Garments Manufacturing Technology in Padma Poly Cotton Knit Fabrics Limited
Subject: Textile | Topics:

Chapter 01:


Manufacturing is the production of goods for use or sale using labor and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or

formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.

Project Description:

Padma poly cotton knit fabrics Ltd is a 100% export oriented composite plant for knit fabrics and garments. Padma poly cotton knit fabrics Ltd is well equipped with modern and sophisticated European state of the art textile finishing equipment and managed by a vastly experienced management. Padma poly cotton knit fabrics Ltd committed to render best service on timely shipment of garments to the valued customers all over the world.

Padma polyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited AT A GLANCE:

Name of Company                              :           Padma PolyCotton Knit Fabrics Limited.


Factory                                                :           131, Tejgaon Industrial Area

North Begunbari, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Telephone: 88-02-9123928-30

Fax: 88-02-9885389



Office                                                  :           PrintersBuilding, 5 Rajuk Avenue

Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

Telephone: 88-02-9568917-20,

Fax: 88-02-9562045-56

E-mail:                                        Year of establishment                        :             1992

Nature of business                              :           100% Export-oriented composite knit Dyeing factory.

Nature of company                             :           Private Limited Company

Name of the contact persons              :           Khan Mohammad Ameer

(Chief Executive Officer)

Khalid Hossain Khan:(Operation Director)

Total employees                                  :           5500 persons

Turnover                                              :          US$ 40 million/year (2009)

Name and address of bank                 :          Sonali Bank, Local Office

Motijheel Commercial Area

Dhaka -1000, Bangladesh

Fax: 880-02-9561410

Factory and building                           :           43556 square meters

Building                                             :           8 storied dye house and finishing area

Certificate                                           :           ISO 9001: 2000

Item of product:       

Knit fabric  : Single jersey, Heavy jersey, Pique,Lacoste, Interlock,Rib, Dropneedle, Herringbone , Popcorn, Waffle, Jacquard, Terry, 2/3threadfleece (Brushed/unbrushed), Loop knit    Collar & cuff, Striper peach and Emarizing etc with open width and tubular finish.

Garments:       T-shirt, Polo shirt, Sweat-shirt, Golf shirt, Cardigan, jogging suit, Short/Trouser, Legging Tank Tops, Children wear, Jogging suits, Fashion dress and Children wear etc.

  Qualify Certification:

ISO 9002

Marks & Spencer



DuPont Teflon


DOTS by Cu (Control union)

OE by CU (Control Union)


BGMEA Gold Medal-2007.

For Outstanding performance on corporate social Responsibility & knit export.

Bangladesh Business Person-2007

Organized by DHL & the Daily Star.

PVH Gold Medal – 2007

For in time shipmen of qualify goods.

CSR Award – 2008

By Standard Chartered bank & Financial Express

& so many from nation & international bodies.

   Different Sections:










        Different Sections


 a) knitting Section:

  • Knitting
  • Inspection

b) Dyeing section:

  • Batch section
  • Dye house
  • Dyeing lab.
  • Quality control
  • Finishing

c) Garments section:

  • Merchandising
  • Sample
  • Cutting Section
  • Sewing Section
  • Finishing Section

 d)Printing section


e)Embroidery section


f) Maintenance section:

  • Electrical
  • Mechanical

g) Store Section

h) Administration Section

i) Security Section

j) Marketing Section

k) Production Planning & Control

l) Human Resource & Development Section





















    1.Sigle jersey8730 kg/day
    2.Pique8730 kg/day
    3.Interlock1000 kg/day
    4.Fleece1950 kg/day
    5.Lycra S/J1250 kg/day
    6.1×1 Rib2680 kg/day
    7.Striper1000 kg/day
B.Dyeing30 Tons / day
C.Finishing35 Tons /day
     1.T-  shirt5000 dozens/day
     2.Polo shirt833 dozens / day
     3.Sweat shirt416 dozens /day
     4.Jog set333 dozens/ day

Main buyers:

     Name Country NameCountry
S. OliverGermanyNew lookUK
Tom tailorGermanyC&AGermany
IC companyNetherlandLIDLGermany
EspiritGermanyGrey StoneGermany

Chapter 02:

SectionTotal Employee






In Padma polycotton knit fabrics ltd the management system is regular. Employers are well skilled & are graduate in their respective profession.


the industry has three (3) shift for the workers. shift duration of every shift is eight (8) hours.





6 am

2 pm








  1. To Give Program Slip According To Daily Production Plan.
    1. a.      To Follow Up The Production Process From Raw Materials To Finished Goods
    2. To Match Shade In Connection With Fabric Quality According To Buyer Requirements.
    3. To Find Out Fabric Faults As Possible (Before Finishing), & Take Step To Recover From It.
    4. To Rectify The Finished Fabric Rejected From Quality Control Department.
    5. To Coordinate With Unit Technical Manager For Achieving The Target Production.
    6. To Motivate Supervisors & Workers For Achieving Maximum Production With Minimum Faults.
    7. To Check The Daily Production Report.
    8. To Study Dye & Chemicals Nature Delivery By Manufacture & Apply Them Correctly To The Production To Get Best Product


The main job as well as main responsibilities of SPO/PO is to process control. the responsibility of a SPO/PO is to complete a batch in required time. Any faults or disturbance happens in batch, the blame goes to po/spo .the PO should try to minimize overhead expenditures & also try to make a batch more profitable. In word he is charge of a floor & his responsibility is to keep moving the production smooth.

