1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
Garments Industries in our country is facing the challenge of export of their products in the world market. The market has become very competitive and it is very hard for the poor countries to survive in the quota free market. Efficient management and proper business strategies can produce quality production in minimal time and costs. Computerization is a tool to achieve this goal which allows the best use of the information to make future plans. Our intension is to help the garments industries of our country by using proper use of computer technology. As a reference subject we visited a garments factory named Opex. But we found that Opex Group is not using a proper computerization system for production and inventory management system. Most of the works are carried out in pen and paper. This is slowing down the operations and errors are made frequently. Most of the time, they are losing the old data. The current situation is very poor in the Opex Group in case of computerizations. 
1.2 PROBLEMS OF CURRENT SYSTEM
Current system has many problems. In this section we discuss those problems :
• Production section of the Opex Group is doing the work manually.
• All the works are carried out in pen and paper.
• Sometimes administrator can not get proper information about the product.
• Buyers can not place the order easily.
• This system is not efficient and takes long time.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The goal of our project is to make the entire system efficient and user friendly to the product manager and administrator. The objectives focusing on our attempt are mainly concerned :
• To increase the flexibility of the administrator, agents and buyers.
• Making the system faster than the present system.
• To eliminate the paper work of the agent.
• To facilitate the Administrator so that he can easily access product information from anywhere.
• To reduce complexity of the production section.
• To reduce physical labor of the personnel at the Opex Group.
• To reduce workers of the Opex Group.
Methodology is defined as a collection of procedures, techniques and tools that is used for the development. Methodology is not only a set of methods but it also includes the ideas, rationale and assumptions which is underling the research or investigation. Software development methodology helps us to contribute our effort to develop and implement a system by the collection of theories and concepts, comparative studies of different approaches and by development of individual methods. This methodology was followed  :
• MySQL database
• Apache Server
These tools are described in chapter 6
Science has brought the world at our door. Internet has made our life easier. With the development of civilization, our life has become comfortable and luxuries. Today every people all around the world want to do something in an organized way. This need is met by the addition of database technologies that retain key information and allow for an easy way to manipulate that information. If anybody wants to maintain his/ her system by a organize way, web database can serve for this purpose. Our “Garments Production Management System” provides the facility to maintain all of the sections of garments production and keep track of all the product information.
Requirement analysis is the way to understand the requirements of the users of the system. It explores the expectations of the users about the proposed system. Requirements are actually the descriptions on how the system should work and interact with the user of the system. Requirement analysis is difficult as it brings together all the requirements and interest of the business personnel. The efficiency of the final product depends on the accuracy of the requirement analysis. As this is the base of the future work, so the analysis part of this project was performed carefully .
2.2 THE PRODUCTION CYCLE OF READYMADE GARMENTS
The needs for cotton fabrics are increasing day by day world wide. The world is moving forward and the demand of garments has a vertical growth not only for clothing but also for households, fashion and industrial purpose. The garments industries usually follow different steps for production of the readymade garments. The following steps are described below  :
2.2.1 Achievement of Raw Materials
Raw materials which are used in the production, completely depends on the contract. Buyers provide only the fabrics and clothes and the company gathers the rest of the raw materials .
2.2.2 Acquisition Procedures
Acquisition Procedures means the way that the company follows to incorporate the raw material from different sources. The company buys the raw materials from either retailers or whole sellers who are involved in the production of such raw materials .
2.2.3 Merchandise Information
At this stage, the production manager gathers all the information related with the raw materials which is achieved by one of the procedures mentioned above. Then a sample is designed as specified on the order from the buyers .
This is the most important factor in manufacturing procedure. The productivity of the company depends completely on scheduling. In manufacturing process, scheduling maximizes the efficiency of the business operations and reduces the cost. Scheduling is to set a goal to minimize the production time and costs by explaining clearly what to make and how many in quantity in a specific time period with the use of specific equipments and manpower. The company sets a target to achieve the goal and follows the steps on day to day basis. Scheduling is to planning the activities required for production at different stages from the date the resources become available to determine the shipment date .
2.2.5 Production Process
Production starts at this stage and the amount of daily production is recorded. The progress of the production is related with the scheduling. This process is divided in 4 parts.
Cutting: First of all the cutting section cuts the raw materials fabrics and the clothes. For this purpose, factory provides them the measurements and the designed sample. 
Sewing: The sewing section is involved in the sewing of the clothes as provided in the sample. All the sewing accessories (buttons, zippers, labels etc) required to add on the garments are assembled here. 
Finishing: There are other types of accessories which are called finishing accessories. These accessories include Hang Tag, Barcode Stickers, Poly Bags, Cartons, etc. These are being fixed at the finishing section. After successful achievement of these; products go to the finishing section. The finishing section finally checks the quality, cleanliness, do the ironing, sticks the tickets, and packs into poly bags (as buyer’s instruction). 
