For various historical and economic reasons there is a huge demand for English language. As a language English play a vital role all over the world for many years and it is considered as a global language. Statics show that about 380 million people speak English as a first language and another 350 million use it as a second or foreign language. It is fair then to say that throughout history foreign language learning has always been an important practical concern. We know that English is widely used of communication both locally and globally.
English is a compulsory subject in our national curriculum. The Government of Bangladesh has realised the important of English in all spheres of life and recently made it the second language. At present, Bangladeshi students learn English as a second language since the very beginning of their primary education (From Grade-1) and English is a compulsory subject both primary and secondary education. No doubt to face the 21st century learning English is essential. We know that the term learning in closely related with the term teaching. However in the teaching learning process the teachers play a vital role. We know that teaching foreign language is not a easy way because this subject is different rather that any other subject. So many efforts have been made to teach language effectively. In a classroom a major part of the teachers job is to expose students to language so that they can learn how to use it. So as a teacher it is essential to know that which factors are really involve for quality teaching.
We know that primary education is the base education and main piller of the whole education system. In this level the children first meet with English language which is not their mother tongue. So basically they feel curious and different types of anxiety in this surrounding area.
So a strong beginning in teaching English should be made in the primary level so that they feel more interest to learn it in their later life. Although in our national curriculum the importance is given on the English language, the teaching of English in our country has yet not achieved an out standing level. Regarding the quality of English teaching is questionable. So it is high time to identify that which factors are involve in quality teaching and which factors are create obstacles in English language teaching. However to face the global demands its essential to know which problem is going on to prove quality teaching at the primary level.
Brief history of language teaching:
English has a history of about two hundred years. English language come to Indian sub-continent with the members of the east India Company. The British ruled our country about 200 years and they left in 1947. By this long English domination, English had become an indispensable tool for higher education and illectual discourse. In Pakistan period, English was considered as a second language. Now English got the status of the international language so its essential to learn English language all over the world. For various historical reasons and for the sake of reality, English will continue as a second compulsory language. However English was introduce as a compulsory subject from class 3 in 1980 following the suggestions of the report of English Language Teaching Task Force set by the Ministry of Education (1976).
An attempt to introduce English in class 2, in 1983 failed because of strong opposition from the intelligent and political leaders on the ground because on that time they thought that the decision will be unscientific. Later the government took a decision to introduce English as a compulsory subject from class one and this was implemented in 1992 and that in still continuing. Later in 1997 the Education policy suggested that English should be introduce from class 3 which created some dilemma as some language professionals thought, it would not be the right thing to do and they strongly recommended that further training of teachers should be provided to improve weakness of the existing situation.
According to our national curriculum English is introduce as a compulsory subject from primary to higher secondary level. In primary level the students first face with this language and they supposed to receive foundation knowledge and primary skills which are essential for their later lives and later level of education. So the standard of English teaching at this level has become a great concern.
The national primary education curriculum (revised in 2002-3) states the purpose of teaching English in classes one to five. According to this curriculum the main learning objectives are to :
(i) Understand simple commands /instructions /requests in English and carry them out.
(ii) Speak and understand simple English according to their age level.
(iii) Read and comprehend textbooks according to their age group and level.
(iv) Write alphabets, words, numbers, simple sentences, passages, paragraphs, informal letters and numbers according to their age group and level.
If we observe these learning objectives then its clear that the learning objectives based on its skills – i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. We know that learning English means to learn 4 skills like – listening, speaking reading and writing. However the teaching strategy should be concentrated on its learning objectives so that the learners can able to achieve these objectives. But it will not be unfair to say that the teaching strategy at the primary level is not fully concentrated on its learning objectives which are mentioned by the national curriculum. On the other side our testing and exam system is related with writing and reading oriented. Along side two major primary skills listening and speaking is absence here. So the result is that the teachers are not willing to teach this two skill and our learners are not achieving this skills. So quality teaching is questionable in this area. Most of the learners learn English only for passing the exam. So though they study English from their primary level, in reality their achievement is not well enough in primary level. Along with they have to face problem in secondary level, as their English base in primary level is not well equipped. So this is the high time to insure quality teaching at this level so that our learners can achieve all the objectives which are mentioned by national curriculum.
Rationale of the study :
In a changing competitive world teaching English as a second and foreign language is one of the world largest educational aspects. We know that English language is the essential tools for communication and this is the only medium of international communication. It is also a valid statement that if we want to face 21st century we need to learn English language. However the proficiency of English language is one of requirements for accessing in this global village, considering the world wide demand of English NCTB (National Curriculum and Tent Book Board) has been introduced English as a compulsory subject from class one to twelve. The goal of teaching English is learning to communicate effectively and appropriately. In the curriculum of primary level, English is considered as a skill based subject not a content based subject like others. However its also a valid statement that teaching English and teaching other subjects is not same. Its totally different rather then any other subject.
English is not our native language and our learner first face with this language at this level so naturally they feel more curious in this new world. So the performance of English teacher must be outstanding then other teachers.
In content which are introduced in the national curriculum for practicing the four language skills-listening, speaking, reading and writing. According to our curriculum the learners of primary level will achieve those skills as their age level so that they can use it in their real life and they can turn their knowledge in secondary level. But the fact is that after complete the primary level most of the students failed to achieved most of learning objectives which are prescribed by our national curriculum. However its also clear that the quality of English teaching at this level is not satisfactory. The pupils are not achieve the knowledge of English properly. Many of them suffer from English fobia. Not only this, though our students spend a long time in both primary and secondary level but the main fact is that after complete those level most of them are not able to achieve communicative skill which is the main aspects in this regard.
So quality of English teaching is the vital issue in this area. We know that the primary education is the first state of education for our learners so the teaching quality at this level must be strong so that our learners didn’t suffer in their later level of education.
Quality teaching is an overall concept about teaching learning process. However various factors are included in this area such as teachers, learners, teaching methodology, teaching aids, classroom environment, text book, testing system etc. No doubt among these all factors teachers play a vital role. Because in a classroom a major part of the teachers job is to expose students to language so that they can use it later. However teacher and his/her teaching strategy is the main indicator to promote quality teaching. But the real fact is that the teachers of primary schools are not well trained to teach a foreign language and this inadequacy fails them to adopt modern techniques of teaching learning process. Mainly the teachers follow the traditional methods of teaching. Now a days the concept of quality teaching is a much talk issue in our teaching arena. However teacher alone could not ensure the quality teaching. She/he need both internal; and external support. So it is crying need to investigate the present real situation of English teaching. Alongside its essential to identify the factors or reasons which behind the quality of English teaching. Therefore, the concern of quality of English teaching at the primary level is the main focus of the study.
Statement of the problem:
A study of the quality of English teaching at the primary level.
A research objective is a specific statement which relating to the aim of research. The research objective summaries what is to be achieved by the study.
The main objectives of this research is to identify the quality of English teaching at the primary level.
On the basis of main objective the specific objectives are:
(i) To identify the teachers problem in teaching English at primary level.
(ii) To identify the present condition of English teaching at primary level.
(iii) To identify the pupils problem in learning English at primary level.
(iv) To provide suggestion for improving the quality of English teaching.
Hypothesis of the research work :
The hypothesis of the present problems are :
(i) The English teachers of primary level face difficulties in teaching.
(ii) Present condition of English teaching at primary level is not good at all.
(iii) Students of primary level are in problem in learning English.
Significance of the Study:
In a changing competitive world most of the countries in the world move radically to develop their manpower though proper education. Bangladesh is a developing country in the third world. Therefore if we want to develop our country, a large number of human capital is needed. So to build a strong human capital English in essential in the present age of information and technology of 21st century. In our country English is introduce from the primary level but the present situation is not good enough. It can be point there that about 90% of our primary schools are situated in the rural area of Bangladesh. So a vast majority of the learners are deprive from proper opportunities to learn English language. Most of the students of the primary level are not able to acquire their terminal competencies, therefore after finishing their primary education they facing a great problem in further education. We know that there are many obstacle to promoto quality teaching at this level, such as – untrained teacher, limited wealth; lower physical facilities of the school, lack of teaching knowledge, lack of modern aids imbalance teacher students ratio, poor teaching techniques etc. We know we have huge problem to insure quality teaching but its true that to face the global challenge, knowledge of English in essential. In this area teaches in the key person to insure quality teaching. So the main focus of the study is quality teaching at the primary level. Along side present situation of ELT, opinion of teachers and learners is also included here. This research also presents some recommendations to achieve the goal of English teaching at the primary level.
