Assignment on Effect of Nitrogen And Boron
Subject: Chemistry | Topics:

Introduction

Effect of N and B on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds per siliqua, weight of 1000-seeds, root dry weight, seed yield, stover yield, biological yield, harvest index, nutrient content and its uptake by seeds, protein content in seeds of mustard are shown in the Tables 3-15. Nutrient status in post harvest soil also presented in Table 16.The results presented in tables are discussed character wise under the following heads.

Effect of N and B on growth and yield of mustard

Plant height

Plant height of mustard was significantly increased by different levels of nitrogen (Table 3). The tallest plant (72.23 cm) was produced with 150 kg N/ha which was statistically similar with that of 100 kg N/ha followed by 50 kg N/ha and shortest plant (63.50 cm) was found in control treatment. The increment of plant height due to N application @ 150 kg/ha was 17.3% higher over control plots (N0). It was observed that plant height increased gradually with the increment of nitrogen doses. This might be due to higher availability of N and their uptake that progressively enhanced the vegetative growth of the plant. These are an agreement with those of Ali et al. (1990), Mondal and Gaffer (1983), Gaffer and Razzaque (1983), who have reported that different levels of nitrogen significantly increased plant height. Asaduzzaman and Shamsuddin (1986) have also obtained the similar results.

There was no significant difference among the different levels of boron in respect of plant height (Table 4). But plant height increased with increasing levels of boron up to higher level. The tallest plant (67.07 cm) was produced with 3 kg B/ha and shortest plant (63.50 cm) was found control treatment.

The treatment combinations of nitrogen and boron had significant effect on plant height (Table 5). The tallest plant (73.28 cm) was found in N150B3 treatment. The shortest plant (63.50 cm) was observed in the control treatment. These results revealed that higher dose of nitrogen and boron were influential nutrients for increasing the plant height.

Number of branches per plant

The effect of N on number of primary branches per plant was influenced significantly (Table 3). The highest number of branches per plant (4.33) was recorded from the treatment of 100 kg N /ha, which was significantly different from others treatment except the highest treatment of 150 kg N /ha. Plants in control plots (N0) produced the lowest number of primary branches /plant (2.33). It is evident from the results that the application of N up to 100 kg/ha increased number of branches per plant. Gaffer and Razzaque (1983) also observed the similar results in mustard.

Boron fertilizer had no significant effect on number of branches /plant (Table 4). But number of branches per plant increased with increasing level of B up to 2 kg B/ha. Further addition of B decreased the number of branches per plant. The highest number of branches per plant (3.33) was recorded from the treatment of 2 kg B /ha and the minimum number of branches per plant (2.33) was produced by 1 kg B/ha and in control treatment.

Interaction effect of N and B on the number of primary branches per plant was found positive (Table 5). Treatment N150B2 produced the maximum number of primary branches per plant (5.00), which was not statistically different from N100B3, N100B0, and N50B3. The lowest number of branches per plant was obtained from N0B1, which was similar with N0B0 (Table 5). It was further observed that the treatment N150B3 was identical with N50B3, N100B0, and N100B3.

Number of siliquae per plant

Number of siliquae per plant progressively increased with increasing level of N (Table 3). The highest number of siliquae per plant (139.30) was produced by 150 kg N/ha, which was 99% higher over control (70/plant). Sharawat et al.(2002) found maximum no. of siliquae per plant with 120 kg N/ha. Grewal and Kolar (1990) recorded maximum number of siliquae per plant when N was applied at 100 kg /ha which promoted higher seed yield of Brassica  juncea. These results indicated that higher dose of nitrogen favoured for higher number of siliquae formation.

Number of siliquae per plant was significantly influenced by the application of B up to certain level (Table 4). The highest number of siliquae per plant (73.33) was produced by 2 kg B/ha, which was not statistically different from other treatment except control treatment. The lowest number (68.33) was produced B control treatment. These results are in conformity with those of Islam and Sarker (1993), Dutta and Uddin (1983) and Dutta et al. (1984), who have observed increased number of siliquae per plant of mustard by increasing rate of boron.

Interaction effect of N and B on the number of siliquae per plant was significant (Table 5). The the highest number of siliquae per plant (169.7) was found in N150B3 treatment, which was not statistically different from N150B2 and N150B1 treatment. The treatment combination N0B0 gave the lowest number of siliquae per plant (68.3), which was statistically similar with the treatment combination N0B1, N0B2, and N0B3. These results revealed that higher higher dose of nitrogen is influential nutrient for producing number of siliquae per plant and boron had no such influence for this character.

Effect of N on growth and yield attributes of mustard

Nitrogen

levels

(kg/ha)

Plant

height

(cm)

Branches

Plant-1

(no.)

Siliquae

Plant-1

(no.)

Seeds

siliqua-1

(no.)

Root

Weight

(t/ha)

0 (N0)

63.50   c

2.33 c

70.00 c

11.00 c

0.17 d

50 (N50)

68.17   b

3.33 b

121.30 b

12.33 bc

0.28 c

100 (N100)

69.30  ab

4.33 a

130.00 ab

13.67 ab

0.30 b

150 (N150)

72.23   a

4.00 a

139.30 a

15.00 a

0.33 a

CV (%)

2.57

8.25

4.32

7.58

7.11

LSD(0.01)

3.508*

0.576

10.01

1.97*

0.020

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.      *= Significant at 5% level of significance

Effect of B on growth and yield attributes of mustard

Boron

levels (kg/ha)

Plant

height

(cm)

Branches

Plant-1

(no.)

Siliquae

Plant-1

(no.)

Seeds

siliqua-1

(no.)