Maintenance: The maintenance section is involved to the inspection of the finished goods by the buyer or its nominated agents or by the factory inspectors and to generate inspection certificate by following the inspection instruction. Now the garments are finished and packed in cartons and ready to be ex-factory. The goods are then handed over to Commercial Department. The commercial department contacts the shipping agent either nominated by the buyer or negotiated by the factory owner for the buyer. They also do the bank related jobs to prepare the documents for the shipment.
2.3 THE PROCESS OF PRODUCT ORDER AND GETTING INTO GARMENTS PRODUCTION
Product Management System and its business have changed considerably over some few years. Before implementing and designing this project, several steps were to be taken that were conducted through a combination of research equipments. Understanding product management system (e.g. cutting, swing, washing, finishing etc) and their limitations of information access were some of our considerations. For this purpose we have discussed with Opex Group workers, managers for understanding the system .
Most of the ready made garments factories do as follow:
• Buyers send a color visual or Original Sample to follow or a book let of their detail design to follow with the order.
• Factory (manufacturers) sends the price accordingly and asks for approval from the buyer.
• After approval, the factory develops the proto (development) sample and gets the approval.
• Within this period buyer sends the purchase order along with the LC (Letter of Credits).
• After getting the proto and LC, the factory goes for size wise fit sample (for approval of the measurement).
• After the approval, the factory develops the Pre-Production (PP) sample and gets these approved. Pre production sample goes with all original brandings like actual fabric in actual color, actual color print and embroidery, all actual accessories like labels, buttons, packing etc.
• After receiving the approval on Pre Production samples, the factory goes for final bulk production.
• After final production, either buyer does the inspection or the factory do the inspection on behalf of buyers and produces an inspection certificate which is a compulsory with the shipping document.
• The factory does the packing as per buyer’s instruction.
• Commercial department contacts the buyer’s nominated shipping agent.
Understanding the requirements of a problem is one of the most difficult tasks. We visited to all section of the Opex Group to get relevant information sources to familiarize ourselves with the system. We also spend time in analysis of those data. We performed the requirement analysis part of this project carefully to get the final product.
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS
System analysis deals with the analysis of the system prior to the automation of as computer system. Technology is applied on analysis of the system which satisfies the needs of the individuals. The problems are analyzed to determine the nature of the system. Business processes are the day to day driver for any business. There is a relation between the business and the business customers. The business process includes the set of business rules, computer systems, the operations and the actions of the business. The aim of system analysis is to understand the ins and outs of the business process, analyzing of the statistical and day to day data used in the business, and to draft the interaction of the technology with information. All business depends on data. Data represents the reality therefore understanding the dimension of data plays an important role in system analysis [2, 4].
System analysis is conducted with the following objectives in mind:
• Understand a system.
• Understand the different phases of system development life cycle.
• Know the components of system analysis.
• Know the components of system designing.
3.3 SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
System life cycle is an organizational process of developing and maintaining systems. It helps in establishing a system project plan, because it gives overall list of processes and sub-processes required developing a system [2, 4, and 8].
3.4 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
System development life cycle means combination of various activities. In other words we can say that various activities put together are referred as system development life cycle. In the System Analysis and Design terminology, the system development life cycle means software development life cycle [2, 4, and 8].
Following are the different phases of software development cycle:
• System study
• Feasibility study
• Cost benefit analysis
• System analysis
• System design
3.5 PHASES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE
Let us now describe the different phases and the related activities of system development life cycle in detail.
3.5.1 System Study
System study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? After completing the system study, a system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the system) and placed before the user. The proposed system contains the findings of the present system and recommendations to overcome the limitations and problems of the present system in the light of the user’s requirements [2, 4, and 8].
To describe the system study phase more analytically, we would say that system study phase passes through the following steps:
• Problem identification and project initiation
• Background analysis
• Inference or findings
3.5.2 Feasibility Study
The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting user’s requirements, effective use of resources and of course, the cost effectiveness. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy [2, 4, and 8].
3.5.3 Cost Benefit Analysis
Among the most important information contained study is the cost benefit analysis which is an assessment of the economic justification. Cost benefit analysis delineates cost for project development and weights them against tangible and intangible benefit of a system [2, 4, and 8].
In developing cost estimates for a system, we need to consider several cost elements.
• Hardware cost relate to the purchase of the computer and peripherals.
• Personnel cost includes staff salaries and benefits or bonus.
• Operating cost includes all costs associated with the day-to-day operation of the system; depends on the number of shifts, the nature of the application, the caliber of the operating staff, etc.
• Supply costs are variable costs that increased use of paper, ribbon, discs etc.
3.5.4 System Analysis
Analysis involved a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of a new system. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis [2, 4, and 8].