Design of the study:
According to the title of the study the purposes of the study are to identify the present situation of ELT at primary level and to identify the teachers and learners problem in this regard. This present study mainly concentrates on the quality teaching issue at this level. In this regard two types of survey were administered, such as a survey on teachers attitude towards present ELT and survey on learners problem. In the survey of teachers the main focus is teaching methodology, aids, teaching style, problem and their opinion in this regards. Alongside the survey on learners mainly focus on their attitude and opinion in this area.
The proposed surveys were based on two sets of questionnaires. Both close and open ended questionnaires item were used for more qualitative data. Beside to know the real situation classroom observation checklist has been used.
The remaining chapters have been organized in the following manners:
Chapter two describes the different approaches and methods that were adopted in foreign language teaching and learning in different times. This chapter also focused on various factors which are related to this study. Alongside the brief statement of the terminal competency about language learning were discussed. This chapter also presents a review of the related research previously conducted in the field of language teaching. Chapter three elaborates the overall concept about techniques and methods that were adopted in the administration of this study. Chapter four concentrates on the presentation and analysis of this study. Chapter five contains a summary of the findings and a discussion of the conclusions that may be draw together with recommendation for an improvement of the English language teaching at the primary level.
Review of related literature:
The purpose of the study is to find out the quality of English Teaching at Primary Level in Bangladesh, the following areas of the literature were reviewed in the development of this study.
A survey of English language in Bangladesh by the British council (1986) shows that the standards of English in Bangladesh were higher before the war of liberation when English was a unifyingly and effective language of communication government, business and education. At present (he situation is different English is taught and learnt as a foreign language, but the need for This language is felt eve whore in higher education, for a good job, in studies of science and technology. (Mohammad-2002)
Chris (1993) observed that –
Effective teaching is essentially concerned with how best to bring about the desired pupil learning by some educational activity. Over the years, thinking about effective teaching has bean approached in a number of different ways.
Until the 1960s research on effective teaching was largely dominated by attempts to identify attributes of teachers, such as personality traits, sex, age knowledge and Training, which might have a bearing on their effectiveness, however, research on effective teaching has focused fairly and squarely on activities in the classroom, in particular and the interaction between teacher, and pupils.
Context variables: refer to all those characteristic of the context of the learning activity, usually a classroom-based lesson,. which may have some bearing on the success of the learning activity.
Process variables refer to all those characteristics of teacher and pupil behavior and of the learning tasks and activities which tale place in the classroom and which may have some bearing on the success of the learning activity.
Product variables refer, to all those educational outcomes which are desired by teachers and which have formed the basis of either teachers planning of the learning activities and/or of objectives of criteria which can be used to consider and monitor effectiveness.
The researcher mentioned that the overall performance of the selected test was not satisfactory. He also showed that the overall performance of the students of Non-government schools was better than the students of the Government primary schools.
So, the researcher intended some recommendations improving the mentioned ability as, training for the English language teacher, using teaching aids, supplying teachers’ guide etc. He also expected that an ideal language class size should be smaller and teacher student ratio should not exceed 1:40.
Above the related literature findings implied the researcher were a great help for this study.
Quality teaching and learning condition:
What does character do? The obvious and simple response is “a teacher teaches” but what do we mean by this? What does teaching involve? We know that here are for different between teaching and quality teaching. Quality teaching is an overall aspect which depends on various factor but the fact is that when we think about this area we only focus on teachers ability and competency. No doubt teachers competence is the vital phenomena in this area but there are various factor which are also play important role in this regard. Such as- Curriculum, textbook, exam system, learners quality, teaching is related which effective teaching. The main way of thinking about quality teaching is bound up with the idea of how the learners learn. So as a teacher its essential to know the condition for learning.
Source : Mac Kenze, Article about quality teaching www.teaching improve.com (Goggle.com)
So know the condition for learning very necessary for thinking about quality teaching.
Review of Primary English Curriculum:
English is a compulsory subject in our country. The government of Bangladesh has realised the importance of English a new in all spheres of life and recently made if the second language. Now the policy of governments is to encourage and emphasize the learning and teaching of English at all levels. For this reason the government has emphasize on four skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing) in English from the very early stages of their academic career.
National Curriculum and Text Book Board (NCTB) is responsible for the syllabus in English at the primary level and also at secondary level. Based on the new aims and objectives of primary education the objectives, terminal competencies and class-wise attainable competencies. For English (Classes I-V) have been revised and updated.
According to our Primary Curriculum the main objectives of teaching English in classes I-V are to enable students to –
1. Understand simple commands /instructions /requests in English and carry them out.
2. Speak and understand simple English according to their age level.
3. Read and comprehend textbooks according to their age group and level.
4. Write alphabets, words, numbers, simple sentences, passages, paragraphs, informal letters and numbers according to their age group and level.
According to our National Curriculum the terminal competencies of English at the primary level are given below:
1. To recognize basic sound differences, stress and into nation.
2. To understand commands /instructions given in simple and clear English and carry them out.
3. To understand simple questions and statements.
4. To listen, understand and enjoy simple rhymes, poems, stories read out to them.
1. To repeat with correct stress and into nation what the teacher says.
2. To exchange greetings and farewells and to make introductions.
3. To ask and answer questions in English.
4. To recite rhymes and poems.
5. To say what some one is doing.
6. To give instructions /commands and to make requests.
7. To take part in conversation on topics related to their daily life.
8. To describe what he/she sees in his/her environment.
1. To read a loud printed materials of the level of the prescribed text with correct pronunciation and understanding.
2. To recognize and read both cardinal and ordinal numbers.
3. To read names of the months, days of the week and to tell the time.
4. To read a loud rhymes, short poems with proper stress rhyme and intonation.
5. To read silently with understanding short stories, text materials etc.
6. To read instruction.
7. To read using punctuation marks.
1. To write cursive and non cursive letters both small and capital.
2. To write cardinal numbers.
3. To write words, sentences and phrases using cursive letters both small and capital.
4. To write figures for words and words for figures.
5. To recognize and use punctuation marks.
6. To able to use capital letters.
7. To write words, phrases and sentence correctly.
8. To take dictation given in slow and clear English.
9. To write simple, short composition.
10. To write simple letters.
Language learning and teaching:
In our country English is taught as a foreign language. A learner of English language face many problems in learning English. We know that learning a language means learning the four skills of target language. In this sense we need to learn the four skills. Such as –
We know that listening is the first skill and first step to learn foreign language. But there are different types of obstacles in this area. Especially our learners face problem in case of developing listening skill. Most of the learners do not get the English speaking environment always, because most of them come from poverty stricken illiterate. Family, so they do not get English speaking environment at home not only this when they go to attend the classroom they hardly get English speaking environment there. Because of the teachers of our country speak Bangla in the English class. Even if some teacher give listening practice to his students, then the students face problems to receive it because they try to understand every word they here. They can not keep concentration from long period to time when they listen. They do not understand some important vocabulary. The can not catch all the information after the teachers or reading of the text. They are not able to memorize what they have heard. For want of vocabulary they can not open their mouth. Not only this can not write freely for want of needed vocabulary and lack of grammar. So to overcome this situation the teacher should try to motivate the learner in this area.
For various historical and economic reasons there is a huge demand for English language teaching and learning. The term English language suggests that English can be neatly defined as a single entity. However it is probably more accurate to talk of English taking into account the different varieties of English spoken. The English used in the USA, for example is slightly different to that used in Britain.
In a book of language teaching called introduction of learning to teach English the author Peter Watkins state that in recent years there has been a shift to seeing language teaching as being most effective when it is subordinated to learning. In other words the teachers job is to help learners to learn effectively or to facilitate learning. However the best teachers have a range of techniques available to them. Although of course no teacher can possibly be aware of all the potential alternative methods available. From the range that the teacher has makes a decision on those that are best suited to a particular context based on such questions as –
- Who are the learners ?
