Assignment on Merchandising Utility
Subject: Textile | Topics:

Introduction of W.T.P 

Water Treatment Plant is very essential now-a-day. The sea water or submerged water is not always fresh or sometimes not suitable for textile processing or even drinking. By this plant there can be possible to make qualified water where it can be used to dye house or any other required areas.  Water is remained as hard in nature generally. So there need to remove hardness of  water. So the water treatment plant is carried out.

Purpose of W.T.P

  1. To remove hardness from submerged water.
  2. To supply hard free water for dye house.
  3. To make soft water.
  4. pH maintain

The process flow chart of W.T.P

The process flow chart of W.T.P is mentioned in the below diagram-ally:

flow chart of W.T.P

Functions of the three filter pipes:


Filter name


01MgF FilterIron is controlled by this filter.
02AcF FilterCarbon can be controlled by this filter.
03Soft FilterHelps to make soft water after AcF filter if stays some of residual hardness.

N.B # One grain of hardness equals 17.1 mg/L or ppm of hardness.

Parts per million = ppm

Hardness of water:

Water described as “hard” is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance. Generally,

  •   The bi-carbonate of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe etc and
  •   The salts like SO4 and Cl of Ca, Mg are basically responsible for hardness.
  •   Mentioned that, the Na, K, NH4 salts are present in water but they don’t make any hardness in water.

Water Hardness test system

For testing of water hardness the following chemicals are used:


Chemicals name


Hardness buffer


Indicator- Calmazin



Hardness test procedure: 




If the color is –




No Hardness



Hardness present

Problem of Hard water in Textile Wet Processing:

  1. Scale formation in boiler

If hard water is used in boiler there has a possibility to form scale inside the boiler. As a result there requires higher temperature for heating it. So there need additional cost and rapidly face to erection.

The (CaCO3), [Mg (OH) 2] are produced from temporary hardness of boiler which are combinely creating scale inside the boiler. The reactions are—


  1. Hard water is responsible to make insoluble soap.
  2. Deposited insoluble compound on fabric during scouring
  3. Some dye stuffs are deposited as precipitated because of hardness.
  4. Reduce the heat conductivity of boiler.
  5. Red spot formation on fabric.

If Fe(HCO3) is present in hard water , then it reacts with soap. As a result the viscous (Gluey) and brown color of Fe (OH) 3 are precipitated.

4 Fe (HCO3)2    + 8C17H35COONa + 10H2O + O2 = 4 Fe (OH) 3 + 8 C17H35COOH + 8NaHCO3

            The brown colored gluey Feric Hydroxide is precipitated on the blank place of fabric’s yarn. As a result, the red color spot is made on fabrics.


The capacity of water is not available according to required amount for dye house and others. So there needs to construct more submergible pump. The W.T.P capacity is 120m3/hour.But there need about 150m3/


Boiler: Steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made of steel. There are Two boiler.

Function: Boiler function is to the heat produced by the combustion of fuel (Gas) to water and ultimately to generator steam. The steam produced may be supplied in wet processing department for –

  •   Heating cylinder dryer
  •   Steaming during dyeing

Objects: For supplying steam.

Types of steam:

  •   Wet steam
  •   Dry saturated steam, and
  •   Superheated steam.

In wet steam is used for the relevant processes.

Boiler No                  : 01

Brand Name              : LONG CHUAN

Origin                          : Taiwan

Type                           : Fire tube boiler

Capacity                      : 9.5 ton per hour

Pressure                     : 5 bar

Temperature             : 188º C

Fuel                             : Natural Gas

Boiler No                    : 02

Brand Name              : DL-A

Origin                          : KOREA

Type                           : Fire tube boiler

Capacity                      : 4 ton per hour

Pressure                     : 5 bar

Temperature             : 180º C

Fuel                             : Natural Gas

Pretreatment of the boiler water:

Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreatment that the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In Radiance fashion & jeans Ltd(Radiance Group). there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler.


Compressed Air:

 The compressed air is supplied from air condition from air compressor. There are two air compressors in Radiance fashion & jeans Ltd(Radiance Group).

Compressor No: 01


Origin: INDIA

Serial No: PNA503246

Maximum working pressure: 10 bar

Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar

Free air delivery: 54 liter / second

Normal shaft power: 34 Kw

Rotational Shaft speed: 3000 r pm

Gross weight: 480 kg

Year of Construction: 2000

Compressor No: 02


Origin: INDIA

Serial No: PNA503246

Maximum working pressure: 10 bar

Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar

Year of Construction: 2000

Volt: 400

Frequency: 50 Hz


Generator house is the main Power Producing Plant of Radiance fashion & jeans Ltd(Radiance Group). there are two Generators in Generators house. Specifications of two Generators are given below:

Generator                    : 01

Equipment Name         : Gas generator

Nos.                                : 02

Manufacturer                          : Caterpillor

Model                           : G35116

Volts                              : 415/24 hr

RPM                               : 1000

Generator                 : 02

Equipment Name         : Gas generator

Nos.                                : 02

Manufacturer                          : Caterpillor

Model                           : G35116

Volts                              : 415/24 hr

RPM                               : 1000


For smooth running of factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generators run. Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industry.