3.5.5 System Design
Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system is designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is a crucial phase in the development of a system [2, 4, and 8]. Normally the design proceeds in two stages:
• Preliminary or general design
• Structure or detailed design
After designing the new system, the whole system is required to be converted into computer understanding language. Coding the new system into computer programming language does this. It is an important stage where the defined procedures are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions, which we refer as programs. The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system [2, 4, and 8].
Before actually implementing the new system into operations, a test run of the system is done to remove all the bugs, if any. It is an important phase of a successful system. After codifying the whole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data. The output of the test run should match the expected results [2, 4, and 8].
After having the user acceptance of the new system developed, the implementation phase begins. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned into practice. During this phase, all the programs of the system are loaded onto the user’s computer. After loading the system, training of the users starts. Main topics of such type of training are [2, 4, and 8]:
• How to execute the package
• How to enter the data
• How to process the data (processing details)
• How to take out the reports
Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. It has been seen that there are always some errors found in the system that must be noted and corrected. It also means the review of the system from time to time. The review of the system is done for:
• Knowing the full capabilities of the system
• Knowing the required changes or the additional requirements
• Studying the performance
If a major change to a system is needed, a new project may have to be set up to carry out the change. The new project will then proceed through all the above life cycle phases [2, 4, and 8].
System analysis is an important part of the project. System analysis is needed for designing and implementing of the project. The problems are analyzed to determine the nature of the system. System Analysis finds the different phase of a system and components of system design. In this chapter we try to represent all of the phases of system development life cycle to design a system.
System design is the most important phase of the System Development Life Cycle. It is a solution, a “how to” approach to the creation of a new system. It provides the understanding and procedural details necessary for implementing the system recommended in the feasibility study. Emphasis is on translating the performance requirements into design specifications. The design phase is a transition from a user-oriented document (system proposal) to a document oriented to the programmers or data base personnel. An accurate system design gives accurate system performance. Several structural tools are used for design purpose of the candidate system. In this chapter we have discussed about Web Design, Dataflow Diagram, E-R Diagram, Activity Diagram, Use Case Diagram and Network Design of the proposed system .
4.2 WEB SITE DESIGN
A Web site is a collection of information about a particular topic or subject. Designing a web site is defined as the arrangement and creation of web pages that in turn make up a web site. A web page consists of information for which the web site is developed. A web site might be compared to a book, where each page of the book is a web page .
The intent of web design is to create a web site (a collection of electronic files residing on one or more web servers) that presents content (including interactive features or interfaces) to the end user in the form of web pages once requested. Such elements as text, forms, and bit-mapped images (GIFs, JPEGs, PNGs) can be placed on the page using HTML, XHTML, or XML tags .
Web page design is a process of conceptualization, planning, modeling, and execution of electronic media content delivery via Internet in the form of technologies (such as markup languages) suitable for interpretation and display by a web browser or other web-based graphical user interfaces (GUIs) .
Typically web pages are classified as static or dynamic.
• Static pages don’t change content and layout with every request unless a human (web master or programmer) manually updates the page.
• Dynamic pages adapt their content and/or appearance depending on the end-user’s input or interaction or changes in the computing environment (user, time, database modifications, etc.).
4.3 NETWORK DESIGN
The proposed system will be implemented on the web. A central server at OPEX will contain the application. Any buyer & agent will have access to the special areas of the system through the internet. The administrator will have the full access.
4.4 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD)
The DFD was first developed by Larry Constantine as a way of expressing system requirements in a graphical form. It is also known as a “bubble chart” has the purpose of clarifying system requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system design. A DFD consists of a series of bubbles joined by lines. The bubbles & lines represent data transformations & data flows in the system respectively. DFD does not depend on hardware, software and data structure or file organization because it shows what data flow (logical) rather then how they are processed. There are four symbols in a DFD . They are:
• An oval defines a source (originator) or destination of system data.
• An arrow identifies data flow-data in motion. It is a pipeline through which information flows.
• A rectangle represents a process that transforms incoming data flow(s) into outgoing data flow(s).
• An open rectangle is a data store i.e. data at rest, or a temporary repository of data.
Data flow diagram for our proposed system
4.5 E-R DIAGRAM
Entities are the principle data object about which information is to be collected. Entities may be concrete or abstract, such as person, places, things or events which are relevant to the database. Entities may be independent or dependent. According to some methodologies entities may be strong and weak .
Relationship is the association between two or more entities. It is classified in terms of degree, connectivity, cardinality, and existence. The degree means the number of entities associated with the relationship. The general form for degree n is the n-array relationship. In binary or ternary relationship, degree is 2 and 3 respectively. The connectivity of relationship means the mapping of associated entities in the relationship. Connectivity may be one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one and many-to-many. The cardinality means the actual number of related occurrences for each of the two entities. The direction of relationship indicates the originating entity of a binary relationship. The existence means the existence dependency of one entity with the other. The existence may be mandatory or optional .