- What are their needs ?
- What are their expectations ?
- What material and resources are available ?
The author also stated that most language teachers have at some point in their careers probably felt frustrated that some of their learners have failed to learn something. This is not to say that all teaching is a waste of time. In this case the teacher need to remember that learners are not empty vessels because there is no one to one relationship between what is poured in by the teacher and what is retained by the learns.
Another feature of learning is that it seems to be more effective the more the learners are involved in the process. This is to say that teachers can try to transfer their knowledge to the learners. However research suggest that the more that learners are involved in working out patterns for them selves the better those patterns will be learned. so an alternative approach is for teachers to provide examples ask appropriate questions and try to guide learners to discover things for themselves.
No doubt teachers play vital role in teaching learning process. English language teaching is different rather than any subject. English is not our native language. So to motivate the learners, teacher have to know various methods such as – communicative method, Direct method, theory of desuggesatopedia, counseling learning, etc. Not only this they have to know how to use different kinds of methods and how to use techniques and what kinds of teaching aids is essential to make this process interesting to the learners.
In the book of “Teaching Foreign – Language Skills” the author Wilge M. Rivers stated that teaching language as communication has become an accepted aim of the foreign language teacher throughout the world. To most this has come to mean that we must teach our students to speak the language with some fluency and authentic idiom.
We know that the main aim of language teaching is to develop communicate competence. In order to do this the teaches need to keep more attention on listening, speaking, reading and writing. If we want to learn English language then its essential to achieve the four skills. Otherwise the teaching learning process will not be effective for the learners. So its necessary to motivate both teachers and learners. However the teachers should keep more attention all over the four skills. The teachers need to remember that the language teaching is not to teach the different rules of grammatical condition. According to our primary English Curriculum the main objectives of teaching English in classes one to five are to enable students to –
- Understand simple commands/ instructions /requests in English and carry them out.
- Speak and understand simple English according to their age level.
- So its important to point here that according to our National primary curriculum four skills of language, speaking, reading, writing) is essential to their age level.
Listening skill :
Listening means hearing something attentively with understanding to respond listening skill means the ability to listen something expertly and well. It is the first step of learning a language. Without listening no one can learn a language. For this reason, listening is treated as the most important skill of learning a language. However listening is a channel of learning and its a way of communication because we can not participate a conversation unless we can understand what the other person is saying to us. So the teachers need to motivate the learners in this area according to the age level of our primary learners.
We know that it is very difficult to organize a listening activity in the class because most of the primary school contains huge learners in the classroom. So many problems may arise in this activity but as a teacher she/he will solve all the problems very carefully. In order to make the activity successful its essential to divide the activity up into the three main stages.
(a) Before listening.
(b) While listening.
(c) After listening.
Review of approaches and methods in language teaching:
The approaches and methods of second foreign language teaching are totally different rather than the other general subjects. It is important to recognize that methods link thoughts and actions because teaching is not entirely about one or the other. As a teacher of language, teacher have thoughts about subject matter – what language is, what culture is and about his /her students who they are as learners and how it is they learn. It is very important for a teacher to become aware of the thoughts that guide his/her actions in the classroom. We know that successful foreign language teaching is the classroom involves consideration of language teaching methods, theories and practice. So as a teacher it is essential to know and apply appropriate method for effective teaching in the classroom.
Grammar Translation Method:
The grammar-translation method is not new. It has had different names but it has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time it was called the classical method since it was first used in the teaching of the classical language, Latin and Greek (Chastain – 1988).
According to the Grammar-Translation Method a fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written it. Literary language is superior to spoken language. In this case on important goal is for students to be able to translate each language into the other. If students can translate from one language into another, they are considered successful language learners. The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given to speaking and listening and almost none to pronunciation. The ability to communicate in the target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction. Students should be conscious of the grammatical rules of the target language.
The role of the students is very traditional. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. Most of the interaction in the classroom is form the teacher to the students. There is little student initiation and little student – student interaction. It is needless to say that this method is now considered to be out dated because – vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives little. Students are also required to memorized grammatical such as verb conjugation.
The Direct Method:
The Direct Method has one very basic rule. No translation is allowed. In fact, the Direct Method receives its name form the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids, with no recourse to the students native language. (Diane Larsen – Techniques Principles in Language Teaching – 2000).
According to this method the purpose of language learning is communication. Reading in the target language should be taught from the beginning of the language instructor, however the reading skill will be developed through practice with speaking pronunciation should be worked on right from the beginning of language learning.
Teachers who use the Direct method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language. In this case vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Native language should not be used in the classroom and classroom environment should be used to help students understand the meaning. Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible. Vocabulary is acquired more naturally it students use it in full sentences, rather than memorizing word lists.
The Audir-Lingual Method:
The purpose of language learning is to learn how to use the language to communicate. The major objective of language teaching should be for students to acquire the structural patterns, students will learn vocabulary afterward. New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialogs. The dialogs are learned through imitation and repetition. Drills (such as repetition, backward build-up, chain, substitution, transformation and question and answer) are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialog. Students successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is induced from the example given, explicit grammar rules are not provided.
According to this method, teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of her students. She is also responsible for providing her students with a good model for imitation. Students are imitators of the teachers model or the tapes she supplies of model speakers.
Teachers want their students to be able to use the target language communicatively. In order to do this they believe students need to over learn the target language. In this method the major challenge of foreign language teaching is getting of foreign language teaching is getting students to overcome the habits of their native language.
The silent way:
The silent way developed by Caleb Gattegno is marked by the fact that teaching should be subordinated to learning. In other worder Gattengno believed that to teach means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it. Gattegno looked at language learning from the perspective of the learners by studying the way babies and young children learn. He conducted that learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves by mobilizing out inner resources (our perception, awareness, cognition, imagination, intuition, creativity etc.).
According to this method silence is a tool. The teacher speaks, but only when necessary. The teacher gives just as much help is necessary and then is silent. In this way the teacher can introduce the stress pattern for the word. In this case the teacher use some techniques and materials to make the learning attractive and effective, such as, sound color chart, teacher silence, peer correction, Rods, self correction gestures word chart, Fidel charts, Structured Feedback etc. Here teacher is a technician and he sets up a situations that focus student attention on the structures of the language. This method marked by the fact that students should be able to use the language for self expression to express their thought, perceptions and feelings.
In order to do this they need to develop independence from the teacher, to develop their own inner criteria for correctness. Gattegno believed that the students must be aware of learning process and be stimulated.
The suggestopedia approach was developed by Bulgarian psychologist Georgi Lozanov in the late 1970s. This method is the marked by the fact that students naturally set up psychological barriers to learning based on fears. Lozanov believe that learners may have been using only 5 to 10 percent of their mental capacity and that the brain could process and retain much more material if given optimal conditions for learning. In order to make the better use of our reserve capacity, the limitations we need to be desuggested. We know that the learners have different types of limitation and mental barrier about foreign language learning. Not only this most of the time they feel that foreign language is very difficult and they cannot be successful in this area. So the method suggestopedia marked by the fact that as a teacher its our responsibility to help the students eliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful in this area. Not only this as a teacher we have to identify the mental barrier of the students. Suggestopedia is now called Desuggestopedia to reflect the importance place on desuggesting limitations on learning.
In this case teachers hope to accelerate the process by which students learn to use a foreign language for everyday communication. In order to do this more of the students mental powers must be tapped. This is accomplished by desuggesting the psychological barriers learners bring with them to the learning situation and using techniques to activate the paraernscious part of the mind just below the fully conscious mind.
A Desuggestopedia course is conducted in a classroom which is bright and cheerful poster displaying grammatical information about the target language are huge around the room in order to take adventage of students peripheral learning.
According to this method, classroom setup, peripheral learning positive suggestion, role play, creative adaptation are the main challenge for the teachers.
