Sewing Section of Garments Industry - Assignment Point
Sewing Section of Garments Industry
Subject: Textile | Topics:

SEWING:

After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn respects on buyer requirement.

Sewing section is the most important department of a garment manufacturing industry. Sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operations.

SEWING

SEWING SEQUENCE OF T-SHIRT MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

Number matching front 2 back part (back on part on upper side)

Shoulder stitching (By over lock m/c)

Neck rib truck (By plain m/c)

Neck rib sewing by plain m/c

Neck rib joins with body pant

Neck top sin

Solder to solder back tip

Size label sewing

Solder to solder back top sin

Sleeve marking and number matching with body parts.

Sleeve tuck with body part (Sleeve mark point & solder mark point)

Sleeve joint with the body part

Side sewing and care label joint

Bottom hem tuck (at the end side)

Bottom hem sewing

Arm bottom hem joint

Inspection

SEWING SEQUENCE OF POLO SHIRT MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

Lining joint with collar part by heat pressing

Collar marking for open stitch

Collar inside open stitch

Collar marking

Collar ¼ top sin

Collar cutting

Band rolling

Band joint with collar

Band top sin 1/6

Placket lining

Placket marking

Placket rolling

Placket joint

Placket top sin1/6

Placket pattern top sin

Placket pattern top sin 1/6

Box sewing

Pocket rolling

Pocket Iron

Pocket marking

Pocket joint with body

Yoke joint with back part

Yoke ¼ top sin

Back and front part matching number

Collars join with body part

Collar top sin in joining part

Sleeve making

Sleeve over locked

Sleeve rolling

Sleeve pair matching

Sleeve and body matching

Sleeve body tuck

Sleeve joint with body part

Sleeve marking for batch

Sleeve batch joint (left & right side)

Body marking for batch

Batch joint with body part

Label make

Label iron

Main label joint in back side

Sleeve opening tuck

Body hem sewing

Care label sewing

Side joint

Band tuck

Band tape joint

Band top sin

Sleeve chap tuck

Inspection

OPERATIONPROCESSOFFULLSLEEVE,ROLL NECK, T-SHIRT:

Total Machine:-26

Over Lock-Shoulder Joining (2 M/c)

Plain M/c-collar Joining (2 M/c)

Overlook M/c- Neck Joining (2 M/c)

Plain M/c- Main Label Joining (2 M/c)

Plain M/c-Size Label Joining (2 M/c)

Flat-Lock M/c- Sleeve Hem (2 M/c)

Over-Lock M/c-Sleeve Joining (3M/c)

Over-Lock- Side Seam joining With Care Level (4M/c)

Plain M/c- Sleeve Attaching (IM/c)

Plain M/c-Tuck (2M/c)

 Flat Lock M/c-Bottom Hem (2M/c)

Bottom Hole (1 M/c)

Bottom Attach (IM/c)

 Line Balancing of Basic T-Shirt manufacturing process:

No. of m/c:

Shoulder joining-(O/L) =                                                                    1

Side cutting – (scissor)=                                                                      1

Neck making-(P/M) =                                                                         1+1

Neck Joining-(O/L) =                                                                          1+1

Label attaching (P/M) =                                                                      1+1

Piping (feed of the arm) =                                                                  1+1

Sleeve hem (F/L) =                                                                             2+1

2m/c Sleeve joining (O/L) =                                                                3

2m/c Side seam (O/L) =                                                                      2

2m/c sleeve tuck (P/M)=                                                                     1

2m/c Bottom hem (F/L)=                                                                    2

After sewing, the sewn area is observed for any defects, if present which affects outlook. Normally it is expected that there will be no defective view of stitches, seam pucker or unsightly view.

There are various types of sewing problems found in sewing floor. Among these problems are stitch formation, seam pucker and fabric damage in the seam line.