Attributes are descriptive properties possessed by each member of an entity set. For each attribute, there is a set of permitted values, called the domain, or value set of that attribute. An attribute of an entity set is a function that maps from the entity set into a domain. Since an entity set may have several attributes, each entity can be described by a set of (attribute, data value) pairs, one pair for each attribute of the entity set. The attribute values describing an entity will constitute a significant portion of the data stored in the database .
An attribute, as used in the E-R model, can be characterized as:
• Simple and composite
• Single-valued and multivalued
4.6 E-R DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
E-R Diagram of Garments Production Management System is given below.
4.7 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
Activity diagram of Garments Production Management System is given below.
4.8 ANALYSIS OF THE ACTIVITY DIAGRAM
This Use Case starts on demand. The buyer places an order to the manufactures. The manufactures get the color visual (CAD) or Original sample from the buyer. The company decides the price accordingly and sends the price to the buyer for their approval. If the buyer agrees with the price then the company goes for production else the buyer looks for another manufacturer who can provide in lower costs. Once the buyer approves the price, the factory develops a proto sample. At the same time, the Factory collects the Letter of Credit (LC) or Purchase Order from the buyer.
After development of the proto sample and after getting the purchase order, the factory develops a size fit sample for approval. If the size wise sample is not approved, the factory continues to develop this sample again until they get an approval.
After getting approval, the factory develops a pre production sample. Pre production sample goes with all original brandings like actual fabric in actual color, actual color print and embroidery, all actual accessories like labels, buttons, packing etc. And the factory sends the pre production sample to the buyer for their final approval. Once they approve the sample, final bulk production is started.
After final production, either buyer does the inspection or company does the inspection on behalf of buyers and produces an inspection certificate which is a compulsory with the shipping document.
The factory does the packing as per the buyer’s instruction after finishing inspection. When the packing is finished, the commercial department contracts with buyer’s nominated shipping agents for shipment. The shipping agency is responsible for shipment of the products from the factory to the buyer .
Shipment is from a valid Shipping company
The factory needs to print all the confirmation from the buyer during production.
4.9 USE CASE DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
Use case diagram of Garments Production Management System is given below.
4.10 ANALYSIS OF THE USE CASE
Actors: Workers, Quality Control Officer, Commercial Department, Buyer, Supplier, Time, Manager, Section Supervisor, Shipping Agent, Washing Company
Description: This use case describes the production cycle for Opex Group
The buyer places an order. The factory’s commercial department’s job is to take care of import and export of the goods and to communicate with the buyers in home and abroad. After an order is placed and the price is agreed with the buyer, the company goes for production. In this stage, different sections, such as cutting, sewing, finishing and maintenance sections are involved in production procedure.
There are workers who are involved in production procedure. Workers either work on daily basis or monthly basis. Daily basis workers get the wages everyday and the monthly workers gets the wages after one month.
Each section has a section in charge (section supervisor). Section supervisor collects the raw materials used for production from the inventory as per written requisition.
The quality control officer/store keeper issues the raw materials to the section supervisor as required and updates the inventory. The system performs the check that there are available goods to issue while any requisition takes place. Sometimes defected goods are found after requisition and the section supervisor sends it back to inventory as a wastage also the accessed goods which were not used for the production are send back to inventory by the section supervisor and inventory is updated.
When a new order is placed, the quality control office checks for the availability of the raw materials which will be used for the production by generating the inventory report. Unavailable goods are purchased from the raw material suppliers.
But only the manager can place a purchased order. The quality control office generates the list of items need to purchase for production and sends it to the manager for his authorization. Managers get different reports from the system. These include the daily production progress report, inventory report and purchase report. Daily production report informs the amount of daily production at any moment of time, inventory reports informs the list of inventory, current stock in hand of goods and their rate, purchase report shows the list of goods purchased at any date and the expenses on purchase.
The maintenance section is involved of the inspection of the finished goods and to generate inspection certificate. The finishing section does the packing of the finished product as per the buyer’s instruction.
After production is finished, the production manager accumulates the report of finished product and contacts with the washing company for washing and ironing of the finished goods. After the washing company returns the goods back to the factory, the finishing section starts to do the packing of the goods.
The commercial department contacts with the buyer for shipment. Buyer specifies a shipping agency for shipment of the finished goods. When the shipment is finished, the production cycle is completed .
Production can only be started if the required raw materials are available and the buyer is agreed with the price. Order information should be valid and complete.
Generate different report for the manager.
Normalization is a technique for designing relational database tables to minimize duplication of information and, in so doing, to safeguard the database against certain types of logical or structural problems, namely data anomalies [10, 11].
There are several types of normalization rules & forms. They are:
• First Normal Form (1NF): Eliminate Repeating Groups – Make a separate table for each set of related attributes, and give each table a primary key.