From the above discussion we can say that this method is essential for effective teaching. We know that in our country most of the students both primary and secondary level, have English fobia. Not only this they have to much mental barrier to learn this subject accurately. So I believe that if our teachers follow this method is essential for effective teaching. We know that in our country most of the students both primary and secondary level, have English fobia. Not only this they have too much mental barrier to learn this subject accurately. So I believe that if our teachers follow this method and implement this method in their classroom it will be effective for our learners.
Community Language Learning:
The community language learning was developed by Charles Curran in 1972. Curran Studied adult learning for many years and he found that adults often feel threatened by a new learning situation. So curren believe that teachers to become language counselors. Charles curran states that a language counselor does not mean some one trained in psychology, it means someone who is a skillful understand. By understanding students fears and being sensitive to them, he can help students to overcome their negative feelings and turn them into positive energy to further their learning.
According to this method any new learning experience can be threatening. When students have an idea about their learning then they feel more cecure. So this method encourage the teachers to see their students as “whole persons”, where their feeligns, intellect, interpersonal relationship and desire to learn are addressed and balanced. In this case the teacher should be sensitive to students level of confidence and given them just what they need to be successful.
The teacher should work in a non threatening way with what the learner has produced not only this, he also developing a community among the class members builds trust and can help to reduce the threat of the new learning situation.
Community language learning method is neither student centered not teacher-centered, but rather teacher student-centered, with both being decision maker in the classroom, security is initially enhanced by using their native language. The purpose of using the native language is to provide a bridge from the familiar to unfamiliar.
According to this method main tape recording student conversation, transcription, reflection on experience, reflective listening, small group tasks are the main techniques for classroom teaching.
Total physical response :
The Total Physical Response (TPR), Developed by James. Asher in 1970s is based on same basic principles of language acquisition young learners. Most notably that the process involves a substantial amount of listening and comprehension in combination with various physical responses (smiling, reaching, grabbing, looking, etc.).
In the 1960s and 1970s research gave should start first with understanding and later proceed to production. When a learner could able to draw a map about target language and how the target language works then speaking will appear spontaneously.
The total physical response method market by the fact that the studies. Understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking James Asher believes that students can learn one part of language rapidly by moving their bodies.
Teachers who use TPR believe in the importance of having their students enjoy their experience in learning to commercial in a foreign language. On of the main reasons TPR was developed to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages. This methods believe that language learning more effective when it is fun. According to TPR spoken language should be emphasized over written language. TPR usually introduced in the students native language. After the introduction rarely would the native language be used meaning is made clear through body movement.
In this case it is also expected that students will make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should be tolerant of them and only correct major errors. When students get more advanced, teachers can fine tune correct more minor errors.
Communicative language teaching:
The Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign language emphasizes on communication.
In the 1970s some of the educators observed that students could produce sentences accurately in a lesson but could not use them appropriately when generally communication out side of the classroom. They also observed that students many know the rules of linguistic usage but be unable to use the language so the main goal of communicative language teaching is too enable students to communicate in the target language.
In order to do this students need to learn many different forms, meanings, structure and functions. They need to know how and when to say and what to whom.
According to this method, in the classroom, the teacher acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative activities. In this case one of this major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication. He always monitoring the learners performance. During this activities he act as an adviser and students use the language a great deal through communicative activities such as games, role plays and problem solving test.
We know that one of the basic assumptions of CLT is that by learning to communicate students will be more motivated to study a foreign language. Not only this, students work on all four skills from the beginning. The grammar and vocabulary that the students learn mainl focus on communication.
During the teaching learning process in the classroom native language is permitted in CLT but however, when ever possible, the target language should be used not only during communicative activities but also to explain their activities to the students.
A teacher evaluates not only the students accuracy but also their fluency. In this case the teacher may note the errors during fluency activities and return to them later with an accuracy based activity.
In order to apply this method in the classroom the teachers should be used some techniques and materials such as, authentic materials like – real newspaper article, radio, television, non only this. The teacher can use scrambled sentences, language game, picture trip story, role play etc.
From the above discussion we observed that CLT method mainly focus on learn the target language for communication. So the teachers have to know the overall guide line about CLT. So that learners can acquire this communicative skill.
No doubt CLT method is essential for effective teaching. In our country most of students have no knowledge about speaking. Not only this offer complete their secondary education they show every low competence in oral communication in target language because in our classroom the teachers mainly focused on reading and writing skill. However listening and speaking skills are not emphasied here. As a result our learners show low competence in this area.
This is the time of globalization and we have to meet the challenges of the new century so no doubt we have to improve our communicative competence. In order to improve our communicative competence CLT method in essential in classroom teaching.
From the above discussion we can say that the quality of language teaching will be improve if teachers use the best available approaches and methods. It can be pointed out that no single method could provide successful results. In this case teacher is responsible to select the methods according to the content.
Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Analysis and interpretation of data are presented part by part in this chapter. In analyzing the data simple a statistical analysis like frequency percentage and summated means are used. This study was taken in order to investigate the English teaching quality at the primary level. There tore all instrument were developed according to the main objectives.
4.2 Results of teachers survey.
As a part of the study, teachers survey was based on the specific objective which were mainly related with teaching factors. To achieve this goal, teachers were asked to respond some question. In this case there were seventeen questions on the question paper which directly focused on classroom teaching. However, questions are both close and open ended. Alongside some general information about teacher is also included here. Mainly the general information included some important area such as, highest degree obtained, teaching experience, professional degree. These are also important factor in case of quality teaching.
Table – 4.2 Summary of general information about teacher.
Qualification & Experience
|(1) Highest degree|
S. S. C
H. S. C
|(2) Professional degree|
C in Ed
No professional degree
|(3) Teaching experience|
16 and above
Table – Figure of general information
The table (1) shows that most of the teachers 26(43.33%) hold or HSC degree and 9(15%) hold SSC degree only. The table also shows that 18(30%) hold Bachelor degree and 11.67% of them hold master degree. Besides the table two shows that 53.33% teachers hold a in Ed degree, 20% hold B. Ed degree, but unfortunately 26.67% of the teachers have no professional degree. Alongside the table 3 shows a variance in the years of teaching experience. About 25(41.67%) of the teacher hold six to ten years of teaching experience. Besides 10(16.67%) of them hold one to five experience. However 15(25% of them hold 16 and above experience and rest 10(16.67%) hold eleven to fifteen years experience.
Analysis of main information
In this part of the survey there were 17 questions for the teachers. The question were both open and close ended which related with ELT situation at the primary level. The tables are presented accordingly having the same number & title in Appendix – 1.
4.2.1. Number of period’s teacher takes daily:
Types of School
Number of School
Number of Classes
|Non-govt. reg. School|
The table shows that the Govt. and Non-govt. primary schools teachers have to take about 5 to 7 periods of different subjects every day. Besides the teacher of Non-govt-reg. school have to take 6 to 8 periods everyday. So it is clear that the teaches of primary schools have to take more class per day. However its very difficult for them to keep their full attention in all class.
4.2.2. Name of different subjects, teacher takes dally.
|Types of School||Number of School||Subject|
|Social Science Religion|
|Bangla, math, religion, science|
The table shows that there is no particular English teacher in rural school. Besides researcher also observed that there is no extra English teacher in rural area, they are bound to take different subject. Alongside in urban area only 2% government school has particular English teacher. This situation is going on day by day. Its a vital factor which created obstacle to promote quality teaching.
4.2.3. Language used in the English class:
|Both Bangla and English|
We see from the table that in the class room teaching learning process most of the teachers 40 (66.67%) use both Bangla and English. In this case the teachers stated that both language is essential in the class room because most of the learners come from poor English background. learning period the researcher mainly used 85% Bangla and 15% English. That was observed from classroom observation cheek list. In rural area, the teachers pronunciation both Bangla and English are not perfect for classroom teaching. Besides 15(25%) of the teachers use Bangla. Along side 5(8.33%) of the teachers stated that they use English in language teaching class. But according to the statement of the students and from the observation of the class room teaching it was noted that 2(3.33%) of the teachers in urban area uses the target language in language teaching class.