Sewing problem:

Sewing defect can be classified in three different groups:

  • Stitch formation
  • Seam pucker
  • Damage of fabric on seam line

Stitch formation:

  • Slipped stitch:

Causes:

  If hook or looper& needle are not inserted in loop of thread in time

  Irregular thread tension on upper or power loop

  Due to needle deflection

 If needle thread loop size is too small

  If the sewing thread is not capable to form loop

Remedies:

  Placing of needle properly

  The tension of thread should again be adjusted

  Needle to be changed

  Needle size & thread size must be adjusted

  • Staggered stitch:

Causes:

  Needle deflection

  Due to wrong or blunt needle point

  Wrong adjustment of needle and thread size

  Defected motion of feed dog

Remedies:

  Increase the needle size

  Needle to be changed

  Needle size and thread size to be changed

  Motion of feed dog to be adjusted

  • Unbalance stitch:

Causes:

  Wrong tension of sewing thread

  Used wrong thread path

  Wrong adjustment of needle thread path

  If the thread is not lubricated

Remedies:

  Setting of proper tension to the sewing thread

  Use of right thread path

  Better qualities threads must be used

  • Variable stitch density:

Causes:

  Twisting of thread in the thread guide

  More tension to the thread

  Improper unwinding of thread from package during sewing

  Fraying of thread in the needle

Remedies:

  Proper threading of sewing thread during sewing

  The tension of thread should be less or use of higher strength threads

  The position of thread guide must be 2.5 times higher than the position of thread package.

  Finer threads must be used or to be used heavy needle

Seam pucker:

  • Variable or uneven stretch on fabric plies:

Causes:

  There is a great possibility of seeing seam pucker in case of more plied of fabrics sewing together.

  Due to variable stretch on fabric plies they will not feed equally to sewing m/c and create seam pucker.

  This type of pucker is seen for the limitation of feed mechanism.

  • Fabric dimensional instability:

  If the shrinkage of sewn fabric plies are not same or equal than seam pucker will create after washing.

  To avoid this, it must know the shrinkage property of different types of fabric before sewing.

  If the shrinkage percentage of area of two pieces fabrics is more than 2, then seam pucker will occur after sewing the fabrics together.

  • Extension of sewing thread:

  Different types of tension are placed on sewing thread during sewing of fabrics. If the tension on needle thread is higher than under thread than seam pucker will produce or relaxed.

  Due to tension, the length of thread is extended a slight.

  If the shrinkage percentage of thread and fabric are same, there is no possibility of seam puckering.

  • Sewing threads shrinkage:

  Due to variable shrinkage % of sewing thread and fabric, seam pucker will create after washing or ironing.

  To protect this, it must know about the shrinkage percentage of fabric and thread before selection to sew.

  • Mismatched pattern:

  Seam pucker will create when two different size patterns are sewn together.

  The designer is responsible for this. But can be occurred due to wrong selection of patterns.

Damage of fabrics on seam line:

  • Mechanical damage:

Damaging of fabrics or yarns in the fabrics by needle is the entire defects of mechanical damage. The following are the steps to be taken to keep the fabrics free from this type of defect:

  By using perfect size and shape of needle and needle point without any defect.

  By reducing the speed of sewing machine.

  By testing sew ability before sewing fabrics.

  • Needle heating damage:

The damage of fabrics due to the friction occurred between the needle and fabrics. The producing temperature in the needle may be form 300°C to 350°C. The fabric can be damaged with this temperature. The following are the steps to be taken to keep the fabrics free from this type of defect:

  By reducing sewing speed so that there is less generating of heat to the needle. But it also harmful for large production.

  By changing needle size and shape so that there is less generating of heat to the needle.

  By sewing smaller length at higher speed.

  By using Teflon coated needle

  • Ø Another sewing stage problem:
EffectCause
Excessive Trimming

Wastage

Due to Lack of awareness among workers in

Sewing excessive edge trimmings are found

Incorrect machine

Setting

Machine settings Such as feed dog movement are

not correlate to the fabric surface properties and

leads to pull/pucker the fabric

 Various types of garments defect:

  • Broken buttons
  • Broken snaps
  • Broken stitching
  • Defective snaps
  • Different shades within the same
  • Dropped stitches
  • Exposed notches
  • Inoperative zipper
  • Loose / hanging sewing threads
  • Missing buttons
  • Needle cuts / chews
  • Open seams
  • Pulled / loose yarn
  • Stain
  • Unfinished buttonhole
  • Zipper too short
  • Exposed raw edges

TRIMS AND ACCESSORIES:

To full fill the design objectives we need different kind of materials. Fabrics are the main material, which used for garment manufacturing. We need other materials also, which make the garments aesthetic, functional and commercially required. Usually other than fabrics this material used for making garments are called trims and accessories.

