Main focus of this lecture is to present on history of Nuclear Atom Structure. The nuclear model. Atoms contain three sub-atomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus at the centre of the atom. The nucleus is very much smaller than the atom as a whole. Protons and neutrons are held together rather closely in the center of the atom. Together they make up the nucleus, which accounts for nearly all of the mass of the atom.