Teachers emphasized in speaking English.
|Govt. primary school (10)|
|Non-govt. primary school (10)|
|Non-govt. Reg. primary School (10)|
In this case the main question was – do you motivate your learners to speak in English? The question was close ended.
The table shows that 60 (100%) of the teachers mentioned Yes statement in this regard. But the real fact is that the most of the teachers provide thir lecture in Bangla.
Methods of ELT in the class room.
|Drill work done by the students|
|Question answer method|
|Apply on of the activities necessary for the lesson|
In this case all the teachers responded that they know about language teaching methods and most of them answered that they use question answer method and select the methods according to the content. But in real situation researcher observed that most of then mainly follow the lecture method in the classroom which is not effective for the learners. The table represents that among the respondents 5(8.33%), 5(8.33%), 25(41.66%) follow lecture method, drill work done by the student, Question, answer method respectively. Besides 10(16.66%), 15(25%) follow group work, apply any one method according to the subject respectively.
Teachers awareness about selecting the appropriate language teaching method.
This was an open-ended question for the respondents about-which method is effective for teaching ? In this case all of the teachers responds that they know about methods and select it according to the content but unfortunately many of them could not mentioned which one is perfect method is this regard.
Use of teaching aids in ELT
We know using of teaching aids is the vital factor for quality teaching. This was both open and close – ended question for the teachers about use of teaching aids in the classroom. In this case first part of the question was close – ended. The main question was Do you use content base teaching aids during ELT ?
|Question about teaching aids||Answer of the teachers|
|Do you use content base teaching aids during ELT ?||Yes||No|
|60 (100%)||0 (0%)|
Table – opinion about teaching aids. The they use – teaching aids in the English classroom. Besides the yes answer, the open – ended option were, mention the name of teaching aids. It this case most of the teachers stated that they use text book, duster, board, chalk etc.
The pie-chart revels that only 15 (25%) of them use picture, model, word chart according to the content besides 45 (75%) of them use simple teaching aids like-board, chalk, duster, book etc. We know that English language teaching is not very easy way. In this regard visual aids play a vital role which motivate the learners so that they can learn it with an interesting way. However to make a communicative approach its essential to use of proper teaching aids in proper way. But our teachers are not willing to use it properly.
Teachers awareness about self method to make attractive teaching learning process.
This was both open and closed ended question for the teachers about their self method to make the teaching process attractive. Most of the respondents mentioned that they use some self method. In this regard 40(66.67%) of them mentioned that they use game, roleplay, song body language in this regard. Besides 20(33.33%) of them don’t mentioned any in this area.
Techniques of evaluation in the classroom.
|Ask questions on the lesson|
|Ask students to write answer|
|After completing each lesson take a test|
|Don’t get time for evaluation|
The table revels that to evaluate the students in the classroom 25(41.67%) of them ask question, 20(33.33%) of them ask students to write questions. After completing each lesson 15(25%) of them take a test.
Techniques of teaching new story and poem.
|Using only test book by the teacher|
|Ask students to read out|
|use related chart model, picture,|
The table shows that most of the respondent 24(40%) answered that they use related chart, model, picture in this regard but real fact is that when researcher observed the classroom related picture, and model, chart were absent. Some of them used it properly and others were used it properly. This was purposeful activity of the teachers because they were not skilled to use it properly. Besides 17(28.33%) of them ask the students to read out then teacher mentioned the inner-meaning of the story and poem. Among them 10(16.67%) and 9(15%) of them use text book and role play respectively. In this case about the using of self method the teacher didn’t mention any opinion.
Teachers awareness about ways of helping students to achieve reading and writing skill.
This was an open ended question to the respondents about how they help the students to achieve reading and writing skill.
Part – 1 – Reading skill – In this case 30(50%) of them mentioned that they use some techniques such as – silent reading, loud reading, read with a group, asking question etc. Besides 30(50%) of them mentioned that they provide question answer drill and home work.
Part – 2 writing skill – In this case 40(66.67%) of them use black board and ask the students to write question answer and word meaning 13(21.66%) of them use dictation on the basis of content and 7(11.67%) of them use some magazine, content base picture for creative writing skill.
Teachers awareness about teachers guide.
The table disclose that 33(55%) of the respond don’t know about teaching guide because lack of proper supply in the school. In this case they also mentioned that the government didn’t provide them it properly.
Short training on ELT
The table shows that most of the teachers 41(68.33) have no short training in this regard. Besides 19(31.66%) of them have short training. In this case they mentioned PTP-2, IDEAL-TRC provided short training which duration was five days. Its not sufficient time for ELT training.
Techniques of teaching new vocabulary.
This was an open ended question to the teachers about how they teach new vocabulary. In this case 21(35%) of them use black board and write word meaning, 16(26.67%) of them mentioned that they use flash card and ask students to make sentence. 8(13.33%) of them use Visual aids and teach them pronunciation and 15(25%) of them didn’t mention any opinion in this regard.
School based activities to promote quality teaching.
This was an open ended question for the teachers about extra activities of the school teacher to insure quality teaching. In this regard 55(91.66%) of them mentioned that their school didn’t arrange any extra activities for ELT. Besides 5(8.34%) mentioned that the school arrange meeting only one day per-weak to improve ELT.
Problems faced by the English teacher:
This was an open-ended question for the respondents about to problem of they face during ELT. In this area most of the respondents stated almost the same problems such as learners are very weak in English, high dropout rate, guardians are not keep proper concern about their children, teacher student ratio in the class is very high, lack of teaching aids, poor facilities in the class room.
Step for quality teaching
This was also an open – ended question to the respondents about which step is should be taken for quality teaching. In is case the respondents also stated almost the some suggestion. But most of them emphasized on ELT training. According to their suggestion ELT training is essential for the English Teacher. Besides they also stated that, sufficient aids, modern technology, correct methods, regular gradient meeting, physical facilities, is essential tools for quality teaching. They also mentioned the number of teachers most be increase for proper teaching other wise it will be very difficult to promote quality teaching.
Part – II Result of Students survey.
In order to know the learners opinion and to find out necessary information the total 180 students were taken from 30 different primary school. The main focus to the questionnaire was students attitude towards ELT and it also mainly focus on teachers attitude to wards teaching. In the survey students responded to 13 questions regarding ELT related information. Here all the questions were close-ended. The results were presented in the table with frequency and percentage.
A Hen dance rate of the students.
Table – Attendance rate
It is observed the from the table that 103 (57%) of the students are regular in the classroom. Besides 73(42.77%) of are irregular.
Students attitude towards English subject.
The table reveals that 113 (62.77%) of students mentioned that English is very hard for them. In the rural area most of them feel very hard. In this case the students of urban area is better then the students rural area. However 60(53.09%) of the student responded that teacher finished the lesson quickly 35(30.97%) of them mentioned that they can’t understand all the instruction and 18(15.92%) of them feels that teachers attitude is not friendly.
Besides 67(37.22%) of them mentioned that English is not hard subject. They also mentioned that this subject is easy like other subjects. In this case all of the students 67(37.22%) mentioned that as a subject English is interesting, and teachers provided his lecture very easy way.
Nature of teachers language in the classroom.
The survey enclosed that 136(75.55%) of the respondents mentioned that the English teachers didn’t use English language during class time. On the other hand 44(24.45%) of them mentioned that the their teacher used English language during class time. Its very essential to speak in English in the classroom according to their age level so that they can achieve two primary skill like listening and speaking.
Teachers attitude towards learners speaking.
To know the information about teachers attitude towards learners speaking, the main question was-do your encouraged you to speak in English? Among them 110(61.11%) of the respondent mentioned that their teachers encouraged them to speak in English. Besides 55(30.55%) of them mentioned negative answer and 15(8.33%) of them didn’t provide any opinion about this question.
Teachers attitude towards ELT.
|Opinion of the responses|
|Teachers read the book and provide lecture|
|use oral techniques|
|Using picture, telling story with joyful learning environment|
It is seen from table that 101(56.11%), 63(35%) and 16(8.89%) of the student responded that their English teacher read the text book and provide lecture read the text book and provide betide, use oral techniques and using picture, telling story to create joyful learning environment to understand the lesson respectively.