• Second Normal Form (2NF): Eliminate Redundant Data – If an attribute depends on only part of a multi-valued key, remove it to a separate table.
• Third Normal Form (3NF): Eliminate Columns Not Dependent on Key – If attributes do not contribute to a description of the key, remove them to a separate table.
In case of Storing Buyer Information in one table named Buyerinfo a single Buyer can place more than one order. If we arrange the table like below then many redundancy occurs. For that reason, we separated buyer information and order information.
System design is an important phase in System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). We have analyzed the data thoroughly to create Data Flow Diagram (DFD), Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), Activity Diagram and Use Case Diagram. We have also made some normalization to our database to avoid repetitions and redundancy. So the procedures should be followed properly in order to get an appropriate system design. An accurate system design can only produce efficient system.
In this chapter, we discuss about our proposed system. Production Management System is a very important area where all product information is kept. Recently World Wide Web is more efficient and effective to make the system online base. For that region, our proposed system is “Online Garments Production Management System”. All the product, agent, administrator and buyer information are stored into this system .
5.2 FEATURES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM
Mainly three kinds of users will be in the proposed system. They are not the same categories and their features will not be the same. The proposed system should have the following facilities to serve the better service :
• In our system admin or manager can access whole system and have a password.
• Administrator is the super user who will have the power to add, update, and delete different kinds of information about product or any other information.
• Administrator can see the daily product information, washing information, shipping information and order status of all products.
• Product manager can get all product information from any place of the world through web.
• Administrator can create a new agent and give a password for access to part of the system.
• Administrator can change the password anytime if he wants.
• Administrator can generate production report.
• Buyer will have to be registered to access the order form, place the order and see the running order.
• Buyer can see his ordered information using his/ her password.
• Company agent must be registered by administrator.
• Company agent can access part of the system using his/ her password.
• Company agent can change only his or her product information.
• Normal users can see the details of completed product without any permission but they can not see the other information.
5.3 BENEFIT OF THE USERS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM
In this section, we discussed thoroughly the benefits of different kinds of users. The users will get the faster system than the present system.
5.3.1 Benefit of the Administrator
The administrator will get the maximum benefit from it. Actually this system is made for helping the administrator. He can see the all product information in any time. For that region, he can take any decision easily and quickly. He can save lots of time by this system. He can utilize their time to other jobs. Using this system, we also reduce the physical labor of the administrator .
5.3.2 Benefit of the Buyer
The buyer will get the benefit from it. He can place the order from anywhere in the world by using this system. He also can see the running product information .
5.3.3 Benefit of the Agent
The agents also get the benefit from it. This system reduces the paper work and the physical labor of the agent .
Our system is faster than the present system. In manual system, it is difficult to get the data in a sort time. Our system uses proper management of computer technology. As a result, this system reduces the time complexity and physical labor of the users. Different types of users use this system and get the benefit from it. Administrator can access his required information within a second by using this system. Admin can take his decision quickly and easily and this affects the performance of the Opex Group significantly. Buyer can place order quickly.
DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION
Our focus will be to design & implement a system that will efficiently give product information to the administrator of the garments. Our system also contains the buyer and agent information. During the stage of system design our system was a set of programs or program unit. Now we discuss the development and implementation of this system.
6.2 SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
Our supporting development tools are PHP, MySQL, CSS, HTML, Macromedia Dreamweaver and Apache Server. Here those development tools are described-
6.2.1 PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor)
PHP (recursive acronym for “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”) is a widely-used Open Source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for Web development. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C, Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly and can be embedded into HTML [12, 13].
The best things in using PHP are that it is extremely simple for a newcomer, but offers many advanced features for a professional programmer. We can jump in, in a short time, and start writing simple scripts in a few hours, Although PHP’s development is focused on server-side scripting language [12, 13].
An introductory example
6.2.2 MySQL Database
The `MySQL (TM)’ software delivers a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust `SQL’ (`Structured Query Language’) database server. MySQL is the post popular DBMS in web application development, was first released initially on 23 May 1995. ’MySQL Server’ is intended for mission-critical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software. Users can choose to use the `MySQL’ software as an `Open Source’/`Free Software’ product under the terms of the `GNU General Public License’. MySQL supports cross platform .
“MySQL’s reliability and speed have helped us develop software that maximizes the availability and performance of enterprise telephony networks, even for very large, distributed deployments. MySQL’s affordability and straight-forward licensing made it an easy choice.”
MySQL is an SQL based relational database management system (DBMS) that runs under a broad array of operating systems. MySQL is frequently used by PHP and Perl scripts. The focus is on Windows XP Professional and Windows 2000 Professional machines .
Following are the features of MySQL:
• MySQL is characterized as free
• Faster than Oracle, ODBC, Sybase
• Reliable because it is open source
• Open source relational database.
• Robust database with a good feature set.