Root

weight

(t/ha)

0 (B0)

63.50

2.33

68.3  b

11.0 b

0.17  c

1 (B1)

63.63

2.33

70.0  ab

12.0 ab

0.18  bc

2 (B2)

66.53

3.33

73.3 a

13.0  a

0.20  b

3 (B3)

67.07

2.66

72.3 ab

12.3 ab

0.23  a

CV (%)

4.37

17.21

3.07

5.34

8.84

LSD0.05

NS

NS

4.354

1.29

0.020

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 5% level of significance.    NS = Non significant

Number of seeds per siliqua

There were significant differences among the different levels of N (Table 3). Number of seeds per siliqua gradually increased with increasing levels of nitrogen. The highest number of seeds per siliqua (15) was obtained with the application of 150 kg N/ha, which was not significantly different from the second highest N dose (100 kg N/ha) but was significantly different from other two treatments. The lowest number of seeds per siliqua (11) was produced by control treatment. Mondal and Gaffer (1983) observed that different levels of N had significant effect on number of seeds per siliqua and highest number of seeds per siliqua was produced by 140 kg N/ha. Similar result was also obtained by Sharawat et al. (2002), Sen et al. (1977) and Allen and Morgan (1972).

The effect of boron on the number of seeds per siliqua was found positive but not significant except control treatment (Table 4). Number of seeds per siliqua gradually increased with increasing level of B up to 2 kg/ha. The highest number of seeds/siliqua (13.00) was obtained with the application of 2 kg B/ha, which was not statistically different from other two treatments except control treatment. The lowest number of seeds/siliqua (11.00) was found in control treatment. Islam and Sarker (1993) also observed that number of seeds per siliqua increased with increasing rate of boron.

The treatment combinations of nitrogen and boron on number of seeds per siliqua were significant (Table 5). The highest no. of seeds /siliqua (16.33) was obtained in N150B2, which was not statistically different from the treatment of N150B0, N150B1, N50B1, N150B3 and N100B2 and the lowest number of seeds per siliqua (11.00) was produced by the control treatment, which was not statistically different from the treatment of N0B1, N0B2, N0B3, N50B0, N50B2 and N100B1.

Root dry weight

Root dry weight of mustard was significantly affected by different levels of N (Table 3). The highest root weight (0.33 t/ha) was produced by 150 kg N/ha, which was significantly different from others. Root dry weight progressively increased with increasing level of N up to higher level. This might be due to better growth character of the plant for higher nitrogen. The minimum root dry weight (0.17 t/ha) was found in control treatment.

 The effect of boron on root dry weight was found positive (Table 4). Root dry weight gradually increased with increasing level of B up to higher level. The highest root dry weight (0.23 t/ha) was obtained with the application of 3 kg B /ha, which was significantly different from other treatments. The lowest root dry weight (0.17 t/ha) was found in control treatment. This results also indicate that root dry weight 94% increased due application of B @3 kg/ha over control.

The treatment combination of nitrogen and boron had significant effect on plant root dry weight of mustard (Table 5). The highest root dry weight (0.37 t/ha) was produced by N150B3, which was not statistically different with N150B2, N150B1, N150B0, N100B3 and N100B1. Control treatment N0B0 gave the lowest root weight (0.17 t/ha), which was statistically similar with N0B1 and N0B2. It was observed that the treatment combination of N150B0 was identical with N100B1. It was further observed that interaction of N100B2 wasidentical with N50B3.

Interaction effect of N and B on growth and yield attributes of mustard

Treatment

Plant

Height

(cm)

Branches

Plant-1

(No.)

Siliquae

Plant-1

(No.)

Seeds

siliqua-1

(No.)

Root

weight

(t/ha)

N0B0

63. 50  e

2.33  e

68.3   g

11.0  e

0.17  h

N0B1

63.63 e

2.33  e

70.0   g

12.0 de

0.18   gh

N0B2

66.53  d

3.33  cd

73.3   g

13.0  b-e

0.20   gh

N0B3

67.07 cd

2.67  de

72.3   g

12.3  cde

0.23  fg

N50B0

68.17  cd

3.67  bc

121.3  de

12.3  cde

0.28 def

N50B1

68.30  cd

3.67  bc

97.3   f

14.0 a-d

0.29  cde

N50B2

68.49  cd

3.33  cd

106.3  ef

12.0  de

0.26   ef

N50B3

68.28  cd

4.33  ab

125.3  de

13.7  bcd

0.30 b-e

N100B0

69.30 bcd

4.33  ab

130.0  cd

13.7  bcd

0.30  b-e

N100B1

69.90  bc

3.67  bc

139.3  cd

13.0 b-e

0.33 a-d

N100B2

68.89  bc

4.00  bc

139.0  cd

14.7  abc

0.30 b-e

N100B3

69.14  bc

4.33  ab

148.3  bc

13.7 bcd

0.35  ab

N150B0

72.23  ab

4.00  bc

139.3  cd

15.0  ab

0.33 a-d

N150B1

72.15  ab

4.00  bc

164.0  ab

14.3 a-d

0.32 a-e

N150B2

72.32  ab

5.00  a

167.0  ab

16.3   a

0.34  abc

N150B3

73.28  a

4.00  bc

169.7  a

14.7  abc

0.37  a

CV (%)

2.43

13.06

9.51

11.25

9.15

LSD0.01

2.795

0.803

19.14

2.528*

0.053

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

*= Significant at 5% level of significance

Thousand (1000) seeds Weight

Thousand (1000) seeds weight of mustard was significantly affected by different levels of nitrogen (Table 6). Plant receiving N at the rate of 100 kg/ha produced significantly higher weight of 1000 seeds, which was 7.9% higher over control treatment. Further increment of N, did not affect the seed weight. The lowest weight of 1000 seeds was recorded in N control treatment. Sharawat et al. (2002), Mudholkar and Ahlawat (1981) observed such insignificant response of N application on 1000-seeds weight of rapeseed.