Teachers attitude towards teaching aids.
Its very well know statement that without teaching aids, teaching is incomplete way for the learners. To identify the correct information this same question was included both the teachers questionnaire and learners questionnaire. In this case most of teachers mentioned that they use content base teaching aids like – picture, model, chart etc. But the real fact is that in same cases 125(69.44%) of the students mentioned negative answer. The result is that the teachers are not personally interested in this area.
Teachers emphasized method (group work)
We know that all the learners are not equal in sense and behaviour. Different learners have different quality and their thought is also differ form person to person.
According to the learners variation group work learning method is more effective for the learners.
It is seen from the table that 69(38.33%) of the respondent mentioned that their teacher didn’t plow this method. Besides 53(29.44%) of them mentioned positive answer and 58(32.22%) of them mentioned that their used it some times.
Teacher writes on the board
Teacher underlines the book
Draw picture with word
make sentence with the word
The table represents that only 13(7.22%) of the teachers use model, chart and picture. The table also shows that 67(37.22%) of them use board, 31(17.22%) of them underlines the word on the book. Besides, 26(14.44%) and 43(23.89%) of them follow the way, make sentence with the word and draw picture with the word respectively. Teaching vocabulary is essential to improve speaking and writing skill. So in this regard to teach vocabulary the effective way is showing model /chart / picture and draw picture which mainly focused on related word meaning. But in this case most of the teachers use only board as traditional way.
Teaching new story and poem.
In the class room when the lavers face with new story and poem basically they feel more curious. So as a teachers the main responsibility is to hold the learners interest and encourage them to learn it properly.
Teachers reads with meaning
The table represents that 117(65%) of the teachers follow traditional way. Besides 20(11.11%), 23(89%) of them follow the way of drawing picture and using gesture respectively.
Teachers emphasized method in reading
Read the book
Reading with compare mention
Reading in your own language
The table shows that in emphasizing methods in reading 40(22.22%), 46(25.55%), 51(28.33%), 43(23.89%) of the students responded that their English teacher ask them to show and read the book, reading with comprehension, to memorize lesson and read in your own language respectively.
Preparation of English lesson:
In this case more then fifty percent students don’t prepare their lesson properly. Among tem rear about 60% of them cant read alone. It means that they have no home tutor besides parents are not concern in this sector this percentage is higher then urban area. In rural area most of the students feel that its not so interesting subject like others. Along side most of them come from poor family and their parents are not well-educated so the most of the time they feel helpless in this subject. But in urban area the students of govt. primary school get more facilities form all sides in their life. So schools those are situated in the urban area, most of the learners mentioned that they barn their lesson regularly in order to get good marks in the exam .
Students seek help from the English teachers.
The table represent that 137(76.11%) of the students seek help from the English teacher in this regard they mentioned that most of the time their teacher use board provide his lecture with easy way. But in urban area this picture is different. Here most of the students never seek help form their teacher because they afraid of English teacher.
Students expectation form their teacher.
like others teacher
wiser then others
The table shows that 70(38.89%) if the students mentioned that their English teacher would be like their friends. Besides 53(29.44%) of them expected that their English teacher would be wiser then the others. Alongside 17(9.44%) and 40(22.22%) of them expected that their would be like other teachers and parents respectively.
Part-III Analysis based on Data collection through observation check list :
English classroom observation:
An observer generally prepares a checklist for ensuring effective observation. A structured checklist covering all the aspect of the phenomena to be observed is almost essential in an observation. Checklist is a major tool of observation. In this study to identify the real situation in ELT and to know the teachers performance a check list was developed. Here the check list contains six criteria and each of the criteria consists of some sub-criteria. All of the criteria based on with 5 point scale (i.e. excellent, good, average below average totally lacking) to measure the present situation of ELT. To know about actual situation, researcher observed 20 classroom of different schools at primary level.
Check list analysis :
Personal appearance of the teachers:
In this point of view researcher observed different types of criteria which are related with some internal appearance.
Teachers awareness about her/his dress up:
Out of observed 20 classes 10 (50%) –
(i) 6 (30%) and 4 (20%) of the school teachers were leveled as excellent, good and average respectively about their awareness in dress-up.
(ii) Teachers attitude towards learner: Teachers attitude is play a vital role in classroom teaching learning process. In the observed classroom 5 (25%), 8 (40%), 7 (35%) of the teachers were measured excellent, good and average respectively in their attitude toward learner.
(iii) Style of presentation: In the classroom teaching, presentation style of the teachers is an important criteria. Teachers style of lesson presentation depends on teaching method. According to the different method style of lesson presentation would be different. In this criteria it was observed in the classroom that 9 (45%), 6 (30%), 3 (15%) and 2 (10%) were measured the rank of average, good, excellent and below average respectively.
(iv) Using voice in the classroom: In our primary school most of the classroom contains huge number of students. So teachers voice is important element in the classroom. If the teachers show her low voice in the classroom, then the learners who take their seat on the back bench will not be able to hear the teachers voice. Besides to much leader voice has also a bad impact in the classroom. In this case most of the weak learners feel afraid towards their teacher. Consciousness about using voice in the classroom, among the observed teachers, 5 (25%), 7(35%), 5 (25%) and 3 (15%) scored the rank of excellent, good average and below average respectively.
Classroom environment is very essential element for effective teaching learning process. On the basis of this criteria research observed the following situation in the classroom.
(i) Sufficient light : Sufficient light is an essential element for suitable teaching learning atmosphere. But it the observed classrooms 12 (60%), 4 (20%), 3(15%) and 1 (5%) were measured average, good, excellent and below average respectively.
(ii) Electric facilities : Electricity facility is essential especially in the summer season in our country. Its also necessary for listening practice. In this case it was observed that 12 (60%), 4(20%) were measured average and good respectively, besides 4 (20%) of the school in rural area is out of electricity facility.
(iii) Content related wall chart, picture : In the classroom content related wall chart and picture is important for joyful learning experience. But in the observed classroom 8 (40%), 5(25%), 1 (5%) and 6 (30%) were measured below average, excellent and totally lacking respectively in the criteria of content related wall chart and picture.
(iv) Teachers and students ratio : The teacher student ratio in the observed classes 10 (50%), 3(15%) and 7(35%) were marked as average, below average and totally lacking respectively. The study show that average teacher student ration consist of 1 : 45 in the classroom. In our primary level, most of the class consist of huge number of students. This is really a great obstacle for insure quality teaching. This is really difficult for a teacher to manage such a large number of the students. However it is a every imperfect ratio in the foreign language classroom.
No doubt teaching method play a vital role in classroom teaching. Appropriate teaching method help the learner to achieve language skill in a proper way. In this area teachers have a great responsibility to select appropriate method according to the content and age level of the learners.
(i) Grammar translation method : We know that it is a traditional method which mainly based on lecture method. It was observed that of the teacher use the method and they were ranked average.
(ii) Communicative approach : Now a days it is very well-known and also effective method for ELT. But the real fact is that only 3(15%) of the teachers measured good and 1 (5%) of the teacher ranked excellent.
(iii) Participatory approach : In the observed classroom 3(15%) of the teachers were scored rank of average.
(iv) Total physical response method : Out of observed 20 classes 2(15%), 5(25%) and 7(35%) teachers were leveled as excellent, good and average respectively in processing the method. Besides 5 (25%) teachers were rank below average.
To identify the overall techniques in ELT different types of criteria were observed ion the classroom.
(i) Body language : In using body language it is observed from the graph that 3 (15%) scored rank of excellent, 5 (25%) good, and 12(60%) were measured as totally lacking.
(ii) Role play : In the observed classroom 3(15%), 6 (30%) were measured good and average respectively in the criterion of role play, where as 11(55%) were measured as totally lacking.
(iii) Creative adaptation : In this case it is observed from the graph that 6 (30%), were measured average and 4 (20%) were measured good in criterion of creative adaptation. Where as 10 (50%) were measured as totally lacking. The main reason is that, most of the class consist of more than 40 students, besides teachers are not willing to create group work, pair work, chain drill, etc. to develop the learners creativity.