 Communication system:

  • Intercom telephone
  • Fax
  • Mobile phone
  • E-mail
  • Written letters
  • Oral

Chapter 03


Layout of Knitting Section 

Layout of Circular Knitting Machines Section (1st Floor)

Layout of Circular Knitting Machines Section (2nd Floor)

Layout of Flat Bed Knitting Machines Section:


Knitting is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. The length wise columns of stitches, corresponding to the warp in woven cloth, are called WALES; the cross wise rows of stitches, corresponding to the filling in woven cloth, are called COURSES, FILLING KNITS (WEFT KNITS) are those fabrics in which the courses are composed of a single strand of yarn, while warp knits are those in which the Wales are composed of single strand of yarn. GAUGE corresponds to the yarn in a woven fabric, and is defined as the number of needles of yarns in half inches of cloth. The higher the gauge, the more compact and finer is the cloth.

 Raw material of Knitting:

Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric.      

 Types of raw material:

1.         Yarn

2.         Lycra


         The raw material (cotton yarn) used in Knitting are collected from different spinning mills. They produce carded and also combed yarn according to their buyer requirement. The yarn count range vary for carded yarn from (34/1) to (7/1) Ne. The yarn count range vary for combed yarn from (40/1) to (20/1) Ne.

 Source of yarn for knitting:

Name of the spinning MillsLocation
Arif Knit spinning LtdGazipur
The Delta spinningKashimpur, Gazipur
Square yarn LtdKashimpur, Gazipur
Bengol  NFK TextileGazipur
NRG spinning millGazipur
Prime TextilePagla,Narayangong
RSWM LtdIndia
AA Kader syntheticsNarangong
Shirin spinning LtdShreepur, Gazipur
Hyosung VietnamSouth Korea
Malek spinningValuka, Mymensingh
Sunny InternationalThermax spinning ltd
Aman Cotton Fabrics Ltd


Type of yarnCount
Cotton Yarn 16s ,20s, 22s, 24s, 26S, 28S, 30S, 34S, 40S
Polyester Yarn75D, 100D,150D
Spandex yarn20D,40D,70D
Grey Mellange (C-90% V-10%)20S ,22S ,24S, 26S ,30,34S
PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton)24S, 26S, 28S, 30S

 Classification of Knitting Section:

Knitting section is divided into three sections

1.Flat knitting section

2.Circular knitting section.

3. Fabric inspection section.

 Machine Specification:

M/C Brand






Total needleProduction  capacity

Collar        Cuff

RuntimeMatsuyaJapan195414   Flying tigerTaiwan65414   Shima sikiJapan75414


Brand nameModelOriginQuantity
Guven CelikYX -2400ATurkey1
UZU F/6UZ –FThailand1


Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. These includes-

Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.

Finished G.S.M.

Yarn count

Types of yarn (combed or carded)

Diameter of the fabric.

Stitch length

Color depth.


It is technical term that indicates the weight of the fabric per square meter.

Point considered while setting grey GSM:

Enzyme level


Suided or non- suided

Changing of GSM:

Major control by VDQ pulley.

Minor control by stitch length adjustment.

Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley     moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase.



Single Jersey M/C:

a)         S/J  Plain

b)        Single lacoste

c)         Double lacoste

d)        Single pique

e)         Double pique

f)         Terry

Interlock M/C:

a)  Interlock pique

b)  Honeycomb fabric

c)  Face/Back rib

d) Birds eye

Rib M/C:

a)   1X1 Rib fabric

b)   2X2 Rib fabric

c)    Honeycomb


1.                 Hole Mark


  • Holes are the results of yarn breakage or yarn cracks.
  • During loop formation the yarn breaks in the rejoin of the needle    hook.
  • If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density.
  • Badly knot or splicing.
  • Yarn feeder badly set.


  • Yarn strength must be sufficient to withstand the stretch as well as uniform.
  • Use proper count of yarn.
  • Correctly set of yarn feeder.
  • Knot should be given properly.

2.        Needle MarkCauses:

  • When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics.
  • If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics.


  • Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch

3.                 Sinker MarkCauses:

  • When sinker corrodes due to abrasion then sometimes cannot hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes.
  • If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes.


  • Sinker should be changed.

4. StarCauses:

  • Yarn tension variation during production.
  • Buckling of the needle latch.
  • Low G.S.M fabric production.


  • Maintain same Yarn tension during production.
  • Use good conditioned needles.

5. Drop Stitches


  • Defective needle.
  • If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook.
  • Take-down mechanism too loose.
  • Insufficient yarn tension.
  • Badly set yarn feeder.


  • Needle should be straight & well.
  • Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation.
  • Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension.
  • Yarn tension should be properly

6.  Oil stainCauses:

  • When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line.


  • Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics.
  • Well maintenance as well as proper oiling.

7.   Rust stain


  • If any rust on the machine parts.


  • If any rust on the machine parts then clean it.
  • Proper maintenance as well as proper oiling.

8. Pin holeCauses:

  • Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric.


  • Change the needle

9.Grease stainCauses:

  • Improper greasing
  • Excess greasing


  • Proper greasing as well as proper maintenance

10.  Cloth fall- out


  • Cloth fall- out can occur after a drop stitch especially when an empty needle with an empty needle with closed latch runs into the yarn feeder and remove the yarn out of the hook of the following  needles.


  • Make sure all the latches of needle are closed with feeding yarn after a drop stitch.

11.  Barre:

A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise        (width wise)   Stripe.


  • This fault comes from yarn fault.
  • If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn.
  • Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn.
  • During spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed specially in carded yarn & these fibers have similar characteristics.
  • In draw fame different similar classes sliver is mixed and make one sliver.


