Lobotomy is a neurosurgical operation that involves severing connections in the brain’s prefrontal lobe. It is also called prefrontal leukotomy. The procedure formerly was used as a radical therapeutic measure to help grossly disturbed patients with schizophrenia, manic depression and mania, and other mental illnesses. The lobotomy procedure could have severe negative effects on a patient’s personality and ability to function independently. Lobotomy patients often show a marked reduction in initiative and inhibition.