Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Symptoms and Treatments

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing prototype of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with implementation or improvement. It is a chronic situation that affects millions of children and regularly continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a amalgamation of constant problems, such as complexity behind attention, hyperactivity and spontaneous conduct.

 

Normal behavior vs. ADHD

Most strong children are distracted, hyperactive or impetuous at one time or another. It’s normal for preschoolers to have short concentration spans and be incapable to stick with one activity for long. Even in older children and teenagers, concentration span regularly depends on the level of interest. In addition, some children just naturally have a higher activity level than others do. Children should never be classified as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) just because they’re different from their friends or siblings.

Children who have problems in school but get along well at home or with friends are likely struggling with something other than ADHD. The same is true of children who are hyperactive or inattentive at home, but whose schoolwork and friendships remain unaffected.

Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be categorized into two types of behavioral troubles.

These categories are:

  • inattentiveness
  • hyperactivity and impulsiveness

Most people with ADHD have troubles that fall into both these categories, but this isn’t always the case.

For example, some people with the situation may have problems with inattentiveness, but not with hyperactivity or impulsiveness. This form of ADHD is also known as attention deficit disorder (ADD). ADD can sometimes go ignored for the reason that the symptoms may be less noticeable.

Symptoms in children and teenagers

The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are sound clear, and they’re generally visible before the age of six. They occur in more than one condition, such as at home and at school.

The major symbols of every behavioral problem are detailed below.

  • having a short attention span and being easily distracted
  • making careless mistakes – for example, in schoolwork
  • appearing forgetful or losing things
  • being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious or time-consuming
  • appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions
  • constantly changing activity or task

These symptoms can reason important problems in a child’s life, such as underachievement at school, poor social interface with other children and adults, and problems with regulation.

Symptoms in adults

In adults, the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are further complicated to define. This is mostly due to a lack of research into adults with ADHD.

ADHD is a developmental disorder; it’s believed that it can’t expand in adults without it first appearing during childhood. But it’s known that symptoms of ADHD often persist from childhood into a person’s teenage years, and then adulthood. Any additional problems or conditions experienced by children with ADHD, such as depression or dyslexia, may also continue into adulthood. By the age of 25, an estimated 15% of people diagnosed with ADHD as children still have a full range of symptoms, and 65% still have some symptoms that affect their daily lives.

For example, hyperactivity tends to decrease in adults, while inattentiveness tends to get worse as the pressure of adult life increases. Adult symptoms of ADHD also tend to be far more subtle than childhood symptoms.

Some specialists have suggested the following list of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults:

  • carelessness and lack of attention to detail
  • continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones
  • inability to focus or prioritise
  • continually losing or misplacing things
  • forgetfulness
  • difficulty keeping quiet and speaking out of turn
  • mood swings, irritability and a quick temper
  • inability to deal with stress

 

ADHD Treatment

Many symptoms of ADHD can be managed with medication and therapy.

Medication: Medications called stimulants can help organize hyperactive and impulsive behavior and increase attention span. They include:

  • Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
  • Dextroamphetamine (Adderall, Dexedrine)
  • Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)
  • Methylphenidate (Concerta, Daytrana, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin, Quillivant)

Stimulant medications don’t work for everyone with ADHD. Nonstimulant medications may be prescribed for people older than 6. These include:

  • Atomoxetine (Strattera)
  • Clonidine (Kapvay)
  • Guanfacine (Intuniv)

Dietary supplements with omega 3s have shown some benefit. The FDA has approved a medical food called Vayarin, which contains omega-3s and is available by prescription only.

 

Therapy: These treatments focus on altering behavior.

Special education helps a child learn at school. Having structure and a routine can help children with ADHD a lot.

Behavior modification teaches ways to replace bad behaviors with good ones.

Psychotherapy (counseling) can help someone with ADHD learn better ways to handle their emotions and frustration. It can also help improve their self-esteem. Counseling may also help family members better understand the child or adult with ADHD.

Social skills training can teach behaviors, such as taking turns and sharing.