• Platform independent: Windows, Linux, MacOS, OS/2
6.2.3 Apache Server
Apache is the most widely available HTTP server on the Internet. It supports the PERL and PHP languages. Apache is an open-source (source code is freely available and can be shared) HTTP Web server software. It is currently the most popular web server on the Net. It is usually run on UNIX operating system versions like Linux or BSD, but it can also be run on Windows. It is a full-featured server with many powerful add-ons freely available. Apache’s major competitor is Microsoft’s IIS [15, 16].
The Apache HTTP Server Project is an effort to develop and maintain an open-source HTTP server for modern operating systems including UNIX and Windows NT. The goal of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides HTTP services in sync with the current HTTP standards [15, 16].
Apache has been the most popular web server on the Internet since April 1996. The November 2005 Net craft Web Server Survey found that more than 70% of the web sites on the Internet are using Apache, thus making it more widely used than all other web servers combined. The Apache HTTP Server is a project of the Apache Software Foundation [15, 16].
6.2.4 Comparison between Apache Server and IIS
Apache is by far the most widely used Web server and runs on UNIX, Linux, Mac OS and Windows. IIS runs only on Windows. Both Apache and IIS have their strong points and weaknesses. The most obvious advantage of Apache is the fact that it is cross-platform. The most obvious advantage of IIS is its tight integration with Microsoft and Windows technologies. This strong integration of IIS with Windows has led hackers to develop endless streams of viruses that target Windows desktops via IIS and in the process, make IIS administrators’ lives very interesting. Apache has known its share of viruses as well .
If we are working in a Windows-only shop, take a long look at IIS. If we need to run a Web server on Unix, Linux, NetWare, Mac OS or even Windows; take a look at Apache.
6.2.5 Macromedia Dreamweaver
Macromedia Dreamweaver is a site building and publishing tool appropriate for intermediate to advanced users that allows you to create and edit web pages and applications using a graphical interface and built-in advanced design and coding features .
The visual editing features in Macromedia Dreamweaver let you quickly create web pages without writing a line of code. You can view all your site elements or assets and drag them from an easy-to-use panel directly into a document. You can streamline your development workflow by creating and editing images in Macromedia Fireworks or another graphics application, and then import them directly into Dreamweaver. Dreamweaver also provides tools that make it easy to add Macromedia Flash assets to web pages .
Dreamweaver also lets you build dynamic, database-driven web applications using server technologies such as CFML, ASP.NET, ASP, JSP, and PHP. If you prefer working with XML data, Dreamweaver provides tools that let you easily create XSLT pages, attach XML files, and display XML data on your web pages .
6.2.6 Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
In web development, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. It’s most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can be applied to any kind of XML document, including SVG and XUL.
CSS is used by both the authors and readers of web pages to define colors, fonts, layout, and other aspects of document presentation. It is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content (written in HTML or a similar markup language) from document presentation (written in CSS). This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentational characteristics, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content.
CSS can also allow the same markup page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. CSS specifies a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element .
6.2.7 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
HTML – Short for the HyperText Markup Language, the language by which Web servers and client browsers communicate. HTML files are plain text files, so they can be composed and edited in different types of operating systems .
220.127.116.11 Meaning of Html
HTML is the “mother tongue” of our browser. To make a long story short, HTML was invented in 1990 by a scientist called Tim Berners-Lee. The purpose was to make it easier for scientists at different universities to gain access to each other’s research documents. The project became a bigger success than Tim Berners-Lee had ever imagined. By inventing HTML he laid the foundation for the web as we know it today.
HTML is a language, which makes it possible to present information (e.g. scientific research) on the Internet. What you see when you view a page on the Internet is your browser’s interpretation of HTML. To see the HTML code of a page on the Internet, simply click “View” in the top menu of your browser and choose “Source”.
18.104.22.168 Use of HTML
If we want to make websites, there is no way around HTML. Even if we are using a program to create websites, such as Dream weaver, a basic knowledge of HTML can make life a lot simpler and our website a lot better. The good news is that HTML is easy to learn and use. HTML is used to make websites.
Hyper is the opposite of linear. In the good old days – when a mouse was something the cat chased – computer programs ran linearly: when the program had executed one action it went to the next line and after that, the next line and so on. But HTML is different – you can go wherever you want and whenever you want. For example, it is not necessary to visit MSN.com before you visit HTML.net.
Text is self-explanatory.
Mark-up is what you do with the text. You are marking up the text the same way you do in a text editing program with headings, bullets and bold text and so on.
Language is what HTML is. It uses many English words.
Implementation means converting a system design into operational form. This phase is divided into 2 parts – database implementation and user interface implementation (code generation).
In the first part, the logical database design was implemented as the physical database design. All the data types were defined properly on each table. The relations among the tables were described by using primary key and foreign key concepts.