  • We can use this fabric in white color.

12.  Fly dust:      Causes:

  • In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production.


  • Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time.
  • By cleaning the floor continuously.
  • By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor.
  • Over all ensure that lint does not attach to the fabric.

13.  Yarn contamination


  • If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing,
  • If lot, count mixing occurs.


  • By avoiding lot, count mixing.
  • Fault less spinning.

14. Yarn Faults:

  • Neps.
  • Slubs.
  • Thick/Thin p
  • Yarn count variations.


After collecting fabric rolls from different machines, these fabrics need to inspect thoroughly by the quality inspectors to assure required quality before dyeing. Quality assurance of knitted grey fabric is described here.


1)    Brought good quality yarn.

2)   Machines are oiled and greased accordingly.

3)   G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately.

4)   Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month.

5)   Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system.


The list of equipments to assure quality:-

1) Inspection m/c.

2) Electronic balance

3) GSM cutter.

4) Measuring tape.

5) Scissors.

6) Indication sticker  

Chapter 04:



Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics which should be dyed and processed for a particular lot of a particular order.

 Function or Purpose of Batch Section:

–         To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or other source.

–         Turn the grey fabric if require.

–         To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria –

  • Order sheet (Received from buyer)
  • Dyeing shade (color or white, light or dark)
  • M/C capacity
  • M/C available
  • Type of fabrics(100% cotton, PE, PC, CVC)
  • Emergency

–         To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.

–         To keep records for every previous dyeing.

 Proper batching criteria:

–         To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c.

–         To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time.

–         To keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same shade.

–         To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.

 Batch management:

Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager. Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency.


The inspection and grading of fabric quality is one of the important functions of Quality Control in the grey or finished state, the grading of fabric is a difficult task, taking two primary considerations: as the frequency of effects and the seriousness of defects.

The grading has two primary functions: First, to classify the fabrics according to standard qualities based on the end-use and costumer demands and second, to supply information as to the qualities actually being produced.

The Knitted fabric can be classified into three levels of quality, each one have a number of points for defects as follows.

The First quality level                          40 points per 100 Linear Yards.

The Second quality level                     (40 – 80) points per 100 Linear Yards.

The Third quality level                        80 points or more per 100 Linear Yards.

 M/c s in batch section:

Machine NameAir turning  machine
No. of M/c02
Machine nameAir turning machine
No. of M/c01




Chapter 05


Lay out of Dyeing and Printing Section

Layout of Dyeing & Finishing Machines Section (Old Project)

Layout of Dyeing & Finishing Machines Section (New Project 1st Unit)


Lab Dip Development means the sample which is dyed according to buyer’s requirements (similar shade and so on).Depending on lab dip development sample dyeing and bulk production dyeing planning done.

 Objective of Lab Dip:


The main objectives in lab dip are as follows.

To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing.

To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or Spectroflash.

To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.

Finally approved Lab Dip(Grade: A B C)

 Development of lab DIP:

Receiving standard swatch

Spectrophotometer reading

Recipe start up software

Start up recipe given

 Automatic dispersion (auto dispersing machine)

Pot dyeing


Normal wash

Acid wash

Hot wash

Cold Rinsing


Chapter 06:



Raw materials used in the dyeing section are:

1. Grey fabrics

2. Chemicals

3. Dyes

1. Grey fabrics:

Following types of gray fabrics are dyed:

  • Single jersey
  • Single jersey with lycra
  • Polo pique
  • Back Pique
  • Single lacoste
  • Double Lacoste
  • Fleece
  • Rib
  • Rib with lycra
  • 1Χ1 rib
  • 2Χ2 rib
  • Different types of collar & cuff

 Common faults AND THEIR REMEDIES in knit dyeing

1. Crack, rope & crease marks:


Poor opening of the fabric rope

Shock cooling of synthetic material

Incorrect process procedure

Higher fabric speed


Pre-Heat setting

Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature

Reducing the m/c load

Higher liquor ratio

Running at a slightly higher nozzle pressure

2. Fabric distortion and increase in width:


Too high material speed

Low liquor ratio


By decreasing both nozzle pressure & winch speed.

3. Pilling:


Too high mechanical stress on the surface of the fabric

Excess speed during processing

Excess foam formation in the dye bath


By using  of a suitable chemical lubricant

By using antifoaming agent

By turn reversing the Fabric before dying.

4. Running problem:

A. Ballooning:


Seam joining with too densely sewn


By cutting a vertical slit of 10-15 cm in length for escaping the air.

B. Intensive foaming:


Pumping a mixture of air and water


By using antifoaming agent

5. Uneven dyeing:


Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring, bleaching & mercerizing)

Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres

Quick addition of dyes and chemicals

Lack of control of dyeing m/c


By ensuring even pretreatment

By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres

By slow addition of dyes and chemicals

Proper controlling of dyeing m/c

6. Shade variation (Batch to batch):

Batch to batch shade variation is common in exhaust dyeing which is not completely avoidable. Even though, to ensure a consistent batch to batch production of shade the following matters should be controlled carefully-

Use standard dyes and chemicals

Maintain the same liquor ratio

Follow the standard pretreatment procedure

Maintain the same dyeing cycle

Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the shade

Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process.

The Ph, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily.

7. Dye spot:


Improper mixing of dyestuff in the solution, in right amount of water, at the temperature.


We should pass the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer when adding it to the chemical tank, so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed.

 7.                Patchy dyeing:


Uneven heat in the machine.

Improper impregnation of dye liquor due to the low wetting property of the fabric.

Dye migration during intermediate dyeing.


