Science

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC)

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC)

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Definition: Inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart. It is also referred to as the posterior vena cava. Its walls are rigid and have valves so the blood does not flow down via gravity. It is formed by [.....

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Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Definition: Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a syndrome of shortness of breath and hypoxemia caused by pulmonary microvascular vasodilation in patients with portal hypertension; dyspnea and hypoxemia are worse when the patient is upright. The problem is that when t.....

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Abdominal Obesity

Abdominal Obesity

Abdominal Obesity Definition: Abdominal Obesity (or “central adiposity”) occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health. The terms sound very complicated, but they are simply different.....

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Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD)

Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD)

Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD) Definition: Polycystic liver disease (PLD or PCLD) is an inherited condition characterized by many cysts of various sizes scattered throughout the liver. It is commonly seen in association with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, with a prevalence of 1 in .....

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Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder Definition: Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that is characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress. The DSM-5 defi.....

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Orthopnea

Orthopnea

Orthopnea Definition: Orthopnea (or orthopnoea) is shortness of breath (dyspnea) or difficulty breathing when people are lying down. It comes from the Greek words “ortho,” which means straight or vertical, and “pnea,” which means “to breathe.” It is commonly seen as a late manifestati.....

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Shortness of Breath

Shortness of Breath

Shortness of Breath Definition: Shortness of breath (or Breathlessness) is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough. The medical term for shortness of breath is “dyspnea.” It is often described as an intense tightening in the chest, air hunger or a feeling of suffocation. English dyspn.....

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Cardiac Arrest (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention)

Cardiac Arrest (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention)

Cardiac Arrest (Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention) Definition: Cardiac arrest (or Sudden cardiac arrest) is the sudden, unexpected loss of heart function, breathing and consciousness. It is different from a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow to a portion of the heart is block.....

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Cardiac Arrest (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications)

Cardiac Arrest (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications)

Cardiac Arrest (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications) Definition: Cardiac arrest is a serious heart condition that is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump. A sudden cardiac arrest is different from a heart attack, which occurs when blood flow .....

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Amphetamine (Uses and Effects)

Amphetamine (Uses and Effects)

Amphetamine (Uses and Effects) Definition: Amphetamine (Common names for amphetamines are speed, fast, up, uppers, louee, goey and whiz) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. It.....

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Nootropic (Benefits)

Nootropic (Benefits)

Nootropic (Benefits) Definition: Nootropics (/noʊ.əˈtrɒpɪks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are sometimes called smart drugs, brain boosters, or memory-enhancing drugs, the term “nootropics” was coined by scientist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea, who .....

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Depressant

Depressant

Depressant Definition: Depressant (or central depressant), sometimes called “downers,” these drugs come in multicoloured tablets and capsules or in liquid form. Some drugs in this category, such as Zyprexa, Seroquel and Haldol, are known as “major tranquillizers” or “antipsychotics,” .....

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