The second part was to generate code to insert business data to the database through user interface. This part includes the followings, to create user interfaces to insert, update and search and delete data and to generate different reports for the managements from those data.
6.3.1 Database Design and Table List
Data is the collection of facts which the most important factor in any organization. Data plays the most important role in business activities and day to day events.
Database design is the process of producing a detailed data model of a database. This logical data model contains all the needed logical and physical design choices and physical storage parameters needed to generate a design in a Data Definition Language, which can then be used to create a database.
A fully attributed data model contains detailed attributes for each entity. Now we discuss the database table-
22.214.171.124 Agent Information Table
The table name is agent_info. It contains agent’s information. It has ten data fields. id contains a unique number for every agent. loginId and pass are used for accessing the system.
126.96.36.199 Buyer Information Table
The table name is buyer_info. It contains buyer’s information. It has nine data fields. id contains a unique identification for distinct buyers. loginId and pass are used for accessing the system.
188.8.131.52 Order Information Table
The table name is orderinfo. It contains order’s information. It has seven data fields. orderNo contains a unique identification for every order.
184.108.40.206 Production Information Table
The table name is productioninfo. It contains product’s information. It has nineteen data fields. id contains a unique identification for every product. This table is used by admin/agent. Here agentId and orderNo are foreign keys.
220.127.116.11 Order Status Table
The table name is order_status. It contains order status information. It has six data fields. id contains a unique identification for every order status.
18.104.22.168 Washing Information Table
The table name is wash_info. It contains washing information. It has thirteen data fields.
22.214.171.124 Completed Product Table
The table name is product_detail. It contains product’s detail information. It has eight data fields. iid contains a unique identification for every product.
126.96.36.199 Transaction Information Table
The table name is transactioninfo. It contains transaction’s information. It has five data fields. id contains a unique identification for every transaction.
188.8.131.52 Shipment Information Table
The table name is ship_info. It contains shipment’s information. It has six data fields. shipid contains a unique identification for every shipment. This table is used by admin/agent. Here agentId and orderNo are foreign keys. Other attributes are dateTime, quantity and cost.
6.4 IMPLEMENTED SYSTEM
Our implemented system has different web page. Those web pages are used for showing different types of information. There is a page where a report is generated. This report shows daily production report between two dates. Three types of users can access this system. Some pages are described below-
6.4.1 Home Page
Home page used for showing the new and existing product picture and price. A user uses this web page for login. By clicking on the picture of the product we can see the detailed information like buyer information, fabric details, style details. The left side contains the main menu where homepage, buyer, product information, service, contact us and logout.
6.4.2 Buyer Registration Page
Buyer uses this page for his or her registration. Buyer information’s stored into the database table by this web page. Here information about Login id, Password, Full name, Address, Phone No., Email, Fax are entered. To confirm the registration, Register button is used. Without registration, buyer can not access this system.
6.4.3 Admin Information Page
Administrator can use this page to view all production information and production report. Here information about Create New Agent or Admin, Update Top Product, Daily Production Information, Order Status, Washing Information, Transaction Information, Shipping Information, Buyer Order View, Production are linked with different pages. Admin can register new agent or admin.
6.4.4 Daily Production Information
Daily product information’s are stored into the database table using this web page. Here information about Agent Name, Order No, Finished, ThreadCut, SnapButton, Pressing, Folding, PolyPacking, CartonComplete, StartDate, Cutting, Washing, Inspection, RegularHour, OvertimeHour, TotalWorker, NoReject are entered.
Here we discuss those tools (HTML, PHP, MySQL, Macromedia Dreamwaiver, CSS and Apache Server) which are used for implementing this system. We also discuss the database table and some web pages which are need for implementing this system.
Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and popular risk management strategy. Here, programmer compares the actual result with required result. Testing is the process to review of the specification, design and coding. In fact, testing is the one-step in the software engineering process that could be viewed as destructive rather than constructive .
7.2 OBJECTIVES OF SOFTWARE TESTING
There are many objectives to test system:
• Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error.
• A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding as-yet undiscovered.
7.3 TESTING PRINCIPLE
To test software effectively, a software engineer must understand the basic principals that guide software testing. The testing principals are as follows:
• All test should be traceable, that is the objectives of testing should be uncovered basis on customer requirements.
• Test should be planned before testing begins.
• An independent third party should conduct test.
• Exhaustive testing is not possible.
7.4 TEST PLAN
The purpose of test planning is to provide the basis for accomplishing testing in an organized manner. If a test plan is comprehensive and carefully thought out, test execution and analysis should proceed smoothly .
A good test plan is one which:
• Has a good chance of detecting a majority of the defects.
• Is flexible.
• Is executed easily, repeatable and automatically.
• Defines the types of test objectives.
• Clearly defines the test objectives.
• Clarifies the test strategy.
• Is not redundant.
• Identifies the risk.