By proper pretreatment.

By adding extra wetting agent.

Heat should be same throughout the dye liquor.

8.                Specky dyeing:


Excessive foam in the dye bath.

Fall of water droplets on fabric surface before or after dyeing.

In sufficient after treatment.


By using antifoaming agent.

Sufficient after treatment.

By using a good wetting agent in the dye bath.


Old Floor:

SlMachineryNo. of machineBrandOrigin
1DeWatering01WeissWestern Germany
3Hydro extractor01DilmenlerTurkey
4Hydro extractor01BiancoItaly
5Slitting M/C01BiancoItaly
8Open Compactor01FerraroItaly
9Open Compactor01Sperotto RimerItaly
10Tube Compactor01FerraroItaly
11Weft Straighter01Mahalo
12Stenter M/C01BrucknerGermany
13Raising  M/C01cometItaly


SlName of MachineNo. of machineBrandOrigin
3Open Compactor(Chain)01FerraroItaly
4Weft Straighter01CorinoItaly

 Finishing section is consisting of two lines. These are –

  1. Tube line
  2. Open line

Chapter 07:


Total garments divided into three (3) sections

Cutting section

Sewing section

Finishing section

Cutting Section

M/C Specification:

Auto Spreader (4):

M/C No.: 01

Brand Name: Jutex

Country: Germany

Year of Manufacturing: 2006


M/C No.: 02

Brand Name: Gerber

Country: Germany

Year of Manufacturing: 2006

M/C No.: 03

Brand Name: Gerber

Country: Germany

Year of Manufacturing: 2007

M/C No.: 04

Brand Name: Gerber

Country: Germany

Year of Manufacturing: 2006

Hand Cutter (20):

Brand Name: Mack (10)

Country: Japan

Speed: 3000/3600

Volt: 220

Frequency: 50/60 Hz

Phase: 1

Blade: Straight bar blade

Brand Name: Blue Streak (10)

Country: USA

Speed: 2850

Volt: 220

Frequency: 50Hz

Phase: 1

Blade: Straight bar blade


  1. Input problem.
  2. Scissor man cuts the tubular fabric to spread randomly and send to cutting floor and then find out the desired fabric to lay on the table.
  3. There is may be no group for any table
  4. Quality inspection & front part & back part are fold together. The faulty body parts are rejected but the rest ok body is not match by the same batch.
  5. Cutting quality man may not be trained
  6. Check, Varigated rib  fabric lay quantity may be excess. As a result reject  percentage may be increased.
  7. Fabric spreading
  8. There is may be no identification number to the rest of the cutting piece of the lay
  9. There is no individual marker man for any unit.
  10. Three cutting man cuts the fabric according to the marker.
  11. Four man working with numbering m/c to sort out the cut fabric.
  12. Two man preparing the bundle cards by writing on a piece of fabric
  13. In this stage four men bundled the parts according to serial number.

Computer Aided Design (CAD):

The design which is make by computer with the help of Digitizer is called Computer Aided Design(CAD).The  CAD can be 2D or 3D .In Knit Concern Ltd 2D is used .

Software Brand:

a)                 Lectra System


b)                Gerber Garment Technology


Digitizing process for Gerber System:

First step: At first the cursor place in Start Piece button and click once.

Second Step: Which piece input point button that piece and (*) Delimiter button click.

Third Step: After input Piece name need to input category name by a button click and then delimiter button click.

Step Four: After input piece name, category name need to input Piece description by a button click and then delimiter button click.

Step Five: Click Rule table button once (Which name rule table saved) by delimiter button click.

Step Six: Grain Line need to take by a button click from a distance and delimiter button click.

Step Seven: Grade point by a.b.1. In this way where curve there a button click and cut marker/notch point a.b.1 and then piece mirror cursor click a button and delimiter click If the piece is not in mirror close piece cursor a button click and delimiter clicking.

Step Eight : If need to mark in piece then Mirror piece /Close Piece and then without giving delimiter give Internal label click  once and click delimiter.

Step Nine: After finished Piece digitizing need to place cursor to end input and a button click and finished.

 Lectra Systems:

Step One     : At first the pattern need to place on the digitizing table.

Step Two    : For every part need to take new sheet.

Step Three  : Then click twice F button and for curve position any part click C, Any. Fault to take point D= delete

Step Four   :  For Grain Line click A

Step Five    :  After one part digitizing finished click F to finish.

Step Six      :  Repeating whole process another part can be digitizing.

Effect of CAD: 

All the jobs described so far lend themselves ideally to   computerized graphics. The master patterns or blocks can be stored as images in the computer and called up as required, together with a list of each of the pattern parts for that block. With the use of a light pen, each part can be brought up in turn and enlarged on the screen. This job obviously retains its skill and even requires the added skill of computer operation. With interactive graphics the pattern maker can now adjust each part to match the designer’s concept.


Block images stored in computer

Grading technique replaced by expert system

Percentage wasted computed and displayed for each layout

Fabric pattern constraints incorporated in the program

 Learning system incorporated

Lay-makers deskilled

Cutters replaced by CAD/CAM

Women take over as operators

Wages reduced.