Thousand (1000) seeds weight of rapeseed was not significantly affected by different levels of boron (Table 7). In absence of B (B0) gave the lowest 1000- seeds weight (1.70 g).

The combined effect of N and b on thousand (1000) seeds weight of mustard was significant (Table 8). The treatment combination N100B3 gave thehighest 1000- seeds weight (2.33 g), which was statistically similar with N100B0 and N50B2 followed by N100B2. The lowest 1000-seeds weight (1.70 g) was obtained from the N0B1 treatment combination, which was not statistically different from N0B1 and N0B2.

 Effect of N on yield and yield attributes of mustard

Nitrogen

levels (kg/ha)

1000-seeds

weight

(gm)

Seed

yield

(t/ha)

Stover

yield

(t/ha)

Biological yield

(t/ha)

Harvest

Index

(%)

0 (N0)

1.79 c

0.74 b

1.57 c

2.31   d

0.32  a

50 (N50)

1.90 bc

0.89 b

3.03 b

3.91   c

0.23  c

100 (N100)

2.30 a

1.62 a

3.34 b

4.96   b

0.33  a

150 (N150)

2.05 b

1.54 a

4.55 a

6.09  a

0.25  b

CV (%)

4.86

7.58

14.31

5.88

6.48

LSD0.01

0.200

0.155

0.894

0.505

0.020

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

Effect of B on yield and yield attributes of mustard

Boron

levels (kg/ha)

1000-seeds

weight

(gm)

Seed

yield

(t/ha)

Stover

yield

(t/ha)

Biological

yield

(t/ha)

Harvest

Index

(%)

0 (B0)

1.70

0.74 b

1.57 b

2.31

0.32  b

1 (B1)

1.90

0.75 b

1.61 b

2.36

0.33  b

2 (B2)

1.80

0.97 a

1.68 b

2.65

0.37  a

3 (B3)

1.86

0.85 ab

2.07 a

2.92

0.29  c

CV (%)

6.26

8.69

10.36

12.36

5.04

LSD0.05

NS

0.141

0.357

NS

0.020

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 5% level of significance.      NS = Non significant

Seed Yield (t /ha)

Seed yield was significantly affected by different levels of N (Table 6 and Fig. 3). Seed yield increased with increasing level of N up to 100 kg/ha. Further addition of N above 100 kg/ha decreased seed yield of mustard. The highest seed yield (1.62 t/ha) was obtained in N100 treatment, which was significantly 118% higher as compared to the lowest seed yield (0.74 t/ha) in N0 treatment. The cause of yield increment might be due to higher nitrogen consumption and favorable effect of yield contributing characters of mustard/rapeseed. These results are in conformity with that of Tomer et al. (1996), Mondal and Gaffar (1983), Singh and Rathi (1984), Narang and Singh (1985) and Sharawat et al. (2002), who have observed increased seed yield of mustard by increasing rate of nitrogen. A similar result was obtained by Shahidullah et al. (1996).

Seed yield was significantly affected by different levels of B (Table 7 and Fig. 4). Application of B at the rate of 2 kg/ha produced higher seed yield (0.97 t/ha). Further addition of B beyond 2 kg/ha could not increase seed yield. The lowest seed yield (0.74 t/ha) was produced with control treatment. Sakal et al. (1991), Sinha et al. (1991), Banuels et al. (1990), Islam and Sarker (1993), Juel (1980), Gerath et al. (1975) obtained a similar result by applying 1 to 2 kg B/ha. Malewar (2001) found that seed yield significantly increased with each levels of boron.

Seed yield was significantly affected by different treatment combinations of nitrogen and boron (Table 8). The highest seed yield (1.96 t/ha) was recorded in N150B2 treatment, which was 164.9% higher over control (N0B0) treatment. The lowest seed yield (0.74 t/ha) was found by the control treatment, which was similar with N0B1, N0B3 and N50B0. Without addition of B, the seed yield of mustard increased with every increment in rate of N application up to 100 kg/ha, beyond which at 150 kg/ha created a detrimental effect to reduce the yield by 10.86%. Similar trend was also noted in case of B, where the mustard yield in absence of B, in N0B0 treatment was as low as 0.74 t/ha, which increased gradually to 0.75 t/ha in N0B1 and 0.97 t/ha in N0B2 treatment. Finally the yield declined to 0.85 t/ha under the highest rate of B application in N0B3 treatment. Patra (1989) found higher seed yield in soybean due to application of B @2 kg/ha. This results supported the present findings. Thomas (1985) found the highest yield by applying 1 kg B/ha + 220 to 260 kg N/ha. Yang et al. (1989) and Saini et al. (1985) observed that combined application of N and B increased seed yield.

Stover Yield (t /ha)

Stover yield was significantly increased with increasing levels of N up to higher level (150 kg/ha). Application of 150 kg N/ha produced the highest stover yield (4.55 t/ha) which was significantly different from others treatment of nitrogen (Table 6). It was further observed that 100 kg N/ha produced the second highest stover yield (3.34 t/ha), which was not significantly different from 50 kg N/ha (3.03 t/ha). The lowest stover yield (1.57 t/ha) was obtained in control treatment (N0). Roy et al. (1981) and Kumar and Gangwar (1985) found higher Dry matter and seed yields with 120 kg N/ha irrespective of two spp.(B. juncea and B. Campestris).