7.5 EXECUTION TEST PLAN
Team members of the project will prepare the test plan. The following types of testing will be done for Product Management System:
7.5.1 Unit Testing
In computer programming, unit testing is a procedure used to validate that individual unit of source code is working properly. Unit testing is a software development process in which the smallest testable parts of an application, called units, are individually and independently scrutinized for proper operation. Unit testing is often automated but it can also be done manually. This testing mode is a component of Extreme Programming (XP), a pragmatic method of software development that takes a meticulous approach to building a product by means of continual testing and revision .
The goal of unit testing is to isolate each part of the program and show that the individual parts are correct. A unit test provides a strict, written contract that the piece of code must satisfy. As a result, it affords several benefits.
7.5.2 Integration Testing
Integration testing, also known as integration and testing (I&T), is a software development process which program units are combined and tested as groups in multiple ways. Integration testing can expose problems with the interfaces among program components before trouble occurs in real-world program execution. Integration testing is a component of Extreme Programming (XP), a pragmatic method of software development that takes a meticulous approach to building a product by means of continual testing and revision .
There are two major ways of carrying out an integration test, called the bottom-up method and the top-down method.
184.108.40.206 Bottom-Up Integration Testing
Bottom-up integration testing begins with unit testing, followed by tests of progressively higher-level combinations of units called modules or builds.
7.5.2. 2 Top-Down Integration Testing
In top-down integration testing, the highest-level modules are tested first and progressively lower-level modules are tested after that. In a comprehensive software development environment, bottom-up testing is usually done first, followed by top-down testing .
The process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements.
In other words, validation ensures that the product actually meets the user’s needs, and that the specifications were correct in the first place, while verification is ensuring that the product has been built according to the requirements and design specifications. Validation ensures that ‘you built the right thing’ .
The process of evaluating software to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. Verification ensures that ‘you built it right’ .
7.6 SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE
Software testing may be viewed as an important part of the Software Quality Assurance (SQA) process. In SQA, software process specialists and auditors take a broader view on software and its development. They examine and change the software engineering process itself to reduce the amount of faults that end up in defect rate. What constitutes an acceptable defect rate depends on the nature of the software. An arcade video game designed to simulate flying an airplane would presumably have a much higher tolerance for defects than software used to control an actual airliner. Although there are close links with SQA testing departments often exist independently, and there may be no SQA areas in some companies .
Software testing is the process used to measure the quality of developed computer software. A human being can make an error (mistake), which produces a defect (fault, bug) in the code, in software or a system, or in a document. For that region, testing is an important. Different types of testing are used in this project.
Every system has some limitations or problems. Our systems also have some problems. In this chapter, we discuss those problems.
Problems are everywhere. Normally garments industries are always busy with their work. So our data collection were delayed sometimes due to the business of the garments personnel.
We also have faced problems during the installation of XAMPP. Port no. 80 & 434 should not be busy during the activation of apache server. Also IIS sometimes conflicted with apache.
We found few troubles of designing this project because we are the new developers in the software field. We have also faced some problems during data analysis, database design, data normalization and in the time of making relationships among several tables.
Limitations of our system are listed below-
• IIS is not supported because of some function of PHP do not properly work in IIS server, we must use Apache server for our software.
• If buyer is illegal it’s can’t be verified, that is mail checking system is not used.
• To final an order for production there is needed buyer’s representative.
• This system only maintains the production side.
• Report can not be generated properly if the time format is not matched between database & PHP coding.
After completion our project, we get some problems. We faced some problems in installing the software, we used in implementation of the system. In the future, we will try to solve those problems.
There is no doubt that Online Application is most popular and important for all. Now a day, we depend on the Online for everything like job searching, advertising, buying goods etc.
Our proposed system is also online based. In the proposed system maintained full production sector. The combination of HTML, CSS and PHP are used for front end design and MySQL is used for back end. Apache server is used as a server. We think one day this “Online Garments Product Management System” will be a complete solution for the administrators. At first we collect the relevant data from the Opex Group, then we planed, designed architecture, made papers, observed the system and prepared database. Finally, we started the implementation phase and complete the project.
Mainly three kinds of user can access this software. Every user has to be registered first of all. Admin can access the whole system and can generate the production report, which shows the complete and running production information.
All of the users are benefited by the system. The administrator will get the maximum benefit from it. He can take any decision easily and quickly. Better control and security ensures data, reduce manpower, eliminate paper work and increase the efficiency of the daily work.
9.2 SUGGESTED FOR FUTURE WORK
There are further more areas where the application can be developed to support the Opex Group. For example HR system and Accounts system can be developed and integrated with this application to get the better outcome. Different reports can be designed to retrieve data from the database as per the requirements. The requirements of the management changes over the time. So the application also need to upgrade every after certain time. The server side validation was not performed in this application which is mandatory in good programming practice.