Child Sexual Abuse and its Impact on Socio-economic Growth.
As our concern child sexual abuse is harmful for social and mental stability for a child, by the process children growing up, children’s hampered by his or her occurred situation and after continuing their physical growth they could not concentrate their future stability for their inevitable trauma which long lasting effect is stopped children’s growth and development. Those abused children could not attach them with society’s people and mostly they become introvert. They could not express their right, demands could not enter into right to information, do not share their problems with other person. They could not access to the process of socialization, which helps to a child to grow up as a proper way. Child sexual abuse is a symbol of noxious thought which is eaten up a child’s childhood, a secure life, healthy mentality, bright future, secure environment, or could be development. CSA would be such kind of bad words which not only closing children’s growth but it’s may be effects in our society and society’s people. According to BTS, ‘Children’s right is to know about their child right and our responsibilities are informed to them about their rights. If they do not know about their rights they cannot demand their needs and they would be deprived from child rights. Without getting access to child rights they do not facilitate of their growing and do not contribute in the process of growth’.
Child Sexual Abuse:
From 0-18 years, we called them children. If somebody are targeting a child and forcing to sex or sexual intercourse with him or her it is called child sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse is not a new concept, it is revealed from 1993 and then it’s become everyone’s concern. Breaking the silence is the first voluntary organization who had taken various steps towards awareness rising about CSA. We have many stigmas about CSA that is only girls are abused and only males are abuser. But we need to know that not only girls but boys are also abused by abusers. Abusers are not only male but females or same sex will be abusers. CSA is a hidden death for victim. CSA and its impacts are broad and victim suffers most by it. Its effect takes long time for recovery. Child sexual abuse is a big problem for our society and it could be affects our economy also. It has more implicit effect which we could not see materially but we could analyze the impact by abstractly. Anyway, abusers have more techniques to attract children’s. Like they attract them by verbally or give the gifts as children like, such as chocolate, accessories, toys or money or getting afraid them. Abusers mainly targeted those children’s who are mainly as type of introvert who’s characteristics never help them to move out from such kind of situations. More than 90% abusers are close relatives (2012) or tutors, neighbors, landlords or even renters who have easy access to their home and they also build up a good relationship with children’s parents or other caregivers so it is easy to come in and catch the child. According to BTS, children have privacy and their body parts are their private parts. So, no one can touch them illegally or in private parts, they even any close relatives or children’s parents also. If children do not like any touch by their parents then parents should avoid those behaviors which disturbs their children’s. If children feel bad by anyone’s touching then a child should say ‘NO’.
Impact of child sexual abuse:
Child sexual abuse affects a child mentality, harms physically and mentally. After conducting this child becomes introvert in self. If the occurrence happens in home then every time the child getting scarred and he or she does not feeling comfort to talk anyone. If the victims see the abuser after the incidence they feel scarred to them and they avoid that person and do not want to face that person, even ever want to see the abuser. If the occurrence conducts in school then the child does not want to go to school. A child fall into deep trauma which is conducts various problems for the child. This effect takes her/his entire life. Some abusive child takes attempt to suicide, or some become pregnant. If the child becomes pregnant then societies people neglect her mostly and she is established a ‘Nosto meye’ (Oct. 2002). Sometimes victims are being arrogant with all and they wish that they could kill that person who spoils his/her life. Some case studies show that boys are targeted by their same sex and that abuser repeated many times by sexual intercourse and some children’s are ok with this that means they became use to with that (p.35). Currently a lot of NGO’s worked in this sector and they are trying to rehabilitation those children’s and trying to stop this silent issue or reduce from society. Children’s are our future generation who will establish their skills and then establish our country’s future. Child sexual abuse is a hidden death children could not free from its impact which is obviously negative. A UNICEF study revealed in 29 March, 2011 said that nearly 50 percent of girls had been sexually abused who are engaged in prostitution. The cause for this is their poverty. Some serious factors determining child sexual abuse which effects are more obvious.
The social determinants of growth:
A countries growth is not only related to countries economy but social growth is also needed. Growth is based on household, government expenditure and investment. We have many social determinants of growth which needs investment and government expenditure. Mainly government expenditure needs more for social development. Education is a positive externality which needs government incentives. Every year, a big amount of money expends on this sector as budgetary granted. Every nation needs education for countries social growth. Social growth needs a rich culture, culture is a nation’s glass where anyone can see and could to know about the nation. Socialization process is very important to know where people grow up and what are their personalities and what are the requirements he needs. For socialization a child needs a better environment where he can learn, can play, could demands or meet their basic needs where they can grow up properly and can bring up in socialization process. A better personality to build up a child needs better environment and a better environment could be provides by a better society. A society needs education for society’s people. Education can build up a skilled labor that can be take part in developing work. We can measure social growth by analyzing a country’s literacy rate, cultural situation, and socialization process of person or another determinant could be measure social growth.
