Major purpose of this lecture is to present on Coastal Ecosystems: Mangroves. In this lecture; example (south Florida): subtropical latitude. “Warm” Atlantic and warmer Gulf and Gulf stream waters, limited seasonality (moving toward rainy/dry seasons). Mangroves are trees or large shrubs which are salt-tolerant and grow in intertidal zones in tropical and subtropical regions. They form dense forests along many tropical and subtropical coasts, are found in 123 countries and territories and are estimated to cover over 150,000 square kilometres globally.