(iv) Self correction : Among the observed classroom 3(15%) were ranked good and 17(85%) were measured as totally lacking.
(v) Classroom monitoring : In classroom monitoring 4(20%), 6 (30%), 10(50%) teachers were ranked respectively as excellent, good and average.
(vi) Students motivation towards learning: In case of students motivation towards learning 3(15%), 5(25%), 10 (50%) and 2 (10%) teachers were ranked respectively as excellent, good, average and totally lacking. We know that motivation is an important factor for joyful learning. In the classroom the first step for the teacher is motivate the learner in learning. So as a teacher it is essential to know how to motivate the learners.
(vii) Using of teaching aids : In using teaching aids, it is observed from the graph that 4(20%) scored rank of good, 6 (30%) average and 10 (50%) were measured as totally lacking.
(viii) Student to student interaction : In classroom teaching its important to create interaction among the students. But the real fact is that in the class teacher only provide lecture, sometime when they ask question then the students give their answer. It is not the way of effective teaching. In this area only 5(25%) of the teachers were ranked average and 15 (75%) of the teacher were ranked totally lacking.
(ix) Teacher knowledge of subject : Out of observed 20 classes 3(15%), 8 (40%), 9(45%) teachers were leveled as excellent good and average respectively in possessing the knowledge of subject. But real fact is that most of the teachers uses Bangla language in the English classroom.
(x) Teacher respond to student errors : In respond to student errors 4 (20%) teachers were ranked good. When their students do any mistake they it easily and encourage them about correction. Besides 16(80%) of teachers were ranked average.
Language skill (learners):
(i) Listening: Out of observed 20 classes 3 (15%), 5(25%), 15 (60%) students were leveled as good average and totally lacking respectively in listening skill. The real fact is that most of the teachers use Bangla in English class. But during observation day when the teacher provide some instruction in English the students were not used to in this matter.
(ii) Speaking: In the observed classroom 3 (15%), 4(20%), 13 (65%) students were leveled as good average and totally lacking in speaking.
(iii) Reading skill: In reading competence 4 (20%), 5(25%), 11(55%) students were ranked respectively as good, average and below average.
(iv) Writing skill: In this case 4(20%), 5(25%), 11(55%) students were leveled as good, average and below average respectively in writing competency. Basically writing skill is related with reading skill. In the students is weak in reading then writing skill will be weak.
(vi) Speaking style of teachers: Among the observed class 2(10%), 3(15%), 5(25%), 10(50%) teachers were leveled as excellent, good, average, totally lacking respectively in possessing their lecture in the target language. Most of them uses Bangladesh in ELT class, besides their pronunciation is not good enough.
Techniques of evaluation:
(i) Teacher respond to students : It is observed from the graph that 7 (35%), 13 (65%) teachers were ranked good and average of the criteria on total awareness about their students.
(ii) Students feedback : At the primary level, learning output is not good enough. Most of the students get poor marks in their subject. It observed from the classroom that (20%), 8 (40%), 8 (40%) students were leveled as good, average and below average respectively in their learning output.
Part- iv Foes group discussion (FGDS): ************
To have in depth Knowledge on any particular issue, it’s necessary to conduct elaborate discussion with particular groups of people. This type of data collection techniques is check Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The main purpose of the FGD to involve and collect the opinion directly from the particular people. So in depth study this open discussion was conducted with the primary English teachers and students here the number of participating teachers was 15. In the case 5 teachers participated From Govt. Primary 5 school 5 teachers from non Govt. primary school and 5 teachers participated from non rag primary school. Duration of this discussion was approximately one hour
Open discussion with the teachers:
In teaching learning press teacher is the major factor good teacher know how to teach besides he/she can identify the main factors which are related with this process. They During Foes group discussion most of the teachers mentioned the same problem which are going of day by day. Some major problems have been derived from this discussion which is noted down:
1) First of all they mentored those physical facilities of their school are not strong. In this are they mentioned that electricity facilities is not sufficient of the students, so in summer season it’s very difficult to continue the teaching process. However in rural area most of the roads are broken and go under water during the rainy season.
2) They tolls that teachers quantity is not sufficient according to the students. Besides they mentioned that they shove to take chases per day. It is very also mentioned that they have to take 5 to 6 class per day. It is very also mentioned that they have to take different subject in different classes. As a result it is really difficult for them to keep Full concentration in English language teaching.
3) Teacher also urged that the greens are not concern about the children. Most of the students didn’t prepare their homework properly. They also mentioned that as a teacher they are responsible for teaching English school. Besides guardians are also responsible is the house for their children English language learning.
4) Teachers also urged that the primary level every class consists of more thin 40 students As a result it’s difficult for them to apply modem methods and techniques
5) According to the teachers statement it was noted that teaching aide is not sufficient in their school However they for not get enough tine to prepare teaching aides properly. Herr the again mentioned that they have to teach many subject besides There is no subject wise teacher in the school
6) They Proclaimed that they don’t get the tent book in time ads a result at the beginning of the year Most of the student’s loss third interest in tearing
7) In rural area the teachers mentioned that food for education program and stipend program are reassure for student who comes from poor family but the real fact is that the programs increased the enrolment but decreased the quality a large number of public. As a result different types of problem is screamed here
8) The teachers also proclaimed about there salary stretcher mast of the teacher mentioned that they are not satisfied width this salary. However they urge that the mew teachers always try tore better job as a result many of them failed to keep Full cocker in this regard.
Open discussion with the students:
Tin students of class five and ten student of class four from different school were apprehending for foes group discussion. Duration of this dissent was one hours. Discussion was mainly focused on the process of English language leaching and their interest in this subject here they mentioned some major problem which is noted down:
1) Most of the students mentioned that they don’t get any help from their family to study English however toy has so house tutor.
2) Most of the students mentioned that they don’t get any help from their family to study. English however they have no hued tutor.
3) According to their statement their parents are unable to help them.
4) They also proclaimed that their teacher speak in Bengal during the class tie As a result they also use Bangle
Language with teacher.
5) Most of the students are not self interested to learn English language.
Discussion : ************
It is conceived from the study that there are many obstacles in English language teaching/ pearling in primary school of Bangladesh such as lack of language teacher large class sizes limited resorts flack of physical facilities. Threw is no subject wise teacher in rural area. However this situation is also going of in the urban area. For this reason the teacher can neither be specialist on a particular subject nor can innovate effective teaching methods. This is the main object factor for quality teaching.
It is relevant to mention that most English language teachers do not have adequate knowledge about teaching the ensanguine and neither do they have about teaching the language and neither do they have sufficient speaking skill ion English this is also a vital upstart quality teaching on the other hand the survey re deviled that the teachers who are changed in language dint have a clear idea about English correcting and main objective of language teaching which were described by NCTB. As a result they thought that English subject is some like other subject. It slosh relevent to mentioned that in classroom teaching teachers mainly focused of reading and writing Belies two primary skills speaking and listening is beside here. So considering the all satiation it is essential to take effective step in this regard however government should take extra care to the rural schools because without the development of this large number of student’s it is quite impossible to bring development in the country.
However, the teacher of English has to try their best to teach children English.
We know that w have limited resource however Government is requested to provide the foreign language teaching foreign language teaching materials as much as possible. Among the all obstacle and limitation we have to realize the demand of English language. Without the knowledge of English it is impossible to face the 21st country. so both government policy masher and teachers have to take effective step to ensure quality teaching in this regard so that our main goods and learn in a proper way.
Findings Contusion and Recommendation
English as a lingual trance is becoming increasingly important in the hanging socioeconomic contents of developing counters. As aim lime there parts of the world now English in a ed3eceseve element of socio economic redevelopment in Bangladesh,. As a developing country Bangladesh has even due importance to English education by including if in its national carrier as a compulsory subject from grade 1 ti xii Although bearers in Bangladesh Brave thud opportunity to study English for at best 12 to 14 years within the academe setting there sever of English language proficiency Education is the base education for our corm try and at theist drivel students first meet with English language surfeiting quality should be strong so that students can face the new demand and challenge. The study shows that there is a lot of obstacle to achieve the goal of English language teaching at the primary level of Bangladesh. The major problems he leap the students achieving English language skill mentioned by NCTB at the primary level are presented in the section form different cesspits It we want to insure quality teaching at this level we have to achieve English language skills mentioned by the NCTB.
