The term merchandising related with trade
  • Trade means buying & selling
  • The person who is involved with trade, he/she is a merchandiser
  • And the activities of a merchandiser is known as a merchandising

Responsibility of senior merchandiser

  • Sample development
  • Price negotiation
  • Order confirmation
  • L/C opening
  • Opening summery
  • Sourcing
  • Material collection
  • Production planning
  • Production monitoring
  • Quality assurance
  • Arrange final inspection
  • Arrange shipment


Qualities of Merchandiser

  • Language skill
  • Computer skill
  • Marketing skill
  • Right consumption knowledge of various goods
  • Costing knowledge of raw materials
  • Order getting ability (That is if the merchandiser is known by actual rate of raw materials, so that he can negotiate perfectly with buyer. In this way, the possibility of getting order is hundred percent.)
  • Sincere& responsible
  • Hard worker

Order Collection

Order Collection is the main theme of a garments factory. SARDAR  APPARELS LTD.Handle this sector.  They collect order from different types of buying house. Sometimes the Managing Director visited different country as like France, Germany, and England to collect order for their company.


 Negotiation with buyer


A successful negotiation outcome does not generally occur through luck, but by following a clear process. The process reflects the different levels of knowledge of the subject of negotiation, various parties and the way they communicate at various stages in the negotiation. The following is an outline of steps essential to effective negotiation:



Effective preparation is also vital to successful communication. It is essential that the buyer also has identified the maximum and minimum positions that she will accept for a range of factors including:

  • product price
  • order size
  • Lead- time.




The buyer and supplier can make specific proposals to set the boundaries of the negotiation.

Counter and revised offers

This is the real bargaining where elements of the order, such as number of units, product details, lead-time and so on are being decided in the context of an overall cost price the buyer should make firm proposals.


L/C (Letter of Credit)

Various types of L.C. are present in business system. Some recognized processes are


1) Master L/C

2) Back to Back L/C

3) Sight L/C

4.) Revocable L/C

5.) Irrevocable L/C


(Note: in Bangladesh sight L/ c OR irrevocable L/ c is mainly used)


  • Master L/C: In this trade initially cash money is not used. L. c is the main process for buying & selling. When a business deal is made for buying & selling between buyer & merchandiser then the buyer gives permission to his bank to open an L.C. of approx amount & send it to merchandiser’s bank. Then this bank informed to merchandiser that an L.C. is accepted. This l .c is called MASTER L.C.
  •  Back to Back L/C: MERCHANDISER takes decision about the manufacturer for collecting raw materials .when merchandiser choose supplier then he tell the supplier to send a pro-forma invoice. After getting p .I. merchandiser tell to his bank to open an l .c send to the supplier’s bank. This l. c is opened from mother l .c which is given to merchandiser. This l .c is called back to back or b to b l.c.

Fabric consumption calculation Men’s T=shirt:

Item Men’s T=shirt:

  1. Measurement

Measurement chart

No.PartsActual measurement(cm)Allowance (cm )Total
2High point solder65570
3Sleeve length20525
4Arm hole46349
6Neck width437


  1. Seam       =         sewing allowances
  2. G.S.M
  3. Wastage %



For Body

CPD   =          Length × Width×12 pices×GSM/10000000

=          102×70×12×150/10000000

=          1.2852 kg


Here, GSM is 150

For Sleeve

CPS    =          Length × Width×12 pices×2 parts×GSM/10000000

=          25×49×12×2×150/10000000

=          0.441 kg


Here, GSM is 150 and in 1 piece of T-shirt has 2 sleeve

For Neck

Neck   =          Length × Width×12 pices×GSM/10000000

=          61×7×12×200/10000000

=          0.10248 kg


Here, GSM is 200


Total consumption               =          body + sleeve + neck + 7 % wastage

=          1.2852+0.441+0.10248+0.07

=          1.89868 kg/dozs

So total fabric required to make one dozen of T-shirt




 Coat a price for 1 dozen Men’s T-shirt



Unit price                   Costing

1. Fabric consumption 2 kg/dz                  $5.0/kg                       $10/kg

2. Accessories                                              $2/dz                          $2/dz

3. CM (cost of manufacturing)                  $2/dz                           $2/dz


Total   =$14

A) Direct cost (raw materials) =      $14.0

B) Indirect cost (15% to 20% of direct cost)

Indirect cost          = $14.0 x 20%

= $2.8

Total                      = $14.0 + $2.8

= $16.8

C) Profit @5%           = $16.8 x 5%

= @0.84

Therefore, total cost        = $16.8 + $0.84

= $17.64

= $18

So, the cost for 1 dozen mean’s T-shirt is $18

Yarn selection

Yarn selection is the most important for a merchandiser. It is the another responsibility of merchandiser. Different types of yarn are used in this industry to make fabric. It depends on buyer requirements.

