Medical

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention) Definition: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, commonly known as ‘COPD’, is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and refractory (n.....

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications) Definition: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, commonly known as COPD, is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessne.....

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Hypoxia

Hypoxia

Hypoxia Definition: Hypoxia, in medicine, is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. In its extreme form, where oxygen is entirely absent, the condition is called anoxia. It differs from hypoxemia, which means an inadequate .....

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Hemoptysis

Hemoptysis

Hemoptysis Definition: Hemoptysis (also known as hemoptysis or hemoptysis), is simply a medical term for coughing up blood. The blood can appear as flecks, streaks or can be quite massive in amount. This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and ce.....

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Pulmonary Edema (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention)

Pulmonary Edema (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention)

Pulmonary Edema (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention) Definition: Pulmonary Edema, also known as lung congestion, occurs when fluid accumulates in the air sacs of the lungs – the alveoli – making it difficult to breathe. This interferes with gas exchange and can cause respi.....

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Pulmonary Edema (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications)

Pulmonary Edema (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications)

Pulmonary Edema (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications) Definition: Pulmonary Edema, also known as lung congestion, lung water, and pulmonary congestion, is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. It leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure. It is due to either .....

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Atrial septal defect (Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment)

Atrial septal defect (Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment)

Atrial septal defect (Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment) Definition: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a birth defect of the heart in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. This defect allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. ASD .....

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Atrial Septal Defect (Types, Causes, and Risk factors)

Atrial Septal Defect (Types, Causes, and Risk factors)

Atrial Septal Defect (Types, Causes, and Risk factors) Definition: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. Some flow is a normal condition both pre-birth and immediately post-birt.....

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Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Definition: Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a syndrome of shortness of breath and hypoxemia caused by pulmonary microvascular vasodilation in patients with portal hypertension; dyspnea and hypoxemia are worse when the patient is upright. The problem is that when t.....

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Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD)

Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD)

Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD) Definition: Polycystic liver disease (PLD or PCLD) is an inherited condition characterized by many cysts of various sizes scattered throughout the liver. It is commonly seen in association with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, with a prevalence of 1 in .....

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Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder Definition: Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that is characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress. The DSM-5 defi.....

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Orthopnea

Orthopnea

Orthopnea Definition: Orthopnea (or orthopnoea) is shortness of breath (dyspnea) or difficulty breathing when people are lying down. It comes from the Greek words “ortho,” which means straight or vertical, and “pnea,” which means “to breathe.” It is commonly seen as a late manifestati.....

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