The effect of B on stover yield was found positive (Table 7). There was no significant difference among the treatments except B3 treatment. But stover yield increased with increasing level of B. Application of 3 kg B/ha produced the highest stover yield (2.07 t/ha) which was significantly different from others treatment. It was further observed that 2 kg B/ha produced the second highest stover yield (1.68 t/ha) which was not significantly different from B1and B0 treatment. These are an agreement with those of Malewar (2001) and Sinha et al. (1991), who have reported that the stover yield of mustard increased significantly by boron application. The minimum stover yield (1.57 t/ha) was recorded in control treatment.

The combined effect of N and B on stover yield was significantly influenced (Table 8). The highest stover yield (5.54 t/ha) was produced by the N150B2 treatment, which was statistically similar with N150B1, N150B3 and N100B3. The lowest stover yield (1.57 t/ha) was obtained from control treatment, which was not statistically different from N0B1, N0B2, and N0B3. The combined effect of nitrogen and boron used as 150 kg N/ha and 2 kg B/ha gave the highest stover yield, which was 252.86% higher as compared to control treatment (N0B10). These results revealed that higher dose of nitrogen is influential nutrient for seed yield and boron had favorable effect for this character. Chatterjee et al. (1985) found that application of B along with N promoted dry matter accumulation.

Biological yield (t/ha)

The effect of N on biological yield was found positive (Table 6). Application of N at the rate of 150 kg/ha significantly produced higher biological yield (6.09 t/ha), which was 164% higher over control. The second highest biological yield (4.96 t/ha) was recorded by 100 kg N/ha which was significantly different from the nitrogen level 50 kg/ha and the lowest (2.31 t/ha) was observed in control treatment. It was clear from this study that higher nitrogen dose gave higher biological yield.

Biological yield was not significantly affected by different levels of boron (Table 7). Biological yield increased with increasing level of boron. Application of B at the rate of 3 kg/ha produced higher biological yield (2.92 t/ha) and lowest (2.31 t/ha) was in control treatment.

Biological yield was significantly influenced by combined effect of N and B (Table 8). Application of N (@ of 150 kg/ha) along with B (@ 2 kg/ha) gave the highest biological yield (7.37 t/ha), which was statistically similar with N150B3, N150B1 and N100B3. The lowest biological yield was recorded in control treatment, which was not statistically different from N0B1, N0B2 and N0B3.

Response of Boron (B) on seed yield of mustard

Interaction effect of N and B on yield and yield attributes of mustard

Treatment

1000-seeds

weight

(gm)

        Seed

yield

     (t/ha)

Stover

yield

(t/ha)

Biological

yield

(t/ha)

Harvest

Index

(%)

N0B0

1.70  h

0.74  e

1.57   h

2.31   j

0.32  abc

N0B1

1.79  gh

0.75  ef

1.61   h

2.36   j

0.32  abc

N0 B2

1.80  fgh

0.97  e

1.68   h

2.65   j

0.37   a

N0 B3

1.87  efg

0.85  ef

2.07  gh

2.92   j

0.29  bcd

N50 B0

1.90   efg

0.89  ef

3.03  ef

3.91   i

0.23  e

N50B1

1.93  def

1.25  d

2.83  fg

4.08   hi

0.31  bcd

N50B2

2.18   ab

1.44  cd

3.02  ef

4.46  ghi

0.32   ab

N50B3

1.91  efg

1.47  cd

3.71  de

5.18  efg

0.28  b-e

N100B0

2.30   a

1.62  bc

3.34  ef

4.96  fgh

0.33   ab

N100B1

2.05  bcd

1.54  c

4.19  cd

5.73  def

0.27   b-e

N100B2

2.13   b

1.46  cd

4.39  cd

5.85  c-f

0.25  de

N100B3

2.33   a

1.77  ab

4.71  abc

6.48  bcd

0.27   b-e

N150B0

2.05  bcd

1.54  c

4.55   bc

6.09  cde

0.25  de

N150B1

1.98  cde

1.78  ab

5.33   ab

7.11  ab

0.25   de

N150 B2

2.07   bc

1.96  a

5.54   a

7.50   a

0.26   cde

N150B3

2.08   bc

1.80  ab

4.90   abc

6.70  abc

0.27   b-e

CV (%)

4.28

9.36

14.18

10.50

10.35

LSD0.01

0.140

0.211

0.835

0.857

0.053

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance

Harvest index (%)

It was found that nitrogen application had significant effect on harvest index (Table 6). The highest harvest index (.32) was observed from 100 kg N/ha which was not statistically different from the control treatment (N0). The lowest harvest index (0.23) was found in 50 kg N/ha treated plot. Srivastava et al. (1988), Chauhan et al (1986) and Bhargava (1991) found a similar result in their experiment.

It was found that boron application had significant effect on harvest index (Table 7). The highest harvest index (0.37) was observed from 2 kg B/ha which was statistically significant from others. The lowest harvest index (29.00) was found in 3 kg B/ha. Mahajan et al. (1994) found higher harvest index due to B application.

It was found that interaction of nitrogen and boron had significant effect on harvest index (Table 8). The highest harvest index (0.37) was observed from N0B2, which was identical with N100B0, N50B2, N0B1 and control treatment. The lowest harvest index (0.23) was found with N50B0, which was statistically similar with most of the other treatment combinations.

Effect of N and B on nutrient content and it’s uptake by mustard seeds

Nitrogen content in seeds

Data on N content in seeds was influenced by N fertilization. The effect of N on N content of seeds was found positive and significant (Table 9). The average N content in seed increased linearly from 2.92% observed in control to 3.60% in N150 treatment. The highest N was found in N150, which was statistically similar with N100. The lowest concentration of seed-N was in control treatment. The result revealed that nitrogen content in seed was increased with increasing rate of nitrogen.