Sewing Section

 Machine Description of SEWING:

Sl. No

Name of Machine




01Automatic Tubular M/CGerber2 Sets
021 Needle Lock StitchJuki122 Sets
031 Needle Lock StitchTypical80 Sets
041 Needle Lock StitchBrother 33 Sets
05Over Lock 6 ThreadPegasus20 Sets
06Over Lock 4 ThreadPegasus130 Sets
07Over Lock 3 ThreadPegasus1 Sets
08Over Lock 5 ThreadJuki7 Sets
09Over Lock 4 ThreadJuki12 Sets
10Over Lock 4 ThreadTypical30 Sets
11Flat LockPegasus70 Sets
12Flat LockJuki6 Sets
13Flat LockTypical18 Sets
14Zig ZagJuki2 Sets
15Zig ZagYeamata2 Sets
16Back TopPegasus6 Sets
17PicotingKansai2 Sets
18Scabiling1 Sets
19Somking 33 N2 Sets
20Rib CuttingIdea Ltd3 Sets
21Rib CuttingPegasus3 Sets
224 Thread Over LockKansai12 Sets
23Flat Lock12 Sets
24Thread Reconing M/CHashima3 Sets
25Snap ButtonNgishing2 Sets
26Button HollJuki3 Sets
27Button StitchJuki2 Sets
28Button Holl Brother1 Set
29Button Stitch1 Set
30P.M.D KansaiKansai2 Sets
31Thread Cutter M/CGrand20 Sets
32Thread Suction1 Set
334. Needle Feed of the ARMPegasus2 Sets
344. Needle Feed of the ARMYeanato3 Sets

Sl. No

Name of Machine



1Rib CuttingHasima1 Set
21 Needle VerticalJuki6 Sets
3Back TopKansai2 Sets
4Cutting Machine 10”K.M4 Sets
5Cutting Machine 8”K.M2 Sets
6Cutting Machine 8”Eastman3 Sets
7Bar TackJuki3 Sets
8Over lockPegasus23 Sets
9Button StitchBrother1 Set
10Feed of the armBrother1 Set
11Plain MachineBrother42 Sets

 Types of Sewing Machine:
1.            Single Needle Lock Stitch Sewing Machine
2.            Double Needle Machine (D/N)
3.            Overlock Machine (O/L)
4.            Flat lock Machine (F/L)
5.            Kanshai Machine
6.            Button Hole Machine
7.            Button join  Mac and
8.            8.Bar-tack Machine (B/T), etc.
Thread Use In Different Machine:

Machine Type                                  Thread Type

Plain/Auto Plain M/C                        1 needle Thread

1 Bobbin Thread

Double Needle M/c                            Two Needle

Two bobbins

Over Lock                               2 Needle Thread

2 Looper Thread

Cylinder Bed                                     3 Needle Thread

Spreader Thread

looper Thread

Flat bed                                   3 Needle Thread

Spreader Thread

looper Thread

Different Between Cylinder Bed & Flat Bed:

Cylinder Bed                                             Flat Bed

1.                 Hem can make                                  Hem can not make
2.                 Piping mechanism is not available    Piping mechanism is available
3.                 Top stitch can done                          Top stitch can not done.Training Exercise Sheet:

In training section sketch of different parts of a garment on a paper for practicing sewing. Initially this is given to the worker who is newly joined in training section.

This exercise sheet helps the worker-

  • To straight up the sewing line
  • To adjust the stitch Per Inch(SPI)
  • To change the direction of needle as per movement.
  • To balance the speed of the machine
  • To learn the Bartack mechanism

Single Needle Sewing Machine: Plain Machine

Machine Parts:                                 

  • Thread Stand
  • Thread Clamp
  • Thread Retainer
  • Thread up lever guide
  • Thread guide
  • Tension disk
  • Pressure screw
  • Pressure bar
  • Pressure feet
  • Hand lifter
  • Needle clamp
  • Needle
  • Needle plate
  • Feed dog
  • SPI adjustor
  • Reverse lever
  • Bobbin winder
  • Pulley
  • Oil sight window
  • Pulley belt cover
  • Leg lifter
  • Foot
  • Safety guide
  • Motor

Over Lock Sewing Machine:

Machine Parts:    

  • Thread Stand
  • Thread Clamp
  • Thread Retainer
  • Thread guide
  • Tension disk
  • Pressure screw
  • Pressure bar
  • Pressure feet
  • Pressure Spring
  • Eye protection glass
  • Upper & Lower looper
  • Needle clamp
  • Needle
  • Needle plate
  • Feed dog
  • SPI adjustor
  • Pulley
  • Oil sight window
  • Pulley belt cover
  • Leg lifter
  • Safety guide
  • Motor

Cylinder Bed Machine:

Machine Parts:     

  • Thread Stand
  • Thread Clamp
  • Thread Retainer
  • Thread guide
  • Tension disk
  • Pressure screw
  • Pressure bar
  • Pressure feet
  • Eye protection glass
  • Looper
  • Needle clamp
  • Needle
  • Needle plate
  • Feed dog
  • SPI adjustor
  • Spreader Mechanism
  • Oil sight window
  • Pulley belt cover
  • Safety guide
  • Motor

Flat Bed Machine:

Machine Parts:                                 

  • Thread Stand
  • Thread Clamp
  • Thread Retainer
  • Thread guide
  • Tension disk
  • Pressure screw
  • Pressure bar
  • Pressure feet
  • Eye protection glass
  • Looper
    • Needle clamp
    • Needle
    • Needle plate
    • Feed dog
    • SPI adjustor
    • Spreader Mechanism
    • Oil sight window
    • Pulley belt cover
    • Piping Mechanism(Folder)
    • Motor

 Sequence of garment production:


Number matching front 2 black pants (back on pant on upper side)

Solder stitching (By over lock m/c)

Neck rib truck (By plain m/c)

Neck rib sewing by plain m/c

Neck rib joins with body pant

Neck top sin

Solder to solder back tip

Size label sewing

Solder to solder back top sin

Sleeve marking ad number matching with body parts.