Economic determinants of growth:
Economy is decided for a country’s growth and development. Higher per capita income means higher economic growth. Economic growth decided that a country have the ability to get a position of the rank of developed countries. Per capita income and expenditure decided the growth. Growth means increment of GDP, GDP needs higher per capita income and higher investment is needed. This issue is very complex to discussion but we all know that economic growth will come by investment and must do expenditure. Investment will be social welfare based which can lead to build a skilled labor force. Social welfare is need for socio-economic growth. Only economic growth does not fulfill the human development. Now a day per capita income and expenditure are not only the determinants of economic growth, we think broader. Human development is also our concern, except human development it is impossible to growth. HDI determines some indicators which are education, longevity and standard of living. When increment of GDP is needed then also needed life expectancy, literacy, level of employment, distribution of income and wealth and overall quality of life. But those things should measure in broad studies; I conduct a small study so I need the classical economic growth which is per capita income.
Objectives of the study:
Child sexual abuse is a serious issue and not only has some impacts on individuals but this complex issue implicitly stopped children’s growth. My intension is to know the impacts of child sexual abuse has really some effects on socio-economic growth. My objectives to doing this study are:
1. How the people of Breaking the Silence Community define CSA?
2. Underlying factors shaping CSA in the community of Breaking the Silence?
3 Is CSA interacts with the socio-economic determinants of growth, such as, socialization process, education, culture, income and expenditure?
The Bouniabadh, a community of BTS has the idea of CSA or their perception about this issue is important to know for this study. If they understand this issue properly and they are more aware to protect their children, this is more hopeful to get the answers of another two objectives. Thus, it is obvious that it has some influencing factors which are helping to grow this issue. In this country, everybody is keeping silent in this issue and sex is occurs more secret for adolescents and young adults to talking and sharing. The reason of this, our people do not have any opportunity to know about this. For this issue what kind of impact will be occurs is uncertain. We are looking for those impacts on socio-economic growth in Bouniabadh community. Other way, both girls and boys are targeted by abusers and some assumptions come to know that the effect of CSA differently attacks to girls and boys and mostly girls are fallen into psychological problem. But both boys and girls are facing psychological problem and fallen into trauma. Everybody has their own perceptions but this study needs to know the perception about CSA within the community of BTS and the target group is the community of Bouniabadh. Less awareness increases CSA and BTS always works for raising awareness. Thus, we like to know that their community really does have awareness towards child sexual abuse. Hypothesis of the study: The probability of the study would be there are negative impacts of CSA on socio-economic growth and this will turn negative effects on growth. The main hypothesis of the study is:
- Main hypothesis: child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socioeconomic growth.
This hypothesis is predicting a predictable result for this analysis. Our expecting result would be explores that child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socioeconomic growth. We all know that abuse is not very good word for society and it is established. But this silent topic will turn over now a new way and explores some unknown information that is CSA creates impact on growth and not even impact it will be negative impact on growth which will increases the rate of child abuse and lower the rate of socioeconomic growth and those ways created diverse relationship together. Child sexual abuse is not good one for society or broadly for mankind and this serious issue never ensured any kind of positive result ever. The study topic is CSA and its impact on socioeconomic growth and the main hypothesis or the probability of the study is CSA creates negative impact on growth that’s mean the study is wanting to know that socioeconomic growth is effecting by CSA or I can tell it directly that CSA is hampering growth but the result will finally tell us is the hypothesis or probability incurs positive result? But the hypothesis should tell us what kind of negative result would be incurred by CSA. The findings of the primary data will explored the ultimate result which will be based on case studies and Focus Group Discussions. Those data will finally expressing the probable result which will confine the probability or hypothesis would be positive or would be negative.
Respondents of the study:
This study conducted on two phrases and those are Focus Group Discussions and case studies. There are two groups which are young adult and adult group and respondents are 18; 08 for young adult and 10 respondents for adult group. Other phrase is case studies and respondents are 102 among abused children for 51 and control group for 51 respondents.