Nitrogen content in seed was significantly increased with increasing level of B up to higher level (Table 10). The N content in seed ranged from 2.92% observed in control to 3.05% recorded in B3 treatment. The highest concentration of N obtained with B3 treatment, which was statistically similar with B2 and B1 treatments. The lowest concentration of seed-N was in control treatment. Mahajan et al. (1994) observed that application of B (0.5 kg/ha) increased N concentration over control.

The combined effect of N and B on N content in seed was significant (Table 11).

The N content in seed ranged from 2.92% observed in control to 3.85% in N150B2 treatment. The highest concentration of N obtained with N150B2 treatment, which was statistically similar with N150B3 treatment. The minimum seed-N content was found in control, which was statistically identical with N0B1, N0B2 and N0B3 treatment.

Boron content in seeds

There was no significant difference among the different treatments of N in respect of B content in seed (Table 9). Maximum B content of 0.397% was found in N100 treatment. Further addition of N decreased B content in seed. Minimum B content in seed was recorded in N0 treatment.

There was significant difference among the different treatments of B except control (Table 10). The B content in seed ranged from 0.0347% observed in control to 0.0417% in B3. The highest B concentration (0.0417%) was observed in B3, which was not significantly different from B2 and B1. The result showed that seed-B content was increased with increasing rate of boron. Chakravarty et al. (1979) found a similar result in his research. A same trend was found by Yadav and Manchandra (1982), Dutta et al. (1984) and Yang et al. (1989).

The combined effect of Nitrogen and boron on B content in seeds was significant (Table 11). Boron content in seed was ranged from 0.0347% to 0.0433%. The maximum boron content in seed was found in N50B3 treatment, which was significantly identical with N0B3, N50B0, N50B1, N50B2, N100B0, N100B1and N100B2 and the minimum B-content (0.0347%) was found in control.

Effect of N on nutrient content in seeds of mustard

Nitrogen levels

(kg/ha)

Nutrient content in seeds (%)

Nitrogen

Boron

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulphur

0 (N0)

2.92  c

0.0347

0.553   a

0.707   b

0.989   d

50 (N50)

3.18  b

0.0390

0.517  c

0.707  b

1.016  c

100 (N100)

3.54  a

0.0397

0.490  d

0.717  a

1.078   a

150 (N150)

3.60  a

0.0363

0.530  b

0.717  a

1.043  b

CV (%)

3.29

3.05

3.21

1.07

0.10

LSD0.05

0.219

NS

0.006

0.006

0.006**

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 5% level of significance.

** = Significant at 1% level of significance,    NS = Non significant

Effect of B on nutrient content in seeds of mustard

Boron levels

(kg/ha)

Nutrient content in seeds (%)

Nitrogen

Boron

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulphur

0 (B0)

2.92   c

0.0347  b

0.553

0.707   b

0.989   a

1 (B1)

2.94   a

0.0357 ab

0.537

0.713   a

0.983  a

2 (B2)

2.95   a

0.0367 ab

0.533

0.713  a

0.958  b

3 (B3)

3.05  a

0.0417  a

0.523

0.710  ab

0.954   b

CV (%)

2.72

1.55

6.43

1.12

0.05

LSD0.05

0.167

0.006**

NS

0.006

0.006

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 5% level of significance.

**= Significant at 1% level of significance,   NS = Non significant

Phosphorus content in seeds

Phosphorus content in seed had no positive effect by different nitrogen level (Table 9). The highest p content in seed (0.553%) was found in control treatment, which was significantly different from all other treatment and lowest P-content (0.490%) was found with N100. The second highest P-content was obtained from the nitrogen level N150, significantly different from highest and lowest N-level.

Phosphorus content in seed was not significantly affected by different boron level (Table 10). The highest p content in seed (0.553%) was found in control treatment and lowest P-content (0.523%) was found with B3. The second highest P-content was obtained from the boron level B1. The result revealed that seed-P content was decreased with increasing rate of boron. Mahajan et al. (1994) reported that P content increased due to B (0.5 kg/ha) application.

The treatment combinations of nitrogen and boron significantly influenced the phosphorus content in seed (Table 11). The phosphorus content in seed was ranged from 0.43%, observed in N150B2 to 0.65% found in N50B3. The highest P content (0.65%) in seed was obtained from the treatment N50B3, which was significantly different from all other treatment combinations and the lowest one (0.043%) was obtained from N150B2, which was identical with N150B1, N100B3, N100B2 and N100B1. Individually, P-content was decreased with increasing rate of boron and nitrogen had same effect up to 100 kg N/ha.

Interaction effect of N and B on nutrient content in seeds of mustard

 

 

Nutrient content in seeds (%)

Nitrogen

Boron

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulphur

N0B0

2.92   h

0.0347  c

0.55    b

0.707   b

0.99   de

N0B1

2.94   h

0.0357 bc

0.54    bc

0.713   b

0.98    e

N0B2

2.95   h

0.0367 bc

0.53    bc

0.713   b

0.96    f

N0B3

3.05   gh

0.0417 ab

0.52    bcd

0.710   b

0.95   f

N50B0

3.18   fg

0.0397 abc

0.52    bcd

0.707   b

1.02   c

N50B1

3.28   ef

0.0387 abc

0.48    cde

0.707   b

0.98   e

N50B2

3.45   cd

0.0400 abc

0.53   bcd

0.707   b

1.02   c

N50B3

3.48   cd

0.0433  a

0.65      a

0.707   b

1.01   c

N100B0

3.54   bcd

0.0390 abc

0.49    cde

0.717   b

1.08    a

N100B1

3.30   ef

0.0403  abc

0.45      e

0.713   b

1.02   c

N100B2

3.41   de

0.0377  abc

0.48    cde

0.707   b

0.99   de

N100B3

3.52   bcd

0.0363   bc

0.47     de

0.747  a

1.04   b

N150B0

3.60   bc

0.0363   bc

0.53    bcd

0.717   b

1.04   b

N150B1

3.66   b

0.0360   bc

0.47     de

0.717   b

1.09   a

N150B2

3.85    a

0.0367   bc

0.43      e

0.717   b

0.98   e

N150B3

3.83   a

0.0363   bc

0.54   bc

0.720   b

1.00   cd

CV (%)

2.47

2.68

5.70

1.09

0.17

LSD0.01

0.140

0.005

0.053

0.017

0.017

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at1% level of significance.