Sleeve tuck with body part (Sleeve mark point & solder mark point)

Sleeve joint with the body part

Side sewing and care label joint

Bottom hem tuck (at the end side)

Bottom hem sewing

Arm bottom hem joint


Polo- Shirt sewing sequence:

Lining joint with collar part by heat pressing

Collar marking for open stitch

Collar inside open stitch

Collar marking

Collar ¼ top sin

Collar cutting

Band Rolling

Band joint with Collar

Band top sin 1/6

Placket lining

Placket marking

Placket Rolling

Placket joint

Placket top sin 1/6

Placket Pattern top sin

Placket pattern top sin 1/6

Box Sewing

Pocket Rolling

Pocket iron

Pocket marking

Pocket joint with body

Yoke joint with back part

Yoke ¼ top sin

Back & front part matching number

Solder joint

Solder top sin

Collar marking

Collar & body number matching

Collar joint with body part

Collar top sin in jointing point

                                                                                                                   Sleeve marking

Sleeve over locked

Sleeve Rolling

Sleeve pair matching

Sleeve & body matching

Sleeve body tuck

Sleeve joint with body part

Sleeve marking for batch

Sleeve batch joint (left & right side)

Body marking for batch

Batch joint with body part

                                                              Label make

Label Iron

Main label joint in back side

Sleeve opening tuck

Body hem sewing

Care label sewing

 Side joint

Band tuck

Band tape joint

Band top sin

Sleeve chap tuck


Sewing sequence of Jacket:


Contrast joint with the pocket by pressing.

Pocket rolling

Number matching with body & Pocket

Pocket joint

Zig Zag top sin over Pocket

Numbering & gathering back & front parts

Solder joint by over lock m/c

Top sin on the solder joint line

Collar make

Chain stitching on collar marking line by pain m/c

Collar Joint

Collar over locked in joining line

Numbering sleeve and body part

Sleeve joins with body by overlock m/c

Zigzag top sin on Arm hole

 Zipper piping

Side sewing /body sewing by over lock

Zig Zag topsin (side sewing line)

 Bottom hem tuck sewing

Tuck bottom hem with body parts

Arm hole tuck

Botton hem top sin Zig zag

  Cuff making

Cuff joint by over lock m/c

Cuff top sin Zig Zag

Zipper joint with body part

Collar tape part joint with zipper side

Collar taping part join with body part

Zipper top sin

Collar top sin

Label joint with body part by plain m/c

Quality Table

(Arm hole point, sleeve hem, Bottom hem, Top sin,

Side seam, Thread cutting. Spot etc are inspected)


Feed system, needle and thread together determine the seam appearance and performance. The problems which arise when materials are sewn in their seriousness. Some are major problems which can not be overlooked and for these problems garments will be rejected by the inspector, whereas some are minor problems which are negligible in low quality garments. The sewing defects are:

Seam pucker

Broken or open stitch

Staggered (spread out) stitch

Slipped or skipped stitch

Variable stitch density

The first two of them are major problems and the rest are less serious problems.

Fig: Seam pucker

Seam pucker

Seam pucker is a major problem. Pucker is a wrinkled appearance along a seam when compared to a smooth fabric. The main causes of seam pucker are mentioned below:

Mainly seam pucker occurs due to unequal tension feed-dog and pressure foot on two plies of fabric.

It also occurs due to unequal thread tension and unsuitable thread.

It may occur due to feeding problem and needle size.

It also occurs due to shrinkage of either fabric or sewing thread.

It may occur due to instability of fabric dimensions or fabric construction.

Broken or Open stitch

It is also a major problem of sewing. The reasons of occurring broken or open stitch are mentioned below:

Mainly due to tension variation between needle and bobbin thread in high speed sewing machine, breakage of threads occurs. This is responsible for broken stitch.

Needle thread breakage occurs due to following reasons:

If tension on needle thread is more;

If snarling of yarn occurs in tension disc.

If fraying of needle thread occurs.

Excess needle heating or hook heating.

Low quality sewing thread.

Sharp edge of throat plate, hook plate, bobbin cage, needle groove, etc.

      The causes of bobbin thread breakage are mentioned below:

Faulty winding of thread on bobbin.

Excessive tension on bobbin thread.

Sharp edge of bobbin cage, looper eye and spring.

Faulty fitting of bobbin cage.

Staggered stitch

If the stitches produced by needle are not parallel with the seam line individually then they are called staggered stitches.

The causes of staggered stitches are as follows:

  • Due to needle deflection and vibration.
  • Due to loose fitting of needle butt inside the needle bar.
  • Due to wrong selection of needle point.
  • Due to combination problem of needle and thread size.
  • Due to faulty speed and motion of feed-dog.
  • Due to improper controlling of fabric by the feed mechanism.

Slipped or Skipped stitch

If the continuation of stitches in a seam line hampers by slipping some stitches, then such stitch is called slipped or skipped stitch. If the looper in the machine can not pick the loop of needle thread from the underside, slipped stitch arises. The causes of slipped stitch are:

If the timing between needle and looper or bobbin is not proper, needle thread loop is not picked up by bobbin thread loop when required. This will cause slipped stitch.

If the loop of needle becomes smaller in size, slipped stitch occurs.

Unequal tension between the two sets of thread.

Deflection or vibration of needle.

Due to flagging during sewing.


Finishing is the last processes to making apparel. The finishing process sequence are as follows






    The British System.

The American System

International System.