 The act which is done to Keep the factory plan equipments machine tools etc. in an optimum working condition, minimize the break down of m/c’s  to improve Productivity of existing m/c tools and avoid sinking of additional capacity and to Prolong the useful life of the factory plant & machinery is called Maintenance.

Objectives of Maintenance:

  • To Keep the factory Plants, equipments, Machine tools in an optimum working condition.
  • To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer.
  • To keep the downtime of Machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production Program.
  • To Keep the Production cycle within the stipulated range.

Maintenance systems

1.Breakdown maintenance

2.Schedule maintenance

3.Planned maintenance

4.Routine maintenance

5.Preventive maintenance

Breakdown maintenance:

Breakdown maintenance is done when any electrical or mechanical problem is informed by respective division where the problem is occurred. In the mean time maintenance people reach to the spot and try their best to solve the problem. Maintenance divisions have spare parts of most common instruments and immediately they change the part. Since still now all equipments & instruments of AKH knitting 7 Dyeing Ltd. Have the one year warrently. So, the supplier engineers are called to solve the very complicated problems.

Schedule maintenance:

Schedule maintenance is done by maintenance division are as follows:

  • Daily
  • Monthly
  • Weekly
  • Yearly

Daily maintenance

Daily maintenance report contains following terms:

  • Status of m/c
  • Problems

Maintenance people check all the machine and equipment status is it running or not. If there is any problem of any equipment or instrument they solve it and write down the problems & its solution details in log resister.

Monthly maintenance:

 Monthly maintenance jobs are done maintenance departments as follows:

  • Check pump housing oil
  • Check all bearing, valve, sensor etc.
  • Check all electrical & electronics appliances
  • Cleaning all dyeing machines
  • Replace air filter element
  • Change the lubricating
  • Check power transmission

Monthly maintenance report is given in appendix. I think this is a good & profitable maintenance programmed which is giving the additional facilities of the factory production & smooth running of the factories machinery.

Preventive Maintenance:

  Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description.

Routine Maintenance:

Maintenance of different machines are prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done.

Maintenance Procedure:

 Normally preventive maintenance should be done. During maintenance procedure following    points should be checked:

Maintenance of knitting machine/flat knitting machine:

SL.Parameters to be checked
Checking and tightening all motor terminals.
Checking and cleaning pressure sensor and tightening terminals
Cleaning the ventilation fans of panel board and circular fan on top of machine.
Checking and cleaning the interfacing and data cables.
Checking and tightening the proximity switch terminals.
Inspection, cleaning and tightening all the terminals in the panel.
Checking and tightening limit switch, safety door guard and the emergency switch.
Functional testing of the yarn detector.

Maintenance of Dyeing machine (mechanical)

SL.Parameters to be checked
1Greasing the m/c bearing.
2Complete cleaning of machine.
3Cleaning of drain valves, replace seals if required.
4Checking air supply filters, regulators auto drain seals
5Cleaning filters element and blow out.
6Greasing of unloading roller bearing.
7Checking of oil level and bolts of unloading roller gearbox.
8Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing.
9Checking & cleaning (if required) of main vessel level indicator.
10Checking the oil level of pump bearing and refill if required.
11Checking the function of heat and cool modulating valves
12Checking all door seals.

Maintenance of Dyeing machine (electrical)

SL. Parameters to be checked
Checking & cleaning fluff and dirt at dirt at all motor fan covers.
Checking all motor’s terminals
Checking main panels (by using compressed air)
Checking panel cooling fan & clean its filter
Cleaning main pump inverter and its cooling fan.
Checking all circuit breaker, magnetic conductors and relays.
Checking current setting of all circuit breaker & motor over load.
Visual checking of all power & control cables.
Checking all pressure switches
Checking calibration of main vessel & all addition tank
Checking all pneumatic solenoids
Checking setting of tangle sensor.
Checking setting & operation of lid safely switches.
Checking all emergency switches
Checking all indicating lamps
Checking all on/off switches
Checking all signal isolators.

Maintenance of Dewatering Machine

Sl. Parameters to be checked
1.Cleaning of softener application unit
2.Checking of rotating device of rotating trolley unit
3.Checking of pneumatic pressure valves
4.Checking and replacement (if necessary) of rubber pads of stretching unit
5.Checking of plaiting device
6.Checking of speed regulating unit


Boiler maintenance

Sl. Parameters to be checked
1.Checking of gas pressure and gas supply line
2.Dosing of softening chemicals to supply water
3.Checking of all steam lines
4.Cleaning of burner tank (after six month interval)
5.Checking and replacement of valves
6.Cleaning of feed water tank
7.Checking and replacement of filters
8.Cleaning of sight glass

Maintenance Tools & Equipments:

  • Combination tools / spanner
  • Socket ratchet set
  • Slide range
  • Pipe threat cutting tools
  • Bearing puller
  • Pipe range
  • Pipe cutting tools
  • Hole punch
  • Divider
  • Easy opener
  • Heavy scissor
  • Oil can
  • Drill machine and drill bit
  • Grease gun
  • Grinding m/c
  • Welding m/c
  • Hammer
  • Hacksaw blade
  • Handsaw (wood)


The maintenance department of The Rupashi Composite Knitting Industries Ltd. is well equipped. It has sufficient maintenance manpower including mechanical and electrical engineers. To increase the lifetime of the machineries and ensure the proper running of the machines, the task of this department is very important.

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