Table 1: Respondents of the study
|Focus group discussion||Case study|
|Young Adult||Adult Group||Abused Children||Control Group|
|Total respondent- 18||Total respondent- 102|
Tools and techniques:
Tools are included case studies and focus group discussions (FGDs). Information gathered by taking note and taking record by record player. Field notes and recorded information are transcribed within few days of the discussions. The study sample is 120, divided by 18 for FGDs and 102 for case studies. Where the respondents are young adult group, adult group, abused children and control group. I use both qualitative and quantitative techniques in this study.
Table 2: Tools and Techniques of the study
|Focus Group Discussion||18||Young adult , Adult group|
|Case Study||102||Abused children, Control group|
Methods of the study:
These study methods are case study and Focus Group Discussions. Methods are used as primary data. But the cases ultimately used in as secondary data after studying cases those used in analytical software for measuring purpose.
The study was initiated in June 2012 after getting knowledge of the topic and review of the documents, resource book and annual reports of the activities of BTS. I am taking only one field for data collection. The target area for data collection is Bouniabadh community of BTS. I am supervising in the field and coordinate with respondents and the authority. At the same time I prepared the structure of questionnaire for discussion and taking FGDs from the BTS community. In field, I personally coordinate with respondents and the authority and the authority of BTS personally helped me for arranging those respondents and they all came in time which I had been decided. And special consideration of mine was the quality of data that was important to ensure by me for genuine data collection.
The participants or respondents were orally assured that their information would be keep in confidential and data will not passes anyway and data will be used only in research purpose. Actually my intention was to collect valid and reliable information as much as possible because the quality of data. But there was no forced to respondents to give me the answers which are my expectations. I gave them total freedom to answer and firstly I rapport build up with participants. Firstly, I was taking their permission and their signature in a sheet and my responsibility was not data manipulated. I am also taking permission for taking records of their conversation. The data collection process and selection of fields were totally free from any kind of bias.
Strengths and Limitations:
Strengths: This study has some strengths and limitations like any other studies. Combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods strengthened the investigation strategy. Data collecting methods are liable and there are no mistakes for taking data so all of the procedures ensured reliability of information and validity of the study. In field, maintained Strong rapport building with all respondents that is helping for viable data which was collected. And most importantly privacy of data was strongly maintained. No data were collected without prior permission of the respondents. And also maintained data allocate into appropriate section which could be helpful for measuring data appropriately. Another point is the participants are not feeling uneasy in front of tape recorder.
Limitations: When I am trying to collect some related data for doing analysis, I am facing various problems. I did not find a single victim for interview and this is a very sensitive issue to talk hence everybody shut down their mouths. When I conduct FGD’s participants did not understand some questions because of their illiteracy. So, I did not get accurate answers. Thus, as respondents has age differences and also has differences to giving answers. Young adults were more knowledgeable than adults, so findings suffer very much. Information availability is another limitation for this study as I say this more silent topic to speak up hence, lack of information does hampers in the study. I am helpless to involving minimum male respondents in the FGD than female.
Our study hypothesis is child sexual abuse creates negative impact on socio-economic growth and at the direction of the study hypothesis; first objective of the study is how the community of BTS defines CSA and in the technique of qualitative method I applied semi open ended questionnaire for the method of Focus Group Discussion. I conducted two Focus Group Discussions within two different groups; one group is young adult and another is adult group.
CSA defines according to BTS community:
Generally they think any kind of bad affection to a child is called child sexual abuse and the other way kissing, touching, caressing fondling with bad intention is the types of CSA. The two different groups of the community of BTS think both boys and girls are in risk to CSA by all their relatives and all kinds of people who are surrounding of them. By the way, they are all aware of their children’s or any child who are live in the community. Who are close to children they also could be abuser of a child so everybody should be aware of all the perpetrators. Even abuser could be landlords, parents, friends, neighbors, close relatives, known persons, colleagues, teachers or anybody could be standing on them a risk. But the young adult and also adults think they all are aware about CSA and can protect their children from any kind of abuse. The community of BTS told elaborately about their perception of child sexual abuse. There are different types of story they told to me which is so much serious issue like an uncle of a natal child; he used to abuse her by kissing her Brest which was roughly injured and before it explored by her mother the abuser had gone from there. Many of examples they express to us which are so much serious issue to us.
underlying factors shaping BTS community:
Our second objective is underlying factors shaping CSA in the community of BTS? Firstly, some is underlying factors getting from the community:
*Poverty; many people of the community are poor and they could not bear the expenditure of their children and could not meet the basic needs or human rights which have to be fulfilled by them. Even some of them are stayed under the poverty line, in that situation they are helpless to meet their needs and sometimes they are taking a meal for a day in that sense they like to send their children in child labor. Those children felled in to trap of love or fall into abuse by the mill owner or other staff. And because of financial crisis of family of the child could not get justice from society or law implementation. In that sense, poverty is shaping CSA in the community.