The Canadian System

The Japanese System

The Dutch System

5 Basic Symbols for all systems:

SymbolsRepresentingInstruction On
Wash TabWashing

Hand IronPressing or Ironing

Dry CleaningDry Cleaning


Label is the thse identification of Apparel. Labels are various types named ma in Label and Size label.

 Main Label:

Indicate the Trade name of Apparel.

Size Label:

Indicate the size of the Apparel.


   Pressing means shaping a garment or garments parts or garments components.

Pressing is affected by the application of heat and pressure during a certain time.

Steam, Compressed air and suction can assist the process.

 Packing Instruction for Cartooning:

In fact packing will do according to buyer’s requirements.

Solid Color Solid Size.

Solid Color Assorted Size

Assorted Color Assorted Size

Assorted Color Solid Size.

Chapter 08:


Garments Washing Process:

Garments receive

Measurement check

Check before wash            Quality checks

Batch preparation

Load to washing M/C

Hydro extractor


Measurement check

Check after wash                 Quality check



Faults found in garments after washin

Needle damage

Fabric damage

Print problem

SpotChapter 09:



Hand screen printing

Sereen Printing

Automatic Flat (Revolving) screen printing


               Machine Name  Number
Semi automatic flat bed printing machine03 pcs
Dryer02 pcs
No. of Flat bed Table05 pcs


Thickener (PG): It is a main compound for making a paste.

Binder: Hold color on to the fabric surface.

Fixar: Cross linking chemical (when drying at high temperature about 150 ºC)

Printing section

Pigment: It is a coloring substance.

Different type of printing:

1.      Pigment printing

2.      Rubber printing

3.      Crack printing

4.      Discharge printing

5.      Plastic sol/ High-density printing

6.      Flock printing

7.      Foil printing

8.      Glitter printing

9.      Emboss / Pub printing

Printing process sequence:

Pigment printing








Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Pigment printing paste apply with the help of screen

Curing at 160ºc(belt speed 6.50 m/min)


Rubber printing







Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Rubber printing paste apply with the help of screen

Hanging the fabric for 30 min

Curing at 150ºc (belt speed 5 m/min)


Crack printing





And crack paste / clear


Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Crack paste/clear apply with the help of screen

Dry in air temp or hand dryer m/c (slight)

Printing paste apply with the help of screen

Curing at 190ºc (belt speed 2 m/min)


Flock printing



Flock paste—————–90%

Fixer (Nylon) —————10%

And, Flock powder (Synthetic or cotton)


Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Apply flock paste with the help of screen

Flock powder apply with the help of flock gun

Manually dry by hanging for 30min

Curing at 180ºc (belt speed 3 m/min)




Foil printing

Foil paper solid color which is made by buyer requirement.


Foil paste—————-90%



Fabric preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Foil gun /Foil paste apply by screen

Dry slightly in air temp / Hand dryer

Apply foil paper on the fabric

Heat apply by heat press m/c (150ºc for 5sec)

Cooling for 4 sec

Foil paper removed by hand



Emboss or Pub printing


Rubber paste————49%

Pub / Emboss———–49%



Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Apply printing paste by screen(3times)

Hanging for 15min

Curing at 170ºc (belt speed 3m/min)



Discharge printing


Discharge rubber paste————90%

Discharge/ RNS powder———–49%


Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Apply printing paste with the help of screen

Curing at 190ºc (belt speed 3m/min)



Plastic sol or High density printing


High-density paste————100%


Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

High-density paste apply by screen

Curing at 160ºc (belt speed 3m/min)



Glitter printing


Rubber paste———— 70%

Fixer——————— 2%

Glitter——————- 28%


Table preparation

Fabric plaited on the table

Glitter paste apply by screen

Hanging for 15min for dry

Curing at 160º c (belt speed 3m/min)


Faults in printing:

Fatting: If the pigment printed fabric is fatted (on printed portion) after washing. Then this fabric is rejected. So it is major fault for printing.

Cracking:  If the rubber printed fabric is braking (on printing portion) after elastration.

Chapter 10:


organogram of embroidery:

CO (Embroidery)

Embroidery manager

Assistant manager (designer)

Supervisor         (A.Q.C)         Sample man

Q.I   senior operator


Senior operator

Assistant operator

Frame men

M/c men


Iron men

Embroidery Machine Specification:

Name: SWF SunStar

Quantity: 6

Suitable temperature: 22’ C

Price: $65750

Name of the software: Willcom ES65

  Embroidery stitching type

  • Satin stitch
  • Tatami  stitch
  • Zigzag stitch
  • Run stitch
  1. Single run
  2. Double run
  3. Triple run
  4. Motif run stitch

 Thread used in Embroidery:

      Brand Name       Country

  • Madera          Germany
  • Metal             Germany
  • Well               Bangladesh
  • Force              Bangladesh
  • Coats              Bangladesh
  • Basic              Bangladesh

Thread Count – 135 x 2 Dtex

Thread contain in bobbin – 2500m

Embroidery Faults:

  • Stitch gap
  • Bobbin out
  • Oil spot
  • Miss thread
  • Measurement up-down
  • Needle hole

  Production per day

  • …………. piece per day

  Total Worker: 100

 Picture of Embroidery Machine:

Embroidery head

Chapter 11:



Maintenance is a procedure by which we can maintain active functioning in operation according to the behavior and utility of a particular element. In engineering, we use this terminology for maintaining smooth and uninterrupted performance of machines, tools and metallurgical characteristics in practical uses.

 Objective of maintenance:

  • To keep the factory plants, equipments, machine tools in an optimum working condition.
  • To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer.
  • To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thuds to have control over the production program.
  • To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range.
  • To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production.