Yarn count calculation for different types of fabric weight is as follows-

Fabric NameFabric GSMYarn countMachine DiaFinished dia
Single jersey110-12040 s/118.5”-34.5”17″– 33″
 125-13534 s/118.5”-34.5”18″ — 34″
 140-15030 s/118.5” -34.5”19″ — 35″
 160-17026 s/118.5” -34.5”20″ — 37″
 180-19024 s/118.5” -34.5”20″ — 37″
 200-22020 s/118.5” -34.5”21″ — 38″
Interlock220-23030 s/118.5”-34.5” 
 230-24528  s/118.5”-34.5” 
 250-26026 s/118.5” -34.5” 
 270-28024 s/118.5” -34.5” 
1/1 Rib180-19030 s/118.5” -34.5” 
 190-21028 s/118.5” -34.5” 
 210-23026 s/118.5” -34.5” 
 230-25024 s/118.5” -34.5” 
Pique170-18030 s/118.5″ — 34.5″25″ — 47″
 180-20028 s/118.5″ — 34.5″25″ — 47″
 210-22026 s/118.5″ — 34.5″26″ — 48″
 220-24524 s/118.5″ — 34.5″27”-49”
 260-27020 s/118.5”-34.5”28”-50”
Single lacost170-18030 s/118.5″ — 34.5″24″ — 45″
 190-20026 s/118.5″ — 34.5″25″ — 46″
 210-22024 s/118.5″ — 34.5″26″ — 47″
 220-24522 s/118.5”-34.5”27″ — 48″
Double lacost170-18034 s/118.5″ — 34.5″25″ — 48″
 190-2003018.5″ — 34.5″26”-49”
 210-2202818.5″ — 34.5″27”-47”
 220-2502418.5″ — 34.5″27”-45”
Lycra Jersey170-18034 s/1+40dI22″ / 25″21″ / 24″
Lycra Jersey190-20030 s/1+40dI22″ / 25″22″ / 25″
Lycra Jersey210-22026 s/1+40dI22″ / 25″23″ / 26″
Lycra Jersey230-24024 s/1+40dI22″ / 25″23″ / 26″


FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is a joint manufacturer & exporter. The FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is committed to the best human workplace practices. Their goal is to continuously improve their Human resource policies and procedures through education, training, communication and employees involvement. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality garment in time. Working on new concepts in styling & content of the garment is a continuous activity in FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. with an objective to up the quality and the value of merchandise. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery, FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. For achieving their goal, FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. has recruited a high profiled human resource team. The production is controlled by skill persons. All of the decision makers of production sector in FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. are skill workers.

The goal of FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is to get high production & to maintain the quality of the product at a minimum cost. The FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. is notable to produce all types of garment. I think their accuracy will increase to a maximum level. For sewing them is using modern m/c I think their product quality will be higher. For cutting they are using manual straight knife cutting m/c but if they use computerized cutting m/c their accuracy will increase & their efficiency will increase to a maximum level. I think if they improve the above things I think their product quality, their efficiency & their accuracy will be maximum. 


Now-a-days Textile field becomes very competitive & the buyer wants 100% quality product. For this reason it is very important to know about the latest technologies in textile sector. To produce a quality product, as a textile engineer I must have a vast knowledge about the production parameters & how to produce a high quality product. To accommodate the theoretical study with technical and practical things industrial training (Internee) is very important. In my training period I have observed that FARIHA KNIT TEX Ltd. produce high quality fabric and fulfill the special requirements from the different types of buyers by following different internationally recommended standard method. In my training period I have learned many things such as different types of machines and their functions, techniques of productions and the management system. In this training period I have also learned how the desired product is made ready for shipment from the starting to the end i.e. from merchandising to the packaging. In this training period I have got an idea about the responsibility of different departments of the factory. So I think this industrial training will help me in future.

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