*Another factor is power group in the society. Power group like landlords, teachers which are not directly related to a child but they are doing more in indirectly. In Some cases factory owner also included in this group. Sometimes Landlords creates such situation where renters could do nothing and they being helpless and the reason of such kind of situation is renters are usually helpless to express their power because renters are come from different places and they are foreigner for locality but those landlords are well known by society and they are local so when they do some wrong activity they release easily from punishment and that is going to happen for power. *Another important factor is early sign of puberty. By their speaking it is clear that we have advanced geographical region where the growth of a children having quickly and it is bigger concern of parents because their growth done on physically enough not ensures enough in mentality. Mental growth needs a certain time limitations unless the certain time a children could not judge themselves properly. In the mean time, it is easy to affect them negatively for anyone and most probably they would be used in wrongly. That is more thinkable issue for parents and so it of the community of BTS. By the analysis of early sign of puberty children are making mistakes to take decisions and fall into trap.
*Most important factor is early marriage because the community of BTS especially feels that early marriage is raising CSA. Most of teenagers are fall in love with some teenagers or adults and make live with each other after marriage without permission of parents in that case this is off course called child sexual abuse cause they are not mature and they involved in physical relationship. The percentage of early marriage is high in the community as per speaking of adult group it is clear that most teenagers are victim of CSA. They are giving some examples which they could stop successfully. But parents and aware group are helpless when early marriage happened by escaping of those teenagers. Some of people said that we always are trying to stop the incidence of early marriage in our area or where there we have familiarity but we heard sometimes that some parents are willingly to do this in that case we could not do nothing. That’s mean the area of Bouniabadh is not free from child marriage or early marriage.
*Another most important factor is cultural taboo. Adult group expresses more issues of relating taboo. Adult group said that some parents are willingly doing child marriages of their children because of their girls are involving relationship with other boys. But those parents of boys do nothing with them because they are boys. The community of BTS also said that we know that both girls and boys could be victim of child sexual abuse but when a girl is an abused it is more difficult to face with society or community people. Because they are girls and society thinks family respect is more linked with girls than boys. These kinds of taboos are really serious to our society and our society people. But the community of BTS believes those taboos and do maintained it.
CSA interact socioeconomic determinants of growth:
For measuring this objective I took 51 cases of abused children and 51 children who are in control group among different categories of age, gender, educational backgrounds. When I analyzed those data together in the software named SPSS then I find only one result that is income is significant up to child sexual abuse. Dependent variable is abused and independent variables are age, education and income where income is significant and level of significance is 0.0342. That’s mean the higher rate of income can be decreases the rate of child sexual abuse but the lower rate of income can be higher the rate of sexual abuse. It creates diverse relationship to income and abuse. But the other variable is not too significant related to child sexual abuse. So the independent variables education, gender, age are not vary with child abuse but the variable income could be effects on CSA. Thus, the third objective is significant and obviously CSA interacts with socio-economic determinants of growth and that is income could be great factor which could be affects in growth.