Achievable English Language skills mentioned by NCTB
In order to ensure quality teaching at thirst it is essential ti know actually which skulls is mentioned by NCTB In this regard, this it will be better measure to display the problem in particular skill However Its also important to finder the factors shish is involved in this area.
The main goal of ELT at this level is that the students will understand simple instructions in English and carry thus out But unfortunately practice of listening activities is totally tacking in the classroom. The study investigable that more than 60% of our teachers use Bangle language in the classroom. As a result students are not able to understand sump instructions in English. Besides the study also investigate the cause that mast of the rural schools have average physical facilities and 20% have below average Along seed the schools have of audio visual wads for leistering practice.
The attainable competency for the section is that the students will speak sop lie English according to their age level. In this area NCTBH mentioned that students will be able to say.
What some one is doing
To ask and answer questions in English
To take part in conversation
But in real situation the students are not encouraged to speak neither in English neither by parents at home nor by teacher at school. The study investigation that most of teacher uses amative language in English classroom so students slosh think that so peaking skill is not too much essential to learn English.
Here the NCTB urged the students would read and understand limply printed materials of the text books intended for this level the study show that mast of the English class conceals of large number of students. Besides the atmosphere in the classroom is not favorable for reading practice the students only learn word meaning question answered. Here teacher’s only emphases on question answer. However mast of the teachers have on awareness about correct stress and notation which also mentioned by NCTB.
The mentioned objectives of the skill are that the students ell be ably write simple sentence, titters etc. To develop this skill there is no unseen writing practice in the classroom. The students usually memorize these items which only important for their examination. ; They teach only teacher also keep more concern on these items which are related with exam paper.
Overall findings of the teachers survey:
As the study mainly focused on quality teaching so survey about English teaching is the vital element for his study. The findings of the teachers survey show that a lot of problem and obstacle is present here. Lack of trained, qualified and subject wise teachers is one of the major problems for quality teaching in English. To ensure quality teaching proper training is essential for the English teachers. The study shows that most of the teachers obtained HSC degree and they have no professional training in this subject. Besides most of the teachers have long time teaching experience but they have no professional training in ELT. As a result teaching quality is not good enough.
The study shows that there is an almost lack of subject wise teachers and shortage of teachers is also an important issue to prove quality teaching.
From the evidence of the teacher survey it is followed that every teacher of Govt. non-govt. and non-govt. registered school has to take more then 6 periods per day. In their existing situation they mentioned that they can not provide quality teaching everyday.
We know that successful teaching and learning of English ultimately depends on an effective teaching methodology. Besides the use of authentic materials in the classroom can make the language teaching effective. In the answering the question regarding the teaching methodology and using teaching aids, most of the teachers mentioned that they use teaching aids properly. Besides they also mentioned that they use different types of methodology according to the content. But the real fact is that they mainly use lecture method in ELT. Along side their statement about teaching aids was not exact in real situation.
In answering the question regarding the uses languages in the classroom most of the teacher mentioned that during teaching learning period they use both Bangla and English language because students are not able to understand full instruction in English and they always encourage their students to speak in English. On the other hand, from observation it was found that most of the teacher uses native language during ELT, however they didn’t encourage the students in this regard.
It was also found from the survey that large number of English teachers have no teachers guide and they were not knowledgeable about terminal competence. Teachers weren’t capable for helping the students to achieve the mentioned competencies in the English curriculum. In this case they strongly claimed that lower physical facilities, lack of teaching aids are the major problem for quality teaching. From observation it was found that more then 60% teachers mentioned that their school didn’t taky any initiative program in this regard.
Findings of the students survey:
The findings of the students survey shows that more than 60% of the students don’t study English regularly because they think that it as a very hard subject and they don’t get any fruitful help at home. However they were not encouraged to speak in English neither encouraged to speak in English neither by parents at home nor by teacher at school. A large number of the students stated that their teacher didn’t show different types of picture, chart and model in this regard. Besides it was found from the observation that more then 70% of the students mentioned that they learn English to get good marks in the examination. Most of the students never seek any help from English teachers for various reason. Alongside they also expect that their English teacher would be wiser then other teachers and friendly, so that they can express their all demands in this regard.
The present study has conducted to examine the role of English teacher about quality teaching. Besides different types of factors also investigated towards the quality English teaching at the primary level. This study is descriptive in nature. Both quantitative and qualitative methods wee used to collect data from 30 primary school of Dhaka, Rajshahi and Rangpur division.
In is true that English is everybody’s concern but no body’s headache. However English should be taught effectively. Sadly in our country English is taught like others subject. So our students can not achieve overall competency which is mentioned by NCTB. Apart from quality, quantity is another problem in ELT sector. The growth of primary education sectors in Bangladesh is quiet satisfactory. But the quality of education is still now question. Now a day the concept of quality education with quality teaching is much talk issue in our educational arena. It is needless to say that we have many obstacle to ensure quality teaching, such as the total sum of English teaching is insufficient to meet the existing demands, inadequate training, many teachers are not competent to handle the teaching materials and are not familiar with the current trends of ELT. Besides most of the English teachers cannot speak English well and their pronunciation is awful. However most of the teachers use text book very closely as the one and only resource for teaching English. It’s true that teacher is the vital factor about quality teaching but its also true that teacher alone cannot provide quality teaching, various factors are included here.
Taking all these features of English language teaching at the primary level we can reasonably colim that our teaching quality is not good enough. However to recover the existing situation of English language teaching the government have to take necessary steps. To achieve quality teaching in English many efforts have been undertaken with the help of policymaker and educationist. The authority should try to provide a suitable solution in the content of quality English teaching at the primary level.
Based on findings of the present study, the following recommendations may be suggested for improving the quality teaching at the primary level of Bangladesh.
(i) At the primary level at least one English teacher should be appointed on the basis of their having English language background and the acting teachers having no English background should be given short time training on language teaching.
(ii) Number of teachers should be required as per needs.
(iii) Government should take measures for increasing physical facilities both is classroom as well as recreational aspects.
(iv) Students should be encouraged to decrease their over dependency on their English textbook as a source of learning English.
(v) English language should not be taught like other knowledge based subjects which are usually taught through teacher lecture.
(vi) The language of classroom management is suggested to be in suitable English according to the age level of the students.
(vii) In English class, the students should be trained and motivated to use English in groups or pair with their friends.
(viii) The teachers may arrange certain games to avoid monotony in their English class, while at the same time they should ensure that the students enjoy learning English through taking part in such games.
(ix) Teacher should share ideas with students not only in the classroom but also off time when they remain out side the classroom even.
(x) The teacher should be provided with teachers guides that should clearly say the aims and objectives of the lesson and very importantly how the lessons may be taught.
(xi) Students should be seriously discouraged to memorize question-answer or grammar rules as a means of learning English.
(xii) The present examination system must be reformed. For ensuring reliable and valid scoring of the examination separate scoring guide for each skill can be given in this section.
(xiii) In the evaluation section it has been suggested to evaluate the four skills of language but in examination format there is no indication of evaluating speaking and listening skills which are the most important skills language learning. According to the national curriculum communication is the main purpose of a language. But without testing listening and speaking skills it will be very difficult to evaluate students communicative competency. It can be suggested to evaluate these skills separately both in the classroom and internal examination.
(xiv) Perfect teacher student ratio should be maintained in English language teaching classroom.
(xv) Should ensure good relationship among the teacher, guardians and students. It is essential to arranging regular meeting to develop the communication between educational institutions and parents.
(xvi) Arranging regular teacher training programmes to improve teaching quality and to enhance teacher motivation.
(xvii) Providing sufficient fund to ensure adequate facility and resource for ELT.
(xviii) Government should consider the financial condition of the primary teachers of all category schools.
The recommendation of this study can be followed in order to bridge this gap to ensure quality English teaching at the primary level institutions. Answer the implications of these recommendations may show as the light of quality teaching.
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