Potassium content in seeds

Potassium (K) content in seed was affected by different N treatments (Table 9). The highest K content in seed (0.717%) was found in N100 treatment, which was similar as N150 and the lowest seed-K content (0.707%) was found in N50 treatment, which was similar with control.

It was observed that K content in seed increased with increasing level of B up to 1 kg/ha (Table 10). The highest seed-K content (0.713%) was found in B1, which was similar with B2 and was identical with B3. The lowest seed-K content (0.707%) was found in the control.

Potassium (K) content in seed was significantly affected by the combined effect of nitrogen and boron (Table 11). The treatment combination N100B3 gave thehighest K content in seed (0.747%), which was significantly different from the others and the second highest K content (0.720%) was obtained from N150B3 treatment, which was identical with other treatment combinations. The lowest K content in seed (0.707%) was found in control.

Sulphur content in seeds

Data on S content in seed was influenced by N fertilizer (Table 9). S content in seed ranged from 0.989% observed in control to 1.078% recorded in N100 treatment. Sulphur content in seed increased with increasing level of N up to 100 kg/ha. Highest S content was found in N100 treatment, which was significantly different from other treatments. The lowest S content (0.989%) was found in control treatment.

Sulphur content in seed decreased with increasing level of B (Table 10). It was found that boron had significant effect on seed-S content. Sulphur content in seed ranged from 0.989% observed in control to 0.854% in B3. The highest S-content was found in control, which was identical with B1. The lowest S content (0.854%) was found in B3, which was similar with B2. The result showed that seed-S content was decreased with increasing rate of boron.

The Interaction effect of Nitrogen and boron on S content in seed was significantly influenced (Table 11). Sulphur content in seed was ranged from 0.095% to 1.090%. The maximum sulphur content (1.090%) in seed was found in N150B1 treatment, which was significantly similar with N100B0 treatment and the minimum sulphur content (0.095%) was observed in N0B3, which was identical with N0B2 treatment.

Nitrogen uptake by seeds

Data on N uptake by seeds was influenced by N fertilization. The effect of N on N uptake by seeds was found positive and significant (Table 12). The N uptake by seed ranged from 21.61 kg/ha observed in control treatment to 57.35 kg/ha recorded in N100. The highest N uptake by seeds was found in N100 and lowest N uptake by seeds was observed in control treatment. The result revealed that nitrogen uptake by seeds was increased with increasing rate of nitrogen up to 100 kg/ha. Further addition of nitrogen decreased N uptake by seeds.

Nitrogen uptake by seeds was significantly increased with increasing level of B up to 2 kg/ha (Table 13). The N uptake by seeds ranged from 21.61 kg/ha observed in control to 28.62 kg/ha with the application of B @ 2 kg/ha. The highest N uptake obtained from 2 kg B/ha and lowest N uptake by seeds was found in control treatment. Addition of B above 2 kg/ha decreased N uptake by seeds.

The combined effect of N and B on N uptake by seeds was significant (Table 14).

The N uptake by seeds ranged from 21.61 kg/ha observed in control to 75.46 kg/ah recorded in N150B2 treatment. The highest N obtained with N150B2 treatment, which was significantly different with other treatment combinations. The minimum N uptake by seeds was found in control, which was statistically identical with N0B1 treatment.

Boron uptake by seeds

There was significant difference among the different treatments of N in respect of B uptake by seeds (Table 12). Boron (B) uptake by seeds (0.632 kg/ha) was significantly increased with increasing level of B up to 1 kg/ha. Further addition of N decreased B uptake by seeds. Minimum B uptake by seeds (0.257 kg/ha) was recorded in N0 treatment.

There was significant difference among the B treatments in respect of B uptake by seeds except control (Table 13). The B uptake by seeds ranged from 0.257 kg/ha to 0.356 kg/ha. Boron uptake significantly increased with increasing level of B. Application of B @ 3 kg/ha produced the highest B uptake by seeds (0.356 kg/ha), which was not significantly different from the application of B @ 2 kg/ha.

The combined effect of Nitrogen and boron was significant on B uptake by seeds (Table 14). Boron uptake by seeds was ranged from 0.257 kg/ha to 0.72 kg/ha. The maximum boron uptake by seeds was found in N50B2 treatment, which was significantly different with other treatments and the minimum B uptake by seeds (0.257 kg/ha) was found in control treatment. Both of the two nutrients individually and combinedly have favoured in significant increase N accumulation in seeds.