Table 3: CSA interacts with Income
Comparison with similar studies in other countries:
As I looking to my title of the study that always remembered by me that it is really tuff for measuring and finding result for its seriousness. This study needs more review of literature but again I did not do it properly for unavailability of not enough founding literature. There is not much similar literature I did not found any literature which is similar to this study. So it is difficult to comparison with my study to other studies. I just find out one study which is not similar to this study but that study has some underlying factors which are similar to this study. Those factors are not completely similar to having this study but some are being similar. Thus, I am taking this study for comparison with my study. Child sexual abuse is an issue which is not new for us but the study topic is new for us because “child sexual abuse and its impact on socio-economic growth” is a new topic for research study and I did not found any similar research topic which is already studying before. Or I could comparison with any study to this study. Child sexual abuse is not unknown by anyone but there are few study was founded of CSA. By the way, I found a study based in Botswana (April, 2005) and title is “Socio-economic Factors Contributing to Girl Child Abuse in Botswana.” This study only for girl child but my study is based on both girls and boys and the title is quite different from one another. On the other hand, the main purpose of the Botswana study was to investigate girl-child abuse and to identify in depth the major economic, social and situational factors that contribute to the problem of child sexual abuse in the country. As there are no other Botswana-specific studies on the socio-economic factors that lead to girl-child sexual abuse, this current study has a significant impact on policies, programs, counseling, and training related to child sexual abuse. The specific objectives were as follows. First is to Provide written, theatre, and visual information to be used to lobby government for a coherent, national child welfare policy as it relates to girl-child sexual abuse. Second objective is to Develop Botswana-specific literature for the prevention of sexual abuse of children, taking into account the socio-economic, political, and cultural realities in the country. Third is Use the results as a basis for developing new, and refining existing, Child line programs, services, and strategies, including those aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse. The fourth objective is to Support change within child-centered environments that will prevent child sexual abuse, such as changing the teachers’ code of conduct and establishing a procedure for filing complaints in schools. And the last objective is Increase awareness and concern for the issue and its causes, which have traditionally been taboo subjects in Botswana. The methods was used in three phases and that are design of a theoretical framework of the study with literature review; second phase was gathering information by interviews and focus group discussions and the third phase was interpretation of findings and final reporting. But my study is based on the method of case studies and focus group discussions and the study also applied literature review and interpreted findings. On the other hand, my study objectives are different to this study and I only used few of factors to find out results like poverty which is also used in this study and cultural taboos also similar to the study but other factors like power group; early marriage; early sign of puberty are different from the Botswana study but the study used early marriage as forced marriage and the study also used poor parenting and child neglect; social change; family disharmony; alcohol and drug abuse; pornography; abuse circle; child abuse seen as cure to HIV/AIDS and other STDs; exploitation of children’s socio-economic situations those are used as social-economic factors. Other factors and issues are applied in this report like earlier signs of puberty which is also used in my study; protection of abuser by victim’s family and others etc and more other factors are used in this study. This study emphasized on the interrelated nature of risk factors and child sexual abuse and the important interactions between the physical, mental, social, and emotional dimensions of the child’s development. The report findings are more interesting and the report said that as per key informants and focus groups identified child sexual abuse as being strongly factored by poverty, which underlies overcrowding and inadequate accommodation; it fosters social isolation and drives certain families to use their children as sex workers. Social change is another factor which is also effects on girl child abuse and also found that social change to be associated with the high rate of divorce and marital disharmony in many homes. This study also said that family discord, stress and low income are linked with higher rates of abuse. And finally the report presents some possible strategies for eradication of child sexual abuse and recommendations. Similarity is this low income is related with higher rates of abuse and just only this finding is similar to my study finding. And this report said that poverty is target area for removing CSA and for low income which is cause for higher rates of abuse. But the other findings are not related to my study findings. Those studies are not properly similar with this current study. At first, I said that there was not founded any similar study which may be needed for empirical evidence but this was not happen in this case. So, I could not present any other studies which are slightly related with this study or just like that even some are totally opposite from this study which studies are necessary for justifying. Because the lack of similar studies or semi- similar studies or even some points or concepts are not related to this specific study for these I could not use those study paper in this discussion. I just applying one study report which is not exactly similar to my study except one objective which is underlying factors and the applying study based on more factors but my study used only five factors; so I applied it and discussing on it. No other comparison founded on it.