Trims: The Raw materials which are used in the sewing section other than fabric are called trims. These are the materials which are directly attached with the fabric to make a garment completely wearable.

Accessories: The Raw Materials which are used to make a garment attractive for sale and packing accept fabric and trims are called accessories. They are not directly attached with the garment. It is used only to make the garment attractive.

List of Trims and accessories:

SL

Trims

SL

Accessories

1

Label (S)

1

Poly bag

2

Button

2

Elastic bag

3

Zipper

3

Mini Poly bag

4

Padding

4

Master Carton

5

Interlining

5

Inner carton

6

Down

6

Size clip

7

Elastic

7

P. P. band

8

Thread

8

Tag pin

9

Twill Tape

9

Brass pin

10

Stopper

10

Collar stand

11

String/ Draw Cord

11

Safety pin

12

Piping Cord

12

Gum tape

13

Emblem

13

Arrow sticker

14

Logo print

14

Scotch tape

15

D- Ring

15

Barcode Sticker

16

Swivel Hook

16

Defect indicator

17

Eyelet/ Grommet

17

Tissue paper

18

Collar Stay

18

Back board

19

Cord Bell

19

Neck board

20

Buckle

20

Butterfly

21

Rivet

21

Numbering stickers

22

Weaving belt

22

Hanger

23

Hook & Eye

23

Size sticker

24

Velcro tape

24

Carton pad

25

Seam sealing tape

25

Both side tape

26

Shoulder pad

26

Plastic staple

27

Cable

27

Iron seal

28

Adjuster

28

Clip

29

Elastic Threads

29

Size Tag

30

Shoulder Tape

30

Carton Sticker

A short description over some of the important trims and accessories is as follows: Buttons: Various types of button are available in the market. Merchandiser has to have a good knowledge about all types of button. Some the types are as follows:

  • Pearl button
  • Horn button: It is also polyester button
  • Chalk button
  • Polyester button
  • Imitation leather
  • Polyester imitation button
  • Nylon button
  • Alloy button
  • Jeans button
  • Snap button: 2 ports & 4 ports
  • Press button
  • ABS button
  • Handicraft button
  • Fabric Covered button
  • Coconut button
  • Wooden button
  • Real horn button
  • Real Shell button etc.

Zipper:

  • Depend On End

Open end Zipped:

Right insertion of sleeve & left puller (Men’s)

Left insertion of sleeve & Right puller (Women’s)

Depend On Teeth Size:

  • 3 SIZES
  • 4 SIZES
  • 5 SIZES

It depend on teeth length it 3 mm then size 3.

Depend On Tape:

  • Polyester
  • Cotton

Depend On Puller:

  • Double puller
  • Single

Depend On Slider Lock:

  • Auto lock
  • Semi locks
  • Non lock

Depend On Teeth Material:

  • Nylon: shiny rainbow, shiny gold, shiny silver, antic brass.
  • Metal: brass, antic brass, nickel brass, aluminum, pewter.
  • Plastic on derlin: ivory, translucent, shiny gold, silver rainbow
  • Plastic on derlin: ivory, translucent, shiny gold, silver rainbow.

Packing Accessories:

The Accessories which are used for garment packing during garment shipment to buyer are called packing accessories. Packing accessories are depended on garment packing and folding etc which is instructed by buyer.

Poly bag, packing board, tissue paper, hanger, scotch tape, gum tape, carton etc are part of packing accessories.

Packing should be varying (as per buyer garment packing instruction) in different orders as per instruction of buyer garments packing. , The number of one carton garments it is weight on depend carton quality.

Understand quality of carton follow 3 ply, 5 ply, 7ply.

The number of carton is high ply number it is very much it is hard and strong.

The sea frights depend on dimension of the export carton and the air frights depend on dimension of the export carton or gross weight of the carton.

Type of Carton:

1. Depend on paper                             :           Khaki carton or brown carton

            Duplex carton

            Box   carton

2. Depend on stitching                        :           Stitching carton

                        Now stitching /gum pasting carton

3. Depend on ply                                :           3 ply carton

                        5 ply carton

                        7 ply carton

4. Depend on liner                              :           Both side liner cartons

                        Outside liner carton

5. Depend on size                               :           Master carton

                                                                               Inner Carton

Sewing

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