 Effect of N on nutrient uptake by seeds of mustard

Nitrogen levels (kg/ha)

Nutrient uptake by seeds   (kg/ha)

Nitrogen

Boron

 

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulphur

0 (N0)

21.61  d

0.257  c

4.09   d

5.30   d

7.32   d

50 (N50)

28.30   c

0.320   c

4.60   c

6.29   c

9.04   c

100 (N100)

57.35   a

0.632   a

7.94   b

11.62   a

17.46   a

150 (N150)

55.44   b

0.559   b

8.16   a

11.04   b

15.79   b

CV (%)

1.57

5.99

1.13

1.21

2.32

LSD0.01

1.280

0.063

0.141

0.210

0.576

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

Effect of B on nutrient uptake by seeds of mustard

Boron levels (kg/ha)

Nutrient uptake by seeds   (kg/ha)

Nitrogen

Boron

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulphur

0 (B0)

21.61  c

0.257  b

4.09   bc

5.30   c

7.32   c

1 (B1)

22.05   c

0.268   b

4.03   c

5.35   c

7.37   c

2 (B2)

28.62   a

0.354   a

5.17   a

6.92   a

9.29   a

3 (B3)

25.93   b

0.356   a

4.45   b

6.04   b

8.11   b

CV (%)

1.47

2.14

4.29

2.79

2.68

LSD0.01

0.721

0.020

0.379

0.328

0.429

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

Phosphorus uptake by seeds

Phosphorus uptake by seeds affected positively by different nitrogen level (Table 12). Phosphorus uptake by seeds increased with increasing level of N up to higher level. Application of N @ 150 kg/ha accumulates the higher P in seeds and the lowest uptake by seeds (4.09 kg/ha) was found in control treatment. The second highest P uptake by seeds was obtained from the application of nitrogen @ 100 kg/ha, which was significantly different from highest and lowest N-level.

Phosphorus uptake by seeds was significantly affected by different boron level (Table 13). The highest p uptake by seeds (5.17 kg/ha) was found in B2 treatment (@ 2 kg B/ha) and lowest P uptake by seeds (4.03 kg/ha) was found with B1 treatment (@1 kg B/ha). The second highest P uptake by seeds (4.45 kg/ha) was obtained from the boron level B3 (@ 3 kg B/ha), which was identical with control treatment. Mahajan et al. (1994) observed that P uptake by ground nut significantly increased due to B (0.5 kg/ha) application.

The treatment combinations of nitrogen and boron significantly influenced the phosphorus uptake by seeds (Table 14). Phosphorus uptake by seeds was ranged from 4.03 kg/ha, observed in N0B1 to 9.72 kg/ha, found in N150B3. The highest P uptake by seeds (9.72 kg/ha) was obtained from the treatment N150B3, which was significantly different from all other treatment combinations and the lowest one (4.03 kg/ha) was obtained from N0B1, which was identical with N50B0, N0B3, N0B2 and control treatment.

Interaction effect of N & B on nutrient uptake by seeds of mustard

 

 

Treatments

Nutrient uptake by seeds   (kg/ha)

Nitrogen

Boron

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sulphur

N0B0

21.61  i

0.257   h

4.09   f

5.30   f

7.32   g

N0B1

22.05   i

0.268   gh

4.03   f

5.35   f

7.37   g

N0B2

28.62   h

0.354   f

5.17   ef

6.92   def

9.29   f

N0B3

25.93   h

0.356   f

4.45   f

6.04   f

8.11   fg

N50B0

28.30   h

0.353  fg

4.60   ef

6.29   ef

9.04   f

N50B1

41.00   g

0.480   e

6.00   de

8.84  c-f

12.25   f

N50B2

49.68   f

0.580   cd

7.60   c

10.18  bcd

14.69   d

N50B3

57.16   f

0.64   b

9.56   ab

10.39  bcd

14.85   e

N100B0

57.35   e

0.632   bc

7.94   c

11.62  abc

17.46   c

N100B1

50.82   f

0.620   bc

6.93   cd

10.98  abc

15.71   d

N100B2

49.79   f

0.550   d

7.01   cd

10.32  bcd

14.45   d

N100B3

62.30   d

0.640   b

8.32  abc

13.22  b-e

18.40   bc

N150B0

55.44   e

0.559   d

8.16   bc

11.04  abc

16.06   d

N150B1

65.15   c

0.640   b

8.37  abc

12.76  ab

19.20   ab

N150B2

75.46   a

0.720   a

8.43  abc

14.05  a

19.40   a

N150B3

68.95   b

0.650   b

9.72   a

12.96   ab

18.00  bc

CV (%)

3.46

6.12

11.79

19.92

6.20

LSD0.01

2.715

0.053

1.357

3.167

1.437

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

Potassium uptake by seed

Effect of N on K uptake by seeds was significantly affected by N treatments (Table 12). Potassium uptake by seeds due to different level of N application ranged from 5.30 kg/ha to 11.62 kg/ha. Application of N @ 100 kg/ha accumulates 119% higher N in seeds over control treatment (without N fertilization).

Potassium uptake by seeds was also significantly influenced by different B level (Table 13). The highest K uptake by seeds (6.92 kg/ha) was found with the B @ 2 kg/ha application, which was significant with other treatments. The lowest K uptake by seeds (5.30 kg/ha) was found in control treatment, which was statistically similar with the application of B @ 1 kg/ha.

Potassium (K) uptake by seeds was significantly affected by the combined effect of nitrogen and boron (Table 14). The treatment combination N150B2 gave thehighest K uptake by seeds (14.05 kg/ha), which was not significantly different from N150B3, N150B1, N150B0, N100B1 and N100B0 treatments. The lowest K uptake by seeds (5.30 kg/ha) was found in control treatment (N0B0).

Sulphur uptake by seeds

Data on S uptake by seeds was influenced by different level of N (Table 12). S uptake by seeds ranged from 7.32 kg/ha observed in control to 17.46 kg/ha recorded with the application of N @ 100 kg/ha. Sulphur uptake by seeds increased with increasing level of N up to 100 kg/ha. Further addition of N decreased S uptake by seeds. The lowest S uptake by seeds (7.32 kg/ha) was found in control treatment.