Conclusion and Policy Suggestion:
The study conducts with a specific topic which is child sexual abuse and my target area is the Bouniabadh community of Breaking the Silence. This study stands small but its finding is not so small. CSA creates huge effect on our society and economy and which is not positive but negative most. The study population is not very much nourished in their societal and economical status and they are basically affected on this big and negative issue. They are affected in many ways and they could nothing about against it. The study finding is proved that income could be helped on reducing CSA. Community people are very well known about CSA and they have good sense on it but their consciousness is not enough to reducing this problem by the most effective underlying factors which are so much impactful to increases the rate of CSA. Child sexual abuse impacts negatively on socioeconomic growth also and this is the study finding what the study needed to know. Now I can say that CSA is not just a serious issue but a negative issue for the growth of societal and economical. As study saying, CSA creates diverse relationship with income and when is creating higher income than lower the rate of CSA and when the lower income creates the higher rate of CSA. So it stands negative relationship to each other. And the study hypothesis is child sexual abuse creates negative impact on growth. That’s mean; the higher rate of CSA creates negative impact or reduces growth. And the study finding tells like this. That is the community of Bouniabadh has the clear idea about CSA as their discussion other way some underlying factors shaping CSA in the community and ultimately CSA interacts with socioeconomic growth. That’s mean; the hypothesis is true. Study findings tell that clearly; CSA interacts with socioeconomic growth. Though, income is a measurement of growth and study finding says that if the rate of per capita income being lower, it creates higher the rate of CSA or if the rate of per capita income being higher, it creates lower the rate of CSA or we can say it like this way the higher rate of CSA creates lower per capita income and lower the rate of CSA creates lower the rate of per capita income. CSA and income both creates diverse relationship which is stands negative also so we can tell that the hypothesis is true and CSA creates negative impact on growth. Because the mainstream thing is the community which is my target population where some underlying factors shaping CSA and the rate of CSA being higher than income so growth is affected by CSA and the hypothesis is proved in this sense. But it could be positive growth, if the rate of CSA will be lower than the income rate then the income rate will be higher and also will be higher the growth rate. Hence, for higher income and lower CSA must need some policies in those places where have lacking. In the sense, the underlying factors will main target area and most powerful area which should be reduced. Those factors are poverty, power group, and early signs of puberty, early marriage and cultural taboos. Poverty alleviation is previously concerned but still now it is our main problem which is created more problems and many NGOs, INGOs main concern is to alleviate poverty. Some NGOs are working in our target area Bouniabadh, but still the community people sufferings by poverty. Breaking the Silence also works in this community but they are helpless to provide any economical incentives to them. For income generation it is necessary to reduce child sexual abuse. BTS should be aware people to send their children to school because education could be changes the perception of cultural taboos which will be removed from society and education is an element which could reduce early marriage and other perception which is shaping CSA. Moreover, income would be higher by education and after income generation poverty would be reduced. But those works needed more policies and not only policies but also policy implementation properly. Policy should be structured by the sense of income generation because higher income generation is would be only solution which could reduce the rate of CSA. Policy makers keep aware about the sensitiveness of this issue and for this laws should be strong which is helping to implement policies. Hence, policy makers should keep aware about underlying factors (poverty, power group, early marriage, cultural taboos, and early signs of puberty) which is shaping child sexual abuse. Policy would be appropriate for diminishing those factors from the community and keep policies for those people who are deprived. Because deprived people are actually suffers from this negative issue for their lower income. So policy makers actually concern about in income generation of poor or ultra poor people. In the context of poverty, poor people who do not have much income for get anything which is highly needed for getting awareness or getting education for diminishing CSA from this society. It is necessary to provide easy paths to earn a good income which could be better life leading for poor people and higher income will reduces child sexual abuse also. So, it should be adopt some policies which are helping to reduces CSA. Other way, if BTS will be succeeding to include CSA in NCTB that’s also creates helpful for implementation of policies. But most important thing is income generation and for this policy makers should be concern of policies would be fitted to this. Policies should be appropriate for reducing child sexual abuse and increases the rate of income. CSA is a kind of issue which needs long time for diminishing this problem and also needs some strong policies for solution. And the study findings tell us to increases income for reducing CSA. Policy makers must understand the seriousness and depth of this issue which will be helpful for making some perfect policies to reduce this silent issue. Also awareness raising policies will more crucial for understanding this issue and spread the idea of CSA.
Breaking the Silence. (2003, Dec.). Case studies of Non-Commercial social abuse of children in Bangladesh. (pp. 4-72). Dhaka.
Neil, D. (2005). How childhood sexual abuse affects interpersonal relationships.
UNICEF Bangladesh. (2008, Nov.). Shetra’s story- the life of a sexually exploiterd child in Bangladesh. Noorani.
Hossain, MD., Zahid, T., Preya, A., Haque, A.K.M. & Anam, L. (2010, April). Child abuse in Bangladesh: a silent crime. East West University.
Rubayet, H. (2012, June 15). Bringing child sexual abuse out of the closet: Your right to know. The Daily Star.
United Nation’s convention on the rights of the child (UNCRC). (1990).
Chowdhury, A. (2011, July 11). Viqarunnisa incident: Child sexual abuse needs desperate attention. Bdnews 24.com.
Janssen, D.F. (2002, Oct.). Growing up sexually: World reference atlas. Interim report (Vol. I). Amsterdam.
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London, K., Bruck, M., Ceci, J., & Shuman, W. (2005). Disclosure of child sexual abuse: What does the research tell us about the ways that children tell? Vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 194-226.
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