 Three types of maintenance are performed in PPCKFL:

  1. Preventive Maintenance.
  2. Routine/ Schedule Maintenance.
  3. Breakdown Maintenance.
  1. Preventive Maintenance: Actions performed periodically (or continuously) prior to functional failure to achieve the desired level of safety and reliability for an item. These actions are performed to prevent or reduce consequences of failures.
  1. Schedule maintenance: It is time-based maintenance and pre-planned to perform on machine and equipments. This plan usually made on monthly basis.
  1. Breakdown maintenance: In this type of maintenance when the machine remains stop that time the maintenance is done.


  • A Shift
8 AM8 PM
  • B Shift
8 PM8 AM
  • General Shift
9 AM6 PM


Maintenance of M/C’s are very essential to prolong the M/C life and good maintenance is important consideration. It is necessary to check that all routine maintenance is being done regularly and properly otherwise efficiency of each department will be reduced

Chapter 13:



Major sources of liquid discharge are:

   Scouring chemical.

Bleaching chemical.

Washing  chemical

Dyeing  chemical

characteristics of waste water of PPC assumed as follows:

  pH  = 9-11.5

BOD = 300 mg/L

COD=200 mg/L

Suspended solid    (SS)= 200 mg/L

Oil & grease= 30-40 ppm

Temperature =60 C

Color = da



Intercom telephone



Written letters


Importing countries:

There are some countries which are importing gods from The PPC. The name of the countries are given below –







United State of America.

Chapter 13:



Compliance means conformity of certain standard. PPC maintain a moderate working condition for their employees. Though it is well established project, there is some lacking of proper compliance issues.

list of compliance issues:

Here is the list of compliance in which some points are maintained fully and some are partially.

Compensation for  holiday

    Leave with wages

Health register

Time care

Accident register

Workman register

Equal remuneration

National festival holiday

Overtime register

Labor welfare

Weekly holiday fund

Sexual harassment policy

Child labor abolition policy

Anti-discrimination policy

Zero amusement policy

Working hour policy

Hiring /recruitment policy

Environment policy

Security policy

Buyers code of conduct

Health and safety committee



Drinking water at least 4.5 L/day/employee

Cup availability

Drinking water supply

Water cooler ,heater available in  canteen

Drinking water signs in Bangla and English locate min. 20 feet away from work place

Drinking water vassal clean at once in a week

Water reserve at least  once a week

Water center in charge person with cleanliness

Suggestion box register


Separate toilet for women and  men

A seat with proper privacy and lock facility

Urinal accommodation

Effective water sewage system

Soap toilet

Water tap

Dust bins

Toilet white washed one in every four month

Daily cleaning log sheet

No-smoking signs

Ladies /gents toilet signs both in bangle and English

Deposal of wastes and effluent


Sufficient fire extinguisher and  active

Access area without hindrance

Fire signs in both languages

Fire certified personal photo

Emergency exit

Safety Guard:

Metal glows on good conditions

  Rubber mats & ironers

First aid box one

Ironers wearing sleepers

First trained employees

Motor/needle guard

Eye guard




Medicine issuing register

Welfare officer


  Room temperature

  Lighting facilities

Picture-33: Doctor          Picture-34: First aid box         Picture-35: Fire training

 Padma Poly cotton knit Fabrics Ltd. is a well-planned versatile project. The administrations, management, chain of command – all are well organized. They are devoted to satisfy the customer by their activities. However, some of the point we want to mention for the good of Padma Poly cotton knit Fabrics Ltd.


  • During the transport of the fabric in the dyeing floor and also during the loading of the M/C, fabrics are soiled for the contact with floor. This makes the fabric / part of the fabric dirty. It may require more scouring/bleaching agent or may create stain making it faulty.
  • The dyeing floor is water most of the time: it should be cleaned all the time.
  • The illumination of the dyeing shade should be enhanced. It may exert the worker fatigue ness
  • More skilled labor should be used in a project as Padma Poly cotton knit Fabrics Ltd. Many times the dosing pipelines are clogged due to the careless dosing of chemicals.
  • The M/C stoppage time should be analyzed and minimized. The maintenance should be carried out when the M/C is out of action.


  • Because of secrecy act the data on costing and marketing activities has not been supplied & hence this report excludes these chapters.
  • We had a very limited time in spite of our willing to study more details it was not possible to do so.
  • Some of the points in different chapter are not described as these were not available.
  • The whole process is not possible to bind in such a small frame as this report, hence our effort spent on summarizing them.

Chapter 14:


We have completed our Industrial Training successfully by the grace of Allah.

Industrial Attachment sends us to the expected destiny of practical life. Padma Poly cotton knit Fabrics Ltd.  is a well know factory in the textile field of Bangladesh. The completion of the two months industrial attachment at  Padma Poly cotton knit Fabrics Ltd. gave us the inspiration that factory is one of the appropriate destiny to implement the theoretical knowledge. From this industrial attachment we got the details idea about the factory environment, production process, total management, store & inventory process, maintenance, utility etc.

Padma Poly cotton knit Fabrics Ltd.  are well equipped and the working environment is excellent. The relation between top management to bottom level is so nice.

We are lucky to get the opportunity of having training in this mill.

The factory runs by a number of efficient Textile Engineers, Skilled technical & Non-technical persons.

All the Textile Engineers, technical & Non-technical persons are very sincere, co-operative and helpful.

We wish good luck of them and also for this factory.

It was really a productive practical learning besides our four year academics, so we wish we will be able to implement our learning and methodological knowledge successfully in the textile industry and the betterment of the economy of our country.


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