Sulphur uptake by seeds was also influenced by different levels of B (Table 13). Sulphur uptake by seeds ranged from 7.32 kg/ha to 9.29 kg/ha. The highest S uptake by seeds was found with the application of B @ 2 kg/ha, which was significant with other treatments. The lowest S uptake by seeds (7.32 kg/ha) was found in control treatment, which was similar with B1 treatment (application of B @1 kg/ha).

Interaction effect of Nitrogen and boron on S uptake by seeds was significantly influenced (Table 14). Sulphur uptake by seeds was ranged from 7.32 kg/ha to 19.40 kg/ha. The maximum sulphur uptake by seeds (19.40 kg/ha) was found in N150B2 treatment, which was identical with N150B1 treatment and the minimum sulphur uptake by seeds (7.32 kg/ha) was observed in control, which was identical with N0B1 and N0B3 treatment

Effect of N and B on protein content in seeds of mustard

Protein content in seeds of mustard was significantly influenced by the effect of N and B (Table 15). The trend of variation in protein content was similar to that of N content because protein content was computed directly from the values of N content in seeds. As before the highest protein content of 24% was recorded in N150B2 being followed by N150B3 (23.9%) treatment having the lowest value of 18.25% in N0B0 treatment. Plant receiving N (@ 150 kg/ha) and B (@ 2 kg/ha) accumulated significantly 24.15% higher protein content in seeds as compared to control treatment (N0B0). Protein content reduced remarkably in absence of either of the two nutrients (N and B). Even with the minimum dose of any one of the nutrient has led to increased protein content and attained the highest range.

These information reflect that nitrogen and protein content in seeds of mustard may be raised to the satisfactory level by addition of even minimum dose of N and B. Mahajan et al. (1994) reported that protein content increased with increasing levels of B application.

Table 15. Effect of N and B on protein content in seeds of mustard

Treatments

Protein content in seeds (%)

% increase protein content (over control)

N0B0

18.25   f

_

N0B1

18.38   f

0.71

N0B2

18.44   f

1.03

N0B3

19.06   ef

4.25

N50B0

19.88   def

8.20

N50B1

20.50    c-f

10.98

N50B2

21.56   bcd

15.35

N50B3

21.75   a-d

16.09

N100B0

22.13   a-d

17.53

N100B1

20.63   c-f

11.54

N100B2

21.31   cde

14.36

N100B3

22.00   a-d

16.81

N150B0

22.50   abc

18.88

N150B1

22.88   abc

20.25

N150B2

24.00   a

24.15

N150B3

23.90   ab

23.75

CV (%)

6.02

_

LSD0.01

2.117

_

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

Nutrient status of post harvest soil

Macro nutrients (N, P, K and S) content in post harvest soil as influenced by different treatments is presented in Table 16. Results showed a marked variation on the N, P, K and S content in the post harvest soil values due to addition of nutrients in soil and their uptake by crops.

Table 16. Effect of N and B on nutrient status of post harvest soil

 

Treatments

Total nitrogen (%)

Available Phosphorus (ppm)

Exchangeable Potassium

(meq/100g soil)

Available Sulphur (ppm)

N0B0

0.0760  efg

 53.33   a

0.307   a

16.00   a

N0B1

0.0753  efg

45.00  a-d

0.280   a-d

14.67  ab

N0B2

0.0737  fgh

48.33  a-d

0.283   abc

14.33  abc

N0B3

0.0683   hi

48.67  a-d

0.293   ab

14.00   a-d

N50B0

0.0800  cde

45.67  a-d

0.243  a-e

13.33  b-e

N50B1

0.0877   ab

52.33   a

0.277   a-e

14.00   a-d

N50B2

0.0773   d-g

51.67  ab

0.237   a-e

13.33   b-e

N50B3

0.0747  efg

46.33  a-d

0.273   a-e

12.67   b-e

N100B0

0.0640    i

39.33   d

0.210   b-e

12.67   b-e

N100B1

0.0797  c-f

48.00  a-d

0.250  a-e

14.00  a-d

N100B2

0.0887   a

49.67  abc

0.230   a-e

12.67   b-e

N100B3

0.0743  efg

42.00  bcd

0.200   cde

11.67   de

N150B0

0.0827  bcd

46.33  a-d

0.253   a-e

12.00   cde

N150B1

0.0730   gh

40.00  cd

0.190     e

11.00    e

N150B2

0.0843   abc

44.00  a-d

0.203  cde

11.33   e

N150B3

0.0803   cde

40.00   cd

0.193   de

11.67   de

CV (%)

8.30

11.18

17.30

9.55

LSD0.01

0.005

8.631*

0.075*

2.085

Initial soil

0.08

35.00

0.18

40.00

Figure in column, having same letter(s) do not differ significantly at 1% level of significance.

* = Significant at 5% level of significance

The total N content of the post harvest soil varied from 0.0640% to 0.0887% (Table 16). The highest total N content (0.0887%) was observed in N100B2 treatment being closely followed by N50B1 (0.877%) and N150B2 (0.084%), which was statistically identical having the lowest value of 0.064% in N0B0.

The P content in post harvest soils ranged from 39.33 to 53.33 ppm (Table 16). The highest P content was recorded in N0B0 treatment (53.33ppm) and the lowest P content was found in the treatment N100B0. These results indicate that the absence of N and B, phosphorus uptake by plant may be decreased as well as lowest yield was found in N0B0 treatment.

The K content of post harvest soils varied from 0.190 to 0.307 meq/100g soil (Table 16).The highest K content (0.307 meq/100g soil) was observed in control treatment N0B0, which was not statistically identical to most of other treatments and the lowest K content was recorded in N150B1 treatment.

Available S content of post harvest soils influenced significantly due to different treatments (Table 16). The maximum S content (16.00 ppm) was observed in control treatment and the lowest S content (11.00 ppm) was observed in N150B1 treatment.

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